Apple TV

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Posted by sonny 04/11/2009 @ 01:12

Tags : apple tv, apple, personal computers, computers, technology

News headlines
The Coming Visual Computing Revolution - TechNewsWorld
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Apple, AT&T, Samsung, Verizon, and others sued over Shazam app - CNET News
Similar to how Digital TV, Cable, Sat work... how they can show the tv show data on the TV. Currently though, not ALL stations broadcast the digital information for the song and album. by Pete Bardo May 14, 2009 4:26 PM PDT They do this "by matching...
Do the App Store downloads make Apple a software company? - guardian.co.uk
And where does Apple make its money? Hardware, hardware, hardware. The iPod, the Mac line and the iPhone. Look at its most recent quarter's results: scroll down and you'll find "deferred revenue" for the iPhone and Apple TV ranking in the billions....
It's Still Too Hard to Watch Web Content on TV - DaniWeb
But what will it take for the PC to move to the TV? Several companies have tried to provide the hardware and software so that you can watch content from the Web on your TV, but so far mass adoption remains elusive. Examples include Apple TV,...

Apple TV

The Apple TV's software is based on Front Row used on Mac OS X.

Apple TV is a digital media receiver device manufactured, marketed and sold by Apple. It is a network device designed to play digital content originating from the iTunes store, YouTube, Flickr, MobileMe or any Mac OS X or Windows computer running iTunes onto an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television. Apple TV can function as either a home theater-connected iPod device or a digital media receiver, depending on the needs of the user. It was first announced at a special press event in San Francisco, California on September 12, 2006, by Apple CEO Steve Jobs.

The devices started shipping on March 21, 2007. This initial version shipped with 40 GB of storage. A second version with a larger 160 GB hard disk started shipping on May 31, 2007.

Apple TV was first announced at a special press event in San Francisco, California on September 12, 2006, at which Apple CEO Steve Jobs also announced enhanced fifth generation iPods, the addition of films to the iTunes Store and the release of version 7 of iTunes. The final product name was not announced at the event, but was instead referred to by its codename iTV.

Jobs again previewed Apple TV during his January 9 keynote speech at the 2007 Macworld Expo, where he announced that Apple would begin taking pre-orders for the device. Apple TV started shipping on March 21, 2007.

A second version with a larger 160 GB hard disk started shipping on May 31, 2007. On January 15, 2008, Jobs announced a major software upgrade to the Apple TV system (dubbed "Take Two") at the 2008 San Francisco Macworld Event. The free update removed the requirement for another computer running the iTunes software client to stream or load content to the device. The update also added the ability to rent and purchase movies and music from the iTunes Store directly from the device, as well as download podcasts and stream photos live from MobileMe (.Mac at the time) and Flickr.

AppleTV is a network device that allows consumers to use an HDTV set to easily view photos, play music and watch video that originates from an Internet media service or a local network. Internet media services include the iTunes Store, YouTube, Flickr, or MobileMe. By connecting directly to the iTunes Store, users can buy and rent movies, buy television shows, songs, albums, and music videos and subscribe to video and audio podcasts, much of the content in HD-quality. Consumers can browse and view YouTube videos and Flickr or MobileMe photo albums. Apple TV can also sync or stream photo, music and video content from a network-connected computer running iTunes. Apple TV includes enhanced remote control and AirTunes capabilities.

Apple plans to continue offering new features through automatic software upgrades, leaving the door open to further utilization of its hardware capabilities and new software developments.

Apple TV connects to a television or other video equipment through either High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) or component video connections. The product does not come with any connecting cables in the box (other than an AC power cable), so the user must supply either a HDMI cable or component video/stereo audio cables.

Although Apple's website states that an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television is required, Apple confirmed to MacLife that the unit does work with standard definition TVs with component video connectors, but the picture may be vertically stretched if the TV does not support anamorphic widescreen (a video encoding technique used to optimize the vertical picture by aspect ratio). Audio is supported via a digital optical port, analog (RCA connector) audio ports, and through the HDMI port.

The device connects directly to the Internet or other computers either through an Ethernet connection, or wirelessly through the standard IEEE 802.11b, g, and n wireless protocols. A USB port is also included on the device, but is reserved for service and diagnostics. Network connectivity is not required, although Apple TV benefits from Internet media services, software updates, and content stored on the local network.

Apple TV offers basic media services with movie previews and YouTube videos. The Apple TV provides YouTube integration by receiving direct streams from YouTube. A YouTube account is not required to browse and view YouTube videos, but it is good to configure for personalized options, such as viewing favorites. In early December, 2008, YouTube released HD video content, but it is not yet viewable on Apple TV.

With the 'Take 2' software update announced by Steve Jobs at Macworld 2008, Apple TV became capable of acting as a pure stand-alone device, no longer requiring a computer running iTunes on Mac OS X or Windows to stream or sync content to it. Jobs stated, "Apple TV was designed to be an accessory for iTunes and your computer. It was not what people wanted. We learned what people wanted was movies, movies, movies." Users can access the iTunes store directly through Apple TV to purchase movies, music, music videos, and television shows. Customers can also use Apple TV to rent regular or HD-quality movies Until mid-March, 2009, iTunes HD movies could only be purchased from Apple TV.

Consumers can browse and view podcasts from the iTunes store, saving podcasts as favorites.TWiT's Leo Laporte notes that the podcast support in the Apple TV puts podcasts on the same level as other media, and this was substantiated by the fact that the standard podcast subscription process no longer applies with Apple TV. It is seen by some as changing podcasts to video on demand services.

Internet photos can be viewed from MobileMe and Flickr accounts. Apple TV will display the photos in a slide show, with automatic cross-dissolve transitions. The Ken Burns effect can also be configured for transitions.

Parental controls allow consumers to limit access to Internet media service content. Internet media is split into 4 categories: "Internet Photos", "YouTube", "Podcasts", and "Purchase and Rental ". Each of the 4 categories is configured by a parental control of "Show", "Hide" or "Ask" to prompt for a 4-digit preset code. In addition, Movies and TV shows can be restricted based on rating as well as explicit music and podcasts.

AirTunes allows an Apple TV or AirPort-enabled computer with the iTunes music player to send a stream of music to multiple (three to six, in typical conditions) stereos connected to an AirPort Express or Apple TV.

The AirPort Express' streaming media capabilities use Apple's Remote Audio Output Protocol (RAOP), a proprietary variant of RTSP/RTP. Using WDS-bridging, the AirPort Express can allow AirTunes functionality (as well as Internet access, file and print sharing, etc.) across a larger distance in a mixed environment of wired and up to 10 wireless clients.

AirTunes can be controlled by a Keyspan USB-enabled infrared remote control plugged into the USB port, but the Apple Remote's volume buttons cannot control AirTunes. However volume control can be adjusted using the slider within iTunes. AirTunes will not stream a video's audio.

Speakers attached to an AirPort Express can be selected from within the "Remote" iPhone/iPod Touch program, allowing full AirTunes compatibility (see "Remote control" section below).

Several third-party AirPort Express clients can connect an AirPort Express to sources other than iTunes, including Airfoil for Mac OS X, Windows, JustePort for Windows, and raop-play for Linux.

Apple TV comes with the standard Apple Remote, Out of the box, the default setting is unpaired which means any Apple Remote works with the device. Apple TV can optionally be paired with one particular remote to prevent conflicts from other IR-capable devices. The remote control allows for adjustment of playback volume, but for music only.

Because the Apple Remote is a standard infrared remote, mainstream universal remotes have been updated for use with Apple TV and can be used to control volume.The Apple TV can also has the ability to be programmed to recognize commands from virtually any infrared remote control.

On July 10, 2008, Apple released, in the App Store, Remote, a free application that allows for a Wi-Fi-based remote control of the iTunes library on the Apple TV and computers of the Mac line using Apple's line of devices with iPhone OS 2.0 (currently the iPhone and iPod Touch).

Although access to computers on a local network is not required, typical reasons for connectivity of Apple TV to a computer might be to maintain a central home media library of legally-ripped CD, DVD or HD content, provide direct connectivity to photo organization software such as iPhoto, limit home video access to a local network only, play Internet radio, or preload content on Apple TV to be used later as a non-networked video player. For users who wish to connect the Apple TV to a computer, synchronization and streaming modes are supported.

In synchronization mode, Apple TV works in a similar way to the iPod. It is paired with an iTunes library on a single computer and can then synchronize with that library, copying content to its own hard drive. After syncing, Apple TV is not required to remain connected to the network for the device to continue functioning. Sync modes include "automatic" for synchronizing all iTunes content to the hard drive (in a specific priority), or "selected content" to only synchronize specified content. Photos can sync from iPhoto, Aperture, or from a hard disk folder on a Mac, or Adobe Photoshop Album, Photoshop Elements, or from a hard disk folder in Windows.

However, syncing iTunes content to Apple TVs hard drive is not required, and Apple TV can also function as a peer-to-peer digital media receiver, streaming content from iTunes libraries and playing the content over the network. Streaming performance of movies and TV shows purchased from the iTunes Store over an 802.11g wireless network was described by CNET's John P. Falcone as "impressive". Apple TV also includes the unapproved wireless-n standard for streaming 720p High-definition video (HD) content. Photos can stream from iPhoto or Aperture on a Mac, or Adobe Photoshop Album or Photoshop Elements in Windows.

Practical Technology comments that using the built-in streaming capabilities of Apple TV negates the need for more storage and Macworld's Christopher Breen says the "cramped" space and slow synchronization on the 40 GB model would be an issue if not for Apple TV's good streaming capabilities. Third-party functionality extends streaming beyond the home network to enable streaming of Apple TV content across the Internet.

Apple TV can stream content from up to five computers/iTunes libraries and five Apple TVs can be linked to the same iTunes library. On a single network, iLounge's Jeremy Horwitz tested "two Apple TVs with one computer, multiple computers with one Apple TV, and multiple computers with multiple Apple TVs" and all tests passed successfully. However Jeremy did note that syncing multiple Apple TVs simultaneously in the same environment might cause network slowdowns.

Apple TV is "simple to operate", and presents an interface based on the Front Row software for Mac OS X 10.4+ computers. Content is organized into six groups (Movies, TV Shows, Music, YouTube, Podcasts, and Photos), and is presented in the initial menu along with a "Settings" options option for Apple TV configuration, including software updates. These initial menu options then lead to other submenus. The included Apple Remote is used to navigate through the menus by using the up or down buttons and selecting options with the play button. The left/right buttons are used to perform rewind and fast-forward functions while viewing video content, but also perform previous song/next song functionality when selecting audio-only content.

Aside from "Movies" and "TV Shows" content, the "TV Shows" options allows the user to sort contents by show or date and the "Movies" option also allows the user to view movie trailers for new releases, just as the Front Row software does on a Mac. All video content, including movies, TV shows, music videos, and video podcasts, includes bookmark functionality. Apple TV automatically bookmarks video content midstream to continue playback at a later time. The "Music" submenu offers similar options to those found on an iPod, presenting the available music sorted by Artist, Album, Songs, Genres, and Composers, as well as offering a shuffle option and listing available audiobooks. As categories are selected with the remote, animated album art is displayed on the side of the display for the contents of the selected category. While playing "audio-only" content such as music and audio podcasts, Apple TV periodically moves album art and content info on the TV display to prevent burn-in on video displays.

Content has to be in certain formats to play on the Apple TV. It supports video encoded with either the H.264 video codec for a maximum resolution of 720p (up to 1280x720 pixels) at 25 frame/s or the MPEG-4 video codec for a maximum resolution of 720x432 (432p) or 640x480 pixels at 30 frame/s. Audio can be encoded with AAC (16-320 kbit/s), MP3 (16-320 kbit/s, with VBR), Apple Lossless, AIFF, or WAV audio codecs. It also has support for files encrypted with the FairPlay Digital Rights Management technology. For photos it supports the JPEG, BMP, GIF, TIFF, and PNG image file formats. Attempts to sync unsupported content to Apple TV will result in iTunes error message(s) because iTunes supports more formats than Apple TV.

Apple TV supports content purchased or rented from the iTunes store on Apple TV itself or from a networked computer running the iTunes software client. Both video and audio-only podcasts are supported and media companies are currently producing Apple TV-compatible video podcasts.

Apple TVs audio chip supports 7.1 surround sound, and some High Definition rentals from iTunes are offered with Dolby Digital 5.1 surround sound.

Aside from content obtained from Internet media services, Apple included an Apple TV export option in an update to their QuickTime software that was released at the same time as Apple TV. This allows content in some formats that the device does not support to be easily re-encoded into accepted formats for playback on the device. Applications which make use of QuickTime to export media also have access to the Apple TV export option, for example iMovie (from the "Share" menu) and iTunes (from the "Advanced" menu). Some third-party content conversion tools also provide Apple TV export options and Macworld has created a guide for using the tools to convert media to Apple TV-compatible formats.

2.0 aka "Take Two" (Feb 12, 2008) Standalone iTunes Store features (directly from Apple TV through the Internet): rent standard and HD movies with Dolby Digital 5.1 surround sound, buy TV Shows, music and music videos. Content automatically syncs back to the user's computer. Podcast directory of over one hundred thousand video and audio podcasts. View photos from .Mac and Flickr galleries. Play iTunes content on the audio system connected to the Apple TV via AirTunes, limited Internet radio support, show everything or only synced content, TV show display tweaks, iPhoto events, and enhanced parental controls.

2.1 (July 10, 2008) Movie Wish List, Support for Remote application, AirTunes receiver, Photo browser, MobileMe protected albums, Podcasts browsable by video and audio, Security fixes.

2.2 (October 2, 2008) HD TV shows, Movie browsing by actor and director, Chapter selection, alternate audio and subtitles, Movie description, Genius playlists, On-The-Go playlists, Music videos in playlists, Apple TV standby mode, Security fixes.

2.3 (November 24, 2008) AirTunes Streaming from Apple TV, Third-party Remote Controls, Playlists, Music Volume Control.

As soon as the Apple TV was released, users began examining it to see if it could be modified. Hacks were available for Apple TV within days of the release. Apple is not currently preventing users from installing Apple TV hacks, but users are warned that applying hacks will void the product's warranty.

Particular attention was paid to the device's operating system, which had been described by Walt Mossberg before the release as "a modified version of the Mac operating system". Users worked out how to access the device remotely through SSH, how to get Apple TV's version of Front Row running on other Apple computers, and how to install regular versions of Mac OS X v10.4 or Linux on the device. News sites reported that some users had determined how to add support for other codecs and create Front Row plugins.

Initially, hacking required physical changes to the hardware; the bottom rubber panel was removed (which is near impossible to do perfectly) and the hard drive connected to a computer. This leaves the rubber not fully connected and a sticky residue on the bottom metal. It is an aesthetic barrier to modification. Because of this, AppleTVHacks.net and FatWallet.com offered a US$1,000 reward for an external USB drive hack to utilize the USB "service port". Mid-2007, the USB hack was released. The community-created "Patchstick" project enables Apple TV owners to add software modifications using the USB hack. Users can download a Patchstick image to a USB drive and reboot the Apple TV from the drive. Software is then automatically transferred from the USB drive to the Apple TV device. A commercial version of the Patchstick was released mid-2008, the aTV Flash software. This software allows playback of common media files and includes a web browser, RSS reader and ability to download metadata from the IMDB. In a similar way to the open-source Patchstick method, the aTV Flash requires no physical modifications to the Apple TV.

Creating the open-source Patchstick was a manual effort until the Mac atvusb-creator application was released in late 2008 on Google Code. atvusb-creator is noted as the "easiest way" to create the Patchstick and loads a USB drive with dropbear ssh, bin tools including compression and FTP utilities, and two plugins (SoftwareMenu and XBMC Media Center/Boxee Installer/Launcher). Boxee is an open-source "media center application based on XBMC with a social networking spin" and includes its own plugins for Internet media services such as Flickr, Last.fm, Shoutcast, Joost, Comedy Central, MTV, Netflix, and Hulu. Boxee also includes user-defined RSS audio, video, torrent and text feeds.

The Apple TV software updates typically remove any software hacks that are installed. Major hacks are updated on a regular basis and the Apple TV device can easily be re-hacked. The most common method used to "re-hack" is by using the Patchstick to reload hacks after an Apple TV software update. Although major hacks have been updated, most Front Row plugins have not been updated to work with Apple TV 2.x. AwkwardTV reports 10 plugins out of 32 have been certified to be compatible with the "Take Two" update.

Hardware modifications allow users to expand Apple TVs capabilities. Customers can upgrade the hard drive on their Apple TVs, although a repair company like iResQ can install hard drive upgrades with data transfer. The company offers upgrades to 80GB, 120GB, 160GB, and 250GB hard drives. Another hardware hack allows the Apple TV to output color through composite video This hardware-based hack, which requires inexpensive hardware to trick the built-in operating system, enables users with non-HDTV TV sets, for which the Apple TV was originally designed, to connect Apple TVs to them.

Concerns have been expressed about the lack of personal video recorder capabilities on Apple TV. Apple TV does not contain a TV tuner, but a tuner and PVR capability can be applied on the connected home computer through a third party. The PVR software will connect to iTunes, enabling scheduled HDTV recordings to automatically appear on Apple TV for playback. One such PVR idea says that Apple should buy TiVo and another mentions that Apple should go a step further and turn Apple TV into a fully-functional cable box. Critics against the DVR/TiVo idea mention that the DVR market is dead and call the DVR the "PDA of the living room".

Some people feel that the Front Row interface is lacking standard iTunes functionality, including rating items, synchronizing from more than one computer, full Internet radio support, and games. After the success of the iPhone SDK and the App Store, it has been mentioned that Apple TV should provide the same functionality so that programmers can provide third party applications using Apple TVs interface without having to hack the Apple TV device. The website Apple TV Junkie was created to "list of all new HD & SD rental titles released on a daily basis", something which the Apple TV interface does not provide today. Critics claim that Apple TVs TV-based interface is "cluttered" and difficult to browse or search for a specific movie. Users are asking for Netflix-like functionality, including queues and "watched" flags or dates.

Movie rentals on iTunes can be transferred to any video-enabled iPod, iPhone or Apple TV for playing, but any movie rented on Apple TV must be watched on Apple TV. To copy a movie purchased on Apple TV to a video-enabled iPod or iPhone, the movie must first be transferred to an iTunes-enabled computer on the network.

Apple TV/itunes is "not designed" to sync or stream content from networked drives to Apple TV. Customers have mixed results when using a NAS to store Apple TV content. Content which can be synced or streamed to Apple TV has to be on the local drive or an external drive directly connected to the iTunes-enabled computer.

Critics have stated that content flexibility is weak with Apple TV. For Internet media services, Apple TV doesn't connect to Amazon or Rhapsody for music, movie rental services Jaman and HungryFlix, Internet radio services Shoutcast and Last.fm, Google photo service Picasa (although Google's YouTube is supported), or video services Hulu, Joost, CBS, MTV, CNN, the WB, Comedy Central and TV.com. User-defined RSS audio, video and text feeds are not supported by Apple TV.Audible purchases from audible.com are not compatible with Apple TV, and iTunes U content is desired on Apple TV.

Although Apple TV has a "Closed Captioning" setting, closed captioning/subtitles are not available for most Apple TV/iTunes store content.

Pricing for Apple TV/iTunes store content has been a concern. Content is priced under Apple's standard "pay-per-view" model, while some users have been asking for a subscription-based model (such as Netflix, Blockbuster Total Access or Hollywood Video MVP) or free, ad-supported content (such as Hulu). Reviewers note that Apple TV sales may benefit from a partnership with Netflix or Hulu.

Apple TV is seen by some to have limited out-of-the-box support for video and audio codecs, although Apple TV supports the same MP4 and H.264 codecs the video iPod and iPhone do. Media conversion tools are available, but conversion "almost always" involves a loss of quality as well as the time and effort costs to perform the conversions.

Image quality of Apple TV content has also been noted as a concern. 1080i or 1080p HD content (e.g. content originating from HD cameras) must be downgraded in quality for use on Apple TV. Users without the technical knowledge to convert HD content to lower quality may have to resort to downloading low-quality iTunes Store movie content. Note that iTunes Store 720p HD-quality content is available via video podcasts. Apple also offers 4 Mbit/s H.264 720p HD movies for rental via iTunes. For comparison, broadcast and cable HD movies are up to 19 Mbit/s MPEG2 720p and Blu-ray HD movies are up to 40 Mbit/s H.264 or VC-1 1080p.

Apple TV content cannot be used with older televisions, although 480i is unofficially supported as long as the TV supports component video connectivity. RCA/composite video and F/RF connectors are not included on the Apple TV device. Reviewers have noted that Apple is "future-proofing", and "if you do not have HDTV now, you will in the future".

The Apple Remote can control volume, but only for Music on Apple TV.

Apple TV comes with only a power cable. Apple has teamed up with a third party to provide cables for its customers. A USB port is included on the device, but it is reserved for service use only.

The Apple TV device runs "very hot", sometimes reaching 44° C (111° F). According to Apple, this is normal. There is no off button or function on the Apple TV (although there is a sleep function) so the only way to cool the Apple TV is to unplug it in sleep mode.

In March 2007, reviewers mentioned the lack of expansion options once the hard drive on the 40 GB model fills up. In late May 2007, Apple introduced a version of the Apple TV with 160 GB of storage space. Another former limitation required photos to be synced to the device, but this was fixed in a June 2007 iTunes update.

Many different features were added in the February 2008 release of the 2.0 ("Take 2") software update, features which some of Apple TV's competitors had provided already. Concerns were raised about the Apple TV when it was originally released regarding the dependency on connectivity to a home computer via iTunes. Although users could view YouTube as well as movie and TV previews directly through the Internet, most content had to originate from the connected home computer. An Apple TV user could not purchase or download iTunes content directly from Apple TV. After the update, all Apple TVs can download and purchase content from the iTunes Store directly without connecting to a computer. For audio, Apple TV had only officially supported Dolby Pro Logic simulated 5.1, though unofficially the full 5.1 Surround Sound digital discrete worked if a 5.1-capable receiver was connected via the optical cable to Apple TV and the audio content was encoded as lossless. QuickTime and Apple TV did not ship with an AC-3 codec, and iTunes Store content only supported 4.0 surround sound. News sites were reporting that some users had worked out how to add AC-3 (Dolby Digital) 5.1 channel support by hacking the unit. After the update, users were able to rent movies in standard or high definition with Dolby Digital 5.1 surround. Standard iTunes functionality, including shuffling, interrupting a shuffle, and displaying a video timeline were added to the Front Row interface. Yahoo!'s Ben Patterson has criticized Apple for having "lost interest" in the Apple TV with "a full six months passing since the last Apple TV software update". However, this criticism, while warranted, was stated in advance of the Apple TV "Take 2" update.

The 2.2 update added the ability to add songs to On-The-Go playlists as well as the ability to generate Genius playlists. Many users complained about the lack of "Genius" functionality after the release of iTunes 8.0. It also meant that users could buy HD television shows. Before the 2.3 update, the Apple remote could be used on a Macintosh computer for both Front Row navigation as well as volume control, but could not be used the same way on Apple TV.

Within the first week of presales in January 2007, Apple TV was the top selling item at the Apple Store. Orders exceeded 100,000 units by the end of January and Apple began ramping-up to sell over a million units prior to the 2007 holiday season. Analysts began to see the device as a "DVD killer" that has the ability to enable multiple services. Analysts also predicted that Apple could sell up to 1.5 million units in the first year. Besides the Apple Store, Best Buy was one of the first retailers to carry the device; Target and Costco followed shortly thereafter.

Two months into sales, Forrester Research predicted that Apple would only sell a million Apple TV units, since advertisement-supported content would win the war against paid content. Forrester predicted that cable companies would be the clear winners over content providers such as the iTunes Store. Shortly after, Apple released YouTube functionality and Jobs stated that Apple TV was a "DVD player for the Internet". Market analysts immediately saw that YouTube on Apple TV "provides a glimpse of this product's potential and its future evolution", but overall, analysts had mixed reactions regarding the future of Apple TV. Some negative reactions followed after Jobs referred to the device as a "hobby", implying it was less significant than the Macintosh, iPod, and iPhone.

In Apple's first quarter 2009 financial results conference call, acting chief executive Tim Cook stated that Apple TV sales increased three times over the same quarter a year ago. Cook mentioned that the movie rental business was working well for Apple, Apple would continue investment in movie rentals and Apple TV, but Apple TV is still considered a hobby for the company. Due to the growth of digital TV and consumers turning to Internet media services, an analyst predicted sales of 6.6 million Apple TVs by the end of 2009.

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Apple Inc.

The Glass Apple Logo (1998 – Present)

Apple Inc., (NASDAQ: AAPL) formerly Apple Computer Inc., is an American multinational corporation which designs and manufactures consumer electronics and software products. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the iPod and the iPhone. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system, the iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, the iWork suite of productivity software, and Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products. The company operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.

Established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976 and incorporated January 3, 1977, the company was called "Apple Computer, Inc." for its first 30 years, but dropped the word "Computer" on January 9, 2007 to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. Apple has about 35,000 employees worldwide and had worldwide annual sales of US$32.48 billion in its fiscal year ending September 29, 2008. For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaigns, Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. This includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand, particularly in the United States. In 2008, Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States.

Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne, to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips)—less than what is today considered a complete personal computer. The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66.

Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977 without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple.

The Apple II was introduced on April 16, 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it came with color graphics and an open architecture. While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface, the Disk II.

The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world—the VisiCalc spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II, and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II—compatibility with the office. According to Brian Bagnall, Apple exaggerated its sales figures and was a distant third place to Commodore and Tandy until VisiCalc came along.

By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The Apple II was succeeded by the Apple III in May 1980 as the company competed with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market.

Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for $1 million in pre-IPO Apple stock. Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a GUI, and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa.

Steve Jobs began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978 but in 1982 he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting, and took over Jef Raskin's low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh. A turf war broke out between Lisa's "corporate shirts" and Jobs' "pirates" over which product would ship first and save Apple. Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles.

In 1984, Apple next launched the Macintosh. Its debut was announced by the now famous $1.5 million television commercial, "1984". It was directed by Ridley Scott, aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and is now considered a watershed event for Apple's success and a masterpiece.

The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong. The machine's fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be offered at a reasonable price point, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package. The Mac was particularly powerful in this market due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which were already necessarily built-in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI. It has been suggested that the combination of these three products was responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market.

With continued strong sales of the Apple II, and the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple's sales reached new highs and the company had its initial public offering on September 7, 1984.

A power struggle developed between Jobs and new CEO John Sculley in 1985. Apple's board of directors sided with Sculley and Jobs was removed from his managerial duties. Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year.

Apple's sustained growth during the early 1980s was partly due to its leadership in the education sector, attributed to their adaptation of the programming language LOGO, used in many schools with the Apple II. The drive into education was accentuated in California with the donation of one Apple II and one Apple LOGO software package to each public school in the state.

Having learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in 1989, Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991, which established the modern form and ergonomic layout of the laptop computer. The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001.

The success of the PowerBook and other products led to increasing revenue. For some time, it appeared that Apple could do no wrong, introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process. The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the "first golden age" of the Macintosh.

Following the success of the LC, Apple introduced the Centris line, a low end Quadra offering, and the ill-fated Performa line which was sold in several confusing configurations and software bundles to avoid competing with the various consumer outlets such as Sears, Price Club, and Wal-Mart, the primary dealers for these models. The end result was disastrous for Apple as consumers did not understand the difference between models.

During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, and TV appliances. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley's unrealistic market forecasts. Ultimately, all of this proved be too-little-too-late for Apple as their market share and stock prices continued to slide.

Apple saw the Apple II family as too expensive to produce, while taking away sales from the low end Macintosh. In 1990 Apple released the Macintosh LC with a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform. Apple stopped selling the Apple IIe in 1993.

Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows, focusing on delivering software with cheap commodity PCs while Apple was delivering a richly engineered, but expensive, experience. Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response. Instead they sued Microsoft for using a graphical user interface similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation. The lawsuit dragged on for years before being thrown out of court. At the same time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines destroyed Apple's reputation and Sculley was replaced by Michael Spindler.

By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as the A/UX. The Macintosh platform was becoming outdated since it was not built for multitasking, and several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware. In addition, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors like Sun Microsystems. The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform, or reworked to run on more powerful hardware.

In 1994, Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance. The goal was to create a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple's software. The AIM alliance hoped that PReP's performance and Apple's software would leave the PC far behind, thus countering Microsoft. The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use IBM's PowerPC processor.

In 1996, Michael Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. Gil Amelio made many changes at Apple, including massive layoffs. After multiple failed attempts to improve Mac OS, first with the Taligent project, then later with Copland and Gershwin, Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system, bringing Steve Jobs back to Apple as an advisor. On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs became the interim CEO and began restructuring the company's product line.

At the 1997 Macworld Expo, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock.

On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Store, tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy.

On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led by Jonathan Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone. The iMac featured current technology and a groundbreaking design. It sold close to 800,000 units in its first five months and returned Apple to profitability for the first time since 1993.

Through this period, Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professional and consumer-oriented digital production software. In 1998, Apple announced the purchase of Macromedia's Final Cut software, signaling its expansion into the digital video editing market. The following year, Apple released two video editing products: iMovie for consumers, and Final Cut Pro for professionals, the latter of which has gone on to be a significant video-editing program, with 800,000 registered users in early 2007. In 2002 Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake, as well as Emagic for their music productivity application Logic, which led to the development of their consumer-level GarageBand application. iPhoto's release the same year completed the iLife suite.

Mac OS X, based on NeXT's OPENSTEP and BSD Unix was released on March 24, 2001, after several years of development. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface. To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications through Mac OS X's Classic environment.

On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California. The same year, Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player. The product was phenomenally successful — over 100 million units were sold within six years. In 2003, Apple's iTunes Store was introduced, offering online music downloads for $0.99 a song and integration with the iPod. The service quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008.

Since 2001 Apple's design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3. This began with the titanium PowerBook and was followed by the white polycarbonate iBook and the flat-panel iMac.

At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006. On January 10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to utilize Intel's Core Duo CPU. By August 7, 2006 Apple had transitioned the entire Mac product line to Intel chips, over 1 year sooner than announced. The Power Mac, iBook, and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition, the Mac Pro, MacBook, and Macbook Pro became their respective successors.

Apple also introduced Boot Camp to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X.

Delivering his keynote at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Steve Jobs announced that Apple Computer, Inc. would from that point on be known as Apple Inc. The event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV. The following day, Apple shares hit $97.80, an all-time high. In May, Apple's share price passed the $100 mark.

On February 7, 2007, Apple indicated that it would sell music on the iTunes Store without DRM (which would allow tracks to be played on third-party players) if record labels would agree to drop the technology. On April 2, 2007, Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI's catalog in the iTunes Store, effective in May.

On July 11, 2008, Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch. Within a month, the store sold 60 million applications and brought in $1 million daily on average, with Steve Jobs speculating that the App Store could become a billion-dollar business for Apple. Three months later, it was announced that Apple had become the third-largest mobile handset supplier in the world due to the popularity of the iPhone.

On December 16, 2008, Apple announced 2009 would be the last year Apple would be attending the Macworld Expo, and that Phil Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote in lieu of the expected Steve Jobs.

On January 14, 2009, an internal Apple memo from Steve Jobs announced that he would be taking a six-month leave of absence, until the end of June 2009, to allow him to better focus on his health and to allow the company to better focus on its products.

Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Mac computers including the AirPort wireless networking products, Time Capsule, Cinema Display, Mighty Mouse, the Apple Wireless Keyboard computer keyboard, and the Apple USB Modem.

On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. It has evolved to include various models targeting the needs of different users. The iPod is the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin, with more than 100 million units shipped as of April 9, 2007. Apple has partnered with Nike to introduce the Nike+iPod Sports Kit enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website. Apple currently sells four variants of the iPod.

At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs revealed the long anticipated iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod. The original iPhone combined a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in hand held devices, running a scaled-down versions of Apple's Mac OS X (dubbed iPhone OS), with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3.5-inch (89 mm) touch screen display, 8 or 16 GB of memory, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both "b" and "g"). The iPhone first became available on June 29, 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB). On June 9, 2008, at WWDC 2008, Steve Jobs announced that the iPhone 3G would be available on July 11, 2008. This version added support for 3G networking, assisted-GPS navigation, and a price cut to $199 for the 8 GB version, and $299 for the 16 GB version which was available in both black and white. The new version was visually different from its predecessor in that it eliminated the flat silver back, and large antenna square for a curved glossy black or white back. Following complaints from many people, the headphone jack was changed from a recessed jack to a flush jack to be compatible with more styles of headphones. The software capabilities changed as well, with the release of the new iPhone came the release of Apple's App Store; the store provided applications for download that were compatible with the iPhone. It has since surpassed five hundred million downloads.

At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV, (previously known as the iTV), a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions. The device links up to a user's TV and syncs, either via Wi-Fi or a wired network, with one computer's iTunes library and streams from an additional four. The Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage, includes outputs for HDMI and component video, and plays video at a maximum resolution of 720p. On May 31, 2007 a 160 GB drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model and on January 15, 2008 a software update was released, which allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple TV.

Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs, Mac OS X, the latest version being Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard. Apple also independently develops computer software titles for its Mac OS X operating system. Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its computers. An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package which bundles iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, iTunes, GarageBand, and iWeb. For presentation, page layout and word processing, iWork is available, which includes Keynote, Pages, and Numbers. iTunes, QuickTime media player, Safari web browser, and Software Update are available as free downloads for both Mac OS X and Windows.

Apple also offers a range of professional software titles. Their range of server software includes the operating system Mac OS X Server; Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management application; WebObjects, Java EE Web application server; and Xsan, a Storage Area Network file system. For the professional creative market, there is Aperture for professional RAW-format photo processing; Final Cut Studio, a video production suite; Logic, a comprehensive music toolkit and Shake, an advanced effects composition program.

Apple also offers online services with MobileMe (formerly .Mac) which bundles personal web pages, email, Groups, iDisk, backup, iSync, and Learning Center online tutorials. MobileMe is a subscription-based internet suite that capitalizes on the ability to store personal data on an online server and thereby keep all web-connected devices in sync. Announced at MacWorld Expo 2009, iWork.com allows iWork users to upload documents for sharing and collaboration.

Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of what a corporate culture should look like in terms of organizational hierarchy (flat versus tall, casual versus formal attire, etc.). Other highly successful firms with similar cultural aspects from the same time period include Southwest Airlines and Microsoft. Originally, the company stood in opposition to staid competitors like IBM more or less by default, thanks to the influence of its founders; Steve Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple was a Fortune 500 company. By the time of the "1984" TV ad, this trait had become a key way the company attempts differentiated itself from its competitors.

As the company has grown and been led by a series of chief executives, each with his own idea of what Apple should be, some of its original character has arguably been lost, but Apple still has a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably draws talented people into its employ, especially after Jobs' return. To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program. Apple Fellows are those who have made extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company. The Apple Fellowship has so far been awarded to a few individuals including Bill Atkinson, Steve Capps, Rod Holt, Alan Kay, Guy Kawasaki, Al Alcorn, Don Norman, Rich Page, and Steve Wozniak.

According to surveys by J. D. Power, Apple has the highest brand and repurchase loyalty of any computer manufacturer. While this brand loyalty is considered unusual for any product, Apple appears not to have gone out of its way to create it. At one time, Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company, but this was after the phenomenon was already firmly established. Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism "something that was stumbled upon". Apple has, however, supported the continuing existence of a network of Mac User Groups in most major and many minor centers of population where Mac computers are available.

Mac users meet at the European Apple Expo and the San Francisco Macworld Conference & Expo trade shows where Apple traditionally introduced new products each year to the industry and public. Mac developers in turn gather at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference.

Apple Store openings can draw crowds of thousands, with some waiting in line as much as a day before the opening or flying in from other countries for the event. The New York City Fifth Avenue "Cube" store had a line as long as half a mile; a few Mac fans took the opportunity of the setting to propose marriage. The Ginza opening in Tokyo was estimated in the thousands with a line exceeding eight city blocks.

Market research indicates that Apple draws its customer base from an unusually artistic, creative, and well-educated population, which may explain the platform’s visibility within certain youthful, avant-garde subcultures.

Apple has a history of vertical integration in their products, manufacturing the hardware on which they pre-install their software.

During the Mac's early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own. This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s beginning with Apple's adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs. Apple has since adopted USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, and other industry standards in its computers and was in some cases a leader in the adoption of such standards such as USB. FireWire is an Apple-originated standard which has seen widespread industry adoption after it was standardized as IEEE 1394.

Ever since the first Apple Store opened, Apple has sold third party accessories. This allows, for instance, Nikon and Canon to sell their Mac-compatible digital cameras and camcorders inside the store. Adobe, one of Apple's oldest software partners, also sells its Mac-compatible software, as does Microsoft, who sells Microsoft Office for the Mac. Books from John Wiley & Sons, who publishes the For Dummies series of instructional books, are a notable exception however. The publisher's line of books were banned from Apple Stores in 2005 because Steve Jobs disagreed with their editorial policy.

Apple Inc.'s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California. This Apple campus has six buildings which total 850,000 square feet (79,000 m2) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos.

In 2006, Apple announced its intention to build a second campus on 50 acres (200,000 m2) assembled from various contiguous plots. The new campus, also in Cupertino, will be about one mile (1.6 km) east of the current campus.

Since formation of the Apple Computer Company in 1977, it (as Apple Computer, Inc.) has employed over 75,000 people worldwide. The majority of Apple's employees have been located in the United States but Apple has substantial manufacturing, sales, marketing, and support organizations worldwide, and some engineering operations in Paris and Tokyo.

Apple employees include employees of companies acquired by Apple as well as subsidiaries such as FileMaker Inc. and Braeburn Capital.

Since the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 with the 1984 Super Bowl commercial to the more modern 'Get a Mac' adverts, Apple has been recognized in the past for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products, though it has been criticized for the claims of some more recent campaigns, particularly 2005 Power Mac ads and iPhone ads in Britain.

Apple’s first logo, designed by Jobs and Wayne, depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree. Almost immediately, though, this was replaced by Rob Janoff’s “rainbow Apple”, the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it. Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic logos, and Jobs immediately took a liking to the bitten apple. While Jobs liked the logo, he insisted it be in color, as a way to humanize the company.

The original hand drawn logo features sir Isaac Newton, and one theory states that the symbol references his discoveries of gravity (the apple) and the separation of light by prisms (the colors). Another explanation exists that the bitten apple pays homage to the mathematician Alan Turing, who committed suicide by eating an apple he had laced with cyanide. Turing is regarded as one of the fathers of the computer. The rainbow colors of the logo are rumored to be a reference to the rainbow flag, as a homage to Turing's homosexuality.

In 1998, with the roll out of the new iMac, Apple began to use a monochromatic logo — supposedly at the insistence of recently returned Jobs — nearly identical in shape to its previous rainbow incarnation. However, no specific color is prescribed throughout Apple's software and hardware line. The logo's shape is one of the most recognized brand symbols in the world, identifies all Apple products and retail stores (the name "Apple" is not even present) and has been included as stickers in nearly all Macintosh and iPod packages through the years.

The original Apple logo featuring Isaac Newton under the fabled apple tree.

The monochrome Apple logo, used from 1998 to late 2000, predominantly on hardware. Still appears on various products in various colors, such as iLife packaging.

Stylized Apple logo, used 2001 to around 2007 on Apple software.

Logo used from 2007 to present.

Apple's first slogan, "Byte into an Apple", was coined in the late 1970s. From 1997–2002, Apple used the slogan Think Different in advertising campaigns. The slogan had a lasting impact on their image and revived their popularity with the media and customers. Although the slogan has been retired, it is still closely associated with Apple. Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example, "iThink, therefore iMac", was used in 1998 to promote the iMac, and "Say hello to iPhone" has been used in iPhone advertisements. "Hello" was also used to introduce the original Macintosh, Newton, iMac ("hello (again)"), and iPod.

Apple’s product commercials are notorious for launching musicians into stardom as a result of their eye-popping graphics and catchy tunes. First, the company popularized Canadian singer Feist’s “1234” song in its ad campaign. Then Apple used the song “New Soul” by French-Israeli singer-songwriter Yael Naim to promote the MacBook Air. The debut single shot to the top of the charts and sold hundreds of thousands of copies in a span of weeks. The Israeli Consulate in New York promoted the Apple commercial on its official blog, isRealli, by including a link to the YouTube video.

Greenpeace, an environmentalist organization, has confronted Apple on various environmental issues, including promoting a global end-of-life take-back plan, non-recyclable hardware components, and toxins within the iPhone hardware. Since 2003 they have campaigned against Apple regarding their chemical policies, in particular the inclusion of PVC and BFRs in their products, both of which have serious negative health effects. On May 2, 2007, Steve Jobs released a report announcing plans to completely eliminate PVC and BFRs by the end of 2008.

Greenpeace runs a "Guide to Greener Electronics", which rates companies on chemical-disposal waste-reduction practices. In the first edition, released in August 2006, Apple scored 2.7/10. In subsequent editions Apple's score has improved steadily. Apple has soon improved its score to a 4.1/10, placing it in the 45 percentile among 17 other electronic companies and 10th in the rankings.

The Environmental Protection Agency rates Apple highest amongst producers of notebook computers, and fairly well compared to producers of desktop computers and LCD displays.

In June 2007 Apple upgraded the MacBook Pro, replacing cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlit LCD displays with mercury-free LED backlit LCD displays and arsenic-free glass, and has since done this for all notebooks. However, current iMacs still use CCFL backlit LCD displays. Apple has also phased out BFRs and PVCs from various internal components. Apple also offers detailed information about the emissions, materials, and electrical usage of each product. Apple has also begun to advertise how environmentally friendly their new laptops are including television spots and magazine ads, in addition to touting these facts on their website.

In 2006, the Mail on Sunday alleged that sweatshop conditions existed in factories in China, where the contract manufacturers, Foxconn and Inventec operate the factories that produce the iPod.

One iPod factory, for instance, had over 200,000 workers that lived and worked in the factory, with workers regularly doing more than 60 hours of labor per week. The factory workers, who make around $100 per month were required to live on the premises and pay for rent and food from the company. Living expenses (required to keep the job) generally took up a little over half of the worker's earnings. Workers were given buckets to wash their clothes.

Immediately after the allegations, Apple launched an investigation and worked with their manufacturers to ensure that conditions were acceptable to Apple but did not find any conditions that were unacceptable to Apple.

Activision Blizzard · Adobe · Akamai Technologies · Altera · Amazon.com · Amgen · Apollo Group · Apple · Applied Materials · Autodesk · Automatic Data Processing · Baidu · Bed Bath & Beyond · Biogen Idec · Broadcom · C. H. Robinson Worldwide · CA, Inc. · Celgene · Cephalon · Check Point · Cintas · Cisco · Citrix · Cognizant Technology Solutions · Comcast · Costco · Dell · DENTSPLY International · Dish Network Corporation · eBay · Electronic Arts · Expedia · Expeditors International · Express Scripts · Fastenal · First Solar · Fiserv · Flextronics · FLIR Systems · Foster Wheeler · Garmin · Genzyme · Gilead Sciences · Google · Hansen Natural · Henry Schein · Hologic · IAC/InterActiveCorp · Illumina · Infosys · Intel · Intuit · Intuitive Surgical · J.B. Hunt · Joy Global · Juniper Networks · KLA-Tencor · Lam Research · Liberty Global · Liberty Media · Life Technologies · Linear Technology · Logitech · Marvell · Maxim Integrated Products · Microchip Technology · Microsoft · Millicom International Cellular · NetApp · News Corporation · NII · Nvidia · O'Reilly Automotive · Oracle · PACCAR · Patterson Companies · Paychex · Pharmaceutical Product Development · Qualcomm · Research In Motion · Ross Stores · Ryanair · Seagate · Sears · Sigma-Aldrich · Staples · Starbucks · Steel Dynamics · Stericycle · Sun Microsystems · Symantec · Teva Pharmaceutical Industries · The DirecTV Group · Urban Outfitters · VeriSign · Vertex Pharmaceuticals · Warner Chilcott · Wynn Resorts · Xilinx · Yahoo!

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Apple Remote

Image:Apple Remote.jpg

The Apple Remote is a remote control made for use with Apple products with infrared capabilities released after October 2005. The device was announced by Steve Jobs on October 12, 2005. The remote is largely based on the interface of the first generation iPod Shuffle and has only six buttons. The six buttons on the remote are for Menu, Play/Pause, Volume Up/Down, Previous/Rewind, and Next/Fast-forward. The remote was originally designed to interact with Front Row in the iMac G5 and is also compatible with the MacBook. The Mac Mini with Apple Remote support was announced on February 26, 2006. The Apple TV also ships with and utilizes the Apple Remote. There is no Apple Remote support on the Mac Pro.

The remote was designed to attach magnetically to the side of the late G5 and early Intel iMacs. These models integrated several hidden magnets in the bottom right corner which attract the remote's battery. This is also possible with the frame of MacBook screens. As of February 2008, the MacBook and MacBook Pro no longer include an Apple Remote in the package, though it remains compatible and available as an option. As of March 2009, the iMac and Mac Mini also no longer ship with an Apple Remote in the package.

The Front Row application allows users to browse and play music, view videos (DVDs and downloaded files) and browse photos. The Apple Remote is also compatible with the iPod Hi-Fi and the Universal Dock. The functions for the iPod Universal Dock allow for music and media control, though the remote is not able to control the menus within the iPod. The battery is accessed by pushing a small, blunt object, such as a paper clip or a 3.5 mm headphone plug, into a tiny indent at the bottom right edge of the remote, revealing the compartment which houses the CR2032 lithium 3.0 V button cell.

A device can be configured to respond only to a certain remote. This can be achieved by holding the Apple Remote close enough to the device with which it is to be paired, and then pressing and holding the "Menu" and "Next" (or "Play") buttons for five seconds. Pairing can be removed by deactivating it under the Mac OS X "Security" System Preference pane. Only users with administrative privileges are allowed to pair their remote; in a non-administrator account, pressing the buttons will have no effect and nothing will be displayed. Pairing can be very useful because some users who have both an iMac and Apple TV nearby experience issues with remotes working with both devices.

Users can put iMacs, MacBook Airs, MacBook Pros, MacBooks, Intel Mac Minis, Apple TVs, or docked iPods into sleep mode by holding down the Play/Pause button on the Apple Remote. Devices can also be awakened by pressing any button on the remote.

Holding down the Menu button on the remote while starting up an Intel Macintosh enters the Startup Manager (same as holding the Option key at startup). The remote can then be used to cycle through all bootable partitions and can then confirm them by pressing the Play/Pause button. This can be especially useful for Boot Camp users who might frequently use this feature to boot into Windows partitions on the Intel Macs. The remote can also eject CDs or DVDs in this menu by selecting the disc and then pressing the + (Volume Up) button on the remote.

The remote can be used to control presentations in Apple Keynote (on both Intel Macs & PPC Macs), OpenOffice.org Impress presentations (see Apple Remote and Impress), or presentations in Microsoft Powerpoint 2008, picture slide shows in iPhoto and Aperture ,QuickTime, DVD Player, and audio in iTunes. iRed Lite can be used to set up control of other applications and further customize the Apple Remote integration with Mac software. A number of commercial tools have also been released that allow custom configuration of the Apple Remote buttons. Programs such as Remote Buddy, Sofa Control and mira allow control over any application by providing users with the ability to assign simulated keystrokes and applescripts to each individual button. iAlertU uses the remote to activate security features allowing alarms/isight photos when people come near or move your MacBook.

In response to the new Intel processors, a small piece of software called the Apple Remote Helper has surfaced to allow remote use in the popular VLC media player. Play, pause, volume, and skip buttons all work normally. It should be noted, however, that the volume buttons change VLC's volume, and not the system volume. Starting with release 0.8.6-test1 VLC itself supports the Apple Remote.

Using the third-party remote software mira (from Twisted Melon) or Remote Buddy (from IOSPIRIT GmbH) users of older Macs can use the Apple Remote with a USB-based IR receiver. Most new Mac models come equipped with a built-in infrared receiver, but previous generation products lack any such IR device. Even the Mac Pro desktops released in the summer of 2006 lack built-in IR. Using Remote Buddy or mira, it is possible to connect an external USB receiver such as the Windows Media Center Edition eHome receiver, and use the Apple Remote on older machines with full support for sleep, pairing, low battery detection, and Front Row. In addition, Remote Buddy is able to emulate events of an Apple Remote on these systems, enabling users to use software written for the Apple Remote in exactly the same way as with newer Macs.

The remote only works with the iPods with dock connectors and only when the iPods are docked. The remote cannot control an un-docked iPod. The remote's menu functionality does not work on the iPod, docked or not.

The Apple Remote can also be used to control the iPod Hi-Fi.

The Apple Remote can be rested on the magnetic frame on the MacBook's screen when not in use. The three places on the MacBook that will hold the remote are the top left and the top right of the frame, as well as the middle right of the frame.

The remote can also be rested on a magnetic pad located beneath the SuperDrive of an early 2006 - mid 2007 iMac when not in use. In addition, the Apple Remote can be magnetically stuck onto an iMac's sideframes. This feature does not work on the newer aluminum iMac, only on the previous white iMacs.

As of Boot Camp 1.2, the remote has been given some compatibility when a user is running Windows. If the user has iTunes installed on the Windows partition, pressing the Menu button on the remote will load the program. As well as this, the remote has the ability to control both Windows Media Player and iTunes, as well as system Volume Control. Additionally, the remote also has the ability to control the audio program, foobar2000, and the freeware media program Media Player Classic. Programs must have focus for the remote to control them. Skipping tracks and pausing/playing functionality are available under the programs.

Because many electrical appliances use infrared remote (IR) controls, concurrent use of the Apple Remote with other IR remotes may scramble communications and generate interference, preventing stable use. Remotes should be used individually to circumvent the problem.

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Golden Apple (TV series)

Golden Apple (한국:황금사과, Hwang Geum Sa Gwa) is KBS2 drama that first aired in Korea on November 16, 2005 and finished on February 23, 2006. In Seoul area, Golden Apple got 17.43% ratings, making it 13th highest rated 2006 Korean dramas of all time. The series ran for a total of 30 episodes.

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Big Apple (TV series)

Big Apple is a Primetime Emmy Award-nominated American television police procedural that aired in the US on CBS in 2001. The story centers on two NYPD detectives Mooney and Trout (O'Neill and Pierce) working with the FBI to solve a murder with ties to organized crime. A subplot involves Mooney's sister (played by Brooke Smith) who is receiving hospice care for Lou Gehrig's Disease.

Big Apple was originally slated to compete with NBC's ER. Although 13 episodes were commissioned, only 8 aired before CBS canceled the show and replaced 48 Hours in the 10pm Thursday time slot. In 2008, the series aired in syndication on Universal HD.

Reviews of the show were largely positive. Variety called it "a triumph all around" and compared it favorably to NYPD Blue and Murder One. Entertainment Weekly praised O'Neill's performance as Detective Mooney and gave the show higher marks than Denis Leary's The Job.

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Source : Wikipedia