Adelaide

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Posted by pompos 04/01/2009 @ 13:13

Tags : adelaide, south australia, states, australia, oceania, world

News headlines
Book Talk: Debra Adelaide confronts death in latest novel - Reuters
Australian writer Debra Adelaide was writing her third novel, on the topic of dying, when her 6-year-old son was diagnosed with leukemia. For about a year, Adelaide put the book to one side, thinking she would never go back to a humorous book on death,...
AFL warns Port Adelaide not to break from SANFL for financial reasons - Fox Sports
By Michelangelo Rucci Port Adelaide are being cautioned by the AFL against seeking independence from their licence owner, the SANFL. AFL chief executive Andrew Demetriou warned the debt-laden Power from seeking to sever ties with the SANFL as an answer...
Holocaust denier sentenced to three months - United Press International
ADELAIDE, Australia, May 14 (UPI) -- A Holocaust denier in Australia has been sentenced to three months in jail for distributing anti-Semitic materials on the Internet. Frederick Toben under a 2002 court order was forbidden from circulating...
Bill mcdonald's AFL Tips: Round 8 - Brisbane Times
Last week's victory over Adelaide might have been just the tonic to get the Doggies firing. Try as they do, Melbourne just don't have the class or speed to match it in this contest. Bulldogs by 30 points. Be a very brave man to tip against a side that...
Sums add up for new NBL teams, says boss - The Age
Three of the seven - Cairns, Wollongong and Adelaide - faced significant financial troubles during last season's NBL. But Cairns and Wollongong have confirmed new ownership structures, while Adelaide are in the process of changing owners....
Santos to Plant Forests Using Water From Queensland Gas Project - Bloomberg
Santos will plant 2 million gum trees at Fairview at a cost of A$50 million in the first phase of the forestry project, the Adelaide-based company said today in a statement. The plantation near the state's central coast may be extended to 6 million...
Lions throw kids at Crows - Melbourne Herald Sun
BRISBANE has picked its least experienced side under Michael Voss with midfielder Matt Austin named to make his debut against Adelaide at the Gabba tomorrow night. The 20-year-old replaces Troy Selwood (concussion), and becomes the club's third...
Port Adelaide ponders Darwin AFL games - ABC Online
The Port Adelaide AFL club is considering replacing the Western Bulldogs as Darwin's adopted AFL team when the Bulldog's Darwin deal expires at the end of this season. Port says it is considering playing one or two games a year in Darwin because it...
Port Adelaide bypass urged - ABC Online
A Port Adelaide businessman is calling for the revitalisation of the suburb after several business folded in recent months. Graham Rees will next week publicly push for Government support of businesses on Commercial Road and St Vincent Street....
Adelaide zoo evacuated after 'ingenious' orang-utan escapes - guardian.co.uk
Staff at Adelaide zoo said 137lb (62kg) Karta used a stick to short-circuit the electric wires around her enclosure before piling up some more sticks to climb out. But the 27-year-old ape only ventured as far as a surrounding fence, still metres from...

Adelaide

Parliament House, Adelaide on North Terrace houses the Parliament of South Australia

Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth-largest city in Australia, with a population of more than 1.1 million. It is a coastal city situated on the eastern shores of Gulf St. Vincent, on the Adelaide Plains, north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, between the Gulf St. Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges. It is roughly 20 km (12 mi) from the coast to the foothills but sprawls 90 km (56 mi) from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south.

Named in honour of Queen Adelaide who was born in Germany, the consort of King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for the only freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens in the area originally inhabited by Indigenous Australians of the Kaurna tribe. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parkland. Early Adelaide was shaped by religious freedom and a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties, which led to world-first reforms.

Today, Adelaide is noted for its festivals including the Adelaide Fringe, sporting events such as the Tour Down Under, food and wine culture as featured in the Barossa Valley, long beachfronts and large defence and manufacturing sectors, including car manufacturer Holden. It continues to rank high as a livable city within the world, being in the Top 10 in The Economist's World's Most Livable Cities index. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area.

Prior to British settlement, the Adelaide area was inhabited by the Kaurna Aboriginal nation (pronounced "Garner" or "Gowna"). Acknowledged Kaurna country comprised the Adelaide Plains and surrounding regions - from Cape Jervis in the south, and to Port Wakefield in the north. Among their unique customs were burn-offs (controlled bushfires) in the Adelaide Hills which the early Europeans spotted before the Kaurna people were pushed out by settlement. By 1852, the total population (by census count) of the Kaurna was 650 in the Adelaide region and steadily decreasing. During the winter months, they moved into the Adelaide Hills for better shelter and firewood.

South Australia was officially settled as a new British province on 28 December 1836, near the The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North. This day is now commemorated as Proclamation Day in South Australia. The site of the colony's capital city was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. In 1823, Light had fondly written of the Sicilian city of Catania: "The two principal streets cross each other at right angles in the square in the direction of north and south and east and west. They are wide and spacious and about a mile long", and this became the basis for the plan of Adelaide. Light chose, not without opposition, a site on rising ground close to the River Torrens, which became the chief early water supply for the fledgling colony. "Light's Vision", as it has been termed, has meant that the initial design of Adelaide required little modification as the city grew and prospered. Usually in an older city it would be necessary to accommodate larger roads and add parks, whereas Adelaide had them from the start. Adelaide was established as the centre of a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield. Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, and realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land would be used to bring out working class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to ever afford their own land. As a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Perth, Brisbane and Hobart.

Adelaide's early history was wrought by economic uncertainty and incompetent leadership. The first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed frequently with others, in particular with the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide city was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 (156 sq mi) of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from New South Wales and Tasmania. The wool industry served as an early basis for the South Australian economy. Light's survey was completed in this period, and land was promptly offered to sale to early colonists. Wheat farms ranged from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north by 1860. Governor Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and promptly oversaw construction of a governor's house, Adelaide Gaol, police barracks, hospital, and customs house and a wharf at Port Adelaide. In addition, houses for public officials and missionaries, and outstations for police and surveyors were also constructed during Gawler's governorship. Adelaide had also become economically self-sufficient during this period, but at heavy cost: the colony was heavily in debt and relied on bail-outs from London to stay afloat. Gawler was recalled and replaced by Governor Grey in 1841. Grey slashed public expenditure against heavy opposition, although its impact was negligible at this point: silver was discovered in Glen Osmond that year, agricultural industries were well underway, and other mines sprung up all over the state, aiding Adelaide's commercial development. The city exported meat, wool, wine, fruit and wheat by the time Grey left in 1845, contrasting with a low point in 1842 when one-third of Adelaide houses were abandoned.

Trade links with the rest of the Australian states were established with the Murray River being successfully navigated in 1853 by Francis Cadell, an Adelaide resident.

South Australia became a self-governing colony in 1856 with the ratification of a new constitution by the British parliament. Secret ballots were introduced, and a bicameral parliament was elected on 9 March 1857, by which time 109,917 people lived in the province.

In 1860 the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally providing an alternative water source to the turbid River Torrens. In 1867 gas street lighting was implemented, the University of Adelaide was founded in 1874, the South Australian Art Gallery opened in 1881 and the Happy Valley Reservoir opened in 1896. In the 1890s Australia was affected by a severe economic depression, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism. Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney closed. The national fertility rate fell and immigration was reduced to a trickle. The value of South Australia's exports nearly halved. Drought and poor harvests from 1884 compounded the problems, with some families leaving for Western Australia. Adelaide was not as badly hit as the larger gold-rush cities of Sydney and Melbourne, and silver and lead discoveries at Broken Hill provided some relief. Only one year of deficit was recorded, but the price paid was retrenchments and lean public spending. Wine and copper were the only industries not to suffer a downturn.

Electric street lighting was introduced in 1900 and electric trams were transporting passengers in 1909. 28,000 men were sent to fight in World War I. Adelaide enjoyed a post-war boom but, with the return of droughts, entered the depression of the 1930s, later returning to prosperity under strong government leadership. Secondary industries helped reduce the state's dependence on primary industries. The 1933 census recorded the state population at 580,949, less of an increase than other states due to the state's economic limitations. World War II brought industrial stimulus and diversification to Adelaide under the Playford Government, which advocated Adelaide as a safe place for manufacturing due to its less vulnerable location. 70,000 men and women enlisted and shipbuilding was expanded at the nearby port of Whyalla.

The South Australian Government in this period built on former wartime manufacturing industries. International manufacturers like General Motors Holden and Chrysler made use of these factories around Adelaide, completing its transformation from an agricultural service centre to a twentieth-century city. A pipeline from Mannum brought River Murray water to Adelaide in 1954 and an airport opened at West Beach in 1955. An assisted migration scheme brought 215,000 immigrants of many nationalities, mainly European, to South Australia between 1947 and 1973. The Dunstan Governments of the 1970s saw something of an Adelaide 'cultural revival' - establishing a wide array of social reforms and overseeing the city becoming a centre of the arts, building upon the biennial "Adelaide Festival of Arts" which commenced in 1960. Adelaide hosted the Formula 1 Australian Grand Prix between 1985 and 1996 on a street circuit in the city's east parklands, before losing it to Melbourne. The 1992 State Bank collapse plunged both Adelaide and South Australia into economic recession, and its effects lasted until 2004, when ratings agency Standard & Poor's reinstated South Australia's AAA credit rating. Recent years have seen the Clipsal 500 V8 Supercar race make use of sections of the former Formula One circuit.

Adelaide is located north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges. The city stretches 20 km (12 mi) from the coast to the foothills, and 90 km (56 mi) from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, the Adelaide Metropolitan Region has a total land area of 870 km2 (340 sq mi), and is at an average elevation of 50 metres (160 ft) above sea level. Mount Lofty is located east of the Adelaide metropolitan region in the Adelaide Hills at an elevation of 727 metres (2,390 ft). It is the tallest point of the city and in the state south of Burra.

Much of Adelaide was bushland before British settlement, with some variation - swamps and marshlands were prevalent around the coast. However, much of the original vegetation has been cleared with what is left to be found in reserves such as the Cleland Conservation Park and Belair National Park. A number of creeks and rivers flow through the Adelaide region. The largest are the Torrens and Onkaparinga catchments. Adelaide relies on its many reservoirs for water supply, with Mount Bold Reservoir and Happy Valley Reservoir together supplying around 50% of Adelaide's requirements.

Adelaide is a planned city, designed by the first surveyor-general of South Australia, Colonel William Light. His plan, now known as Light's Vision, arranged Adelaide in a grid, with five squares in the inner City of Adelaide and a ring of parks known as the Adelaide Parklands surrounding it. Light's design was initially unpopular with the early settlers, as well as South Australia's first Governor, John Hindmarsh. Light persisted with his design against this initial opposition. The benefits of Light's design are numerous; Adelaide has had wide multi-lane roads from its beginning, an easily-navigable grid layout and a beautiful green ring around the city centre. There are two sets of 'ring roads' in Adelaide that have resulted from the original design. The inner ring route borders the parklands and the outer route completely bypasses the inner city through (in clockwise order) Grand Junction Road, Hampstead Road, Ascot Avenue, Portrush Road, Cross Road and South Road.

Urban expansion has to some extent outgrown Light's original plan. Numerous satellite cities were built in the later half of the 20th century, notably Salisbury and Elizabeth on the city's northern fringes, which have now been enveloped by its urban sprawl. New developments in the Adelaide Hills region facilitated the construction of the South Eastern Freeway to cope with growth. Similarly, the booming development in Adelaide's South made the construction of the Southern Expressway a necessity. New roads are not the only transport infrastructure developed to cope with the urban growth, however. The O-Bahn Busway is an example of a unique solution to Tea Tree Gully's transport woes in the 1980s. The development of the nearby suburb of Golden Grove in the late 1980s is possibly an example of well-thought-out urban planning. The newer urban areas as a whole, however, are not as integrated into the urban layout as much as older areas, and therefore place more stress on Adelaide's transportation system – although not on a level comparable with Melbourne or Sydney.

In the 1960s a Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study Plan was proposed in order to cater for the future growth of the city. The plan involved the construction of freeways, expressways and the upgrade of certain aspects of the public transport system. The then premier Steele Hall approved many parts of the plan and the government went as far as purchasing land for the project. The later government elected under Don Dunstan shelved the plan, but allowed the purchased land to remain vacant, should the future need for freeways arise. Some parts of this land have been utilised for transport (eg the O-Bahn Busway) while other parts have been progressively subdivided for residential use.

In 2008 the SA Government announced plans for a network of transport-oriented developments across the Adelaide metropolitan area and purchased a 10 hectare industrial site at Bowden for $52.5 million as the first of these developments.

Adelaide has a Mediterranean climate, where most of the rain falls in the winter months. Of the Australian capital cities, Adelaide is the driest. Rainfall is unreliable, light and infrequent throughout summer. In contrast, the winter has fairly reliable rainfall with June being the wettest month of the year, averaging around 80 mm. Frosts are rare, with the most notable occurrences having occurred in July 1908 and July 1982. There is usually no appreciable snowfall, except at Mount Lofty and some places in the Adelaide Hills.

The Adelaide metropolitan area is divided between eighteen local government areas, including, at its centre, the City of Adelaide, which administers the CBD, North Adelaide, and the surrounding Adelaide Parklands. It is the oldest municipal authority in Australia and was established in 1840, when Adelaide and Australia's first mayor, James Hurtle Fisher, was elected. From 1919 onwards, the City has had a Lord Mayor, the current being Lord Mayor Michael Harbison.

Adelaide, as the capital of South Australia, is the seat of the Government of South Australia. As Adelaide is South Australia's capital and most populous city, the State Government co-operates extensively with the City of Adelaide. In 2006, the Ministry for the City of Adelaide was created to facilitate the state government's collaboration with the Adelaide City Council and the Lord Mayor to improve Adelaide's image. The state parliament's Capital City Committee is also involved in the governance of the City of Adelaide, being primarily concerned with the planning of Adelaide's urban development and growth.

As of 2006 Census, Adelaide had a metropolitan population of more than 1,105,839, making it Australia's fifth largest city. In the 2002-2003 period the population grew by 0.6%, while the national average was 1.2%. Some 70.3% of the population of South Australia are residents of the Adelaide metropolitan area, making South Australia one of the most centralised states. Major areas of population growth in recent years were in outer suburbs such as Mawson Lakes and Golden Grove. Adelaide's inhabitants occupy 341,227 houses, 54,826 semi-detached, row terrace or town houses and 49,327 flats, units or apartments.

Persons of high-income are concentrated on the coastal suburbs (such as Brighton and Glenelg), eastern suburbs (such as Wattle Park, Kensington Gardens, St. Peters, Medindie and College Park) and inner south-eastern suburbs (such as Waterfall Gully and Unley). Almost a fifth (17.9%) of the population had university qualifications. The number of Adelaideans with vocational qualifications (such as tradespersons) fell from 62.1% of the labour force in the 1991 census to 52.4% in the 2001 census.

Over half of the population identifies as Christian, with the largest denominations being Catholic (22.1%), Anglican (14.0%), Uniting Church (8.4%) and Eastern Orthodox (3.8%). Approximately 24% of the population expressed no religious affiliation, compared with the national average of 18.7%. The large number of churches in Adelaide has led the city to develop the nickname City of Churches.

Overall, Adelaide is ageing more rapidly than other Australian capital cities. Just over a quarter (26.7%) of Adelaide's population is aged 55 years or older, in comparison to the national average of 24.3%. Adelaide has the lowest number of children (under-15 year olds), which composed 17.8% of the population, compared to the national average of 19.8%.

Overseas-born Adelaideans composed 23.7% (262,367) of the total population. The north-western suburbs (such as Woodville and Athol Park) and suburbs close to the CBD have a higher ratio of overseas-born residents. The five largest groups of overseas-born were from England (7.3%), Italy (1.9%), Scotland (1.0%), Vietnam (0.9%), and Greece (0.9%). The most-spoken languages other than English were Italian (3.0%), Greek (2.2%), Vietnamese (1.2%), Mandarin (0.8%), and Cantonese (0.7%).

Adelaide's economy is primarily based around manufacturing, defence technology and research, commodity export and corresponding service industries. It has large manufacturing, defence and research zones. They contain car manufacturing plants for General Motors Holden, and plants that produce electronic systems that are sold worldwide for applications in medical, communications, defence, automotive, food and wine processing and industrial sectors. The revenue of Adelaide's electronics industry has grown at over 15% per year since 1990. The electronics industry in Adelaide employs over 13,000 people, which is more than the automotive industry. Almost half of all cars produced in Australia are made in Adelaide.

The global media conglomerate News Corporation was founded in and until 2004 incorporated in Adelaide and is still considered its 'spiritual' home by Rupert Murdoch. Australia's largest oil company, Santos (South Australia Northern Territory Oil Search), prominent South Australian brewery, Coopers, major national retailer Harris Scarfe and Australia's second largest listed investment company Argo Investments Limited call Adelaide their home.

The collapse of the State Bank in 1992 resulted in large levels of state debt (as much as A$4 billion). The collapse had meant that successive governments had enacted lean budgets, cutting spending, which had been a setback to the further development of the city and state. The debt has recently been reduced with the State Government once again receiving a AAA+ Credit Rating. The South Australian economy, very closely tied to Adelaide's, still enjoys a trade surplus and has higher per capita growth than Australia as a whole.

Adelaide is home to a large proportion of Australia's defence industries, which contribute over AU$1 billion to South Australia's Gross State Product. 70% of Australian defence companies are located in Adelaide. The principal government military research institution, the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, and other defence technology organisations such as BAE Systems Australia and RLM, are located north of Salisbury and west of Elizabeth in an area now called "Edinburgh Parks", near RAAF Base Edinburgh.

Others, such as Saab Systems, are located in or near Technology Park. The Australian Submarine Corporation, based in the industrial suburb of Osborne, was charged with constructing Australia's Collins class submarines and more recently the AU$6 billion contract to construct the Royal Australian Navy's new air-warfare destroyers.

There are 466,829 employed people in Adelaide, with 62.3% full-time and 35.1% part-time. In recent years there has been a growing trend towards part-time (which includes casual) employment, increasing from only 11.6% of the workplace in 1991, to over a third today. 15% of workers are employed in manufacturing, 5% in construction, 15% in retail trade, 11% in business services, 7% in education and 12% in health and community services.

The median weekly individual income for people aged 15 years and over is $447 per week, compared with $466 nationally. The median family income is $1,137 per week, compared with $1,171 nationally. Adelaide's housing and living costs are substantially lower than that of other Australian cities, with housing being notably cheaper. The median Adelaide house price is half that of Sydney and two-thirds that of Melbourne.

The 3 month trend unemployment rate to March 2007 was 6.2%. The Northern suburbs' unemployment rate is disproportionately higher than the other regions of Adelaide at 8.3%, while the East and South are lower than the Adelaide average at 4.9% and 5.0% respectively.

Education forms an increasingly important part of the city's economy, with the South Australian Government and educational institutions attempting to position Adelaide as "Australia's education hub" and marketing it as a "Learning City". The number of international students studying in Adelaide has increased rapidly in recent years to 23,300, of which 2,380 are secondary school students. In addition to the city's existing institutions, foreign institutions have been attracted to set up campuses in order to increase its attractiveness as an education hub.

The tertiary education system in Adelaide is extensive. There are several institutes of TAFE South Australia throughout the city which provide vocational education and training. Additionally, there are three public and two private universities, all ranked within the world's top 400 in the Times Higher Education magazine, (formerly The Times Higher Education Supplement). The University of Adelaide, with 20,478 students, is Australia's third-oldest and a member of the leading Group of Eight. It has five campuses throughout the state, including two in the city-centre, and also has a campus in Singapore. The University of South Australia, with 36,000 students, has two North Terrace campuses, three other campuses in the metropolitan area and campuses at Whyalla and Mt Gambier. Flinders University, with 16,237 students, is located in the southern suburb of Bedford Park, alongside the Flinders Medical Centre.

Carnegie Mellon became the first foreign university to open in Australia when it established two postgraduate campuses in the city-centre in 2006: the Heinz College Australia in Victoria Square and the Entertainment Technology Centre in Light Square. Cranfield University followed suit in 2007 and established a postgraduate campus in Victoria Square alongside the Heinz College. Another leading institution, the University College London, will establish its first international campus alongside Carnegie Mellon and Cranfield University in 2009, with postgraduate courses commencing in 2010.

The two hundred year-old Royal Institution of Great Britain is also establishing an Australian counterpart in Adelaide which will formally open in 2009. At the level of primary and secondary education, there are two systems of school education. There is a public system operated by the South Australian Government and a private system of independent and Catholic schools. All schools provide education under the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) or, to a lesser extent, the International Baccalaureate (IB), with Adelaide having the highest number of IB schools in Australia. One notable secondary school is St Peter's College, which has educated more Nobel laureates than any other school in Australia, and is tied for third internationally behind New York City's Bronx High School of Science and Stuyvesant High School.

While established as a British province, Adelaide attracted immigrants from many non-English speaking countries early-on, including German and other European non-conformists escaping religious persecution. The first German Lutherans arrived in 1838 bringing with them the vine cuttings that they used to found the acclaimed wineries of the Barossa Valley.

After the Second World War, Italians, Greeks, Dutch, Poles and many other European nationalities came to make a new start. An influx of Asian immigrants following the Vietnam War, and more recently many African refugees, have added to Adelaide's multicultural mix. These new arrivals have blended with dominant Anglo-Saxon culture to form a rich and diverse cuisine and vibrant restaurant culture.

Adelaide's arts scene flourished in the 1970s under the leadership of premier Don Dunstan, removing some of the more puritanical restrictions on cultural activities then prevalent around Australia. It was at this time that the renowned Adelaide Festival of Arts and Fringe Festival were established, and over time they have spawned sister events including the Adelaide Cabaret Festival, Adelaide Film Festival, Adelaide Festival of Ideas, Adelaide Writers' Week and WOMADelaide held predominately in the autumnal month of March.

Other festivals include FEAST, one of Australia's four main queer culture celebrations; Tasting Australia, a biennual food and wine affair; and the Royal Adelaide Show, an annual agricultural and state fair. Reflecting the city's multiculturalism, there are many ethnic fairs including the German Schützenfest and Greek Glendi. Adelaide is also home to the Adelaide Christmas Pageant, the world's largest Christmas parade.

As the state capital, Adelaide is also home to a great number of cultural institutions with many located along the boulevard of North Terrace. The Art Gallery of South Australia, with around 35,000 works, holds Australia's second largest state-based collection.

Situated adjacent are the South Australian Museum and State Library of South Australia, while the Adelaide Botanic Garden, National Wine Centre and Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute are located nearby in the East End of the city. The Adelaide Festival Centre, on the banks of the Torrens, is the focal point for much of the cultural activity in the city, with other venues including the Adelaide Entertainment Centre and the city's many smaller theatres, pubs and cabaret bars.

The music of Adelaide has produced various musical groups and individuals who have achieved both national and worldwide fame. This includes the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, the Adelaide Youth Orchestra, rock bands: The Angels, Cold Chisel, The Superjesus and Wolf & Cub, roots/blues group The Audreys, internationally acclaimed metal acts I Killed The Prom Queen and Double Dragon (band) and popular Australian hip-hop outfit Hilltop Hoods.

Famous rocker Jimmy Barnes spent most of his youth in the northern suburb of Elizabeth. The first Australian Idol winner, Guy Sebastian, hails from North Eastern suburb of Golden Grove. American musician Ben Folds used to base himself in Adelaide when he was married to Australian Frally Hynes. In addition to its own WOMADelaide, Adelaide attracts several touring music festivals, including the Big Day Out and the St Jerome's Laneway Festival.

Newspapers in Adelaide are dominated by News Corporation publications — Adelaide being the birthplace of News Corporation itself. The only South Australian daily newspaper is The Advertiser, published by News Corporation six days a week, while the Sunday paper is the Sunday Mail.

There are eleven suburban community newspapers published weekly, known collectively as the Messenger Newspapers, also published by a subsidiary of News Corporation. A recent addition to the print medium in the city is The Independent Weekly, providing one alternative view.

Two national daily newspapers are circulated in the city: The Australian and its weekend publication, The Weekend Australian, also published by News Corporation; and The Australian Financial Review published by Fairfax. Interstate dailies, The Age and The Sydney Morning Herald, published by Fairfax, are also typically available. The Adelaide Review is a free paper published fortnightly, and other independent magazine-style papers are published, but are not as widely available.

All of the five Australian national television networks broadcast both analogue PAL and high definition digital services in Adelaide. They share three transmission towers on the ridge near the summit of Mount Lofty. The two government-funded stations are ABC TV and SBS TV. The Seven Network and Network Ten both own their Adelaide stations (SAS-7 and ADS-10 respectively).

Adelaide's NWS-9 is affiliated with the Nine Network and was owned by Southern Cross Broadcasting until the sale to WIN Corporation in May 2007. Adelaide also has a community television station, C31 Adelaide. The Foxtel pay TV service is available as cable television in a few areas, and as satellite television to the entire metropolitan area. It is resold by a number of other brands, mostly telephone companies.

There are twenty radio stations that serve the entire metropolitan area as well as four community stations that serve only parts of the metropolitan area. Of the twenty full coverage stations there are six commercial stations, six community stations, six national stations and two narrowcast stations.

Commercial stations include FIVEaa, Cruise 1323, Mix 102.3, SAFM, Nova 91.9, and Triple M.

The main sports played professionally in Adelaide are Australian rules football, Association football and cricket. Adelaide is the home of two Australian Football League teams: the Adelaide Crows and Port Adelaide Power. A local Australian rules football league, the SANFL, is made up of nine teams from around Adelaide.

Most large sporting events take place at either AAMI Stadium or the historic Adelaide Oval, home of the Southern Redbacks cricket team. Adelaide hosts an international cricket test every summer, along with a number of One Day International cricket matches. Memorial Drive Park, adjacent to the Adelaide Oval, hosts the Adelaide International, a major men's tennis tournament in the lead-up to the Australian Open.

Adelaide's professional Association football team, Adelaide United, play in the A-League. Founded in 2003, their home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium, which has a capacity of 16,500 and is one of the few purpose-built soccer stadia in Australia.

The Adelaide 36ers and the Adelaide Lightning play in national basketball competitions, with home games at the Distinctive Homes Dome. The Adelaide Thunderbirds play in the trans-Tasman netball competition, with home games at ETSA Park.

Adelaide hosts the Tour Down Under bicycle race, the largest cycling event outside Europe and the only event with UCI ProTour status.

The Australian Grand Prix for Formula 1 racing was hosted by Adelaide from 1985 to 1995 on a street circuit in the city's eastern parklands. The Grand Prix became a source of pride and losing the event to Melbourne in a surprise announcement left a void that has since been filled with the highly successful Clipsal 500 for V8 Supercar racing, held on a modified version of the same street circuit. The Classic Adelaide, a rally of classic sporting vehicles, is also held in the city and its surrounds.

The World Solar Challenge race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations although some are fielded by high schools. The race has a 20-year history spanning nine races, with the inaugural event taking place in 1987.

Adelaide's first hospital is the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH). Founded in 1840, it is one of the major hospitals in Adelaide and is a teaching hospital of the University of Adelaide. It has a capacity of 705 beds. Two other RAH campuses which specialise in specific patient services are located in the suburbs of Adelaide - the Hampstead Rehabilitation Centre in Northfield, and the Glenside Campus Mental Health Service. Three other large hospitals in the Adelaide area are: the Women's and Children's Hospital (305 beds), which is located on King William Road in North Adelaide; the Queen Elizabeth Hospital (340 beds), located in Woodville and the Flinders Medical Centre (500 beds), which is located in Bedford Park. These hospitals are also associated with medical schools - the Women's and Children's and the Queen Elizabeth with the University of Adelaide and the Flinders Medical Centre with Flinders University.

In June 2007 the State Government announced a series of overhauls to the health sector that would see a new hospital constructed on railyards at the west end of the city, to replace the Royal Adelaide Hospital located at the east end of the city. Should it go ahead, the new 800 bed hospital would cost AU$1.7bn and be named the "Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Hospital" after the former Governor of South Australia. However, in 2009, at the former governor's request, the state government chose to drop this name and instead transfer the Royal Adelaide Hospital name to the proposed facility.

In addition, major upgrades would see the Flinders Medical Centre become the primary centre for health care for the southern suburbs, while upgrades for the Lyell McEwin Health Service in Elizabeth would see that become the centre for the northern suburbs. The trio of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the Modbury Hospital and the Noarlunga Hospital would become specialist elective surgery centres. The Repatriation General Hospital would also expand its range of specialty areas beyond veterans' health to incorporate stroke, orthopaedic rehabilitation and aged care. With the "Global Financial Crisis" of 2008, it remains to be seen if and how these initiatives will proceed.

Being centrally located on the Australian mainland, Adelaide forms a strategic transport hub for east-west and north-south routes. The city itself has a metropolitan-wide public transport system, which is managed by and known as the Adelaide Metro. The Adelaide Metro consists of a contracted bus system including the O-Bahn Busway, metropolitan railways, and the Adelaide-Glenelg Tram, which has also now been extended as a metropolitan tram through the city centre. Road transport in Adelaide has historically been comparatively easier than many of the other Australian cities, with a well-defined city layout and wide multiple-lane roads from the beginning of its development. Historically, Adelaide was known as a "twenty-minute city", with commuters having been able to travel from metropolitan outskirts to the city proper in roughly twenty minutes. However, these roads are now often considered inadequate to cope with Adelaide's growing road traffic.

Adelaide has one freeway and two expressways; the South Eastern Freeway, connecting the city with the Adelaide Hills and beyond to Murray Bridge, the Port River Expressway connecting Port Adelaide and Outer Harbor to interstate routes and the Southern Expressway, an interchangeable one-way road connecting the southern suburbs with the city proper. The Gawler Bypass skirting Gawler is another expressway style, high speed inter-urban corridor. A third expressway, the Northern Expressway (formerly the Sturt Highway extension), a northern suburbs bypass route—connecting the Gawler Bypass to Port Wakefield Road—started construction in 2008. There are also plans for major upgrades to busy sections of South Road, including road widening and underpasses of Anzac Highway (under construction), Grange Road, Port Road and the Outer Harbour Railway Line, during the first stage.

Adelaide International Airport, located in Adelaide's west, is Australia's newest and most advanced airport terminal and is designed to serve in excess of 6.3 million passengers annually. The new dual international/domestic terminal replaces the old and ageing terminals known locally as the 'tin sheds', and incorporates glass aerobridges and the ability to cater for the new Airbus A380. In March 2007, Adelaide Airport was rated the world's second best airport in the 5-15 million passengers category at the Airports Council International (ACI) 2006 awards in Dubai. The airport is designed to handle 27 aircraft simultaneously and is capable of processing 3,000 passengers per hour. Unusually for a major city, it is located only about seven kilometres (4.4 mi) from the CBD. Parafield Airport is Adelaide's second airport, mostly used for general aviation. It is located eighteen kilometres (11.2 mi) north of the CBD.

Adelaide's energy requirements are met by a variety of companies who separately provide for the generation, transmission, distribution and retail sales of gas and electricity. Some of the major companies are: TRUenergy, which generates electricity; ElectraNet, which transmits electricity from the generators to the distribution network; ETSA Utilities (formerly a government-owned company which was privatised by the Olsen Government in the 1990s), which distributes electricity from transmission companies to end users; and AGL Energy, which retails gas and electricity. Substantial investment has been made in maintenance and reinforcement of the electricity supply network to provide continued reliability of supply.

Adelaide derives most of its electricity from a gas-fired plant operated by AGL Energy at Torrens Island, with more coming from power stations at Port Augusta and Pelican Point, and from connections to the national grid. Gas is mainly supplied from the Moomba Gas Processing Plant in the Cooper Basin, and is piped to Adelaide and other areas within the state. A small part of supply also comes from wind turbines at Sellicks Hill, and a trial of more turbines on city buildings is underway.

Adelaide's water supply is gained from its reservoirs: Mount Bold, Happy Valley, Myponga, Millbrook, Hope Valley, Little Para and South Para. Further water demands result in the pumping of water from the River Murray. The provision of water services is by the government-owned SA Water.

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Adelaide Football Club

Adelaide Football Club logo

Adelaide Football Club, nicknamed The Crows, is an Australian rules football club playing in the Australian Football League, based in Adelaide, South Australia. The club was formed in 1990 and played their first game in the 1991 season, defeating Hawthorn by 86 points.

The club is currently coached by Neil Craig and captained by Simon Goodwin, replacing Mark Ricciuto after his retirement following the 2007 Season. The club is based at AAMI Stadium (formerly Football Park) in West Lakes and the club song is "The Pride of South Australia", which uses the tune of the United States Marines' Hymn.

In 2006, the club made history becoming the first club in VFL/AFL history to have more than 50,000 members. They broke that record in 2007, signing up 50,145 members after only round one of the season. The club failed to continue this record run and subsequently signed 48,720 members in 2008. It has the largest membership of any club in the AFL. It is now the 2nd largest membership of any sporting club in Australia only behind the Melbourne Cricket Club with aprox 98,000 members.

Adelaide played its first official match against Hawthorn at Football Park. The Crows got off to the best possible start to their AFL life, defeating the eventual premiers by 86 points - 24.11 (155) to 9.15 (69) - in front of a crowd of 44,902.

After finishing 9th in both 1991 and 92, the 1993 season would be the first year the young Adelaide Crows would see September Finals action after an up and down home and away season. At home the Crows were almost unstoppable going an all-time best 9-1 and selling out every single game in which attendance was at least 44,000 each time. Tony Modra had a superb year kicking a club record 129 goals, and took the Mark of the Year in Round 8 vs North Melbourne at the southern end of Football Park. But Adelaide struggled away from West Lakes going just 3-7, and would finish the season in 5th place after beating Collingwood in a superb game at home in Round 22 to earn their first Finals berth. Adelaide knocked out 4th placed Hawthorn six days later at the jCw in the Elimination Final by 15 points, with Nigel Smart getting 6 goals and the win giving Adelaide two chances to play in the Grand Final. The Crows struggled against Carlton in week 2 at Waverley Park in an 18 point loss, which denied them direct entry into the Grand Final. However, they still had another chance in the Preliminary Final which was played at the MCG against Essendon. The Crows led by 42 points at halftime after a superb first half performance, but in the second half their performance became dismal as Essendon, who finished as minor premier, came back to win by 11 points. Essendon then went on to defeat Carlton a week later in the Grand Final. It has been mentioned by a broadcaster during the Radio 5AA sports show, as well as being reported in the Melbourne print media, that the second half fade out may have been inadvertently affected by one of the Adelaide player's unfortunate bout of flatulence that occurred during the coach's half time address. The unnamed player's actions created great mirth within the rest of the playing group and may have contributed to an unwanted break in the team's concentration and resolve. This has caused some debate amongst many supporters as to how much of an effect this had but most commentators have suggested coaching decisions and player moves as having a greater impact on the outcome.

With former Woodville and North Melbourne star Malcolm Blight taking over as coach, Adelaide went 13-9 in 1997. Tony Modra was the club's top goal-kicker for the 5th straight season and won his first and only Coleman Medal. Modra also victimised North Melbourne again with the Mark of the Year in exactly the same spot at the southern end riding with his knees on Mick Martyn's shoulders and grabbing the ball facing backwards. The Crows finished in 4th spot and did what no side had ever done before, winning 4 straight Finals games to claim their first premiership. The Crows downed West Coast at home on a Sunday (the first Final played at Football Park), Geelong at home on a Saturday Night, the Western Bulldogs and St Kilda at the MCG (both Saturdays) to claim the premiership. The Preliminary Final was one of the greatest games in Crows history: they would lose Tony Modra to a season ending knee ACL injury in a marking contest and come from 22 points down at 3 quarter time, despite inaccurate kicking, for a miracle 2-point victory. A week later the Saints were hot favourites to win just their second Premiership in the VFL/AFL, with that year's Brownlow Medallist Robert Harvey expected to star. Adelaide, without 1997 All Australians Modra and Mark Ricciuto, and goalsneak Peter Vardy, defied the critics to win by 31 points. In the absence of star forward Tony Modra, utility Shane Ellen stepped into his position and bagged 5 goals for the match, while Darren Jarman booted 5 of his 6 goals in the last quarter to put the game beyond doubt. Andrew McLeod's heroics around the midfield and backlines earned him the Norm Smith medal. This was one of the great sporting moments in the city of Adelaide setting off a wild celebration. Adelaide again finished with 13 wins and 9 losses in an inconsistent 1998 home-and-away season and ended up in fifth position on the ladder. The season included their first of three one-point losses to Fremantle at Subiaco Oval, when Nigel Smart had the chance to tie the scores up with 5 seconds remaining, but was controversially given on the full, and a few close defeats but this did not faze them in the finals. Adelaide was beaten badly by Melbourne in the Qualifying Final but still had a second chance. From then on the Crows dominated their way to the premiership beating Sydney at the SCG, and thrashing the Western Bulldogs at the MCG by 68 points. This set up a Grand Final meeting with the Kangaroos, who, like the Saints, started the game as unbackable favorites. Adelaide trailed by 24 points at halftime, but a superb comeback in the second half combined with North's inaccurate kicking saw them run out with a 35-point victory. Andrew McLeod again was the Norm Smith medallist, joining his future coach Gary Ayres as one of only two players to have twice won the Norm Smith medal, and the only player to have won it back-to-back.

The Crows quest for 3 straight premierships began in 1999, and despite a good start to the season they struggled all year with injuries, eventually finishing at 8-14 in 13th place and earning the dubious honour of having the worst Premiership hangover of any club. The worst game of the year was an embarrassing 76 point home loss to the eventual premiers the Kangaroos in Round 22, the second worst home loss in club history. It was the end of a short era; the Crows were hapless, and battered. Malcolm Blight was chaired off the ground to one of the loudest standing ovations ever heard at Football Park, despite the bad loss. Rod Jameson also played his final game that day, a popular Crows player throughout the 90s. Gary Ayres took over from Malcolm Blight in 2000 as the Crows began the rebuild back into a Premiership contender.

After their worst ever year in 1999 at 8-14, the rebuilding begins in the 2000 season. It did not start well as Adelaide lost their first 5 games, they got their first win of the season in Round 6 ending a 10 game losing streak and played against Port Adelaide in the 7th Showdown in Round 7. The Crows faced a 42 point deficit, but pulled off a miracle victory in one of the greatest Showdowns played, as Andrew McLeod's goal in the final minute put Adelaide in front. The Crows would improve to 9-10 but in the end they finished the season at 10-12 in 11th spot. Adelaide also played its first ever Saturday Afternoon home game in Round 1 against the Western Bulldogs, losing in a shootout.

Adelaide had an inconsistent 2001 season, losing their first 3 games of the season but went 12-6 from Rounds 4 to 21. They struggled at home finishing a club worst 6-5 at the time. But their 6-5 away record ensured they finished 12-10. The Crows lost to wooden spooner Fremantle in Round 22 (only Fremantle's second win for the season), limped into the finals in 8th place and were quickly eliminated by 5th placed Carlton by 68 points in a hapless performance. Darren Jarman played in his final season and was in tears after announcing his retirement after the game.

The Crows finished in the top 4 of the premiership ladder in 2002 with a 15-7 record, giving them 3rd spot after defeating Fremantle at Subiaco in Round 22. But in the Finals the Crows were crushed by Brisbane in week 1 at the Gabba by 71 points. They had another chance the following week against Melbourne at the MCG. In one of the more remarkable finals in history, Adelaide shot out to a 40 point lead at quarter time, but the Demons reeled in the Crows to such an extent that late in the third quarter Adelaide trailed by 29 points. But the Crows rallied to pull off a miracle 12-point win, with the injured Andrew McLeod kicking a goal midway through the quarter to put Adelaide in front. The win meant they faced a superb Collingwood side at the MCG in the preliminary final. Adelaide built to a 3 goal lead against the Magpies late in the 2nd term and things were looking good. But injuries got to Adelaide as the Magpies rewarded the deafening crowd and put away the game, particularly when Anthony Rocca marked at centre-half forward and kicked one of his trademark 70 m drop punts. Andrew McLeod, playing with his sprained ankle, injured the other ankle during the game and had to be taken off on a stretcher. The Crows started to make a comeback in the final quarter turning a 25 point deficit back to 13 points before the Magpies pulled away again winning by 28: 13.13 (91) to 9.9 (63). Brisbane would defeat Collingwood the following week in the first of their two Grand Final meetings.

After the great improvement in 2002, Adelaide started 2003 as one of the favourites for the AFL premiership. Excitement built as the club secured the services of ex-Kangaroos champion Wayne Carey, arguably the greatest player of all time. They stormed through the pre-season and defeated Collingwood to claim their first Wizard Cup. Despite suffering several injuries throughout the year, including to Carey, and losing the last 3 games of the minor round, the Crows finished the season 13-9 in 6th position. Captain Mark Ricciuto had one of the best individual years in the club's history, winning the Brownlow Medal. However, 2003 was certainly a painful year for Crows fans, and the team's inability to win close games became a huge problem. The Crows did however win an elimination final, easily defeating West Coast at AAMI Stadium. The semi-final saw the Crows lose at the Gabba to eventual premiers, the Brisbane Lions. The game marked the final appearance for dual premiership captain Mark Bickley.

The Crows struggled in 2004 finishing 8-14, including a 5-6 mark at home. Adelaide lost its first 4 games of the season and never fully recovered. Supporters marvelled at the feats of captain Mark Ricciuto, who became the club's first All Australian Captain. Wayne Carey, who played 28 games and kicked 56 goals for the club, suffered a season ending neck injury against West Coast in round 12 and announced his retirement soon after. Club legend Nigel Smart, the last remaining player from the inaugural 1991 team, played his final game in Round 13 against the Western Bulldogs at AAMI Stadium. This was also to be Gary Ayres' last game as Adelaide coach. Ayres was advised of his fate after the round 13 game against the Bulldogs. Although given the option to stay until year end, Ayres declined. Neil Craig was appointed caretaker-coach, and in his first game the Crows thrashed 2nd placed Melbourne at home. However, the club would then lose their next 3 games, including a humiliating 141 point loss to the Brisbane Lions at the Gabba in Round 17. Adelaide regrouped and finished the season strongly by winning 3 of the last 5 games and Craig was confirmed as senior coach for 2005 and beyond.

2005 saw Adelaide have their best home and away season in the history of the club, finishing 17-5 and claiming the minor premiership. The Crows won this prize after a stunning 8 point victory in round 22 against West Coast at Subiaco. However, the game will be most remembered by Adelaide supporters for the report of captain and Brownlow Medallist Mark Ricciuto - for a head high bump on Adam Selwood. Ricciuto was subsequently suspended and would miss Adelaide's qualifying final against St. Kilda. Losing the All Australian Captain of 2004 & 2005 proved to be a massive blow, and in a low scoring struggle, St Kilda led most of the way and defeated the Crows by 8 points at AAMI Stadium. The loss set up a sudden death semi final against bitter rival and reigning premier Port Adelaide. The Crows regained Ricciuto, and in one of the most keenly anticipated matches in South Australian football history, smashed a hapless Port Adelaide by 83 points in front of a crowd of 50,521. Ricciuto and premiership teammate Simon Goodwin starred, however Adelaide's semi final celebrations were short-lived, with the team suffering a 16 point preliminary final loss to the West Coast Eagles at Subiaco. It was a tough, close encounter in windy and overcast conditions but a third quarter Adelaide lapse saw the Eagles mount a match-winning lead in front of a hostile home crowd. The Crows fell 35 points behind but made a late comeback before the Eagles put the game away. Adelaide joined Essendon (1999) and Port Adelaide (2002 & 2003) as recent AFL minor premiers who had failed to make the Grand Final. But those teams would recover to win a Premiership, the Crows would not demonstrating the difficulty to make the Grand Final and how you have to perform perfectly under pressure.

2006 was a year of individual milestones for the Adelaide Crows: Ben Hart entered his 15th season and became the first player in Crows history to play 300 games. He achieved the feat in round two against West Coast. Andrew McLeod entered his 12th season and played his 250th game in the 138 point thumping of Essendon in round 10. Mark Ricciuto also played his 300th game on a Friday Night with 5 goals in the Crows round 16 victory over the Kangaroos. In each game the crowd provided a fitting tribute to the 3 club legends, who have amassed an amazing 16 All Australian selections between them.

After 16 rounds in 2006, Adelaide sat on top of the AFL ladder with a remarkable 14-2 win/loss record, and the best percentage since West Coast in 1991. With little warning, the Crows were thumped by a massive 82 points in round 17 by the rampaging West Coast Eagles. This loss set off a dramatic change of fortunes for the Crows in 2006. Despite rebounding the following week with a rare home win over Collingwood, injuries and a sudden loss of form would see the Crows lose their next 3 games in a row to Fremantle, the Western Bulldogs and Port Adelaide. In a dramatic twist of fate, the Crows took to the field in round 22 against Melbourne with several key contributors from 2006 on the sidelines including captain Mark Ricciuto - who was diagnosed with a rare virus- Andrew McLeod, Brett Burton, Ben Hart and leading goalkicker Trent Hentschel, who suffered a serious knee injury against Port Adelaide. However, they managed to win their first game in more than a month, thrashing the Demons by 58 points in Round 22 and finishing the minor round in 2nd spot, with 16 wins and 6 losses. Despite fielding the same undermanned team in the qualifying final against 3rd placed Fremantle, the Crows produced one of the best performances in the club's history to win by 30 points. This gave the team a valuable week's rest, and enabled the club to regain McLeod and Burton in time for the preliminary final. For the second year in a row the opponent was the West Coast Eagles, however this time the match would be played at AAMI stadium and the Eagles would start favourites. The Crows lost ruckman Rhett Biglands to a serious knee injury early in the game, and despite leading the minor premiers at half time, the Eagles again dominated the 3rd quarter to set up victory and held on to win by 10 points. For the second year in a row, captain Mark Ricciuto was forced to endure a home final loss from the sidelines. Although injuries and illness conspired against the Crows, supporters and players will remember 2006 with bitter disappointment.

After losing their first home game of the 2007 season to Essendon in perfect weather conditions, Adelaide won their next 3 games to have a 3-1 win-loss record. However, they suffered a potentially costly loss to Fremantle by 1 point at Subiaco Oval in Round 5 for the third time in their history. They then faced a tough task against a Collingwood side at home with Adelaide coming off a six day break, compared to Collingwood's 10 day break after their ANZAC Day win and good record at AAMI Stadium. The Crows started slowly but fought back hard to claim the lead briefly. But in the end fell by 24 points as the fatigue showed in the last quarter. Adelaide fell to 3-3 but then won 3 straight games and were 6-3. They then struggled for most of the remainder of the season but one of their best wins came in Round 18, an 8 point come from behind victory over Port Adelaide.

After falling to Geelong, Adelaide beat the Western Bulldogs under clear skies at home in Round 20 making it back to back home wins for the first time all season long. In Round 21 the Crows took on Brisbane in front of an emphatic crowd of 46,500. The AAMI stadium faithful saw Mark Ricciuto's last home game before his retirement at the end of the season. They crushed Brisbane despite inaccurate kicking. A 19 point victory over Collingwood in Round 22 allowed the Crows to qualify for the finals for the sixth time in seven years but this time from the 8th and most difficult spot. Adelaide led the First Elimination Final against Hawthorn by 31 points just before half-time, but got too comfortable and started to wilt under pressure. After leading nearly all game the Crows lost due to Lance Franklin's 7th goal in the dying seconds of the game. See also 2007 AFL Finals Series.

Eighth place finished a rather disappointing season for the Crows, for which coach Neil Craig was criticised by the fans due to his strict rules and game-plan.

After the disaster of 2007 team rebuilding was required. Notable absentees from the 2007 list included Jason Torney, Martin Mattner, Scott Welsh, and Ben Hudson. To compensate for their losses the acquisition of Brad Symes supported Neil Craig's plan to rejuvenate the ageing midfield, while Brad Moran added depth in the Ruck and key position divisions. Former Adelaide players Ben Hart and Matthew Clarke were appointed as new assistant coaches.

The NAB cup provided much hope for Adelaide fans stemming from their team's progression to the Grand Final. Adelaide was initially able to beat the more fancied Collingwood in Dubai, before accounting for Fremantle and Hawthorn (both at home). Adelaide had kicked more Supergoals than their to-be opposition St. Kilda and so was given the privilege of hosting the NAB cup Grand Final. It was the 2nd time in 3 years, and 5th time overall, that the Crows had reached the Preseason Cup final. However they were unable to defeat St Kilda in the Adelaide heatwave at AAMI Stadium: 37 degrees C plus, the game was a twilight game, starting during late afternoon daylight and ending under dark skies.

The match was heavily criticised by some in the Victorian media for having the lowest crowd attendance for a pre-season grand final in history. In particular the members of the Adelaide Football Club were criticised for not attending their team's home final; though most media outlets spreading this criticism neglected to take into account the extreme heat (with very low humidity) which at night wouldn't have been too much of a problem because of the sun.

Despite their narrow loss, fans saw glimpses of the future for the club. The rejuvenated midfield, replacing ageing champions such as Tyson Edwards and Simon Goodwin and freeing them to move into the forward line. A new forward line thus emerged, featuring young key position forwards James Sellar and Kurt Tippet - both tipped to lead Adelaide's attack in the new era - along with the addition of veterans Andrew McLeod, Simon Goodwin and Tyson Edwards to provide experience and quality in what had long been Adelaide's Achilles Heel.

The season got off to an anticlimactic start in a high scoring shootout at the Telstra Dome as the Crows went down to the Western Bulldogs when Nathan Bock missed a set shot on goal just as the siren sounded, which would have won the match (126-123). The club surprised all those who doubted them by thrashing finals hopefuls West Coast in a stunning round 2 display at home, winning by 76 points (133-57).

Round 3 saw the return of the Rivalry Round, and possibly the most anticipated Showdown in history, against a Port Adelaide side which had lost the first 2 rounds of the season: firstly against the reigning champs Geelong at AAMI Stadium, and then in a match that they were predominantly tipped to win against the Swans at the SCG. With the Crows having won 6 of their last 7 Showdowns, a win in Showdown XXIV would square the ledger with 12 Showdown victories each. The clash was probably one of the most M rated Showdowns in history, even more so than the one near the end of season 2006 which saw Trent Hentschell go down with a serious knee injury and out for the entire 2007 season. Unlike most such matches, the scoring wasn't a highlight, with both teams on 15 points each at quarter time. In the second quarter, the fists came out with 3 key Crows players being brutally tackled. This was not unexpected, as Port Adelaide has a history of being the team most apt to employ controversial tactics, including deliberate attempts to injure and/or maim opposition players. The most notable of these events involved veteran Nathan Bassett being brutally hammered headfirst into the turf after making a disposal. For a frighteningly lengthy amount of time after, Bassett lay motionless face-down on the turf. He was stretchered off the ground, and later in the game was impossible not to be spotted, casually walking around the boundary to the bench acknowledging the crowd, and receiving an enormous cheer and standing ovation. Blood loss aside, the Crows managed to attain a 16 point lead late in the match, before Port made one last scoring surge. However, the Crows held firm, and managed to hold the victory by 6 points (85-79) as the home crowd of over 45,000 went into a frenzy after the final siren had sounded.

The following week, round 4, Adelaide had a bad day and struggled in a 44 point loss to Hawthorn in Launceston (114-70). They bounced back to win four straight games, with the help of three of those games being played at home.

Round 5 saw a 17 point win over Fremantle at home (88-71), round 6 a 30-point win over Carlton at the MCG (111-81), round 7 a 33-point win over North Melbourne at home (107-74), and round 8 a 76-point thashing of Melbourne at home (150-74).

In the Round 8 victory against Melbourne at AAMI stadium, Brett Burton took one of the greatest marks in Crows history at the Northern end of the ground in the final quarter where he climbed the shoulders of an opponent and grabbed the ball into his chest before falling hard to the ground. After the win against Melbourne, Adelaide stood 5-0 at home for the first time ever in its history.

The Crows looked to continue their winning streak against a struggling, but hard to beat West Coast Eagles in a tough trip to Subiaco Oval in Round 9. However, inaccurate kicking cost the Crows dearly and they never managed to get back into the game after a slow start. With a tendency that continues to bewilder fans, the Crows again managed to find a way to lose the 'unlosable' game, in their red uniforms, eventually going down by 50 points to the team they destroyed by 76 points just 7 rounds previously (97-47).

In round ten of the 2008 season the Adelaide Crows overcame the Essendon Bombers in a close and hard fought match, finally coming out winners by five points: 74 - 69. Poor goal kicking accuracy was the main reason for the game being so close, with the main culprits being Brett Burton, Simon Goodwin and Jason Porplyzia. Scott Thompson was one of Adelaide's key players getting 33 possessions in the midfield and providing a lot of drive going forward. Burton was reported for a head-high bump to Essendon's Henry Slattery and was subsequently offered, and accepted, a two-match ban by the AFL's match-review committee.

Round eleven saw the Crows return to the MCG to face the under-performing Richmond in their red clash jumper yet again. Continuing a worrying trend in matches away from home, Adelaide started slowly and were fortunate to only trail by 14 points at half-time. After the long-break, however, the Crows woke from their slumbering style and proceeded to kick 15 goals to 5 in the second half, to run out easy winners by 50 points (146-96). Bernie Vince had 30 disposals, Scott Thompson kicked 6 goals, and Ivan Maric stepped up to dominate the ruck against the more experienced Simmonds.

At the halfway point in the season, Adelaide had an 8-3 record with a percentage of 120.90, and sat two points clear of Sydney in fourth spot on the premiership ladder. Home record: played 6, won 6; away record: played 5, won 2.

Round 12 saw Adelaide lose a heartbreaker to Hawthorn by 4 points and it could be hard to argue that it could be their most agonizing defeat of the season (76-72). The team started well, scoring two goals with 23 disposals before Hawthorn had a confirmed stat. But the Hawks came back and the game was tight throughout, with Adelaide leading by 1 point at quarter-time, and increasing that lead by one for each of the next two quarters. The last quarter was again a close affair until the tough and calm Luke Hodge of Hawthorn snapped a goal with only a few minutes left on the clock to put the Hawks in front. From there Hawthorn closed down the game and held on by four points. It was Hawthorn's third away win against Adelaide, but their first since that infamous 97-point thrashing in Round 9, 1994. Adelaide dropped to fifth on the premiership ladder after the loss, and it may be seen in the weeks ahead as a devastating blow to their top 4 hopes, despite their 8-4 record.

Adelaide slipped to 8-5 after losing to Brisbane at the Gabba by 13 points (83-70) in round 13. Although leading by 12 points at half-time, and 2 at three-quarter time, Adelaide were out-run by Brisbane in the last term. The Crows couldn't get their forward structure working properly even with the return of Burton from suspension.

In the second weekend of the split round 14, Adelaide were visited by Geelong and promptly defeated by 68 points (124-56). Adelaide were never in the contest, scoring only one point in the first quarter. The Crows slipped to 6th on the premiership ladder after the loss with a percentage of only 109.09.

In round 15, Adelaide travelled to Melbourne to face Collingwood at the MCG. The Crows lead by as much as 22 points mid-way through the second term but faded after half-time to lose by 32 (106-74). This was the first time the team had lost four games in a row under Neil Craig. Added to the loss were injuries to Burton (knee) and Porplyzia (shoulder), the former of which would end his season.

In front of the smallest crowd in Showdown history, Adelaide lost the second game of 2008 against Port Adelaide by 12 points in round 16, (92-80). A lack of a settled forward line and Port's commitment led to a stifled Crows outfit. Adelaide slipped out of the eight after this loss, their fifth in a row.

Adelaide faced Sydney at the SCG in round 17 as underdogs, even though they had a dominant record over the Swans since 2002. Sydney couldn't get anything moving and Adelaide were inspired by the sudden return of Porplyzia, who kicked five goals, with a 23-point win (77-53). Adelaide have now won 9 of the past 10 games against Sydney.

Dominant second and third quarters, during which they kicked 11 goals to 5, helped Adelaide to a tight 8-point win (94-86) over Carlton at AAMI Stadium in their round 18 clash. Brad Moran popped up with four goals at full-forward, a move that was forced by a heavy knock to Jason Porplyzia in the second term, which would redislocate his shoulder as well as causing potentially season-ending brain bruising. At the end of the round, the Crows sat in sixth place with a 10-8 win/loss ratio.

In an easy game against Richmond in Round 19 (a win of 63 points, 108-45), Andrew McLeod celebrated his 300th game playing AFL football with a superb display off the half-back line. The AAMI stadium surface was wet and slippery after heavy rain during the morning of the game which made for difficult conditions. Adelaide handled the ball far better than the Tigers, kicking 7.2 to 0.1 in the second term to lead by an even 9 goals at half-time. After that, the Crows were never threatened and held on to sixth spot on the AFL ladder, four points clear of Collingwood.

Adelaide then travelled to the Telstra Dome for a potentially tricky game against in-form Essendon in Round 20. After the game was a low-scoring slog for the first quarter and a half, the Crows broke away with ten goals to one either side of half time to lead by 56 points late in the third quarter and eventually won by the same margin (129-73). Key forward Nick Gill finally delivered on much promise, booting five goals including three in the last quarter. Controversial draftee Patrick Dangerfield played his debut and showed potential despite being unspectacular, kicking a goal on the half-time siren. The win guaranteed the Crows a place in the finals, and also put them in the top four pending the result of North Melbourne's clash with Carlton. After a win by North, Adelaide sat in fifth position with 48 points and a percentage of 113.01. Of interest is the fact that this was the first time Adelaide had defeated Essendon in Melbourne, after 11 attempts spread over the 17 years since they entered the AFL competition.

A return to the Telstra Dome in Round 21 saw the Crows tackle St Kilda and play probably their worst game of the year so far. St Kilda had the incentive of the game being Robert Harvey's final home game, as well as the added bonus of cementing their place in the final eight with a win. But Harvey started on the bench and Adelaide led 3.3 to 0.1 before St Kilda got into their stride late in the first quarter. After quarter-time Adelaide only kicked a further 3 goals to St Kilda's 12 to lose comprehensively (95-47). The loss meant Adelaide slipped to sixth on the ladder with a percentage of 109.60. To add to Adelaide's woes, Chris Knights was reported for making forceful front-on contact.

Adelaide knocked off the Western Bulldogs by 9 points (76-67) in wet conditions at AAMI Stadium. It was their 5th win in 6 games. The win moved Adelaide into 4th spot but St Kilda's big win over Essendon the next day dropped Adelaide down to 5th spot and into a very difficult home final vs Collingwood. The 5th spot finish proved costly as the Crows were unable to take advantage of their poor home record vs Collingwood and were defeated in the first week finals by 31 points in front of an extremely disappointing home crowd of just over 37,000 despite perfect conditions.

Adelaide played its first game of the new season on the MCG against Collingwood, a team they had not beaten on this ground in over a decade and which had eliminated them from the 2008 final series. Starting the match with three debutants (Cook, Petrenko and Walker) Adelaide jumped the Pies to lead by 23 points at quarter time. Collingwood fought back in the next two quarters to lead by 18 points near three quarter time, and looked to have the measure of the Crows. But Adelaide, with the aid od some favourable umpiring decisions, finished the stronger, kicking the last three goals of the third quarter - to be level at the last change - and then the first two of the last quarter to come out 4 point winners: 13.12 (90) - 13.8 (86).

Adelaide has three jumper designs which are used in different matches throughout the season.

The traditional "hooped" home guernsey is worn at all matches designated as home games for the club, and generally at all finals. There have been only two finals matches where it hasn't been used - against West Coast at Subiaco Oval in 2005 and Hawthorn at Telstra Dome in 2007. It has had minor variations through its history since debuting with the club in 1991, including adding a white outline to the numbers in 1996, and removing of yellow cuffs and addition of blue strips down the sides (due to manufacturers template design) in 2006.

The away guernsey was originally intended for use in all matches designated as away games, except finals. In recent years with jumper clashes more common, there is the chance that it can be worn in an away final, though the club prefers not to. Its design has changed several times over the years since it was first used in 1999. Its usage has waned over the last couple of years since the introduction of the "clash" jumper, to the point where it was only used twice in 2007 - against the Western Bulldogs in round 2 and Collingwood in round 22. In a few away matches that year, the club also continued to use the traditional "home" jumper. The new 2008 "away" jumper has seen the return of the popular pre-season cup jumper of 1996, with a swooping Crow on the front and slight alteration on the back. This is in an effort to reduce the amount of times the clash jumper is worn, as previous away designs have been too close to the home jumper, therefore not avoiding a clash.

The clash guernsey was first introduced for season 2006 and is radically different to the "home" and "away" designs. It is worn at all away games where the AFL deems there to be a clash with the home team's jumper design. Those clubs officially on the "clash list" include Carlton, Essendon, Fremantle, Melbourne and Richmond. Despite this, the AFL forced the club to wear it against other teams, such as St. Kilda and Hawthorn in 2007, and West Coast in 2008. The decision for it to be worn in the 2007 final against Hawthorn was particularly strange considering Hawthorn didn't have a clash jumper at the time as the AFL deemed they didn't clash with any other team.

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Adelaide Railway Station

Adelaide Railway Station and SKYCITY Adelaide building in 2005. Modern balconies have since been added

Adelaide Railway Station is the central terminus of the Adelaide Metro railway system. It is at 34°55′16″S 138°35′44″E / 34.92111°S 138.59556°E / -34.92111; 138.59556Coordinates: 34°55′16″S 138°35′44″E / 34.92111°S 138.59556°E / -34.92111; 138.59556 on the north side of North Terrace, west of Parliament House. The Adelaide Casino is in part of the building that is no longer required for the station.

All lines approach the station from the west, and is a "dead end" station. Almost all trains on the metropolitan network either depart from or terminate here. It has nine platforms, all with broad gauge track. Until 1984 Adelaide station was the terminus for country and interstate passenger trains, but there are no longer any regular country train services in South Australia and all interstate services are standard gauge and call at Adelaide Parklands Terminal.

Today 40,000 people pass through Adelaide Railway Station each weekday. Half of these travel during the morning and afternoon peak hours. Free tram and bus services depart from North Terrace outside the station providing easy access to other parts of the city centre.

Adelaide’s first railway station opened on the current North Terrace site in 1856. It served the broad gauge line between Adelaide and Port Adelaide, which was the first government-owned and operated steam railway in the British Empire.

The first passenger train departed from Adelaide station on 19 April 1856, carrying the Governor of South Australia and various dignitaries to a celebratory lunch at Port Adelaide. The Port line opened for public service the following Monday, 21 April 1856. It was single track, with intermediate stations at Bowden, Woodville and Alberton and terminated at Port Dock station (now closed). There were six trains per day in each direction, and two on Sundays.

A second line opened to Smithfield, near Gawler, on 1 June 1857, the predecessor of today’s Gawler line. This diverged from the Port line at a junction in the north parklands, and was extended to Kapunda in 1860, and Burra by 1870, both important copper mining towns in the early days of the colony.

The original Adelaide station handled all passenger, freight and livestock traffic at the North Terrace site. Livestock was unloaded adjacent to the markets and abattoirs, which were opposite the Newmarket Hotel, on the corner of West Terrace. In 1865 the station yard covered an area of 55,000 square metres (13 acres).

The next line into the station was built by the Holdfast Bay Railway Company and opened on 24 May 1880. This branched off the "main line" where today’s Belair & Noarlunga lines separate from the Outer Harbor and Gawler lines. It ran via Mile End and Plympton to Glenelg, and should not be confused with the other railway from South Terrace to Glenelg, which later became the Glenelg tramway.

To cope with increasing traffic, interlocked signals and points were installed in 1875, and the Port line was upgraded to double track in 1881.

The South Line through the Adelaide Hills was opened to Aldgate on 14 March 1883, and extended to Nairne (November 1883) and Bordertown (May 1886). The first through train between Adelaide and Melbourne, the Intercolonial Express, ran on 19 January 1887, and was the first intercapital rail journey in Australia without a change of trains at a break-of-gauge station.

With the basic framework of lines in place, the South Australian Railways continued building branch lines to promote settlement and agricultural development of the state’s hinterland. Most of this expansion was complete by the early years of the 20th century and the resulting increase in traffic caused troublesome congestion in the vicinity of Adelaide station. In an attempt to cope with this, the original 1856 station buildings were demolished and replaced in 1900.

The South line was doubled as far as Mitcham in 1908, and suburban trains ran to a new terminus at Clapham. The first section of the route that became the Noarlunga Centre line opened from Goodwood Junction to Marino in 1913. This was extended to Willunga by 1918.

On the north side of the city, a separate pair of tracks was built from the junction of the Port and North lines in the parklands through to Adelaide station yard, including a new bridge across the River Torrens.

Adelaide station yard was re-signalled in July 1915, using American-style three-position semaphore signals. This was the first installation of an electric signalling system in South Australia and was subsequently extended along the main lines of the South Australian Railways.

The period from 1922 onwards was known as the Webb era on South Australian Railways. Under the leadership of a new Railways Commissioner, William A. Webb, South Australian Railways began a massive rehabilitation programme. Worn-out infrastructure, under-powered steam locomotives, undersized rolling stock and outdated operating systems were all modernised and upgraded along essentially American lines.

Among the many improvements that Webb championed, two of the best remembered are the introduction of new powerful steam locomotives and the rebuilding of Adelaide Railway Station.

Nineteen designs were submitted and considered for the new station. The winner was a design proposed by local architects Garlick and Jackman. The foundation stone of the new station building was laid on 24 August 1926, and the building was complete in 1928.

The new station comprised a massive sandstone building in neo-classical style. The upper three storeys housed the railways administration, which had previously been scattered in various buildings around the city. The concourse had many facilities to cater for long distance travellers as well as daily commuters - a dining room, hairdressers, refreshment rooms etc. Of particular note was the enormous domed Marble Hall, which served as a grand and dignified main waiting room, and is now incorporated into the SKYCITY casino.

The new station had 13 platforms, each covered by an individual canopy to alleviate the problems of smoke and fumes previously endured with an overall roof. The initial plan had forward-thinking provisions for extra platforms (which were never built) to serve Commonwealth Railways trains, on the assumption that CR’s standard gauge line would be extended from Port Augusta and Port Pirie into Adelaide.

The cost of the rebuilding greatly exceeded the original budget and the project became a source of great controversy within S.A. as the state came close to bankruptcy with the onset of the Great Depression.

In the decades after World War II, South Australia became home to a great many migrants from the UK and Europe. At the time, most immigrants arrived by ship at Outer Harbor and were transferred to the city by special boat trains. Adelaide’s grand station would have created a memorable first impression on arrival in the city.

Many of these services were operated by airconditioned BlueBird diesel railcars, which had been introduced by the South Australian Railways from 1954 onwards.

In 1978 South Australia’s railway system was divided between two owners. The Commonwealth-government-controlled Australian National Railways (later Australian National, AN) took over ownership and operation of all country lines outside the Adelaide metropolitan area. The State-government-controlled State Transport Authority (STA) retained the suburban routes around Adelaide, including ownership and operation of Adelaide Station.

AN’s remaining longer distance trains continued to arrive and depart from Adelaide station for several years, paying an access charge to the STA, until AN’s new Keswick Passenger Terminal opened on 18 May 1984, a kilometre or two west of the Adelaide CBD in an industrial suburb. Adelaide Station is now served only by suburban trains.

Keswick Terminal was on the broad gauge tracks heading north and south from Adelaide and also the standard gauge line from Crystal Brook to Adelaide, which opened in 1983. This enabled interstate passengers to travel to Broken Hill, Sydney, Kalgoorlie, Perth and Alice Springs without a change of train. The Overland continued to operate from Keswick to Melbourne on the broad gauge until 1995, when that was converted to standard gauge, so now all trains from Keswick are standard gauge. All trains from Adelaide Station are broad gauge.

The track layout in the station yard was modified and resignalled in 1987/88, and operation of points and signals transferred to a new control centre overlooking the railcar depot and station. This resignalling resulted in closure of the two signal cabins that controlled movements in the station area – Adelaide Station Cabin (near Morphett St bridge) and Wye Cabin, at the divergence of the South and Port/North lines. Adelaide Station Cabin was demolished, but the Wye Cabin building is heritage-listed and still stands, although derelict.

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Source : Wikipedia