3.4417731029305 (1331)
Posted by kaori 02/28/2009 @ 01:37

Tags : amman, jordan, middle east, world

News headlines
Ghosts of Amman bring back memories - BBC News
Many reporters stayed at the Marriott hotel in the Jordanian capital Amman on the way in or out of Baghdad, particularly in the run-up to the first Gulf War. When Jeremy Bowen revisited the place recently he realised it was full of ghosts....
In Jordan, Pope Benedict calls on Mideast Christians to persevere - Los Angeles Times
His message at an open air Mass in Amman comes as Christian populations in the region decline amid limited opportunities and hostility. By Jeffrey Fleishman Reporting from Amman, Jordan -- Pope Benedict XVI told about 20000 followers in an open air...
Many hopes accompany Pope - The National
In Jordan, where Pope Benedict began his pilgrimage on May 8, the roads were mostly empty and the Mass at Amman's sports stadium last Sunday was only half full, testament to the large numbers of Christians who are emigrating....
Seeing the pope in Amman, via Roslindale - Boston Globe
As the pope travelled through Jordan over the weekend, a reader e-mailed to call my attention an interesting local angle: the Jesuit Center of Amman is staffed by priests from the Boston area. Today, I finally connected via e-mail with the Rev....
Emirates Offers Low-Cost Air Pass - New York Times
Valid for passengers planning to visit Dubai from outside the Gulf and the Middle East, the pass offers travelers the chance to take additional low-cost flights to destinations like Amman, Bahrain, Beirut, Cairo, Damascus, Dammam, Doha, Kuwait, Muscat,...
Jordan's king calls on Israel to accept two-state solution - Xinhua
AMMAN, May 14 (Xinhua) -- Jordan's King Abdullah II called on Israel on Thursday to immediately announce its commitment to the two-state solution and its acceptance of the Arab Peace Initiative and take necessary steps to end the Israeli-Arab conflict....
Global crisis imposes itself on WEF agenda - Jordan Times
By Mohammad Ghazal AMMAN - Amidst the current global economic downturn and its ramifications on the Middle East, the World Economic Forum (WEF) will open today to address the various aspects of the crisis, along with other long-standing challenges....
How the Tigers were defeated - National Post
Rebel defection The eastern commander of the Tamil Tigers, Colonel Karuna Amman, defected to the government side, along with his rebel fighters. As a result, the entire eastern province of Sri Lanka was quickly captured, allowing the government forces...
Iraq Expects To Award Nassiriyah Contract In June - Oil Min - Wall Street Journal
AMMAN (Dow Jones)--Iraq expects to award the contract to develop the giant Nassiriyah oil field in the southern part of the country to one of three competing international companies in June, Iraq's oil minister said Thursday. "We hope that the contract...
Minister of Water Resources heads technical delegation to Amman - Alsumaria
The Minister of Water Resources Abdul Latif Jamal Rashid headed the technical delegation of the Ministry that participates in the talks taking place in the Jordanian capital Amman regarding implementing and designing dams. The participation bids to...


Flag of Amman

Amman (pronounced ), sometimes spelled Ammann (Arabic عمان ʿAmmān), is the capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a city of 1,525,000 inhabitants (2008 estimate), and the administrative capital and commercial center of Jordan. It is also the largest city in Jordan. It is the capital city of Amman Governorate. It sits atop seven hills, which are represented by the seven pronged star depicted on the Jordanian flag.

During its long history, Amman has been inhabited by several civilizations. The first civilization on record is during the Neolithic period, around 8500 BC, when archaeological discoveries in 'Ain Ghazal, located in eastern Amman, showed evidence of not only a settled life but also the growth of artistic work, which suggests that a well-developed civilization inhabited the city at that time. In the 13th century BC Amman was called Rabbath Ammon or Rabat Amon by the Ammonites (רַבַּת עַמומּוֹן, Standard Hebrew Rabbat ʿAmmon, Tiberian Hebrew Rabbaṯ ʿAmmôn). It was later conquered by the Assyrians, followed by the Persians, and then the Greeks. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the Hellenic ruler of Egypt, renamed it Philadelphia. The city became part of the Nabataean kingdom until 106 AD when Philadelphia came under Roman control and joined the Decapolis.

In 326 AD, Christianity became the religion of the empire and Philadelphia became the seat of a bishopric during the beginning of the Byzantine era. One of the churches of this period can be seen on the city's Citadel.

Philadelphia was renamed Amman during the Ghassanian era, and flourished under the Caliphates (with nearby capital) of the Umayyads (in Damascus) and the Abbasids (in Baghdad). It was then destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters and remained a small village and a pile of ruins until the Circassians settlement in 1887. The tide changed when the Ottoman Sultan decided to build the Hejaz railway, linking Damascus and Medina, facilitating both the annual hajj pilgrimage and permanent trade, putting Amman, a major station, back on the commercial map.

In 1921, Abdullah I chose Amman as seat of government for his newly-created state, the Emirate of Transjordan, and later as the capital of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. As there was no palatial building, he started his reign from the station, with his office in a train car. Amman remained a small city until 1948, when the population expanded considerably due to an influx of Palestinian refugees from what is now Israel. Amman has experienced exceptionally rapid development since 1952 under the leadership of two Hashemite Kings, Hussein of Jordan and Abdullah II of Jordan.

In 1970, Amman was the site of major clashes between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Jordanian army. Everything around the Royal Palace sustained heavy damage from shelling. Most of Amman suffered great damage from PLO rockets and the Jordanian army's shells.

The city's population continues to expand at a dizzying pace (fueled by refugees escaping the wartime events in the Disputed Territories and Iraq). The city received refugees from these countries on a number of occasions. The first wave of Palestinian refugees arrived from Israel in 1948. A second wave after the Six-Day War in 1967. A third wave of Palestinian and Jordanian and Southeast Asians, working as domestic workers, refugees arrived in Amman from Kuwait after the Gulf War of 1991. The first wave of Iraqi refugees settled in the city after the first Gulf War, with a second wave also arriving after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. During the last 10 years the number of new buildings within the city has increased dramatically with new districts of the city being founded at a very rapid pace (particularly so in West Amman), straining the very scarce water supplies of Jordan as a whole, and exposing Amman to the hazards of rapid expansion in the absence of careful municipal planning.

On November 9, 2005, coordinated explosions rocked three hotels in Amman, resulting in the death of 60 people and the injury of 115 others. Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility responsibility for the act, which was carried out despite the fact that the birthplace of since-killed Al Qaeda terrorist leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, is the town of Zarqa, less than 30 km (19 mi) from Amman. The sheer brutality of the attacks, which targeted, amongst other things, a wedding party being held at one of the hotels, caused widespread revulsion across the widest range of Jordanians. Large protests and vigils followed in the wake of the attacks.

Amman is located in a hilly area of north-western Jordan, and is at an elevation of 1029 meters above sea level(highest point)to 773 meters above sea level(lowest point). The city was originally built on seven hills, but it now spans an area of over nineteen hills (each known as a jabal or "mountain"). Many of Amman's districts derive their names from the name of the mountain they are built on.

Because of the cooling effects of its location on a plateau, Amman enjoys a Mediterranean climate and four seasons of excellent weather as compared to other places in the region. Summer temperatures range from 28 °C (82 °F) - 30 °C (86 °F), but with very low humidity and frequent breezes. Spring and fall temperatures are extremely pleasant and mild. The winter sees nighttime temperatures frequently near −5 °C (23.0 °F), and snow is known in Amman, as a matter of fact it usually snows a couple of times per year. The yearly average number of days with rain is 15-95 and with snow it is 3-15. It typically will not rain heavily from June to the beginning of September but light rain will be pesent at that time of the year. But lately it is starting to snow in April and the beginning of May. In fact about half the quantity of rain Amman and Jordan received in 2006 fell in April,and recentley snow sometimes fall in April, and that is very unusual for that time of year.

The city's largest airport, Queen Alia International Airport, situated about 30 minutes south of Amman, is the major international airport for Jordan and the hub for Royal Jordanian, the flag carrier. The airport has three terminals, two passenger and one cargo, and in 2007 handled between 4 to 5 million passengers. The airport is undergoing expansion, including a new terminal costing $600M, that will allow the airport to handle over 9 million passengers. A new rail line being constructed will connect Queen Alia International with Raghadan, Mahatta, and Zarqa. Taxis and buses serve the airport 24/7.

Marka International Airport is a one-terminal airport that serves primarily domestic and nearby international routes and the military.

The recently constructed Abdoun Bridge spans Wadi Abdoun, and connects the 4th Circle to Abdoun Circle. It is considered one of Amman's many landmarks,it is the first suspended bridge made,that has a curve.

The Hejaz railway, built in the early 20th century, was used primarily for pilgrims to reach the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, but now the rail line is basically used by tourists. There are new projects that are being built to add more railines in the Kingdom, most of which will go through Amman.

Amman has a extensive highway system that links every part of the city to one another. Its highways also link nearby cities such as Zarqa and Madaba. The Amman-Zarqa highway becomes very congested with commuters at rush hour which is why a new commuter rail line is being constructed. Amman also has an extensive bus system. There are pedestrian tunnels that bring pedestrians from one side of a highway to another.

There are eight circles, or roundabouts, that span and connect West Amman. However, the city lacks an operable rail or metro system which causes severe congestion, especially in old Amman, where its narrow streets cannot handle many people. To add to the congestion, all the Kingdom's highways pass through Amman, further increasing traffic in the capital.

By land, the city has frequent bus connections to other cities in Jordan, as well as to major cities in neighboring countries; the latter are also served by service taxis. Internal transport is served by a number of bus routes and taxis. Service taxis, which most often operate on fixed routes, are readily available and inexpensive. The two main bus and taxi stations are Abdali (near the King Abdullah Mosque, the Parliament and Palace of Justice) and the newly built Raghadan Central Bus Station (near the Roman Amphitheater in downtown). The city can suffer from considerable traffic congestion at peak hours, especially during summer months when affluent vacationers from the Gulf region summer in Amman to take advantage of its relatively mild weather.

Amman is a regional hub in communications, transportation, medical tourism, education, and investment. Amman is aggressively positioning itself as a hub for business, and new projects are continually transforming the city's skyline. Following the 2003 Iraq War, all business dealings with Iraq flow through Amman in some way. Its airport, Queen Alia International Airport, is the hub of the national carrier, Royal Jordanian, which is a major airline in the region. Amman is a major tourist gateway in the country because most of the country's foreign tourists arrive in Jordan through Amman. Amman is currently experiencing rapid growth in many different areas, with large growth seen in the real estate, construction, banking, finance and business sectors. Numerous skyscrapers are under construction as the city municipality recently lifted the ban of buildings taller than 4 stories and allocated designated areas for high rises. All major highways of Jordan cross in Amman making the capital busy with freight trucks, buses and cars passing through the city.

Amman has both a modern and historic touch. East Amman is the older part of the capital where single family dwellings on the hill side and small shops and bazaars in the wadis, or valleys, dominate East Amman's layout. Old Amman is filled with souks, or bazaars, small shops, and single family dwellings all.

Several industrial cities are being developed near Amman, most important being Al-Mushatta, poised at turning this once sleepy village into a global economic powerhouse.

West Amman, however, is less densely populated and more scenic. It is also the more prosperous part of Amman, with much of the city's economic activity being centered in West Amman. Parks and wide boulevards with towering apartments and office buildings dominate the scenery. Most of the city's 5-star and 4-star hotels are located in West Amman. Important districts include Shmeisani and Abdali, the main economic centers of Amman, Abdoun, the up-scale residential district, and Jabal Amman, one of Amman's historic districts. A large contrast exists between the more affluent districts of West Amman and the more middle and working class districts of East Amman.

Amman has a very large expatriate population because of its reputation as a haven for refugees seeking political asylum. Iraqis, Palestinians, Lebanese, Armenians, Circassions, and Chechens are among the many different expatriate populations currently residing in Amman. Egyptians, Syrians, and South East Asians also reside in vast numbers that work as domestic or civil servants. Many Westerners currently reside in Amman as many international organizations and diplomatic missions have regional offices in Amman.

These projects, along with the boom in the Jordanian real estate market and the construction of numerous other projects, are resulting in a huge boom in terms of development, both in the city of Amman and in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan as a whole.

Prices have skyrocketed in the past 5 years. Amman was ranked by the Economic Intelligence Organization to be the most expensive city in the Arab World, even ahead of places like Dubai and Beirut. Real estate has skyrocketed due to a number of Wealthy Iraqis resettling in Amman.{Cn} Real estate continues to be the dominating investment sector in Amman.

East Amman is the historic city center. Eastern Amman is more traditional and older than the newer West. Small shops and single family houses are dominant in East Amman's landscape. East Amman is the hub for the capital's historic sites and cultural activities. East Amman has a strong and character however its inhabitants are very tolerant of foreigners.

West Amman is the very modern, stylish extension of Amman. Malls, shopping centers, expensive hotels, nightclubs, bars, and international restaurants mark West Amman as one of the most liberal and modern cities in the region competing with places like Beirut and Dubai. Elegant tree lined boulevards with villas and expensive apartment and office buildings dominate the city's character. Massive new high rise projects are transforming the capital into a regional business hub.

Amman is one of the most liberal cities in the Middle East. Amman is also one of the more westernized cities in the region ahead of places like Cairo or Damascus. Its culture and arts scene is thriving. Its freedom of worship is a long standing tradition of Jordan. The Jordanian media is also one of the most unrestricted in the region. Jordan has no laws forcing women or men to dress in a particular way. Women are not required to wear the veil. However, Appropriate attire is expected around places of worship of both the Islamic and Christian faiths. Amman is home to many diverse religious sects making up the two primary religions of Jordan, Islam and Christianity. Numerous mosques and churches dot the capital. The most famous mosque of Amman is the King Abduallah I Mosque which can house almost 3,000 people. Most of the people in Jordan are Muslims, 85% and 15% Christians.

Numerous cultural centers can be found throughout Amman, most notably the Al Hussein Cultural Center which contains over 30,000 books and plans to double that number, 30 computer sets, an electronic library and specialized libraries. Numerous IT and library centers can be found throughout the city.

The Al al-Bayt Institute Building located in the Al Hussein Public Parks points to the importance that the Hashemites give to the role of the Institute in Islamic life. Moreover, it is in line with the vision expressed by the Late King Hussein as far as the enrichment of man’s life with all sorts of knowledge. Care was taken to emphasize the Islamic character of the project: internally, the theme is unity of elements, leading to an inner courtyard; the use of cellars, arches in roofing, and proportionality, breakage of continuity of entrances as an element of creating anticipation, in addition to the use of wood and metal in overlapping fashion whereby, in the end, a distinctly Islamic style is reflected. Externally, a viewer looking at the external façade will note the extensive use of arches and Islamic oriels which give the building a reflection from the inside out, as well as a particularity that differs from the urban texture, not only as a religious or cultural function but as a school of all Islamic architectural elements.

The Cultural Village in the Al Hussein Public parks aims at introducing our heritage and Jordanian culture to visitor through a set of handicrafts created by a group of professional artisans and innovative institutions. The project consists of a main square surrounded by shops and galleries. On the eastern side of the village there is a coffee shop and two restaurants with a view overlooking the city.

There are numerous museums in Amman including the Royal Automobile Museum, the Jordan Archaeological Museum, Jordan Museum of Popular Tradition, the Jordan Folklore Museum, Souk jara, and the Jordan National Gallery of Fine Arts.

The Automobile Museum houses and exhibits the Late King’s collection of automobiles. The design of the building comes across as a mass merging into the surrounding environment and blends with it through the artificial planted hills which rise beyond the building’s walls.

The Jordan Archaeological Museum is located at the Citadel and houses it houses archaeological treasures from across the country like pottery, jewellery, ancient tools, etc. It also houses The Dead Sea bronze scrolls and plaster statues from Ain Ghazal, one of the world's oldest settlements.

The Jordan National Gallery of Fine Arts exhibits Jordanian art as well as art from across the region and the world. The museum in Jabal Lubweideh houses art even from Europe and America as well.

Many Jordanian newspapers and news stations are situated in Amman. Amman is also a popular entry point for journalists entering the region to broadcast breaking news from volatile nations like Iraq and the Palestinian territories.

The Jordan Media City, established in 2001, is the first of its kind in the region and plans to make Jordan the regional hub of communications. It now transmits over 120 channels and still grows. Most channels are not Jordanian based, and the government still possess restrictions on Jordanian based channels which makes it hard to open new Jordanian TV channels. Although not as popular as Beirut or Cairo, many Jordanian singers work out of Amman.

Amman has a very high percentege of tourist visiting the city. Much of Amman's tourism is focused in the older downtown area, which is centered around the old souk (a colorful traditional market) and the King Hussein Mosque. The downtown area (known locally as the Balad) has been completely dwarfed by the sprawling urban areas that surround it. Despite the changes, much remains of its old character. For those seeking the atmosphere of the Old City, it is best to venture to the district east of Jabal Amman. There, in the bustle of daily life, you can explore the capital's greatest souks, fine museums, ancient constructions, monuments, and cultural sites.

The Citadel hill of Amman, known as Jabal el Qala, has been inhabited for centuries, important as a military and religious site. It dates back to Roman and Byzantine times, and later work was carried out in the early Islamic era. Remains unearthed at the northern and eastern ends of the Citadel, possibly date back to the Bronze Age. The Citadel also is home to the Temple of Hercules which is said to have been constructed under the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius who reigned from 161-180 AD, is similar to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus.

Since Amman resembles Rome, as it is situated on seven hills, the city was a favorite place for Roman soldiers and officials. Behind the Roman forum stands a Roman theatre — the largest theatre in Jordan — with room for 6,000 spectators. Thought to have been built between 138 and 161 AD by the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, it is constructed into the side of the mountain and is still used for sports displays and cultural events.

Amman is also home to some of the grandest mosques in the Middle East, although they compare less favorably to the ones to be found in Istanbul, Turkey. The newest of these is the enormous King Abdullah I Mosque, built between 1982 and 1989. It is capped by a magnificent blue mosaic dome beneath which 3,000 Muslims may offer prayer. The most unusual mosque in Amman is the Abu Darweesh Mosque atop Jabal Ashrafieh (the highest point in the city). It is covered with an extraordinary black and white checkered pattern and is unique to Jordan. It is striking and visible from quite some distance. In contrast, the interior is totally free of the black and white scheme. Instead, there are light colored walls and Persian carpets. This religious building was erected by one of Amman's Circassian immigrants.

Amman is also home to many jewelers and souvenir shops for citizens and tourists alike. Most of Amman is well paved and nicely renovated. A new phase in Eastern Amman, the oldest part of the city, will repaint and renovate broken down building and build kiosks and street maps all over to the city to make touring Amman much easier for tourists. Amman is also a major destination for foreign students seeking study in Arabic. Amman's world-class hospitals are frequent destinations for those who seek medical treatment.

There are numerous nightclubs and bars across the city especially in West Amman.

A new construction phase in Abdali will transform downtown Amman into a more desirable place for investment. The new development is mostly for business purposes and the rest are residential hi-rises and shopping centers. Office buildings and a new boulevard containing easy access to malls, restaurants, hotels, and residential buildings. This $1.5 billion construction plan should be completed by 2010.

Unfortunately, a lone deranged gunman attacked Western tourists during a guided trip to the downtown Roman theatre in September 2006, shooting five of them, one fatally. The man was immediately apprehended, and claimed to have acted in response to the fighting between Israel and Lebanon during the prior months. Despite this attack, tourism in Amman continues on a daily basis, and the city's tourist locations are generally well-policed. Given Jordan's location in a region that sees frequent conflict and violence, by statistics and by general mood, Amman remains a safe and interesting place to visit. For example, despite this killing, there is little or no violent or petty crime in Amman, especially against visitors, who uniformly report feeling safe at all hours in practically all locations in the city.

Shopping is continually becoming more popular in Jordanian culture and is very notable in the past five years, with huge mega malls across Amman popping up such as Mecca Mall, Abdoun Mall, Amman Mall, City Mall, Plaza Mall, and Al Baraka Mall. Amman's retail sector is booming as the city is becoming a hub for Western travelers in the Levant.

Wakalat Street is Amman's first pedestrian-only street. It is one Amman's most vibrant and popular shopping districts.

Amman's newest shopping malls carry label names, which help attract tourists.

An overview of East Amman.

Snow in Amman.

To the top

Abdoun (Amman)

Abdoun is located in Jordan

Abdoun is a residential area of Amman, Jordan. Abdoun is considered by many to be the most affluent district of the city, and is located towards the south of the city. Some of Jordan's most expensive real estate is located in the district.

Abdoun is one of Amman's centres for nightlife. There are several mostly high-end nightclubs located in Abdoun which are frequented by both local residents of Amman and tourists alike. Abdoun Circle is surrounded by numerous restaurants, cafes and stalls, and is a popular spot among Amman's youth. Abdoun Mall, the first mall to open in Amman at the time of its opening, is also located in the district.

Abdoun is neighbored by the districts of Deir Ghbar, Swefieh, Ras Al Ain, and Jabal Amman. The Abdoun Bridge connects the 4th Circle in Jabal Amman to the Abdoun Circle, and a highway continues through Abdoun and into South Amman.

To the top

Amman Stock Exchange


Amman Stock Exchange (or ASE for short) is a stock exchange private institution in Jordan. It is named "Amman", after the country's capital city, Amman.

The ASE was established in March 1999 as a non-profit, private institution with administrative and financial autonomy. It is authorized to function as an exchange for the trading of securities. The exchange is governed by a seven-member board of directors. A chief executive officer oversees day-to-day responsibilities and reports to the board. The ASE membership is comprised of Jordan's 65 brokerage firms.

The ASE operates a bond market and an equities market. The equities market is divided into a First Market and a Second Market. The exchange has pre-trading sessions from 09:30am to 10:00am, normal trading sessions from 10:00am to 12.00noon and 12.00noon to 12.30pm on all days of the week except Saturdays, Sundays and holidays declared by the Exchange in advance. The ASE's stock indices include the ASE Unweighted Index and the ASE Market Capitalization Weighted Index.

To the top

Amman Governorate

Amman Governorate

Officially known as Muhafazat al-Asima (Arabic محافظة العاصمة, English translation: The Capital Governorate), Amman Governorate is one of the governorates - locally known as muhafazat - in Jordan. This governorate's capital is the City of Amman, which is Jordan's capital as well.

To the top

2005 Amman bombings

Amman location.png

The 2005 Amman bombings were a series of coordinated bomb attacks on three hotels in Amman, Jordan, on November 9, 2005. The attacks killed 60 people and injured 115 others. The explosions—at the Grand Hyatt Hotel, the Radisson SAS Hotel, and the Days Inn—started at around 20:50 local time (18:50 UTC) at the Grand Hyatt. The three hotels are often frequented by foreign diplomats. The bomb at the Radisson SAS exploded in the Philadelphia Ballroom, where a wedding hosting hundreds of guests was taking place.

At the Radisson SAS Hotel, two suicide bombers (a husband and wife team—Ali Hussein Ali al-Shamari and Sajida Mubarak Atrous al-Rishawi)—entered the Philadelphia Ballroom, where Ashraf Akhras and his bride, Nadia Al-Alami, were celebrating their wedding with around 900 Jordanian and Palestinian guests. Sajida al-Rishawi was unable to detonate her belt. Her husband Ali al-Shamari, apparently admonished her and told her to get out of the room. As she was leaving, the lights went out in the ballroom, Ali jumped onto a dining-room table and detonated himself. Amongst the 38 people killed in the explosion were the fathers of the bride and groom. In addition, the explosion destroyed the ballroom, blew out the large windows bordering the street, and knocked down ceiling panels. The hotel lobby was also affected: ceiling panels and light fixtures collapsed, furniture was destroyed, and the hotel's glass doors were shattered. Cleanup and rebuilding commenced shortly afterwards.

The second blast happened about 500 yards (500 m) from the Radisson SAS. It destroyed the hotel's entrance and brought down pillars and ceiling tiles, along with badly damaging the reception and bar areas. After the bomber ordered orange juice in the hotel's coffee shop, he went to another room (possibly to get his explosive belt) and then came back and detonated his bomb. Seven hotel employees were killed in this blast, as were Syrian-American movie producer Moustapha Akkad and his daughter, Rima. Akkad, who is best known for producing the Halloween series of slasher films, was also the producer of Mohammad, Messenger of God. At the time of his death, he was in the early stages of producing a film about Saladin, the Kurdish Muslim leader who expelled the Crusaders from Palestine. Hyatt began cleanup shortly after the attacks and reopened their hotel on November 19.

At the Days Inn the bomber entered the restaurant on the hotel's ground floor. He tried to detonate his explosive belt but had trouble; a waiter noticed this and called security. The bomber ran outside of the hotel and successfully detonated himself, killing three members of a Chinese military delegation. Property damage at the Days Inn is expected to amount to around $200,000, according to Khaled Abu Ghoush, general manager of the property. He said lost revenue due to the disrupted business is expected to total around $50,000 and be covered by insurance.

According to one Jordanian official, Maj. Bashir al-Da'aja, early in the investigation, local authorities confirmed a series of coordinated suicide attacks as the cause of the blasts. Jordanian Deputy Prime Minister Marwan al-Muasher initially announced that at least 67 people have died and 300 people have been injured. However, the Jordanian government subsequently revised the number of casualties down to at least 59 dead and 115 injured. The adjustment in figures was not explained.

Among the dead were thirty-six Jordanians, mostly from a Muslim wedding. The rest were six Iraqis, five Palestinians, four Americans, two Arab-Israelis, two Bahrainis, three Chinese delegates of the People's Liberation Army (PLA), one Saudi, and one Indonesian citizen. The Palestinian fatalities included Major-General Bashir Nafeh, the head of military intelligence in the West Bank, Colonel Abed Allun, a high-ranking Preventive Security forces official, Jihad Fatouh, the commercial attache at the Palestinian Embassy in Cairo, and Mosab Khorma, a senior Palestinian-American banker and former Paltel CEO. Both of the Israeli fatalities were Arabs. One was Husam Fathi Mahajna, a businessman from Umm al-Fahm, the other was an unidentified resident of East Jerusalem. Syrian-American film producer Moustapha Akkad, who was in the Grand Hyatt lobby, was severely wounded and died in hospital on November 11. His 34-year-old daughter Rima was also killed in the blast.

There were rumors that several Israeli citizens were evacuated prior to the blast, although two Arab-Israelis were fatally injured in the explosions. Such rumors are not uncommon in such situations, as Israeli conspiracy theories are very prevalent in Arab countries.

Jordanian police initially stated that there were at least four attackers (the fourth, a female, was later captured), including a couple, who spoke Iraqi-accented Arabic. A number of Iraqis were among the more than 100 suspects who were arrested in the following days. Police claimed to have found maps that were used in planning the attack. On November 12, Deputy Prime Minister Marwan Muasher Jordan confirms the attackers were Iraqi and had entered the country three days before the attacks, and there were only three attackers.

On November 13, King Abdullah announced the arrest of a woman believed to be a fourth would-be suicide bomber, whose explosive belt failed to detonate. The three dead suicide bombers have been identified , and their names were announced by Deputy Prime Minister Muasher. They were Ali Hussein Ali al-Shamari (SAS Radisson), Rawad Jassem Mohammed Abed (Grand Hyatt), and Safaa Mohammed Ali (Days Inn). The woman in custody has been identified as Sajida Mubarak Atrous al-Rishawi. She was married to al-Shamari and intended to blow herself up at the Radisson. Muasher also said that she was the sister of a close aide of al-Zarqawi.

An Internet statement released the day after claimed that the bombers were: Abu Khabib, Abu Muaz, Abu Omaira and Om Omaira, all Iraqis. Members of the Jordanian government had already begun blaming the attacks on the Islamic terrorist group. Two U.S. intelligence officials agreed, describing the style of the attacks as bearing the trademark of al-Zarqawi, who has, in the past, discussed the possibility of launching attacks outside of Iraq. Of late, there have been concerns that terrorist attacks may occur in Jordan, due in part to its close proximity to Iraq, but also due to its government's cooperation in the United States' War on Terrorism.

Notably, the Radisson hotel was previously an Islamist target during the 2000 millennium attack plots. Jordanian police foiled the original attempt after arresting Khadr Abu Hoshar, a Palestinian militant, along with 15 others on December 12, 1999. All three of the hotels are frequented by American, Israeli, and European military contractors, journalists, business people, and diplomats, and the city itself has long been described as a "gate way" for westerners into Baghdad and Iraq at large, leading many to entertain the possibility of a connection between the Amman bombings and the war in Iraq.

In American shorthand date notation, the month number is followed by the day number, i.e. 9/11 corresponds to September 11. However, elsewhere in the world, the month number follows the day number, thus, November 9 would be notated in most nations, including Jordan, as 9/11. It has been speculated that this may constitute a parallel between the two dates (and thus to the September 11, 2001 attacks).

Jordanians reacted to the bombings with outrage. Hundreds of people in Amman participated in protests against the bombings, chanting "burn in hell, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi". King Abdullah and Queen Rania visited several victims of the bombings in hospital. The King said "The pain you felt for the loss of your beloved ones, who were killed for no crime they committed, was shared by all Jordanians, regardless of their origins or religions." A relative of one of the victims presented a copy of the Koran to the King during his visit to the hospital.

To the top

Source : Wikipedia