Andhra Pradesh

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Posted by pompos 02/28/2009 @ 18:40

Tags : andhra pradesh, india, asia, world

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Cong storms back to power in Andhra Pradesh - Hindu
The Congress victory is comprehensive and spread all over the state, including in Telangana where it was expected to fare badly in the wake of its failure to carve out a separate state out of Andhra Pradesh. The Congress did well in coastal districts...
Andhra Pradesh Lok Sabha Election Results - Express Buzz
The General Elections to fill the 545 seats in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is the largest such democratic exercise undertaken anywhere in the world. Nearly half a billion votes were cast in thousands of polling stations...
TN, Andhra to provide 65 seats to UPA - Business Standard
While ruling Congress in Andhra Pradesh won 32 out of the total 42 seats in the state, DMK-Congress combine emerged victorious in 28 out of the 39 seats in neighbouring Tamil Nadu. Congress also wrested the lone seat in Puducherry from PMK with Union...
Jai Ho...It`s UPA all the way - India
Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh have emerged as the turnaround states for the Congress, where the UPA has done remarkably better than expected. The Congress meanwhile is also likely to secure a clear majority in the Andhra Pradesh assembly...
Chiranjeevi's glamour fails to impress voters - Economic Times
HYDERABAD: The glamour quotient of Telugu superstar K. Chiranjeevi failed to garner votes as his Praja Rajyam Party (PRP) appeared to be heading for a crushing defeat in the Andhra Pradesh assembly elections. Despite a high-pitch campaign and tall...
Andhra Pradesh could swing it for UPA: Exit polls - Times of India
( Watch ) Congress seems to have bolstered its prospects, according to exit polls, by staving off a mauling in Andhra Pradesh with projections in the range of 22 to 29 seats of the 42 in the state. If this prediction turns out to be correct,...
Results below expectations: Chandrababu Naidu - Times of India
HYDERABAD: After its poor showing in the Lok Sabha and Andhra Pradesh assembly polls, Telugu Desam Party (TDP) president N. Chandrababu Naidu on Saturday said that his party would analyze the election results. The TDP-led four-party Grand Alliance...
State Election Counting: Andhra Pradesh goes to Congress, Orissa ... - Mera Bilaspur
Today has been the counting day for 3 states where the State Elections were held simultaneously with the General Elections - Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Sikkim. The state unit of Congress party in Andhra Pradesh has fared well....
An election of upsets - Livemint
Uttar Pradesh, everyone said, was going to provide Mayawati the route to New Delhi. Andhra Pradesh, everyone said, was too close to call. The upsets on an unprecedented scale define the huge wave that was seen in favour of the UPA. In Andhra Pradesh...
Congress Working Committee to meet today - Hindu
New Delhi (IANS): Fresh from its electoral win, the Congress Working Committee meets here on Sunday evening to evaluate its performance in the Lok Sabha polls and the assembly elections in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Sikkim. "The working committee would...

Nizamabad, Andhra Pradesh

Map of Andhra Pradesh with Nizamabad marked

Coordinates: 18°40′19″N 78°05′38″E / 18.672°N 78.094°E / 18.672; 78.094 Nizamabad pronunciation (help·info) is a city and a municipal corporation in Nizamabad District in the Telangana region of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the headquarters of the district. It has a population of 366,956 agglomeration (390,325 per 2006 census). Nizamabad is 10th Biggest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh.Nizamabad is one of 36 mandals in the Nizamabad district.

Nizamabad was formerly known as Indur and Indrapuri. It was ruled by the king Indra Vallabha Panthya Varsha Indra Som, of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty, in the 8th century, and took its name from him. In 1905 the railway line between Secundrabad and Manmad was constructed. The railway station was named after then ruler of the Nizam state Nizam-ul-Mulk as Nizamabad. The railway line connects Hyderabad and Mumbai. It is like North-South corridor. Has the distance of 161 km (100 mi) from Hyderabad and 640 km (400 mi) from Mumbai.

The Nizam Sagar dam was constructed in the year 1923 across the Manjira River at the village of Achampet. It irrigates 250,000 acres (1,000 km2; 390 sq mi) of land in Nizamabad district.

Nizamabad is in the north of Andhra Pradesh in the district of Nizamabad. It has different towns like Bodhan, Armur, Kamareddy and Banswada, In Bhodan town there is Nizam Sugar Factory. In early years it was the biggest in the Asia continent. Bodhan is a town with a mixture of people from many cultural and religious backgrounds. There is a largely visible community of Muslims as well as Christians and other religious communities. Once it was the capital of Nizamabad at the time of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty.

Recently Telangana University was established at Nizamabad, which serves the three districts of Adilabad, Medak and Nizamabad.

As of 2001 India census, Nizamabad had a population of 286,956. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Nizamabad has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 71%, and female literacy is 55%. In Nizamabad, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.

The nearest airports are at Hyderabad 162 km (101 mi) and Warangal 230 km (140 mi). Nizamabad is connected by rail to Hyderabad and Mumbai section, station code NZB.

Nizamabad is well connected by road ways and has volvo service to Hyderabad and Mumbai. Bus service is one of the important methods of transportation in Nizamabad. Nizamabad is near the National Highway No. 7, which goes from Kanyakumari in the south to Varanasi in north India, and the new North South Corridor of NHDP. National Highway No. 16 starts from Nizamabad and passes through Karimnagar to Jagadalpur in the state of Chhattisgarh.

NIZAMABAD (Station Code : NZB) is a station located on the Kachiguda-Manmad section of Hyderabad(HYB) Division of South Central Railway(SCR). Nizamabad has rail connectivity with Manmad, Aurangabad, Nanded, Parbhani, Parli Vaijnath, latur, Osmanabad, Gangakhed, Mudkhed, Adilabad, Nagpur, Basar, Nizamabad, Nasik, Mumbai, Pune, Daund, Mahbubnagar, Kurnool, Kadapa, Renigunta, Tirupati, Katpadi, Erode, Madurai and Kachiguda(HYB). Ajanta Express between Kachiguda and Manmad is the most prestigious train passing through this station. Earlier there used to ply Ellora Express exclusively between Manmad and Nizamabad. This train has been cancelled during Gauge Conversion Process.

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Cinema of Andhra Pradesh

A Cineplex at Guntur.

Cinema of Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: తెలుగు సినీపరిశ్రమ), refers to the Telugu language film industry in India.

The industry is the second largest in Indian cinema in terms of number of movies made in a year and second largest in terms of infrastructure. The state of Andhra Pradesh has the highest number of cinema halls in India. The IMAX theater in Hyderabad has a few world records to its credit. The industry has earned several Guinness records, including nods for the most films directed by male and female directors, the most films produced by a person and for having the largest film studio in the world. In addition, actor Brahmanandam recently got a Guinness Record for acting in the highest number of films (750) in a single language, and was awarded the prestigious Padma Shree for his contribution to cinema..

The Telugu cinema industry is based in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. The Telugu film industry produces the largest number of films every year in India, with about 245 films produced in 2006. Popular movies tend to open during the three festive/holiday seasons of the region: Sankranthi, Ugadi, and Dussera. In 2004, total revenue for the Sankranthi season was around Rs. 1.5 billion (US$37 million, as of July 17, 2007). There are number of TV channels (Teja TV etc.,) dedicated exclusively to feature programs related to Telugu movies.

Currently, about 150 Telugu films are released every year with approximately 3 productions every week. Just like any other cinema industry, the Telugu film industry produces all genres of cinema. In 2005, the annual turnover reached Rs. 2.3 Billion ($52 Million), with Rs. 700 million coming from the ticket sales itself with the highest earnings in India. Popular movies tend to open during the three festive/holiday seasons of the region: Sankranti, Summer, and Dusshera. In 2004, the industry made around Rs. 1.5 Billion (150 Crores) during the Sankranthi season. There are at least three TV channels that are dedicated exclusively to feature programs related to Telugu movies.

The Telugu film industry accounts for 1% of the gross domestic product of Andhra Pradesh.. There is a fair amount of dispersion amongst the Indian film industries. Many successful Telugu films have been remade by the Hindi and Tamil film industries. Tollywood has also remade a fair number of Hindi, Tamil, malayalam and other language films. Nowadays most Telugu films are subsequently dubbed into Malayalam on release. In the last 2 years, about 30 Telugu films were simultaneously released in Malayalam.Many Telugu movies are remade or dubbed into tamil or hindi as well. Below is a chart of box office collections of Telugu Film Industry with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

The Telugu film industry accounts for 1% of the gross domestic product of Andhra Pradesh.

The state of Andhra Pradesh has more than 3700 Cinema theatres, of which 200 are in the city of Hyderabad alone.

The Telugu film industry originated with the silent film in 1921, with the production of Bhisma Pratighna. The film was directed by Raghupati Venkaiah and his son R.S. Prakash. The two would go on to produce and direct dozens of films throughout the decade, casting theater actors in major roles. They established a long-lasting precedent of focusing exclusively on religious themes; Nandanar, Gajendra Moksham, and Matsyavatar, three of their most famous productions, centered on religious figures, parables, and morals.

In 1931, the first Telugu film with audible dialogue, Bhakta Prahlad, was produced by H.M. Reddy. Popularly known as 'talkies', films with sound quickly grew in number and fanbase. In 1934, the industry saw its first major commercial success with Lavakusa. Directed by C. Pullaiah and starring Parupalli Subbarao and Sriranjani in lead roles, the film attracted unprecedented numbers of viewers to theaters and thrust the young film industry into mainstream culture.

Though it is celebration time for talkies, can we forget the efforts of pioneers like Dhundiraj Govind Phalke better known as Dadasaheb Phalke who made India's first silent film Raja Harischandra (1913) and R. G. Torney or our own Raghupathi Venkaiah, his son R.S. Prakash and C. Pulliah who made cinema popular during the silent era taking film rolls and projectors exhibiting films in nook and corner of the South? Raghupathi Venkaiah hailed as father of Telugu cinema is the first exhibitor in the South. He bought crono-megaphone, the first projector equipped to reproduce `sound' by disk system and exhibited short reels way back in 1910. He travelled all over the South and in Burma and Ceylon. Venkaiah established Star of East studios known as glass studio to produce silent films.

The success of Alam Ara made Irani to diversify into regional language productions in Telugu and Tamil the same year. It was Ardeshir Irani's associate Hanumantha Muniappa Reddy who directed Bhakta Prahalada and was released six weeks ahead of the first Tamil Talkie, Kalidas that Reddy himself directed with a mixed cast of Telugu, Tamil and Hindi actors. Bhakta Prahlada had an all-Telugu starcast featuring Munipalle Subbiah as Hiranyakasipa and Surabhi Kamalabai as Leelavathy. Both the films were made in Bombay. By 1936, the mass appeal of film allowed directors to move away from religious and mythological themes. That year, under the direction of Krithiventi Nageswara Rao, Prema Vijayam, a film focusing on social issues, was released. Its success prompted the production of dozens of other immensely successful 'social films', notably 1939's Vandemataram and Maala Pilla. Touching on societal problems like the status of Untouchables and the practice of giving dowry, Telugu films increasingly focused on contemporary living: twenty-nine of the ninety-six films released between 1937 and 1947 had social themes.

September 15, 1931 saw the release of the first Telugu talkie Bhakta Prahalada in Crown in Kakinada, Maruthi in Vijayawada, Gaiety in Madras and Minerva in Machlipatnam. Just a few months earlier, on March 14, 1931, the first Indian talkie film, Alam Ara was released at Majestic Cinema, Bombay and in other parts of the country including Maruthi Talkies, Vijayawada. People thronged the cinema halls where it was exhibited. With its box office success the country's first black marketeering in cinema tickets began with a four anna (a quarter of a rupee) ticket getting sold for Rs. 4 or 5!

Another doyen, C. Pullaiah after gaining experience in the cinematic art, purchased a second hand movie camera in 1924 in Bombay returned to native Kakinada with an intention to make films in Andhra soil. He shot a thousand feet silent film, Markandeya, with himself cast as Yama and made the film with so many indigenous methods and projected the film on a white washed wall in his house to the amazement of his friends through the very same camera with which he shot the film. He used to call cinema as Goda Meedi Bomma. It was C. Pullaiah who gave Telugu cinema's first super duper hit, Lavakusa (1934) starring Parupalli Subbarao and Sriranjani (Sr.). It was his second feature film (Savithri his first talkie film was made a year before with Ramathilakam and Gaggaiah was a hit too. Interestingly there were two Savithris and two Ramadasus in 1933). People flocked to the theatres from near by villages in bullock carts to see Lavakusa. History repeated when C. Pullaiah and his son C. S. Rao remade the film in 1963 with N. T. Rama Rao and Anjali Devi. At a time when the market was flooded with mythological films, Indian Art Cine tone attempted a social, Prema Vijayam (1936) directed by Krithiventi Nageswara Rao. However, the success of reformist filmmaker Gudavalli Ramabrahmam's Malapilla (1938) starring Dr. Govindarajula Subbarao and Kanchanamala and Rythubidda (1939) with Ballari Raghava and Suryakumari gave an impetus to Y.V. Rao, B.N. Reddy and others to produce films on social themes.

The outbreak of World War II and the subsequent resource scarcity caused the British Raj to impose a limit on the use of filmstrip in 1943 to 11,000 feet, a sharp reduction from the 20,000 feet that was common till then. As a result, the number of films produced during the War was substantially lower than in previous years. Nonetheless, prior to the ban, an important shift occurred in the industry: independent studios formed, actors and actresses were signed to contracts limiting who they could work for, and films moved from social themes to folklore legends. 1942's Balanagamma typified these changes: the film featured fantasy elements of cultural lore, was produced by Gemini Studios, and its producers added a restricting clause to the lead actress' contract. By 1947, nearly all films were produced by studios with contracted actors.

Telugu films, which have won the National Film Award.

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Andhra Pradesh

Map of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh ( आंधरा प्रदेश ) (Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్) ( pronunciation (help·info), translation: Southern Province), abbreviated A.P.,is a state situated on eastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city is Hyderabad. The State has the second longest coastline (972 km) among all the States in India.

Andhra Pradesh lies between 12°41' and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40'E longitude, ad is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is historically called the "Rice Bowl of India". It is currently the second largest producer of rice in India after West Bengal. Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna run across the state. The small enclave (12 sq mi (30 km²)) of the Yanam district of Pondicherry state lies in the Godavari Delta in north-east of the state.

Historically the region comprising the state was known as Andhraapatha, Andhradesa, Andhraavani, Andhra vishaya etc. Andhra Pradesh is formed from Andhra State on the 1st of November, 1956.

An Andhra Kingdom was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (B.C.800) and Mahabharata. The Natyasastra of Bharatha (1st Century B.C.E.) also mentioned the "Andhra" race. The roots of the Telugu language have been traced to inscriptions found at Bhattiprolu.

Megasthenese, who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (B.C.322--297), mentioned that Andhra country had 30 fortified towns and an army of 1,00,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhras established their kingdoms on the Godavari belt at that time. Asoka referred in his 13th rock edict that Andhras were his subordinates.

Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom in coastal Andhra ruled by Kuberaka, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as his capital. This is probably the oldest known kingdom in Southern India. Around the same time Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) appears to have been an impor tant place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to the ancient Tibetan scholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of 'The Glorious Lunar Mansions' (Kalachakra)".

The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in 4th century BCE. With the fall of the Mauryan Empire Andhra Satavahanas became independent in 3rd century BCE. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Vishnukundinas, Ananda Gotrikas and Cholas ruled the Telugu land. Inscriptional evidence of Telugu language was found during the rule of Renati Cholas (Kadapa region) in 5th century CE. During this period Telugu emerged as a popular medium undermining the predominance of Prakrit and Sanskrit. Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings who ruled from their capital Vinukonda. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas from their capital in Vengi. As early as 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.

The battle of Palnadu resulted in the weakening of Eastern Chalukyan power and emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and the 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first feudatories of the Rashtrakutas ruling over a small territory near Warangal. All the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and capture Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years. Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagar empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani kingdom, was established in south India by Alla-ud-din Hasan Gangu as a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century.

In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam had ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. Meanwhile, the French had occupied Yanam (Yanaon), in the Godavari Delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to retain his independence from India, but the people of the region launched the movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forced to become part of the Republic of India in 1948 after Operation Polo which lasted 5 days and had popular support from the people of the Hyderabad State.

In an effort to gain an independent state, and protect the interests of the Telugu people of Madras State, Amarajeevi Potti Sriramulu fasted until death. Public outcry and civil unrest after his death forced the government to announce the formation of a new state for Telugu speaking people. Andhra attained statehood on 1 October 1953 with Kurnool as its capital.

On 1 November 1956, Andhra State merged with the Telangana region of Hyderabad State to form the state of Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state Andhra Pradesh. Yanam was relinquished by the French in 1954, but one condition of the treaty was the retention of the district's separate and distinct identity, which also applied to the other South Indian enclaves constituting today's puducherry state.

Andhra Pradesh can be divided into three regions, namely Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana.

Andhra Pradesh has 23 districts: Adilabad, Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa, East Godavari, Guntur, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, Khammam, Krishna, Kurnool, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Sri Potti Sreeramulu Nellore, Nizamabad, Prakasam, Rangareddy, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Warangal and West Godavari.

Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad, is the largest city in the state. Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the second largest city of the state and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command. Vijayawada due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes is a major trading center and the third largest city of the state. Other important cities and towns are: Warangal, Guntur ,Ongole, Tirupati, Kakinada, Rajahmundry, Nellore, Kurnool, Anantapur, Karimnagar, Nizamabad and Eluru.

Telugu is the official language of the state, spoken by 83.75% of the population. Telugu is the second most spoken language in India. The major linguistic minority groups in the state include the speakers of Urdu (8.63%) and Hindi (3.23%). The Indian government designated Telugu as a classical and ancient language on November 1, 2008.

Other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh by less than 1% each include Tamil (0.97%), Kannada (0.94%), Marathi (0.84%), Oriya (0.42%), Gondi (0.21%) and Malayalam (0.1%). Languages spoken by less than 0.1% are the states residents include Gujarati (0.09%), Savara (0.09%), Koya (0.08%), Jatapu (0.04%), Punjabi (0.04%), Kolami (0.03%), Konda (0.03%), Gadaba (0.02%), Sindhi (0.02%), Gorkhali/Nepali (0.01%) and Khond/Kondh (0.01%).

The main ethnic group of Andhra Pradesh is the Telugu people who primarily belong to the Dravidian peoples.

Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Three important rivers of India, the Godavari , Krishna and Thungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, mirchi (chilli pepper), mango and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.

The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. In 2004–2005, Andhra Pradesh was at the fifth position in the list of top IT exporting states of India. The IT exports from the State were Rs.1,800 million in 2004. The IT sector is expanding at a rate of 52.3% every year. The IT exports reached Rs.190,000 million in 2006–2007 and ranked fourth in India. The service sector of the state already accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) and employs 20% of the work force. The state capital, Hyderabad is considered to be bulk drug capital of the country. 50% of the top 10 companies in Pharmaceutical field are from the state. The state also commands a very prominent place in the infrastructure space, with many companies from the state being up there at the fore-front.

Andhra Pradesh is a mineral rich state, ranking second in India in terms of mineral wealth. The state has about one third of India's limestone reserves, estimated at about 30 billion tonnes.The Krishna-godavari basin has huge reserves of natural gas and petroleum reserves. The state is also blessed with huge amount of coal reserves.

The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation with national market share of over 11%.

Andhra Pradesh's GSDP for 2005 was estimated at $62 billion in current prices. This is a chart of trend of GSDP of Andhra Pradesh at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. Accordingly, the state ranks fourth in terms of overall GSDP and fourth in per capita GSDP among the major states of India.

Andhra Pradesh has a Legislative Assembly of 294 seats. The state has 60 members in the Parliament of India; 18 in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House and 42 in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House.

Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982. Kasu Brahmananda Reddy held the record for the longest serving chief minister which was broken by N.T. Rama Rao in 1983. P.V. Narasimha Rao also served as the chief minister of the state, who later went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. Among the notable chief ministers of the state are Tanguturi Prakasam, Chief Minister (CM) of Andhra State (the first CM of the present Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy) others include Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Marri Chenna Reddy, Jalagam Vengal Rao, Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, N.T. Rama Rao, Nara Chandrababu Naidu and Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy.

In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the State elections and N.T. Rama Rao (NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time introducing a formidable second political party to Andhra Pradesh's politics and thus breaking the single party monopoly on Andhra Pradesh's politics. After a few months, Nadendla Bhaskar Rao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment. After coming back, NTR successfully convinced the then State Governor to dissolve the Assembly and call for a fresh election. TDP won the elections with a large majority and NTR became Chief Minister of the State for the second time. His government policies included investment in education, rural development and in holding corrupt government officials.

In 1989 group elections ended the 7-year rule of NTR with INC party returning to power with Dr. Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm of affairs. He was replaced by N. Janardhan Reddy who was in turn replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhasker Reddy.

In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to TDP again and saw NTR becoming the chief minister again. NTR died of a heart attack before the next elections.

In 1995, N Chandrababu Naidu (TDP), became the chief minister. He won a second term in 1999 before he was defeated by the INC-led coalition in the May 2004 polls.

Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy of INC, became Chief Minister of state after May 2004. Rajasekhara Reddy fought the 2004 Assembly elections in an alliance with the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), which was formed by Mr K. Chandrasekhar Rao whose aim is to form a separate state.

Andhra Pradesh has many museums, including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts and the Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow. Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions.

The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is reputedly the spiciest and the most delicious of all Indian cuisine. There are many variations to the Andhra cuisine depending on caste, geographical regions, traditions etc. Pickles and chutneys, called pachchadi in Telugu are particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of pickles and chutneys are unique to the State. Chutneys are made from practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals (eggplant), and roselle (Gongura). The mango pickle Aavakaaya is probably the best known of the Andhra pickles.

Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is either boiled and eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu (pesarattu - made of a mixture of this batter and mung beans) or dosas.

Meat, vegetables and greens are prepared with different spices (masala) into a variety of strongly flavoured dishes.

Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in Telangana in the 14th century. Much of the cuisine revolves around meat. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken and fish are the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes. The biryani is perhaps the most distinctive and popular of Hyderabadi dishes.

Jayapa Senani (Jayapa Nayudu) is the first person who wrote about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances have been included in his Sanskrit treatise 'Nritya Ratnavali'. It contains eight chapters. Folk dance forms like Perani, Prenkhana, Suddha Nartana, Carcari, Rasaka, Danda Rasaka, Shiva Priya, Kanduka Nartana, Bhandika Nrityam, Carana Nrityam, Chindu, Gondali and Kolatam are described. In the first chapter the author deals with discussion of the differences between Marga and Desi, Tandava and lasya, Natya and Nritta. In the 2nd and 3rd chapters he deals with Angi-kabhinaya, Caris, Sthanakas and Mandalas. In the 4th Chapter Karnas, angaharas and recakas are described. In following chapters he described the local dance forms i.e. desi nritya. In the last chapter he deals with art and practice of dance.

Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; however women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The various dance forms that existed through the state's history are Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Bonalu, Dhimsa, Kolattam and chindu .

Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharatha into Telugu. Bammera Potana is another poet who composed the classic SriMad Andhra Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya is called Adikavi and was patronized by the king Rajarajanarendra who ruled from Rajamahendravaram (Rajahmundry). The Vijayanagara emperor Krishna Deva Raya wrote Amuktamalyada. Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is also notable for his philosophical poems. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam is termed modern literature. Known as Gadya Tikkana, Satyavathi Charitam was the author Telugu-language social novel, Satyavathi Charitam. Other modern writers include Jnanpith Award winners Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.

Shri Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu is also one of the most famous scholar poets of Telugu literature. He was a contemporary of Shri Vishwanatha Satyanarayana. Shri Puttaparthy Narayanacharyulu wrote the famous books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam as dwipadakavyam.

Other notable writers from Andhra Pradesh include Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnaya Suri, and Viswanatha Satyanarayana.

Andhra Pradesh is the state with the most cinema halls in India, at around 3000. The state also produces about 200 movies a year. It has around 40%, 330 cinema halls out of 930 DTS cinema halls in India of all the Dolby digital theatres in India. Now it also houses an IMax theatre with a big 3D screen and also 3-5 multiplexes. It is also the largest movie industry in India by number of movies produced, producing more movies than any other industry.

The state has a rich musical heritage. Many legends of the Carnatic music including Trinity of Carnatic music - Thyagaraja, Annamacharya, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadasu were of Telugu descent. Great Mandolin player, Mandolin Srinivas is also from Andhra Pradesh. Folk songs are also popular in the rural areas of the state. A great Carnatic singer, who invented some more Ragas in Carnatic Music, the great Sri Mangalampalli Balamuralikrishna is of Telugu descent.

Andhra Pradesh is home to Hindu saints of all castes. An important backward-caste figure is, Sant Yogi Sri Potuluri Veera Brahmendra Swami was born in Vishwabrahmin (Gold Smith) caste who had Brahmin, Harijan and Muslim disciples. Fisherman Raghu was also a Sudra. Sant Kakkayya was a chura (cobbler) Harijan saint.

Several important Hindu modern-day saints are from Andhra Pradesh. These include Nimbarka who founded Dvaitadvaita, Mother Meera who advocated Indian independence, and Aurobindo Mission Bala Sai Baba who advocates religious unity in worship, Satya Sai Baba who does the same, and Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji.

Satya Sai Baba is from a Kshatriya family and was born on 23 November 1926 in Puttaparthi. He is believed by some to be the avatar of Shirdi Sai Baba. The Sathya Sai Organization has many branches worldwide.

Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji was born on 25 December 1947 in Kattubadipalem village, sri potti sreeramulu Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh is also home for Christians and Muslims who form minor part of population in this state.

Tirupati or Tirumala is a very important pilgrimage for Hindus throughout India. It is the richest piligrimage city (of any religious faith) in the world. Its main temple is dedicated to the god Venkateswara. Tirpuathi is located in Chittoor district. Satyanarayana swamy temple famous in Annavaram in East Godavari district. Simhachalam is another very popular pilgrmage of national importance. Simhachalam is said in mythology to be the abode of the savior-god Narasimha, who rescued Prahlada from abusive father Hiranyakasipu. Kanaka Durga Temple is one of the famous in Andhra Pradesh which is situated in Vijayawada city. Sri Kalahasti is one of the important ancient siva temples and is located on the banks of river Swarnamukhi in Chittoor district.

Simhachalam is a hill shrine 16 km away from Visakhapatnam on the other side of the Hill on the north of the city. One of the most exquisitely sculpted shrines of Andhra Pradesh, Simhachalam temple is situated 16 km from Vizag among thickly wooded hills. The beautifully-carved 16-pillared Natya mantapa and the 96-pillared Kalyana mantapa bear testimony to the architectural brilliance of the temple. The image of the presiding deity, Sri Lakshminarasimha Swamy, is covered by a thick layer of sandalwood paste. This is one of the oldest temple in India dedicated to Narasimha, one of the incarnations of Vishnu, built in 11th century by Kullotunga, a Chola king. One Vijaya stamba is erected by Sri Krishna Deva Raya emerged victorious over the Gajapati kings of Orissa. One will find ancient telugu inscriptions in this temple. This temple is one of the most famous temples in India. Its architecture is Dravida (South Indian). There is a popular belief that this lord is protecting Vizag from natural disasters like floods, cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis. Not even a single death occurred due to natural calamities to this date. Couples just before marriage go to this temple as a ritual. This temple is one of the most crowded temples of Andhra Pradesh.

Srisailam is another major temple in Andhra Pradesh of national importance. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is one of the locations of the various Jyothirlingams. The Skanda Purana has a chapter called "Srisaila Kandam" dedicated to it, which points to the ancient origin. This is confirmed also by the fact that Tamil saints of the past millennia have sung praises of this temple. It is said that Adi Sankara visited this temple and at that time he composed his "Sivananda Lahiri". Shiva's sacred bull Vrishabha is said to have performed penance at the Mahakali temple till Shiva and Parvati appeared before him as Mallikarjuna and Brahmaramba. The temple is one of the 12 hallowed jyotirlingas; Lord Rama himself installed the Sahasralinga, while the Pandavas lodged the Panchapandava lingas in the temple courtyard. Srisailam is located in Kurnool district.

Bhadrachalam is known for the Sri Rama temple and the Godavari river. This is the place where the famous Bhakta Ramadasu (originally - Kancherla Gopanna) wrote his devotional songs dedicated to lord Rama. It was believed that lord Rama spent some years on the banks of river Godavari here in tretayug. Bhadra (a mounatin ), after a severe penance asked Rama to have a permanent residence on him. Lord Rama along with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana settled on Bhadragiri. Bhadrachalam is located in Khammam district. Gopanna constructed the temple for Rama by raising funds from the people during the reign of Tanisha in 17 th century. He started celebrating the marriage of lord Rama and Sita. From then Sri Rama Navami is celebrated every year. Government of Andhra Pradesh sends pearls for the event at Bhadrachalam every year.

Basar - Saraswathi temple is another famous place for Saraswathi - goddess of education. Basara is located in Adilabad district. Yaaganti Caves is also an important piligrim center in Andhra Pradesh. Apart from that Mahanandi, Kurnool Dt is another piligrim center which is full of greenary. The famous Hindu Birla Mandir and Ramappa Temple, Muslim Mecca Masjid and Charminar as well as the statue of Buddha on the Hussain Sagar Lake are wonderful religious monuments in Andhra Pradesh.

Kanakadurga temple is a famous temple in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located on the Indrakeeladri hill in the city of Vijayawada on the banks of Krishna River. According to a legend, the now verdant Vijayawada was once a rocky region strewn with hillocks that were obstructing the flow of River Krishna. The land was thus rendered unfit for habitation or cultivation. Invocation to Lord Siva led to His directing the hills to give way to river Krishna. And lo! the river started flowing unimpeded with all its might, through the tunnels or "Bejjam" bored into the hills by Lord Siva. That is how the place got its name Bezawada.

One of the many mythologies associated with this place is that Arjuna prayed to Lord Siva on top of Indrakeela hill to win His blessings and the city derived its name "Vijayawada" after this victory. Yet another popular legend is about the triumph of goddess Kanakadurga over the demon king Mahishasura. It is said that once upon a time, the growing menace of demons became unendurable for the natives living in this region. Sage Indrakila performed severe penance and when the goddess appeared, the sage begged Her to reside on his head and keep vigil on the wicked demons. As per his wishes, after killing the demons, goddess Durga made Indrakila Her permanent abode. Later, She slayed the demon king Mahishasura, freeing the people of Vijayawada from the evil clutches of the demon. Special pujas are performed during Dasara also called Navaratri. The most significant are Saraswati puja and Theppotsavam. The festival of Dasara for Goddess Durga is celebrated here every year. A large number of pilgrims attend the colourful celebrations and take a holy dip in the Krishna river.

Bapu's paintings, Nanduri Subbarao's Yenki Paatalu (Songs on/by a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya's songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura (a chutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), banks of river Godavari, Dudu basavanna (The ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranti) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering. 'Kalankari' is an ancient art form dating back to the Harappan civilization. Andhra is also famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and light weight metal alloys. Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for mud toys with rich colors. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over a black background. Story telling in Andhra is an art form by itself. 'Yaksha ganam', 'Burra katha' (usually done by three people, telling stories using three different musical instruments), 'Jangama kathalu', 'Hari kathalu', 'Chekka bajana', 'Urumula natyam' (usually done in festivals, where a group of people dance in circles for loud music), 'Ghata natyam' (performances done with earthen pots over one's head) are all folk dances unique to Andhrapradesh palumamba festival in Visaka famous.

Andhra Pradesh is served by more than 20 institutes of higher education. All major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business and veterinary science are offered, leading to first degrees as well as postgraduate awards. Advanced research is conducted in all major areas.

Andhra Pradesh has 1330 arts, science and commerce colleges; 1000 MBA and MCA colleges; 500 engineering colleges; and 53 medical colleges. The student to teacher ratio is 19:1 in higher education. According to the 2001 census, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 60.5%. While the male literacy rate is at 70.3%, the female literacy rate is only at 50.4%, a cause for concern.

The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes. Andhra Pradesh is home to India´s 8th IIT, the IIT Hyderabad. Birla Institute of Technology and Science, (BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus), International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIIT-H) and the Indian School of Business (ISB) are gaining international attention for their standards. The National Institute of Fashion Technology and The Institute of Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition (NIFT) are also located in Hyderabad.

Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres. Tirupati, the abode of Lord Venkateswara, is most visited religious center (of any faith) in the world. Srisailam, nestled in the Nallamala Hills is the abode of Sri Mallikarjuna and is one of twelve Jyothirlingalu in India. Amaravati's Siva temple is one of the Pancharamams, as is Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for their temple carvings. The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Sankaram, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.

The Badami Chalukyas (Badami is in Karnataka) in 6th century built the Alampur Bhrama temples, an excellent examples of Chalukya art and sculpture. The Vijayanagar Empire built number of monuments, the Srisailam temple and Lepakshi temples.

The golden beaches at Visakhapatnam, the one-million-year old limestone caves at Borra, picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona, are some of the natural attractions of the state. Kailashagiri is near the sea in Visakhapatnam. A park is on the hill top of Kailashagiri. Visakhapatnam is home to many tourist attactions like INS Karasura Submarine museum (The only one of its kind in India), the longest Beach Road in India, Yarada Beach, Araku Valley, VUDA Park, and Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens.

The Borra Caves are located in the Anatagiri Hills of Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam, Andhra Pradesh State in India. They are at a height of about 800 to 1300 metres above Mean Sea Level and are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. They were discovered by William King George, the British geologist in the year 1807. The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain, which in the local language, Telugu, is known as borra. Similarly, the Belum caves were formed due to erosion in limestone deposits in the area by Chitravati River, millions of years ago. These limestone caves was formed due to action of carbonic acid — or weakly acidic groundwater formed due to reaction between limestone and water.

The Belum Caves are the second largest cave system in the Indian sub-continent. The Belum Caves derives their name from Bilum, the Sanskrit word for caves. In Telugu, the caves are known as Belum Guhalu. The Belum Caves have a length of 3229 meters, making them the second largest natural caves on the Indian subcontinent. The Belum Caves have long passages, spacious chambers, fresh water galleries and siphons. The caves' deepest point is 120 feet (37 m) from the entrance and is known as at Patalganaga.

Horsley Hills Horsley Hills, elevation 1,265 m, is a famous summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh, about 160 km from Bangalore, India and 144 km from Tirupati. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi valley school. Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary at a distance of 87 km.

Charminar, Golconda Fort, Chandragiri Fort, Chowmahalla Palace and Falaknuma Palace are some of the monuments in the state.

Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada in Krishna District,Venkateswara Temple in Dwarakatirumala, West Godavari District (It is also called as Chinna Tirupathi), Surya temple in Arasavelli in Srikakulam District and also so many places to watch in Andhra Pradesh.

A total of 1,46,944 km of road are maintained by the State, of which State Highways comprise 42,511 km, National Highways 2,949 km and District Roads 1,01,484 km. The Growth rate of Vehicles in Andhra Pradesh is highest in the country with 16%.

Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation owned by the government of Andhra Pradesh connecting all the cities and villages. APSRTC also has the distinction of being in the Guinness book of World records for having the largest fleet of vehicles, and the longest area covered/commuted daily. Apart from these, thousands of private operators run buses connecting major cities and towns of the state. Private vehicles like cars, motorised scooters and bicycles occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages.

There are five airports in the state: Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi International) (the largest in the state), Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry and Tirupati. The government also have plans to start airports in six other cities: Sri Potti Sreeramulu Nellore, Warangal, Kadapa, Tadepalligudem, Ramagundam and Ongole.

Andhra Pradesh also has two of the more important ports of India at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada and three minor ports, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam(Guntur) and Krishnapatnam. One more private port is being developed at Gangavaram, Near Visakhapatnam. This deep sea port can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000-250,000 DWT, allowing big ocean liners to enter into Indian shores.

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Source : Wikipedia