Andrés Duany

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Posted by pompos 04/14/2009 @ 15:07

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Fort Myers high-rise condos stand mostly empty - The News-Press
Fort Myers Councilman Warren Wright believes the council went against the downtown revitalization plan devised by renowned Miami architect Andres Duany when it approved the condos. Duany's plan recommended keeping the river view unobstructed....
Denver's transportation future - Denver Post
The urban planner Andres Duany once said that "Amateurs accustomed to emulation made great places. It is the professionals of recent decades that have ruined our cities and our landscapes with their inventions." We need more bottom-up planning and...

Andrés Duany

Andrés Duany (born September 7, 1949) is an American architect and urban planner.

Duany was born in New York City but grew up in Cuba until 1960. He received his undergraduate degree in architecture and urban planning from Princeton University, and after a year of study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, he received a master's degree in architecture from the Yale School of Architecture.

Duany and Plater-Zyberk founded Duany Plater Zyberk & Company (DPZ) in 1980, headquartered in Miami, Florida. DPZ became a leader in the national movement called the New Urbanism, which seeks to end suburban sprawl and urban disinvestment. The firm first received international recognition in the 1980s as the designer of Seaside, Florida and Kentlands, Maryland, and has completed designs and codes for over two hundred new towns, regional plans, and community revitalization projects. At DPZ, Duany also led the development of comprehensive municipal zoning ordinances that prescribe appropriate urban arrangement for all uses and all densities.

Duany is a co-founder and emeritus board member of the Congress for the New Urbanism, established in 1993. He has co-authored two books: "Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream" and "The New Civic Art." Duany has worked as visiting professor at many institutions and holds two honorary doctorates.

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New Urbanism

Market Street, downtown Celebration, Florida

New Urbanism is an urban design movement that arose in the United States in the early 1980s. Its goal is to reform many aspects of real estate development and urban planning, from urban retrofits to suburban infill. New urbanist neighborhoods are designed to contain a diverse range of housing and jobs, and to be walkable.

New Urbanism can include (neo)traditional neighborhood design, transit-oriented development, and New Pedestrianism. New Urbanism is the re-invention of the old urbanism, commonly seen before the advent of the automobile age, while New Pedestrianism is a further elaboration of less common, pedestrian-oriented, urban design experiments that date to the early 20th century.

In 1991, the Local Government Commission, a private nonprofit group in Sacramento, California, invited architects Peter Calthorpe, Michael Corbett, Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Moule, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Stefanos Polyzoides, and Daniel Solomon to develop a set of community principles for land use planning. Named the Ahwahnee Principles (after Yosemite National Park's Ahwahnee Hotel), the commission presented the principles to about one hundred government officials in the fall of 1991, at its first Yosemite Conference for Local Elected Officials.

Calthorpe, Duany, Moule, Plater-Zyberk, Polyzoides, and Solomon founded the Chicago-based Congress for the New Urbanism in 1993. The CNU has grown to more than 3,000 members, and is the leading international organization promoting new urbanist design principles. It holds annual Congresses in various U.S. cities.

We advocate the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the following principles: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice.

New urbanists support regional planning for open space, context-appropriate architecture and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion, increase the supply of affordable housing, and rein in urban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the redevelopment of brownfield land.

Through the first quarter of the 20th century, cities in the United States were developed in the form of compact, mixed-use neighborhoods. That pattern began to change when cheap rapid transit enabled the emergence of streetcar suburbs, modern architecture, zoning codes, and the ascension of the automobile.

A new system of development with a rigorous separation of uses, known as suburban development, or pejoratively as urban sprawl, arose after World War II. The majority of U.S. citizens now live in suburban communities built in the last fifty years. Suburban development consumes large areas of countryside, and automobile use per capita has soared.

New urbanism is a reaction to sprawl, based on planning and architectural principles working together to create human-scale, walkable communities. It is rooted in the work of architects, planners, and theorists who believed that conventional planning thought was failing.

In the 1970s and 1980s, New Urbanism emerged with the urban visions and theoretical models for the reconstruction of the "European" city proposed by architect Leon Krier, and the "pattern language" theories of Christopher Alexander. These eventually coalesced into a unified group in the 1990s.

The first important publication on the collective work of the New Urbanism was edited by Peter Katz, in 1994, under the title: THE NEW URBANISM: toward an architecture of community, featuring theory and design work by: Todd W. Bressi, Peter Calthorpe, Jaime Correa, Victor Dover and Joseph Kohl, Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Geoffrey Ferrell, Elizabeth Moule and Stefanos Polyzoides, Steven Peterson and Barbara Littenberg, Mark Schimmenti, Erick Valle, Daniel Solomon and Kathryn Clarke, and Vincent Scully.

The New Urbanism includes traditional architects and those with modernist sensibilities. Some work exclusively on infill projects, others focus on transit-oriented development, some attempt to transform the suburbs, and many work in all these categories. New Urbanist developments are purchased quickly by interested home buyers, but have captured only a small share of the residential market. Developers continue to build conventional suburban projects, because they are more familiar with the conventional suburban development retail model, particularly the strip mall format.

New urbanism is having a growing influence on how and where metropolitan regions choose to grow. At least fourteen large-scale planning initiatives are based on the principles of linking transportation and land-use policies, and using the neighborhood as the fundamental building block of a region.

More than six hundred new towns, villages, and neighborhoods in the U.S. following new urbanism principles, are planned or under construction. Hundreds of new, small-scale, urban and suburban infill projects are under way to reestablish walkable streets and blocks. In Maryland and several other states, new urbanist principles are an integral part of "smart growth" legislation.

In the mid-1990s, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) adopted the principles of the new urbanism in its multi-billion dollar program to rebuild public housing projects nationwide. New urbanists have planned and developed hundreds of projects in infill locations. Most were driven by the private sector, but many, including HUD projects, used public money.

Seaside, Florida, the first fully new urbanist town, began development in 1981 on eighty acres (324,000 m²) of Florida Panhandle coastline. It was featured on the cover of the Atlantic Monthly in 1988, when only a few streets were completed, and has become internationally famous for its architecture, and the quality of its streets and public spaces.

Seaside is now a tourist destination and appeared in the movie The Truman Show. Lots sold for $15,000 in the early 1980s, and slightly over a decade later, the price had escalated to about $200,000. Today, most lots sell for more than a million dollars, and some houses top $5 million.

The site of the former Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado, closed in 1995, is now being redeveloped by Forest City Enterprises as the largest new urbanist project in the United States. Construction began in 2001. The new community is zoned for residential and commercial development, including office parks and "big box" shopping centers. Stapleton is by far the largest neighborhood in the city of Denver and an eastern portion of the redevelopment site lies in the neighboring city of Aurora.

The design emphasizes a pedestrian orientation rather than the automobile-oriented designs found in many other planned developments. Nearly a third of the airport site was set aside for public parks and open space.

Stapleton is the site of the Denver School for Science and Technology, a 451-student public high school (grades 9-12) that is a charter school.

By the end of 2006, about 2,500 houses and more than 300 apartments had been built on the Stapleton site. When complete in about 15 years, it is expected to provide 8,000 houses, 4,000 apartments, 4 schools and 2 million square feet (180,000 m²) of retail space. Up to 30,000 people could live there. Northfield Stapleton, one of the development's major retail centers, recently opened.

All of Stapleton's airport infrastructure has been removed except for the control tower and a parking structure which remain standing as a reminder of the site's former days.

Haile Plantation, Florida, is a 2,600 household (1,700 acre) development of regional impact southwest of the City of Gainesville, within Alachua County. Haile Village Center is a traditional neighborhood center within the development. It was originally started in 1978 and completed in 2007. In addition to the 2,600 homes the neighborhood consists of two merchant centers (one a New England narrow street village and the other a chain grocery strip mall). There are also two public elementary schools and an 18-hole golf course.

In June 1996, the Walt Disney Company unveiled its 5,000 acre (20 km²) town of Celebration, near Orlando, Florida. Celebration opened its downtown in October, 1996, while Seaside's downtown was still mostly unbuilt. It has since eclipsed Seaside as the best-known new urbanist community, but Disney shuns the label, calling Celebration simply a "town." Disney has been criticized for insipid nostalgia, and heavy-handed rules and management.

New Urbanism is closely related to the Urban Village movement in Europe. They both occurred at similar times and share many of the same principles although urban villages has an emphasis on traditional city planning. In Europe many brown-field sites have been redeveloped since the 1980s following the models of the traditional city neighbourhoods rather than Modernist models. One well-publicized example is Poundbury in England, a suburban extension to the town of Dorchester, which was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall under the overview of Prince Charles. The original masterplan was designed by Leon Krier. A report carried out after the first phase of construction found a high degree of satisfaction by residents, although the aspirations to reduce car dependency had not been successful. Rising house prices and a perceived premium have made the open market housing unaffordable for many local people.

The Council for European Urbanism (C.E.U.), formed in 2003, shares many of the same aims as the US New Urbanists. C.E.U.'s Charter is a development of the Congress for the New Urbanism Charter revised and reorganised to relate better to European conditions. An Australian organisation, Australian Council for New Urbanism has since 2001 run conferences and events to promote new urbanism in that country. A New Zealand Urban Design Protocol was created by the Ministry for the Environment in 2005.

In the United Kingdom New Urbanist and European urbanism principles are practiced and taught by the The Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment. Other organisations promote New Urbanism as part of their remit, such as INTBAU, A Vision of Europe, and others.

There are several such developments in South Africa. The most notable is Melrose Arch in Johannesburg. The first development in the Eastern Cape, one of the lesser known provinces in the country, is located in East London. The development, announced in 2007, comprises 30 hectares. It is made up of three apartment complexes together with over 30 residential site as well as 20,000 sqm of residential and office space. The development is valued at over R2-billion ($250 million).

The 1998 fantasy comedy-drama film The Truman Show uses the real life New Urbanist town of Seaside, Florida as the setting for a perfect, fictional town constructed as a set for a television show. The 2004 documentary The End of Suburbia: Oil Depletion and the Collapse of the American Dream argues that the depletion of oil will result in the demise of the sprawl-type development. New Urban Cowboy: Toward a New Pedestrianism, a feature length 2008 documentary about urban designer Michael E. Arth, explains the principles of New Urbanism, gives a brief history of the movement, and chronicles the rebuilding of an inner city slum into a model of New Urbanism. The film promotes a more ecology- and pedestrian-oriented branch of New Urbanism called New Pedestrianism that Arth founded in 1999.

New urbanism has drawn both praise and criticism from all quarters of the political spectrum. Some members of the right wing view new urbanism as a collectivist plot designed to rob Americans of their civil freedoms, property rights, and free-flowing traffic.

Perhaps the most frequent criticism of the movement is that the most famous and highest-profile projects most associated with the movement (primarily Celebration, Kentlands, and Seaside) are all greenfield projects built on what was previously open space and therefore are just another form of sprawl. Critics react to this as a controlled sprawl that assumes that social situations can and should also be controlled, such that preconceived rules of what a town need be are first worked out on paper and then acted out in real space. Often the results are elitist and exclusionary, and are almost always conservative in nature.

The New Urbanist principle of mixed-income developments as a means of ameliorating poverty lacks evidence which supports that this is achieved. The theoretical basis for addressing poverty through mixed-income development posits that planned mixed-income developments facilitate the bridging of social capital, and thus a higher shared quality of life across socioeconomic cleavages. The opposite non-mixed ghettoed social housing projects have been a dismal failure.

Academics have criticized New Urbanism as retrograde, bordering on fascist.

A stream of thought in sustainable development maintains that sustainability is based primarily on the combination of high density and transit service. Critics claim many new urbanist developments fall short of being truly sustainable, to the extent that they rely on automobile transport, and serve the detached single family housing market. Many new urbanists claim that this is an incentive that prepares people in transition from conventional suburban living to going back to downtown living.

The New Urbanist preference for 'permeable' street grids has been criticised on the grounds that it gives private motor vehicles an advantage over walking, cycling and public transport. The transport performance of some New Urbanist developments, such as Poundbury has been disappointing, with surveys revealing high levels of car use The alternative view, termed 'filtered permeability' (see Permeability (spatial and transport planning)) is that to give pedestrians and cyclists a time and convenience advantage, they need to be separated from motor vehicles in places.

A forthcoming rating and certification scheme for neighborhood environmental design, LEED-ND, being developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, Natural Resources Defense Council, and the Congress for the New Urbanism , should help to quantify the sustainability of New Urbanist neighborhood design. New Urbanist and board member of CNU, Doug Farr has taken a step further and coined Sustainable Urbanism, which combines New Urbanism and LEED-ND to create walkable, transit-served urbanism with high performance buildings and infrastructure. While New Urbanism seeks to create walkable communities, its lacks an emphasis on requiring these communities to participate in the green building movement.

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Seaside, Florida

Seaside1.jpg

Seaside is an unincorporated master-planned community on the Florida panhandle in Walton County, roughly midway between Fort Walton Beach and Panama City. It was founded by builder/developer Robert Davis in 1979 on land that he had inherited from his grandfather. The town plan was designed by architects/new urbanists Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk.

Seaside is often cited as the first New Urbanist development. At the time of Seaside's construction, Walton County had no zoning ordinance, leaving Seaside's founders able to plan with a comparatively free hand. In the absence of these regulations (e.g., minimum lot size, separation of uses), Duany and Plater-Zyberk (DPZ) were able to design a mixed-use development with densities greater than conventional suburban development.

DPZ hired architects such as Melanie Taylor and Robert Orr to design the buildings and housing for the development. Seaside is primarily a resort community, consisting of residents who live there for months at a time as well as vacationers renting cottages and houses.

Seaside is often cited as an example of successful implementation of New Urbanism. Time magazine called it "the most astounding design achievement of its era and, one might hope, the most influential" It has been used as a model for other new urbanist developments in the United States and abroad. However, some have criticized Seaside as being overly rigid, as the community's architectural standards provide strict limitations on the external aesthetics of the houses, resulting in conformity of style rather than creativity – which some people call a manufactured fantasy. Others have criticized the community for its lack of socioeconomic diversity, which they see as ironic given that the community was itself modeled on the diverse and urban neighborhoods of large North American cities such as New York City and San Francisco.

However, Seaside (and New Urbanism more generally) has had a significant impact on urban planning in many cities. New Urbanist developments continue to proliferate across North America, and many planners and urban designers are beginning to understand the importance of mixed-use and higher density communities (see Transit-oriented development).

Many scenes of the 1998 film The Truman Show were shot at Seaside. The movie's director Peter Weir was planning on building a movie set town for the movie when his wife, Wendy, happened to see Seaside featured in an architect's magazine and thought it would be perfect for the film. The former superintendent of Okaloosa Schools, and now a member of the Florida Senate, state Senator Don Gaetz, was one of the original property owners of Seaside, and his personal cottage was utilized as the Burbanks' house in the film.

Seaside includes buildings by architects such as Leon Krier, Robert A.M. Stern, Steven Holl, Machado & Silvetti, Deborah Berke, Walter Chatham, Dan Solomon, Alex Gorlin, Aldo Rossi, Michael McDonough, Sam Mockbee, David Mohney and Steven Badanes.

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Prospect New Town

View south of Tenacity Drive in Prospect New Town showing a mix of aggregate housing and traditional detached homes.

Prospect New Town is a New Urbanist housing development located on the southern edge of the city of Longmont in Boulder County, Colorado in the United States. The first full-scale new urbanist new development in Colorado, it was developed starting in the mid 1990s by Kiki Wallace and designed by the firm of Duany Plater Zyberk & Company, who also designed the new urbanist communities of Seaside, Florida and Kentlands in Gaithersburg, Maryland. As of 2005, the project is in its third phase of development. It is intended to have a population of approximately 2,000 people in 585 units on 340 lots.

The development is being built on the site of an 80 acre (324,000 m²) tree farm formerly owned by Wallace's family. It sits along the west side of U.S. Highway 287 just south of Pike Road. The development incorporates a broad mix of traditional and modern designs, mixed together to create an eclectic feel. Although planned by DPZ, the individual units are designed by a variety of architects, who are encouraged to experiment with styles. It includes a heterogeneous mix of businesses, detached homes, row houses, live/work lofts, and apartments. The original farmhouse and other structures have been integrated into the development, in part to retain continuity with the former use of the property. Some of the new structures resembles traditional housing styles from early in the 20th century, while others are very eclectic and ultramodern.

Keeping to new urbanist principles espoused by Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (the partners of DPZ) and others, the plan of the community forgoes traditional suburban features such as large front lawns, uniform featureless fronts dominated by large garage doors, and segregation of housing from businesses. Instead, the development is designed with small yards and higher density, to create a traditional neighborhood look and feel. It is also designed to be pedestrian friendly, not only in the amenities such as sidewalks, but in promoting the desirability of walking short distances within the complex. Houses and lots in the project are typically smaller than in U.S. suburban developments. The typical house in the project has an area 5,100 square feet (470 m²) of living space on a 7,000 square foot (650 m²) lot.. Prices for houses in the project initially ranged from 150,000–500,000 USD, but have trended quickly upward because of the high demand and the overall growth of real estate prices in the area.

The development includes a town center interwoven into the center of the residential area, with businesses ranging from restaurants to professional offices . The streets are oriented to maximize the view of the mountains, and a traditional town center that would be no more than five minutes on foot from any place in the neighborhood. It would include not only houses but also stores and offices that themselves would have living spaces upstairs, in the manner of many older traditional two-story commercial properties.

Due to the bright colors and eclectic architecture of the buildings, many area residents refer to Prospect as "Toon Town".

Wallace, who reportedly disliked suburbia, had previously bought the tree farm from his family and had wondered how to develop it in a tasteful way when he read an article in the Wall Street Journal about Duany and the New Urbanist movement. Wallace, together with Duany and Longmont developer Dale Bruns, began planning the unique development in the middle 1990s. The development was serve to as a test case for traditional neighborhoods in the planning stages along the Colorado Front Range.

The parcel of land offered a full view of the nearby mountains, including Longs Peak. The development, at first called the "Wallace Addition" and the "Burlington Village", was to be financed at 37 million dollars. The partners also hired the Rocky Mountain Institute, based in Snowmass, Colorado, as consultants for the use of ecologically-friendly building materials and planning. The design calls for the eventual construction of nine small parks integrated throughout the houses and businesses. Some of the units will have apartments above garages, a traditional feature that will allow renters to live in the neighborhood and will allow homeowners to reduce mortgage payments. Other traditional features included in the project are the use of rear lanes, a feature that was once prevalent in the grid plans of most U.S. towns but which has been banished from suburbia. Duany has long espoused the use of rear lanes as leading to a better integration of automobile and foot traffic in a neighborhood.

As was the case with many New Urbanist projects in the United States, the proposal violated numerous local zoning ordinances and met with much initial resistance from local planning authorities and other agencies. In particular, the project's density did not have the required open space; the local fire and police departments objected to the narrowness of streets; and the Colorado Department of Transportation objected that the project had too many curb cuts. Wallace, Bruns, and Duany struggled throughout 1994 to convince the local and state authorities to allow the project. The struggle is reflected in Wallace's choice of street names in the project: the main thoroughfare off U.S. 287 is called "Tenacity Drive." The struggle of the three men paid off, however, and in the following year, many initial doubters came to embrace the project. In October 1995 the Longmont Planning Board granted the appropriate variances and unanimously approved the project, on the grounds that "this is what people want.". The project was strongly backed by Longmont mayor Leona Stoecker.

The first building phase was to include 65 lots. By the time of the approval of the planning board in 1995, Wallace had already pre-sold 35 of the lots. The initial success and enthusiasm prompted interest from other such developers. A developer from Colorado Springs began planning a similar development nearby. The nearby city of Broomfield likewise contacted California planner Peter Calthorpe, who espouses many New Urbanist ideas, to begin designing a master plan for their community.

In 1996 the development won the Governor’s Smart Growth Award. The development has been the subject of numerous articles in the local and national press in recent years.

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Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company

Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company (DPZ) is an architecture and town planning firm founded in 1980 by the husband-and-wife team of Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. It is one of the dominant firms specializing in new urbanist town planning in the United States and other countries, having completed designs for over 300 new and existing communities.

Areas of practice include regional and downtown plans, new towns, urban infill, villages and resort villages, transit-oriented development, suburban retrofits, campuses, housing, affordable housing and civic buildings. The firm is headquartered in Miami, Florida, and has offices in Gaithersburg, Maryland and Charlotte, North Carolina.

DPZ’s projects have received numerous awards, including two National AIA Awards, the Thomas Jefferson Award, the Vincent Scully Prize and two Governor’s Urban Design Awards for Excellence. The firm’s early project of Seaside, Florida, was the first authentic new town to be built successfully in the United States in over fifty years. In 1989, Time Magazine selected Seaside as one of the 10 “Best of the Decade” achievements in the field of design. Other well-known DPZ-designed communities include Kentlands, Gaithersburg, Maryland; Rosemary Beach, FL; and Prospect New Town.

A significant aspect of DPZ’s work is its innovative use of planning regulations which accompany each design. Tailored to the individual project, the codes address the manner in which buildings are formed and located to ensure that they create useful and distinctive public spaces. Architectural style, often based upon local building traditions and techniques, are also codified within the regulations. In the last five years, DPZ has also been continually developing a new model zoning code called the SmartCode. This is based on an analytical tool called the Transect, which classifies degrees of urbanism within a continuum from urban core, through general urban neighborhoods to rural wilderness, and promotes a system of zoning according to that structure. The growing acceptance of traditional neighborhood development and of form-based regulation has inspired many municipalities across the country to adopt the SmartCode.

The firm’s method of integrating master plans with project-specific design codes and regulations is currently being applied to sites ranging from 10 to 10,000 acres (40 km2) throughout the United States. Abroad, DPZ projects are underway in Scotland, Canada, Germany, Belgium, Mexico, Spain, England, Russia, Turkey, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia. Urban redevelopment plans for existing communities include: Baton Rouge, Louisiana; West Palm Beach, Naples, Sarasota, and Fort Myers, Florida; and Providence, Rhode Island. In addition, the firm is rewriting the entire City of Miami zoning code through the Miami 21 project.

DPZ has also taken a leading role in the rebuilding of the Gulf Coast after hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Working with both with the Mississippi Governor’s Commission on Recovery, Rebuilding and Renewal, and the Louisiana Recovery Authority, DPZ’s designers generated plans for rebuilding at the regional, local and neighborhood scales, as well as guidelines for individual homeowners looking to rebuild. Notably, DPZ organized and led the Mississippi Renewal Forum, which generated plans for all eleven municipalites along the Mississippi Coast, and participated in the Unified New Orleans Plan as neighborhood planners in the French Quarter, Central Business District and Gentilly.

Duany and Plater-Zyberk’s book, Suburban Nation, written with Jeff Speck, was hailed as “an essential text for our time,” and “a major literary event,” in the national media. The New Civic Art, written with Robert Alminana, was also recently published to wide acclaim.

In 2005, DPZ Director Demetri Baches and Project Manager Mallory Baches founded DPZ Pacific, the company's first affiliate office and its first international office. They were joined by Kamal Zaharin and Ludwig Fontalvo-Abello, senior DPZ Project Managers. The new firm focuses exclusively on work in Asia, India, The Middle East, Southeast Asia and Oceania using the principles and techniques pioneered by Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. DPZ Pacific has completed plans for new cities and town centers in Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand The Philippines and The UAE.

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Source : Wikipedia