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Posted by kaori 02/26/2009 @ 23:01

Tags : arizona, states, us

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Max Scherzer pitches gem to lead Arizona Diamondbacks to victory ... -
Arizona Diamondbacks pitcher Max Scherzer throws against the San Francisco Giants in the first inning Thursday at Chase Field in Phoenix. (AP photo/Ross D. Franklin) Max Scherzer threw seven and two-thirds shutout innings and Chad Qualls pitched out of...
Houston Astros (27-31) at Arizona Diamondbacks (26-35), 9:40 pm - Kansas City Star
By Sports Network A pair of teams trying to build momentum send out a pair of .500 pitchers tonight when the Houston Astros travel to Phoenix for the first game of a National League series with the host Arizona Diamondbacks. Houston, which sits last in...
Foreclosure Filings Fall - Washington Post
Nevada and Arizona continued to have the highest foreclosure rates in May. Foreclosure filings in the District, Virginia and Maryland fell during that period, compared with the previous month. The monthly data are a reminder of the challenges facing...
Swine flu officially a pandemic; Arizona on alert - Arizona Republic
The strain is still widespread in Arizona, with the number of confirmed cases at 597, up from 580 earlier this week. Five people have died. Although the virus appears to be no more deadly than the common flu, it also is proving to be remarkably...
Building a Better Arizona shelves campaign, for now - Arizona Capitol Times
At a June 8 meeting, members of Building a Better Arizona 2012 voted to officially throw their support behind Gov. Jan Brewer's budget and her proposal to raise the state sales tax by 1 cent. Yet several members abstained because the organizations they...
Arizona vs. US state tax incentives for clean energy companies -
An Arizona Senate committee passed a bill Tuesday that offers solar and other renewable-energy equipment makers tax breaks for building new manufacturing plants in Arizona. The Greater Phoenix Economic Council is pushing SB 1403 to in its attempt to...
Arizona bill would halt new state rules - Forbes
"Our member businesses simply cannot accept new burdensome regulatory costs at this time," said Allison Bell, an Arizona Chamber of Commerce and Industry lobbyist. Critics have said lawmakers shouldn't keep agencies from adopting rules to enforce state...
Scottsdale man accused of impersonating war hero - The Associated Press
The Arizona Department of Public Safety said Thursday that 31-year-old John William Rodriguez was booked into Maricopa County jail Wednesday and faces 13 charges of felony fraud schemes. Rodriguez also may face a federal charge of violating the Stolen...
Arizona gets $681 million in stimulus funding for education -
The US Department of Education has approved $681 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding for Arizona schools, helping to keep hundreds of teachers employed, despite deep budget cuts in education. The state will be eligible to apply...
Questions remain for family grieving loss of man killed by Taser - Salt Lake Tribune
A graduate student at Northern Arizona University in molecular ecology, Cardall's resume included publication in academic journals and research that earned him esteem from seasoned scientists as he pursued his doctorate. The 32-year-old father's...

Arizona State University

Arizona State University seal.png

Arizona State University (ASU) is the largest public research university in the United States under a single administration, with total student enrollment of 67,082 as of fall 2008. It has four campuses, all in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. ASU is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents.

ASU was founded in 1885 as the Tempe Normal School for the Arizona Territory in Tempe, Arizona. It subsequently was renamed Arizona State College in 1945, and, on December 5, 1958, a statewide ballot measure renamed the school "Arizona State University," the only institution of higher education to have achieved university status by popular mandate.

In addition to the original campus in Tempe, ASU comprises three additional campuses: West campus was created in 1984 in northwest Phoenix, Polytechnic campus was opened in 1996 in Mesa, and the Downtown campus in Downtown Phoenix was opened in August 2006. All four campuses are accredited as a single university by the Higher Learning Commission.

In the 2007–2008 academic year, 14,535 students graduated from the university's four campuses. In 2008, 168 National Merit Scholars chose to attend ASU. Many are part of Barrett, The Honors College, which has produced numerous grant and scholarship winners since its founding in 1988. Under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, ASU is classified as a "RU/VH" (very high research activity--formerly called "Research 1") university.

Originally named the Tempe Normal School, the institution was founded on March 12, 1885 after John Samuel Armstrong first introduced House Bill 164, "An Act to Establish a Normal school in the Territory of Arizona to the 13th Legislative Assembly of the Arizona Territory. Instruction was instituted on February 8, 1886 under the supervision of Principal Hiram Bradford Farmer. Land for the school was donated by Tempe residents George and Martha Wilson, allowing 33 students to meet in a single room.

At the beginning of the 20th century the schools name was changed from Tempe Normal School to the Normal School of Arizona, and President Arthur John Matthews brought a 30-year tenure of progress to the school.

Under his tenure the school was given all-college student status; before becoming a college the Normal School enrolled high school students with no other secondary education facilities. The first dormitories built in the state were constructed under his supervision. Of the 18 buildings constructed while Matthews was president, six are still in use. He envisioned an "evergreen campus," with many shrubbery brought to the campus and the planting of Palm Walk, now one of the feature landmarks of the school. His legacy is being continued today: the main campus is a nationally recognized arboretum.

During the Great Depression, Ralph W. Swetman was hired as president for a three-year term. Although enrollment increased by almost 100% during his tenure due to the depression, many faculty were terminated and faculty salaries were cut.

In 1933, Grady Gammage, then president of Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff, became president of Arizona State Teachers College at Tempe, a tenure that would last for nearly 28 years.

Like his predecessor, Dr. Gammage oversaw the construction of a number of buildings on the Tempe campus. Dr. Gammage oversaw the development of the university, graduate programs, and the renaming of the Arizona State College to Arizona State University in 1958.

During the 1960s, with the presidency of Dr. G. Homer Durham, Arizona State University began to expand its academic curriculum by establishing several new colleges and beginning to award Doctor of Philosophy and other doctoral degrees.

The next three presidents—Harry K. Newburn, 1969–71, John W. Schwada, 1971–81, and J. Russell Nelson, 1981–89—and Interim President Richard Peck, 1989, led the university to increased academic stature, creation of the West Campus, and rising enrollment.

Under the leadership of Dr. Lattie F. Coor, from 1990 to June 2002, ASU grew to serve the Valley of the Sun through the creation of the Polytechnic campus and extended education sites. His commitment to diversity, quality in undergraduate education, research, and economic development underscored the university’s significant gains in each of these areas over his 12-year tenure. Part of Dr. Coor’s legacy to the university was a successful fund-raising campaign. Through private donations, primarily from the local community, more than $500 million was invested in targeted areas that significantly impact the future of ASU. Among the campaign’s achievements were the naming and endowing of the Barrett Honors College, the Katherine K. Herberger College of Fine Arts, and the Morrison School of Agribusiness and Resource Management at the Polytechnic campus; the creation of many new endowed faculty positions; and hundreds of new scholarships and fellowships.

On July 1, 2002, Michael Crow would become the university's 16th president. At his inauguration, President Crow outlined his vision for transforming ASU into a New American University—one that would be open and inclusive. As the only research university serving the metropolitan Phoenix area, Crow has stated that ASU is in a unique position to evolve together with the city into one of the great intellectual institutions in the world.

Under Crow's leadership, and aided by hundreds of millions of dollars in donations, ASU has embarked on its most aggressive capital building effort in more than a decade. The university is adding one million square feet of world-class research infrastructure, and is continuing its development and expansion of the West, Polytechnic and Downtown campuses.

Arizona State University comprises four campuses: the Tempe campus, which is the original and largest campus, the West Campus in northwest Phoenix, the Polytechnic Campus located in Eastern Mesa, and the Downtown Campus in downtown Phoenix. Although there is some redundancy in undergraduate academic offerings across the campuses, each campus was designed to host a unique set of colleges and departments. All four campuses award Bachelor's degrees, Master's degrees, and Doctorates.

Unlike a university system, the ASU campuses are all part of a single university, with a common administration presiding over the faculty, staff, and students. Indeed, the campuses do not have separate admissions, and students receive the same diplomas regardless of which campus they primarily attended. As the original ASU campus in Tempe has nearly reached build-out, the university is reorganizing its colleges and schools, moving some to the newer campuses.

Although most colleges are localized on a single campus, some colleges have a presence on all four campuses, particularly Barrett, The Honors College, Graduate College, and University College.

ASU's Tempe campus lies in the heart of Tempe, Arizona, about eight miles (13 km) east of downtown Phoenix. The campus is considered urban, and is approximately 642 acres (2.6 km2) in size. ASU's Tempe Campus is arranged around broad pedestrian malls and is completely encompassed by an arboretum. ASU has an extensive public art collection, considered one of the ten best among university public art collections in America according to Public Art Review. Sitting next to Tempe Town Lake, it crosses University Drive and is defined by its borders on Apache Blvd, Rural Road, and Mill Avenue. Against the northwest edge of campus is the Mill Avenue district, which has a college atmosphere that attracts many students to its restaurants and bars. The Tempe campus has expanded to Mill Avenue with The Brickyard, which is a part of the Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering. ASU's Tempe Campus is also home to all the schools athletic facilities.

The Tempe Campus is the original campus, and Old Main, the first building constructed on the campus, still stands today. Not only is it the oldest but also the largest campus, with 52,734 students total. There are many notable landmarks on campus, including Grady Gammage Memorial Auditorium, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Other notable landmarks include Palm Walk, which is lined by 111 palm trees, Charles Trumbull Hayden Library, Old Main, the University Club Building, and University Bridge.

The West campus sits on 250 acres (1.0 km2) in northwest Phoenix, bordering the city of Glendale, Arizona; however, much of the campus is undeveloped land, with only 28.5 acres (115,000 m2) of it fully-developed. The West campus lies about 12 miles (19 km) northwest of downtown Phoenix, and about 18 miles (29 km) northwest of the Tempe campus. The West campus focuses on liberal arts and interdisciplinary programs, enrolls 9,572 students and offers 54 degree programs in five colleges. The campus originally focused on undergraduate education, but now offers numerous programs leading to masters degrees and doctoral degrees. As the campus continues to grow, additional graduate programs will be offered.

Founded originally as ASU East, the campus opened in fall 1996 on the former Williams Air Force Base in eastern Mesa, Arizona. The campus opened with nearly 1,000 students enrolled in one of the eight degrees offered. The small campus started with two schools -- School of Technology and School of Management and Agribusiness. East College was added in 1997 as an incubator for new professional programs.

Today nearly 9,614 students are enrolled in 40 degree programs. ASU shares more than 700 acres (2.8 km2) in eastern Mesa with Chandler-Gilbert Community College, Mesa Community College, a United States Air Force research laboratory, a Veteran's Administration Clinic and the Silvestre Herrera Army Reserve Center. These entities make up what is known as the Williams Campus.

ASU's Downtown is located in the heart of Downtown Phoenix. It is the newest of the four ASU campuses. Classes began there in August, 2006, with students from the College of Public Programs and College of Nursing. The Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication recently moved to ASU Downtown. Public Television station KAET is expected to move to ASU Downtown in 2009. As of the fall 2008 semester, 8,431 students were enrolled on the downtown campus.

ASU offers over 250 majors to undergraduate students, and more than 100 graduate programs leading to masters and doctoral degrees. These programs are divided into over a dozen colleges and schools, the largest of which is the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, which houses nearly 30 programs and departments. Degrees awarded include the B.A., B.S., B.S.E., B.I.S., M.A., M.S., M.F.A., M.B.A., L.L.M., M.M., M.Eng., Ph.D., J.D., Ed.D., and D.M.A..

ASU is ranked 121st in the top tier of "national universities" by the US News and World Report ranking of US colleges and universities. Barrett, The Honors College serves as a virtual university-within-a-university and maintains strict admissions standards while providing a more rigorous curriculum with smaller classes and increased faculty interaction. This honors college is largely responsible for the 168 freshmen National Merit Scholars, and 16 Fulbright scholars who entered ASU as freshmen in 2007. In addition, US News named ASU as the #4 "Up and Coming" university in the US, for substantial improvements to academics and facilities.

ASU has had a long reputation as a "party school," and has been highly ranked in party-school lists published by Princeton Review and Playboy Magazine (in addition to being joked about on such shows as The Simpsons, The George Lopez Show, and American Dad!). In recent decades, even though ASU's academic rigor and national rankings have greatly increased, ASU still regularly appears in several of the "top party school" rankings.

In addition, ASU maintains several programs that are ranked among the top ten nationally according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index: Ecology & Evolution, Accountancy, Marketing, Curriculum & Instruction, Educational Leadership, Industrial Engineering, Speech & Hearing Science, Spanish, Physical Anthropology, Clinical Psychology, Counseling Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology, and Social Psychology.

ASU is currently collaborating with several world class institutions in several countries such as China, Switzerland and Mexico. In Mexico, ASU collaborates with Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM) in the ITAM/W.P. Carey School of Business Executive MBA Program. In Switzerland, ASU collaborates with HEC Lausanne, the affiliated business school of the University of Lausanne.

Created in 1955, the ASU Foundation is one of Arizona’s oldest 501 (c)(3) organizations. It raises, invests and manages private resources for Arizona State University. The foundation coordinates and directs major fundraising campaigns on behalf of ASU and its colleges and schools, and partners with the university to provide complementary support for entrepreneurial activities in technology transfer and real estate investment.

In fiscal 2007-2008, the university received private cash gifts of more than $120 million – only the third time in history that private support for the university has topped the $100 million mark. This gift total included six outright gifts of $1 million or more. In addition, there were five gift pledges of between $5 and $20 million each to ASU for strategic initiatives.

The ASU endowment has doubled in size over the past four years. During fiscal year 2008, the endowment increased by $29 million in gifts to new endowed funds or existing endowments reaching a total value of $493 million on June 30, 2008. The average annual return on endowment investments for the past three years was 11.2 percent, outperforming both the benchmark and the Standard & Poor's 500 Index for this period. In addition, the total assets managed by the foundation, which includes non-endowment assets, increased by $41 million, capping a six-year, $578 million growth.

Gifts, endowment income and entrepreneurial partnerships provide important resources that advance ASU's vision of a New American University.

Arizona State University's Division I athletic teams are called the Sun Devils, which is also the nickname used to refer to students and alumni of the university. They compete in the Pac-10 Conference in 20 varsity sports. Historically, the university has shown great athletic dominance in men's, women's, and mixed archery; men's, women's, and mixed badminton; women's golf; women's swimming and diving; and baseball. In 1987, the football team won the Rose Bowl, and they have been to the Fiesta Bowl five times.

Arizona State University's NCAA Division I-A program competes in 9 varsity sports for men and 11 for women. The Sun Devil mascot is a devil named Sparky. The university is a member of the Pacific-10 Conference in all varsity sports. ASU's current athletic director is Lisa Love, who was the former athletic administrator at USC and in her tenure is responsible for hiring new coaches Herb Sendek, the men's basketball coach, and Dennis Erickson, the men's football coach.

ASU won national championships in men's archery 15 times, women's archery 21 times, mixed archery 20 times, men's badminton 13 times, women's badminton 17 times, mixed badminton 10 times, baseball 5 times, women's tennis 3 times, men's gymnastics once, men's track and field once, women's indoor track and field twice, men's indoor track and field once, wrestling once, men's golf twice, women's golf 13 times, women's softball three times, and women's swimming and diving 7 times, for a total of 136 national championships.

The Arizona State Sun Devils football team was founded in 1897 under coach Fred Irish. Currently, the team has played in the 2007 Holiday Bowl, 1997 Rose Bowl and also won the Rose Bowl in 1987 as well as the Fiesta Bowl in 1982, 1975, 1973, 1972, and 1971. In 1970 they were co-champions of the NCAA Division I FBS National Football Championship.

Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement, convocation and athletic games is: "Maroon and Gold" and Arizona State Alma Mater.

Fight, Devils down the field / Fight with your might and don't ever yield / Long may our colors outshine all others / Echo from the buttes, / Give 'em hell Devils! / Cheer, cheer for ASU / Fight for the Old Maroon / For it's hail, hail, the gang's all here / And it's onward to victory!

Where The Bold Saguaros / Raise Their Arms On High / Praying Strength For Brave Tomorrows / From The Western Sky / Where Eternal Mountains / Kneel At Sunset's Gate / Here We Hail Thee, Alma Mater / Arizona State!

Arizona State University has an active extracurricular involvement program (Sun Devil Involvement Center) with over 500 registered clubs and organizations on campus. Located on the 3rd floor of the Memorial Union, the Sun Devil Involvement Center (SDIC) provides opportunities for student involvement through clubs, sororities, fraternities, community service, leadership, student government, and co-curricular programming.

The Freshman Year Experience (FYE) and the Greek community (Greek Life) at Arizona State University have been important in binding students to the university, and providing social outlets. The Freshman Year Experience at Arizona State University was developed to improve the freshman experience at Arizona State University and increase student retention figures. FYE provides advising, computer labs, free walk-in tutoring, workshops, and classes for students. In 2003, U.S. News and World Report ranked FYE as the 23rd best first year program in the nation.

ASU Student Media includes The State Press (student newspaper), the Web Devil (online news site) and Sun Devil Television (television station broadcast on campus and in student residence halls). The State Press is a daily paper published on Monday through Friday during the fall and spring semesters, and weekly during the summer sessions. Student editors and managers are solely responsible for the content of all Student Media products. They are overseen by an independent board and guided by a professional adviser employed by the University.

During the fall and spring semesters 13,500 copies of the State Press are printed each week day. More than 96% of ASU students on all four campuses read The State Press at least once per week, and 65% read it every day or most days. There are an average of 2.5 readers per each copy of the State Press, resulting in more than 45,000 readers across all four campuses. In addition, the State Press Magazine, a weekly arts and culture publication, comes out on Wednesdays. The Web Devil, the online arm of the State Press, publishes the paper's daily content online, as well as independent news and editorial content.

The campus has two radio stations. KASC The Blaze 1260 AM, is a broadcast station and is not an official part of Student Media - it is owned and funded by the Cronkite School - but is completely student-run save for a faculty and professional adviser. The Blaze broadcasts local, alternative and independent music 24 hours a day, and also features news and sports updates at the top and bottom of every hour. W7ASU is an amateur radio station that was first organized in 1935. W7ASU has about 30 members that enjoy amateur radio, and is primarily a contesting club.

Associated Students of Arizona State University (ASASU) is the student government at Arizona State University's campus at Tempe, Arizona. It is composed of the Undergraduate Student Government & the Graduate & Professional Student Association (GPSA). Members and officers of the ASASU are elected annually by the student body.

The Residence Hall Association (RHA) of Arizona State University-Tempe is the student government for every ASU student living on-campus. The purpose of RHA is to enhance the quality of residence hall life and provide a cohesive voice for the residents by addressing the concerns of the on-campus populations to university administrators and other campus organizations; providing cultural, diversity, educational, and social programming; establishing and working with individual hall councils. In 2008, the RHA of ASU-Tempe was voted "Best School of the Year" out of over 400 higher education institutions.

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Flag of Arizona

The State of Arizona ( /ærɪˈzoʊnə/ (help·info)) is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. The capital and largest city is Phoenix. The second largest city is Tucson, followed by the four Phoenix metropolitan area cities of Mesa, Glendale, Chandler, and Scottsdale.

Arizona was the 48th and last of the contiguous states admitted to the Union on February 14, 1912, the 50th anniversary of Arizona's recognition as a Confederate Territory. Arizona is noted for its desert climate, exceptionally hot summers, and mild winters, but the high country in the north features pine forests and mountain ranges with cooler weather than the lower deserts. New population figures for the year ending July 1, 2006 indicate that Arizona was at that time the fastest growing state in the United States, exceeding the growth of the previous leader, Nevada, and is currently the second.

Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It borders New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, touches Colorado, and has a 389-mile (626 km) international border with the states of Sonora and Baja California in Mexico. In addition to the Grand Canyon, many other national forests, parks, monuments, and Indian reservations are located in the state.

Arizona is located in the western United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state in area, after New Mexico and before Nevada. Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, recreation areas and Native American reservations.

Arizona is best known for its desert landscape, which is rich in xerophyte plants such as cactus. It is also known for its climate, which presents exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. Less well known is the pine-covered high country of the Colorado Plateau in the north-central portion of the state, which contrasts with the desert Basin and Range region in the southern portions of the state.

Like other states of the Southwest, Arizona has an abundance of topographical characteristics in addition to its desert climate. Mountains and plateaus are found in more than half of the state. The largest stand in the world of Ponderosa pine trees is contained in Arizona. The Mogollon Rim, a 2,000-foot (610 m) escarpment, cuts across the central section of the state and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau, where the state experienced its worst forest fire ever in 2002. Arizona belongs firmly within the Basin and Range region of North America. The region was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by a cooling-off and related subsidence. The entire region is slowly sinking.

The Grand Canyon is a colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River, in northern Arizona. The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park—one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area, visiting on numerous occasions to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The Canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 kilometers) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly 2 billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateaus have uplifted.

Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. The Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a mile wide, and 570 feet (174 m) deep.

Arizona does not observe Daylight Saving Time, except in the Navajo Nation, located in the northeastern region of the state.

Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15 °C). November through February are the coldest months with temperatures typically ranging from 40–75 °F (4–24 °C), although occasional frosts are not uncommon. About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise again with warm days, and cool breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat ranging from 90–120 °F (32–48 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area.

Due to the primarily dry climate, large temperature swings often occur between day and night in less developed areas of the desert. The swings can be as large as 50 °F (28 °C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured nighttime lows than in the recent past.

Arizona has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 inches (323 mm), which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer. The monsoon season occurs towards the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor. Dewpoints as high as 81°F (27 °C) have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. It is rare for tornadoes and hurricanes to occur in Arizona, but there are records of both occurring.

However, the northern third of Arizona is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers. Extreme cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the higher parts of the state.

Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (37.8 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with nearly the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).

There is some disagreement over the proper etymology of the name "Arizona." Some scholars believe the name is simply an abbreviation of the Spanish phrase arida zona, "dry region", although the phrasing is atypical for Spanish. Others reject this derivation as capricious favoring explanations such as the Basque phrase aritz ona, "good oak," or the O'odham phrase alĭ ṣonak, "small spring". The Basque etymology is the one preferred by Arizona state historian Marshall Trimble, among other specialists. The name Arizonac was initially applied to the silver mining camp, and later (shortened to Arizona) to the entire territory.

Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, explored the area in 1539 and met its original native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–42 during its search for Cíbola. Society of Jesus Father Kino developed a chain of missions and taught the Indians Christianity in Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 1700s. Spain founded presidios (fortified towns) at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of the Mexican Territory Nueva California, also known as Alta California. In the Mexican–American War (1847), the U.S. occupied Mexico City and forced the newly founded Mexican Republic to give up its northern territories, including what later became Arizona. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that the sum of $15 million US dollars in compensation (an extraordinarily large sum at the time) be paid to the newly formed Republic of Mexico. The purchase of the area formerly ruled by Spain, then briefly Mexico, almost bankrupted the United States. As a result, the land was offered back to the Mexican Republic. In 1853 the land below the Gila River was acquired from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase. Arizona was administered as part of the Territory of New Mexico until southern New Mexico seceded from the Union as the Confederate Territory of Arizona on March 16, 1861. Arizona was recognized as a Confederate Territory by presidential proclamation of Jefferson Davis on February 12, 1862. This is the first official use of the name. A new Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of New Mexico Territory was declared in Washington, D.C. on February 24, 1863. The new boundaries would later form the basis of the state.

Brigham Young sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid-to-late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, among other areas. The Mormons settled what became known as Northern Arizona and northern New Mexico, but these areas were located in a part of the former New Mexico Territory. The largest ancestry of these settlers is German.

At the beginning of the Spanish/American war of 1898, Americans from mostly Arizona and New Mexico, aswell as some other Southwestern States, became soldiers in Colonel Roosevelt's Rough Riders. Arizonans fought primarily in the Cuban Campaign, the largest and deadliest phase of the war, alongside Teddy Roosevelt, a future American President. Other famous people to enlist in the Arizona Volunteer Cavalry was Tom Horn, a notorious gunslinger who was involved in a number of Arizona wars, the Apache Wars and the Pleasant Valley Range War.

During the Mexican Revolution from 1910-1920, a few battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona border settlements. Throughout the revolution, Arizonans were enlisting in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. The Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918, other than Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, was the only significant engagement on US soil between United States and Mexican forces. The battle resulted in an American victory. After US soldiers were fired on by Mexican Federal troops, the American garrison then launched an assault into Nogales Mexico. The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just West of Nogales. An Indian War battle occurred, thus being the last engagement in the American Indian Wars which lasted from 1775 to 1918. The participants in the fight were US soldiers stationed on the border and Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of thier wars against Mexico. As World War 1 raged in Europe, Frank Luke became America's 2nd best ace. Frank was born in Phoenix Arizona and was killed in combat over France in 1918.

Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. The major result being the end to the territorial colonization of Continental America. Arizona was the 48th state admitted into the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted. The admission, originally scheduled to coincide with that of New Mexico, was delayed by Democrats in the territorial legislature to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Arizona becoming a Confederate territory in 1862.

Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression, but it was during the 1920s and 1930s that tourism began to be the important Arizona industry it is today. Dude ranches such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to experience the flavor and life of the "old West." Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws to this day; they include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).

Arizona was the site of German and Italian POW camps during World War II and Japanese US-resident internment camps. The camps were abolished after World War II. The Phoenix area site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliance fame), and is currently utilized as the Phoenix Zoo. A Japanese American internment camp was located on Mount Lemmon, just outside of the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was located near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County. Because of California's proximity to Japan, a line was drawn somewhat parallel to the California border, and all Japanese residents west of that line were required to reside in the war camps. Grand Avenue, a major thoroughfare in the Phoenix area and part of U.S. 60, (perhaps because it mirrored the California border) was chosen as part of that boundary. This resulted in many extended Japanese families becoming separated; some were interned, some free--and some free families, in an odd bid for family unity, requested to be interned in order to be with their families at a camp built by the original Del Webb Co., a modern manufacturer of large housing developments.

Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School, one of several federal institutions designed to assimilate native children into mainstream culture. Children were often enrolled into these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair and take on western names.

Arizona's population grew tremendously after World War II, in part because of the development of air conditioning, which made the intense summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades and about 60% each decade thereafter.

Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved.

As of 2006, Arizona had an estimated population of 6,166,318, which is an increase of 213,311, or 3.6%, from the prior year and an increase of 1,035,686, or 20.2%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 297,928 people (that is 564,062 births minus 266,134 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 745,944 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 204,661 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 541,283 people. New population figures for the year ending July 1, 2006, indicate that Arizona is the fastest growing state in the United States, with 3.6% population growth since 2005, exceeding the growth of the previous leader, Nevada.

More than half (around 58%) of the population of Arizona live in cities of 100,000 or more inhabitants, the highest proportion of any of the 50 states. The population density of the state is 45.2 people per square mile.

The center of population of Arizona is located in Maricopa County, in the town of Gilbert.

According to 2006 U.S. Census estimates, Arizona's population is: 59.7% European American, 3.8% African American, 2.4% Asian American, 1.7% mixed, and 29.2% are Hispanics or Latino (of any race). The state has the third highest number (and the sixth highest percentage) of Native Americans of any state in the Union. 286,680 were estimated to live in Arizona, representing more than 10% of the country's total Native American population of 2,752,158. Only California and Oklahoma have more Native Americans. The perimeters of Phoenix, Tucson, Prescott, and Yuma border on Native American reservations.

The largest ancestry groups in Arizona are Mexican (21%), German, English, Irish, and Native American. The southern and central parts of the state are heavily Mexican American, especially in Santa Cruz County and Yuma County near the Mexican border. The north-central and northwestern counties are largely inhabited by residents of English ancestry. The northeastern part of Arizona has many American Indians. African Americans have had a relatively small presence in Arizona, but their numbers are increasing due to in-migration from other states, especially California, the Midwest and the Northeast. The African American population of the Phoenix metropolitan area doubled between 1990 and 2005. Asian Americans also made major contributions to the development of Arizona, such as the many Chinese who arrived in the state's mines and railroads, and the fact that over 20,000 Japanese Americans, mostly residing in the Grand Avenue section of Phoenix and farming areas of southern Arizona and the Colorado River valley, were interned during World War II.

Arizona is projected to become a minority-majority state by the year 2035, if current population growth trends continue. In 2003, for the first time, there were more Hispanic births in the state than white (non-Hispanic) births.

As of 2000, 74.16% of Arizona residents age 5 and older speak only English at home and 19.52% speak Spanish. Navajo is the third most spoken language at 1.89%.

See also the list of native peoples.

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 974,883; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 251,974; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 138,516.

The 2006 total gross state product was $232 billion. If Arizona (and each of the other US states) were an independent country along with all existing countries (2005), it would have the 61st largest economy in the world (CIA - The World Factbook). This figure gives Arizona a larger economy than such countries as Ireland, Finland, and New Zealand. Arizona currently has the 21st largest economy among states in the United States. As a percentage of its overall budget, Arizona's projected 1.7 billion deficit for '09 is the largest in the country.

The state's per capita income is $27,232, 39th in the U.S. Arizona had a median household income of $46,693 making it 27th in the country and just shy of the US national median. Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "Five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (tourism). At one point Arizona was the largest producer of cotton in the country. Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.

The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Wal-Mart is the state's largest private employer, with 17,343 employees (2008).

Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.87%, 3.20%, 3.74%, 4.72% and 5.04%. The 'sales tax' is generally around 6.3%.

The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.

All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.

Main interstate routes include Interstate 17, and Interstate 19 running north-south, Interstate 40, Interstate 8, and Interstate 10 running east-west, and a short stretch of Interstate 15 running northeast/southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101, which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system.

The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.

A light rail system called Valley Metro Rail has recently been completed in Phoenix; it will connect Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe. The system officially opened for service in December 2008.

In May 2006, voters in Tucson approved a Regional Transportation Plan (a comprehensive bus transit/streetcar/roadway improvement program), and its funding via a new half-cent sales tax increment. The centerpiece of the plan is a light rail streetcar system (possibly similar to the Portland Streetcar in Oregon) that will travel through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with the Rio Nuevo master plan area on the western edge of downtown.

Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the largest airport and the major international airport in the state); Tucson International Airport (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport (IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is currently 7th busiest airport in the world in terms of aircraft movements, and 17th for passenger traffic.

Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the Nation's busiest general aviation airport.

The state capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was still a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.

The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.

The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. Numerous monuments and memorials are on the site, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor), a granite version of the Ten Commandments, and the Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum.

The Arizona Legislature is bicameral (like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska) and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.

Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can only be extended by a majority vote of members present of each house.

The current majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993.

Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is not uncommon for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.

The fiscal year 2006-07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, is slightly less than $10 billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also includes more than $500 million in income- and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system.

Arizona’s executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that does not maintain a governor’s mansion. During office the governors reside within their private residence, and all executive offices are housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The current governor of Arizona is Jan Brewer (R). She assumed office after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the United States Senate. Arizona has had four female governors including the current Governor Jan Brewer more than any other state.

Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector and a five member Corporation Commission. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the state mine inspector, which is exempt from term limits).

Arizona is one of eight states that does not have a specified lieutenant governor. The secretary of state is the first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. Since 1977, four secretaries of state have risen to Arizona's governorship though these means.

The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona. The court currently consists of one chief justice, a vice chief justice, and three associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bi-partisian commission, and are re-elected after the initial two years following their appointment. Subsequent re-elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but almost all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals beforehand. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court may also declare laws unconstitutional, but only while seated en banc. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).

The Arizona Court of Appeals, further divided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.

Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.

Arizona is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. As of 1983 there were 15 counties in the state, ranging in size from 1,238 to 18,661 square miles.

Arizona's two United States Senators are John McCain (R), the 2008 Republican Presidential Nominee, and Jon Kyl (R).

Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Ann Kirkpatrick (D-1), Trent Franks (R-2), John Shadegg (R-3), Ed Pastor (D-4), Harry Mitchell (D-5), Jeff Flake (R-6), Raul Grijalva (D-7), and Gabrielle Giffords (D-8). Jim Kolbe announced his retirement from Congress in 2006, creating one of the few open seats in the nation in Arizona's Congressional District 8. Arizona gained two seats in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2000.

From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party. During this time period, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, with the only exceptions being the elections of 1920, 1924 and 1928--all three of which were national Republican landslides.

Since the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952, however, the state has voted consistently Republican in national politics, with the Republican candidate carrying the state every time with the sole exception of Bill Clinton in United States presidential election, 1996. In recent years, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona politics in general. The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became increasingly friendly to Republicans from the 1950s onward. During this time, many "Pinto Democrats," or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level. However, the previous Governor of Arizona, Janet Napolitano is a Democrat; she was handily reelected in 2006.

On March 4, 2008, John McCain effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008, becoming the first presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater in 1964.

Arizona politics are dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties, Maricopa County and Pima County--home to Phoenix and Tucson respectively. The two counties have almost 70 percent of the state's population and cast almost three-fourths of the state's vote. They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature.

Maricopa County is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there. It has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1948. This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he wouldn't have even carried his own state had it not been for a 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Similarly, while McCain won Arizona by eight percentage points in 2008, the margin would have likely been far closer if not for a 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County.

In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona has historically been more Democratic. While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area.

Arizona rejected an anti-gay marriage amendment in the 2006 midterm elections. Arizona was the first state in the nation to do so. Gay marriage was already illegal in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples.

In 2008, Arizona passed an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman, ensuring the definition of marriage can never be changed by a judge or the Legislature.

Phoenix, located in Maricopa County, is the largest city in Arizona and also the state capital. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (the third largest city in Arizona and the most populous suburban city in the United States), Glendale, Peoria, Chandler, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4 million.

Tucson is the state's second largest city, and is located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of the Phoenix metropolitan area. The Tucson metropolitan area crossed the one-million-resident threshold in early 2007. It is home to the University of Arizona, which is a Public Ivy and, along with Arizona State University in Tempe, considered one of the state's flagship universities.

The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Sedona, Cottonwood, Camp Verde and numerous other towns spread out over the Yavapai County area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns form the third largest metropolitan area in the state. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (170 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5500 ft, Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs in the upper 80s Fahrenheit and winter temperatures averaging 50 degrees Fahrenheit.

Yuma is center of the fourth largest metropolitan area in Arizona. It is located near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States with the average July high of 107 degrees Fahrenheit. (The same month's average in Death Valley is 115 degrees.) The city also features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma also attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.

Flagstaff is the largest city in northern Arizona, and has a nearly 7000 ft elevation. With its large Ponderosa Pine forests and Ski areas, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It sits at the base of the San Francisco Peaks the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, with Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at 12,633 feet (3,850 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon. Historic U.S. Route 66 is the main east-west street. Flagstaff is home to 57,391 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University.

Public schools in Arizona are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona State Board of Education (a division of the Arizona Department of Education) and the state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts.

Despite a state population of over 6.5 million residents, Arizona is served by just three public universities: The University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and Northern Arizona University. These schools are governed by the Arizona Board of Regents.

Private higher education in Arizona is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities. Only one traditional (single-site, non-profit, four-year) private college exists in Arizona (Prescott College).

Arizona also has a wide network of two-year vocational and community colleges. These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide Board of Directors, but in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts. The Maricopa County Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County and is one of the largest in the nation.

Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona is home to several stops on the PGA Tour, most notably at the FBR Open, more commonly known as the Phoenix Open.

With three state universities and several community colleges, college sports are also prevalent in Arizona. The intense rivalry between Arizona State University and the University of Arizona predates Arizona's statehood, and is the oldest rivalry in the NCAA. The thus aptly named Territorial Cup, first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football, is awarded to the winner of the “Duel in the Desert,” the annual football game between the two schools. Arizona also hosts several bowl games in the Bowl Championship Series. The Fiesta Bowl, originally held at Sun Devil Stadium, will now be held at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale. The University of Phoenix Stadium was also home to the 2007 BCS National Championship Game and hosted Super Bowl XLII on February 3rd, 2008. The Insight Bowl is also held at Sun Devil Stadium.

Besides being home to spring training, Arizona is also home to two other baseball leagues, Arizona Fall League and Arizona Winter League. The Fall League was founded in 1992 and is a minor league baseball league designed for players to refine their skills and perform in game settings in front of major and minor league baseball scouts and team executives, who are in attendance at almost every game. The league got exposure when Michael Jordan started his time in baseball with the Scottsdale Scorpions. The Arizona Winter League, founded in 2007, is a professional baseball league of four teams for the independent Golden Baseball League. The games are played in Yuma at the Desert Sun Stadium, but added two new teams in the California desert, and one more in Sonora for the 2008 season.

Arizona has featured a continuous string of dancing and performing groups of many ethnicities. The state is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries such as the Heard Museum showcasing historical and contemporary works. Sedona, Jerome, and Tubac are known as budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities.

Many tourist souvenirs produced in Arizona or by its residents display characteristic images, such as sunsets, coyotes, and desert plants. Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack, U-Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona have been made there (as indeed have many Westerns). The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky, which was actually based on a reported alien abduction in Arizona, was set and filmed in the town of Snowflake. The climax of the 1977 Clint Eastwood film The Gauntlet takes place in downtown Phoenix. The final segments of the 1984 film Starman take place at Meteor Crater outside Winslow. The Jeff Foxworthy comedy documentary movie Blue Collar Comedy Tour was filmed almost entirely at the Dodge Theatre. Arguably one of the most famous examples could be Alfred Hitchcock's classic film Psycho. Not only was some of the film shot in Phoenix, but the main character is from there as well. Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona include The New Dick Van Dyke Show, Alice, The First 48, Insomniac with Dave Attell, COPS, and America's Most Wanted. The 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, for which Ellen Burstyn won the Academy Award for Best Actress, and also starred Kris Kristofferson, was set in Tucson, as was the TV sitcom Alice, which was based on the movie.

Arizona is prominently featured in the lyrics of many Country and Western songs, such as Jamie O'Neal's hit ballad "There Is No Arizona". George Strait's "Oceanfront Property" uses the offer of "ocean front property in Arizona" as a metaphor for a sucker proposition that is obviously false. The line "see you down in Arizona Bay" is used in a Tool song in reference to a Bill Hicks quote. The line refers to the hope that L.A. will one day fall into the ocean due to a major earthquake.

Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The Gin Blossoms, Chronic Future, Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers, Jimmy Eat World and others began their careers in Arizona. Also, a number of punk bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA, The Feederz, Sun City Girls, The Meat Puppets, and more recently Authority Zero. There is also an indie rock scene with artists such as Scary Kids Scaring Kids, The Bled, Fine China, Greeley Estates, The Stiletto Formal, The Format.

Arizona also has its share of singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch is from Sedona. Chester Bennington, the lead vocalist of Linkin Park, and mash-up artist DJ Z-Trip are both from Phoenix. One of Arizona's more infamous musicians would be shock rocker Alice Cooper, who helped define the genre. Other notable singers include country singer Marty Robbins, folk singer Katie Lee, Fleetwood Mac's Stevie Nicks, CeCe Peniston, Rex Allen, 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks, and Linda Ronstadt.

For a complete list, see List of people from Arizona.

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Arizona Territory

Location of Arizona Territory

The Territory of Arizona was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1863 and 1912. A forerunner, almost identical in name but largely differing in location and size, was the Confederate Territory of Arizona (CSA) that existed officially from 1861 to 1863, when it was re-captured by the U.S., after which the Union created in 1863 their Territory of Arizona.

The two territories played a significant role in the western campaign of the American Civil War.

The proposals arose from concerns about the effectiveness of the territorial government in Santa Fe to administer the newly acquired southern portions of the territory.

The first proposal dates from a conference held in Tucson that convened on August 29, 1856. The conference issued a petition to the U.S. Congress, signed by 256 people, requesting organization of the territory and elected Nathan P. Cooke as the territorial delegate to Congress. In January 1857, the bill for the organization of the territory was introduced into the United States House of Representatives, but the proposal was defeated on the grounds that the population of the proposed territory was yet too small. Later a similar proposal was defeated in the Senate. The proposal for creation of the territory was controversial in part because of the perception that the New Mexico Territory was under the influence of southern sympathizers who were highly desirous of expanding slavery into the southwest.

In February 1858, the New Mexico territorial legislative adopted a resolution in favor of the creation of the Arizona territory, but with a north-south border along the 32nd meridian west from Washington, with the additional stipulation that all the Indians of New Mexico would be removed to northern Arizona.

In April 1860, impatient for Congress to act, a convention of thirty-one delegates met in Tucson and adopted a constitution for a provisional territorial government of the area south of the 34th parallel north. The delegates elected Lewis Owings as provisional governor.

At the outbreak of the Civil War, sentiment in the area south of the 34th parallel was in favor of the Confederacy. Territorial secession conventions were called at La Mesilla and Tucson in March 16, 1861, that adopted an Ordinance of Secession that declared itself independent of the United States and established the provisional Confederate Territory of Arizona with Owings as its governor, and petitioned the Confederate Congress for admission.

Early in war, the Confederacy regarded the territory as a valuable route for possible access to the Pacific Ocean, with the specific intention of capturing California. In July 1861, a small Confederate force of Texans under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor assaulted Fort Fillmore at Mesilla in the eastern part of the territory. After the fort was abandoned by the Union garrison, Baylor's force cut off the fleeing Union troops and forced them to surrender. On August 1, Baylor issued a "The Proclamation to the People of the Territory of Arizona", taking possession of the territory for the Confederacy, with Mesilla as the capital and himself as the governor. Baylor's subsequent dismantling of the existing Union forts in the territory left the white settlers at the mercy of the Apache, who quickly gained control of the area and forced many of the white settlers to seek refuge in Tucson.

On August 28, a convention met again in Tucson and declared that the territory formed the previous year was part of the Confederacy. Granville H. Oury was elected as delegate to the Confederate Congress. Oury drafted legislation authorizing the organization of the Confederate Territory of Arizona. The legislation passed on January 13, 1862, and the territory was officially created by proclamation of President Jefferson Davis on February 14.

The following month, in March 1862, the U.S. House of Representatives, now devoid of the southern delegates and controlled by Republicans, passed a bill to create the United States Arizona Territory using the north-south border of the 32nd meridian west from Washington. The use of a north-south border rather than an east-west one had the effect of denying a de facto ratification of the Confederate Arizona Territory. The house bill stipulated that Tucson was to be capital. It also stipulated that slavery was to be abolished in the new territory. The Arizona Organic Act passed the Senate in February 1863 without the Tucson-as-capital stipulation, and was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on February 24, the date of the official organization of the US Arizona Territory. The first capital was at Fort Whipple, which served until the founding of Prescott, in the northern Union-controlled area. In 1867, following the end of the Civil War, the capital was moved to Tucson. In 1877 the capital returned to Prescott and in 1889 it was moved to Phoenix.

In April 1862, a small party of Confederates moving northwest from Tucson met a Union cavalry patrol near Picacho Peak. The Arizona victory that followed (the Battle of Picacho Pass) was the westernmost engagement of the Civil War within the CSA].

One result of the steamboat trade was the establishment of ports and landings up and down the Colorado. Most were ramshackle affairs that served local mines, but a few developed into small towns: Yuma, La Paz, Ehrenburg, and Hardyville. No other stretch of Arizona was as hot, and the communities themselves offered few luxuries to weary travelers who pulled up there, but the ports had strategic importance. Steamboats deposited shipped goods along the riverbanks, where wagons freighted them to forts, mines, and ranches of the interior. With the aid of steamships and freight wagons, 19th century industrial America conquered Arizona in three and a half decades for the sole purpose of obtaining silver and gold.

Heintzelman left Poston in charge of the mines while he attempted to raise money back east. More interested in self-promotion than production, Poston allowed his engineers to open too many mines without developing any of them and never completed the smelting works at Arivaca, and he spent much more than he made. The Panic of 1857 swept across the financial centers of the United States and the business unraveled. While Heintzelman tried to entice investors, banks failed, debts mounted, and work in the mines themselves proceeded at a snail's pace. In December, Heintzelman persuaded firearms inventor Samuel Colt to invest $10,000 in the company. By 1859, Colt had seized control of the company. Colt imported new boilers, lathes, and steam-powered crushers and amalgamators, but ore still had to be shipped out by wagon across southern Arizona and loaded onto steamboats near Fort Yuma.

Heintzelman and Poston's most immediate problem was the labor. Like Sylvester Mowry's Patagonia mine, the Sonora Mining and Exploring Company relied heavily on Mexican labor, a precedent that would be followed by most of Arizona's extractive industries for years to come. There were 231 males living at Tubac in 1860, only 23 of whom had been born outside Mexico or the territory of New Mexico. In the mining communities of Santa Rica, Arivaca, and Cerro Colorado, Mexicans constituted 70 percent of the labor force (67 of 96). Poston bragged of his paternalism and claimed that he married Mexican couples and baptized their children. Other managers despised their Mexican employees and never understood the fluid work patterns of the frontier. When Mexicans left the mines in late August for the fiesta of San Augustín in Tucson or made their annual pilgrimage to Magdalena, Sonora, to pay homage to San Francisco in early October, Heintzelman and his German engineers complained about Mexican laziness and unreliability, not understanding how fiestas maintained bonds between people and powerful saints and made life more bearable and knit families together on the frontier.

More serious was the exploitation of Mexican labor itself. According to mining engineer Raphael Pumpelly, Mexican workers received 12 to 15 dollars per month, compared to 30 to 17 dollars for Anglo workers. The mining companies often paid them "in cotton and other goods, on which the company made a profit from one hundred to three hundred percent." Differential wage scales, combined with late pay, lead poisoning, malarial fevers, and abusive overseers prompted Mexicans to strike for better conditions or to simply walk off the job.

On May 1, 1859, in an event known as the Sonoita Massacre, a ranch foreman named George Mercer whipped and shaved the heads of seven Mexican workers. Five days later, one of Mercer's friends was murdered at his ranch near Tumacacori. Enraged, Mercer and seven other armed men vowed to drive all Mexicans from the region. They rode up to a mescal distillery in the Sonoita Valley and opened fire, killing four Mexicans and one Yaqui Indian.

News of the attack spread rapidly, and many Mexicans fled to Sonora. Watching their workforce evaporate, mine owners condemned the massacre and some workers came back to the mines. Acts of violence escalated. During the late 1850s and early 1860s, Mexicans murdered 25 people in Arizona, yet Anglos, a small minority in Arizona's population, killed 39 people in the same period, 23 of whom were Mexicans. However you must consider the Mexican population was very small. Other than Tucson and Nogales, which were nothing more than towns,the latter being on the current border,Arizona was a vast frontier. Mexico did not begin colonizing thier Northern frontier until after the Mexican/ American war and the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo in 1848. Mexico intended to enlarge thier population in the north in order to help prevent further territorial losses. In a few ways Arizona is like the Texas and New Mexican border region, but only because of Mexico and the relations with Mexicans. All three were regions where Anglos and Mexican desperadoes slipped back and forth across the border to commit crimes.

When the party of gold seeker Joseph R. Walker called on Brigadier General James H. Carleton in New Mexico in 1862, Walker may have offered Carleton an unofficial partnership in exchange for military protection. Walker left for Arizona with Carleton's blessings, and in 1863 he and his men discovered gold along the north bank of the Hassayampa River five miles (8 km) south of Prescott. Other prospectors made strikes along Lynx, Weaver, and Big Bug creeks, which soon became known as the Walker Mining District. Carleton established Fort Whipple in Chino Valley later that year.

For the first time in Arizona's history, non-Indians came to the mountainous interior and stayed. After Ohio mining interests led by Samuel Heintzelman pushed the Arizona Organic Act through Congress in 1863, Fort Whipple even became the first capital of the new Arizona Territory. Then the following year, both fort and capital were moved south to a new town named after William Hickling Prescott, author of History of the Conquest of Mexico. A community of miners, merchants, and territorial officials sprang up in the middle of Yavapai and Apache country, and one bonanza generated ripples of exploration that led to other bonanzas. Soon mines tunneled into some of the driest country in North America, and names like Hassayampa, Haquahala, and Castle Dome entered the geography of the mining frontier. Like most features of that geography, Arizona's early mines rarely developed into permanent communities because the miners tended to leave after stripping away all of the gold.

The prospectors pioneered hundreds of miles of mule trails and wagon roads across the western Arizona desert. The first route embarked from La Paz, the second from Fort Mohave, the third from Hardyville over a toll road that enabled great high-wheeled freight wagons to carry loads as heavy as 15,000 pounds (7,000 kg). For six months of that year, temperatures could rise above 100 °F (38 °C) as the sun reflected off the desert pavement and the rocks of the low western mountains. The freighters had to double- or triple-team their wagons up inclines like Yarnell Hill to reach ore-bearing high-country of the interior. Steamships on the Colorado and freight wagons straining across the basins and ranges of the Harcuvar, Aquarius, and Vulture mountains made Prescott the most important center of settlement north of the Santa Cruz Valley. They also led to the escalation of Arizona's Indian wars.

Under the direction of Brigham Young, Mormon settlers were sent to colonize the area that became the Arizona Territory as early as the 1850s. A provisional government, the State of Deseret operated for a few years following U.S. acquisition of this area, and it included much of northern Arizona. Most Mormon settlers were recalled to the Utah Territory during the Utah War.

A second wave of Mormon settlers was sent to Arizona by Young in the 1870s. Major Mormon settlements included St. Johns, Snowflake, and Mesa.

During the U.S. government's crackdown on polygamy, many Mormons used the Arizona Strip to hide from authorities. The Grand Canyon separates the northern half of Mohave County from the county seat of Kingman making it more difficult for law enforcement to operate there, even into the 21st Century. John D. Lee successfully evaded authorities for years while operating Lee's Ferry there. Colorado City, Arizona continues to have a reputation as a haven for polygamists.

The first round of hostilities towards native American groups after the Civil War involved civilian militias. Carleton's California Volunteers established Camp Lowell in Tucson in 1862 after Captain Sherod Hunter evacuated his Confederates. They also founded Fort Bowie near Apache Pass and Fort Whipple near Prescott. Even though Carleton and his Confederate counterpart, John Baylor, ordered the extermination of all hostile Apache men in Arizona, the California Volunteers were spread too thin to conquer the Yavapais and Apaches or protect the settlers in outlying ranches and mines. Pioneers with time on their hands and a taste for blood therefore went Indian hunting, slaughtering men, women, and children wherever they found them, and Native Americans responded with brutalities of their own.

The most famous civilian fighter of the 1860s was King S. Woolsey, a man from Arizona who sold hay and other supplies to federal troops. He made money off the government, lost money in mining, and established two ranches, one of which was east of Prescott on the Agua Fria River. Woolsey hated the Yavapais and Apaches who ran off his stock, but he was a close friend of Juan Chivaria, a Maricopa war leader who fought alongside him. The old pattern of alliances forged by the Spaniards of the Santa Cruz Valley prevailed. During the 1860s and late 1870s, Maricopas and Pimas often joined Anglos and Mexicans in short, savage campaigns against their Apache and Yavapais enemies.

After a series of raids around Prescott in January 1864, Woolsey and 69 other Anglos, Maricopas, and Gila Pimas pursued the attackers across the Agua Fria and Verde drainages to Fish Creek Canyon in the Salt River country. There they encountered about 200 Apaches or Yavapais. Woolsey touched his left hand to his hat and his party opened fire. According to one eyewitness, 24 Indians died. Many Indians died, but not enough to change the balance of power in the territory. Atrocity bred atrocity as the body count on both sides climbed into the hundreds.

With the Civil War still going on and Carleton still fighting the Navajos, the U.S. War Department therefore authorized Governor John Noble Goodwin of Arizona to raise five companies of Arizona Volunteers in 1864. Recruitment was delayed for a year, but by the fall of 1865, more than 350 men had been issued into service under the command of nine officers. The overwhelming majority were Mexicans, many of them from Sonora, or O'odham and Maricopas from the Gila River villages, who had grown up fighting Yavapais and Apaches, as had their fathers and grandfathers. Many never received shoes or warm clothing. They lived in hovels and marched for days on beef jerky and parched cornmeal. They carried .54-caliber (14 mm) rifles with plenty of ammunition, in addition to bows, arrows, and war clubs. For the next year, these frontiersmen guarded wagon trains between Prescott and La Paz and campaigned relentlessly across central Arizona.

Their officers permitted them a few freedoms that made enlistment more tolerable. At the largely Mexican company at Camp Lincoln on the Verde River, 16 women joined the men. These women created a sense of community at the outpost, marching in procession behind an image of the Virgin of Guadalupe to meet the volunteers whenever they returned from the field. According to the Third Arizona Territorial Legislature, the volunteers inflicted "greater punishment on the Apaches than all other troops in the territory." Traveling "barefoot and upon half rations", they killed 150 to 173 Apaches and Yavapais while losing only ten men in combat themselves. Many territorial officials and militia officers requested their re-enlistment, but the end of the civil war brought federal troops back into the territory in large numbers and assumed federal military authority.

During the Mexican-American War, Mangas Coloradas, chief and leader of the Apaches, welcomed American soldiers and urged General Stephen Watts Kearny to join with the Apaches and conquer northern Mexico. Over the next 15 years, however, Apache-American friendship degenerated into war.

During the 1850s, the vast western half of the territory of New Mexico remained largely in Indian hands. A few merchants and artisans like Sam Hughes and Solomon Warner drifted into Tucson, engineers under the direction of a former bookseller named John Russel Barlett surveyed the U.S.-Mexican border, and military expeditions led by Captain Lorenzo Sitgreaves, Lieutenant Amiel Weeks Whipple, and Lieutenant Joseph Ives mapped out wagon roads and railroad routes across the Colorado Plateau. The only areas where Americans attempted to create new settlements were a few mining communities in southern Arizona and a string of ports along the Colorado River. The rest of the region belonged to the Apaches, Upland Yumans, the O'odham, and the Navajos.

Throughout the 1850s, hostilities between Apaches and Americans were sporadic rather than sustained. The U.S. government established only two military posts in southern Arizona before the Civil War: Fort Buchanan at the headwaters of Sonoita Creek in 1856 and Fort Beckinridge along the San Pedro River in 1860. Civilians often had to defend themselves in Arizona during the Mexican period, and they continued during the first decade of American rule.

In 1861, Mangas Coloradas tried to persuade miners in southwestern New Mexico to leave Chiricahua territory. The miners allegedly tied him to a tree and whipped him, so he and his son-in-law attacked them. The next year, he and his son-in-law, Cochise, ambushed troops from General James H. Carleton's California Column in Apache Pass between the Dos Cabezas and Chiricahua Mountains. The soldiers repulsed the ambush with howitzers, and Mangas Coloradas slipped away to nurse his wounds.

In January 1863 members of mountain man Joseph Walker's party of gold seekers lured the chief into the deserted mining camp of Pinos Altos to talk peace. Instead, they seized him and delivered him to General Joseph R. West. According to Daniel Ellis Conner, a member of the Walker party, the soldiers had burned his feet and legs by heating up their bayonets, and, after Coloradas protested, they shot and killed him with their navy six-shooters. The tales of Apache cruelty spread on the frontier, and a series of Chircahua war chiefs swore revenge for the next twenty-three years.

The lower Colorado Valley became the first region settled by non-Indians in the 18th century and the first part of Arizona penetrated by the Industrial Revolution. During the early territorial period, water linked the deserts of Arizona to Sonora, California, and the rest of the world. Although rugged terrain to the east could only be transversed by horseback or mule train, steamboats plied the shifting channels of the Colorado.

The Yuman-speaking Quechan and Mohave Indians had dominated the lower Colorado River Valley for centuries, carrying raids and pitched battles against their Indian enemies and the Spanish who had settled there in 1781. War created a class of professional warriors known as kwanami. Their culture hero, Kumastamxo, ordained who were friends and who were foes. When thousands of Americans began entering their territory in 1849 they acted with antagonism as well as enterprise. They prospered by swimming gold seekers and their livestock across the Colorado but resented the Americans, whose numbers threatened their way of life.

Early in 1850 a group of scalp hunters led by John Joel Glanton tried to monopolize the ferry business by assaulting a Quechan chief and threatening to kill an Indian for every Mexican carried across the river, and the Quechans retaliated. Throughout the height of the Gold Rush they maintained control over one of the most strategic river crossings in North America. The American occupation of the lower Colorado Valley did not begin until February 1852 when Major Samuel Heintzelman reestablished Fort Yuma on the California side of the river. Like many officers Heintzelman spent as much time pursuing his business interests as his military duties and he became a major investor in the Colorado Ferry Company which took control of the crossing from the Quechans entirely.

As more and more Americans settled into the area, founding the community of Colorado City (modern Yuma), Quechan autonomy began to diminish and disappear. One of the last spasms of independence occurred on September 1, 1857 when several hundred Quechan, Mohave, and Yavapai warriors crossed more than 160 miles (260 km) of desert on foot to attack the Maricopas, who were living in two villages east of the Estrella Mountains near modern Phoenix. The Maricopas and Pimas counterattacked on horseback, killing more than 100 of the Yuman invaders. It was the last major battle the River Yumans fought.

The most important development in the conquest of the lower Colorado was the arrival of steam-powered ships. In December 1852, a sixty-five foot (20 m) long paddlewheeler named the Uncle Sam went up the river as far as the Gila-Colorado confluence. It ran aground and sank the following spring, but the General Jesup took its place in 1854, pioneering stream transportation as far north as Mohave territory. By the 1870s, six streamers and five barges were calling upon ports as far north as Rioville near the mouth of the Virgin River. Shifting sandbars, scarce timber for fuel, fluctuating water levels, and the heat hindered their journeys, which progressed at 15 miles (24 km) a day. Until Chinese laborers completed the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1881, most goods entering Arizona came by boat.

During the Civil War America was left open to Apache attack when federal troops left Arizona to repel the Confederate invasion of New Mexico. On January 27, 1861 Apaches raided the ranch of John Ward 11 miles (18 km) south of Fort Buchanan and stole a young Mexican boy named Félix Ward. First Lieutenant George Bascom marched to Apache Pass. There he met Cochise, the chief of the central band of the Chiricahuas, who called themselves Chokokens. Because Cochise had not led the raid he agreed to enter Basco's camp bringing along members of his family. Cochise told Bascom that the White Mountain Apaches had taken the boy and that he would get him back within ten days. Bascom replied that Cochise and his family would be held hostage until the boy was returned.

Cochise whipped out a knife and slashed a hole in the tent where he and Bascom were talking. He ran outside, pushed his way through the soldiers and escaped even though they fired at least 50 shots at him and wounded his leg. Cochise demanded the release of his relatives, and Bascom refused. The Apaches seized a relative of the Butterfield stage station. Cochise offered to exchange the prisoner for the Chircahuas and again Bascom turned him down.

Two days later Cochise burned a wagon train killing nine Mexicans and taking three Anglos prisoner. Then he attacked Bascom's command. When Bascom repulsed the assault, Cochise executed the four Anglo prisoners and mutilated their bodies. The soldiers hung six Apache men in retaliation, including Cochise's brother and two nephews. According to historian Dan Thrapp, 150 whites were killed within 60 days.

The Bascom Affair and the murder of Mangas Coloradas two years later triggered a chain reaction of resistance that did not end until Geronimo surrendered to General Nelson Miles in 1886. Confederates under Captain Sherod Hunter, who occupied southern Arizona during the spring of 1862, bore orders to lure the Apaches into Tucson for peace talks and exterminate the adults. Hunter's frontiersmen spent most of their time expelling Union supporters and skirmishing with Union troops, so the order was never enforced. A detachment of Colonel James H. Carleton's California Column, which drove the Confederates out of Tucson, fought the Battle of Apache Pass after being ambushed by Cochise and Mangas Coloradas. Even though the column withstood the Apaches and established Fort Bowie to secure the pass, Chokonens under Cochise, Chihennes (Eastern Chiricahuas) under Mangas Coloradas's successors, Nana and Victorio, and Nednhis (Southern Chiricahuas) under Juh continued the struggle.

The government had greater success in subduing another Athapaskan people, the Diné, or Navajos. Like the Apaches, the Diné ran off cattle, horses, and sheep from New Mexican settlements in the upper Rio Grande Valley. Lieutenant W.H. Emory of the Army of the West called them "lords of New Mexico" because they attacked communities from Zuni to Santa Fe. Unlike the Apaches, the Navajos used stolen animals to replenish their own herds. According to Charles Bent, the first American governor of New Mexico, the tribe possessed an estimated 30,000 horned cattle, 500,000 sheep, and 10,000 horses, mules, and donkeys. Those herds enabled them to spread across a vast region that stretched from the Chama River to the Little Colorado.

The Diné were more successful cultivators than the Apaches. They raised wheat, corn, beans, squash, melons, and peaches, especially in Canyon de Chelly. Anglo American observers emphasized Navajo raiding because raiding fit their preconceptions of Indian savagery, but the Navajo economy and Navajo-New Mexican relationships were far more complex. Both groups preyed upon each other, the Navajos rounding up New Mexican herds, the New Mexicans rounding up Navajos as slaves and converts. They also traded with each other, with the Navajos trading woolen blankets in return for silver, metal goods, and other commodities. Once the United States invaded New Mexico during the Mexican War, U.S. military authorities attempted to end the raids. Their double standard policy puzzled the Diné, who thought that the Navajos and Americans were fighting a common foe, the former Mexican militia and settlements.

For the next 17 years, U.S.-Navajo relations oscillated between conclusive peace negotiations and abortive military campaigns. Treaties were made at Jemez pueblo in 1852 and at Laguna Negra in 1855, but neither brought lasting peace. Civilians and other tribes continued to raid the relatively rich Navajo which added to the tension. In 1858 a campaign led by Colonel Duixom Miles tried to track down Navajo war leader Manuelito. Two years later, Manuelito nearly captured Fort Defiance, in a dispute over grazing rights.

By the fall of 1860, the citizens of New Mexico saw a lack of military leadership. Five companies of volunteer militia commanded by Manuel Chaves scoured the Navajo country, killing any men they found and enslaving about 100 women and children. The volunteers also destroyed Navajo cornfields and captured thousands of cattle, horses, and sheep. In October 1862, Brigadier General Carleton took command of the military department of New Mexico after leading his California Column across the Mojave Desert and Arizona. Carleton craved battle with the Confederates, whom he considered vile secessionists. By the time he arrived in Santa Fe, his predecessor, General Edward Canby, had already run the Confederates out of New Mexico. Carleton therefore turned his moral wrath on the Navajos and the Mescalero Apaches. Canby advised him that the only way to deal with the Apaches and Navajos was to force them onto remote reservations, and Carleton decided on a wide stretch of floodplain along the Pecos River in New Mexico known as Bosque Redondo.

Carleton chose Christopher "Kit" Carson, a beaver trapper, buffalo hunter, army scout, and Taos pioneer, to carry out his plans. Carleton commanded him to deliver an ultimatum to the Navajos. "Say to them: 'Go to the Bosque Redondo, or we will pursue and destroy you. We will not make peace with you on any other terms.'" In July 1863 Carson reached Fort Defiance, which he renamed Fort Canby, with more than 700 soldiers and Ute Indian scouts. The Utes tracked down the Navajos, killed the men, and seized the women and children as slaves. The soldiers burned Navajo cornfields, slaughtered their sheep, and confiscated their cattle and horses. As time went on, small groups of starving Navajos straggled into Fort Canby to surrender. By the end of the year, the only refuge left was Canyon de Chelly.

James H. Carleton's forces entered Canyon de Chelly from the east and west. Carson fought no pitched battles with the Diné, but he once again systematically razed their fields and destroyed their herds. By February, hundreds of famished Navajos had embarked upon their Long Walk to the desolate Bosque Redondo. Carleton reported that Bosque Redondo held 8,354 of them by January 1865 along with a few hundred Mescelaro Apaches.

Navajos lived at Bosque Redondo until 1868, where poor planning, natural disasters, and Comanche raids made it obvious that the grand experiment was not working. The Navajo negotiated a return to their traditional lands. The government issued rations and gave each Navajo family livestock. After a few years, the Army had control of the reservation boundary, so that civilians and other native Americans were unable to raid the growing flocks and crops of the tribe.

After their year in service ended, the War Department disbanded the Arizona Volunteers. The official reason was bureaucratic. The army did not have the authority to retain native recruits, but racial and cultural prejudices undoubtedly played a role in this decision as well. During the mid-1860s, the army was too disorganized to take on the Apaches in a systematic fashion, so they turned their attention to the Pai Indians of northwestern Arizona.

Today the Yuman-speaking Pai are divided into two "tribes", the Hualapai and Havasupai, but those divisions reflect U.S. policy rather than cultural or linguistic differences. When Anglos first moved into their territory, there were three major Pai subgroups: the Middle Mountain People (Witoov Mi'uka Pa'a), the Yavapai Fighters, and the Plateau People (Ko'audva Kopaya). The three subgroups were composed of 13 bands, each of which had 85 to 250 individuals and occupied distinct but overlapping ranges. During much of the year the band broke into smaller camps of three or four related families. All these little scattered groups of kin considered themselves a people, The People, Pai, distinct from their linguistic relatives, the Yavapai, who were known as Jiwha', or The Enemy. All believed that their territory had been given to them by Tudjupa, their creator.

During the summer months they irrigated their crops from creeks and springs. During the other seasons they moved from one wild plant harvest to another. Pai territory stretched from the Grand Canyon to the Bill Williams River, an immense territory considering the small number of Pais. Long before Anglos came to Arizona, the Pais defended their huge expanse of desert and mountain as God-given land, so when prospectors fanned out across their desert territory in 1863, many Pais, like Sherum, chief of the Middle Mountain People, grew alarmed. Under his direction, Pais traded buckskins for Navajo blankets, which they traded to the Paiutes for Mormon guns.

Hostilities almost erupted in April 1865 when drunken Anglos murdered a Pai leader. In retaliation Pais severed transportation routes between Prescott and the Colorado River ports. The diplomacy of freighter W.H. Hardy reopened the toll road between Prescott and Hardyville and prevented the conflict from spreading. Hardy's peace lasted only about nine months. Chief Wauba Yuma of the Yavapai Fighters rode into Beale Springs to show a group of freighters a copy of the treaty with Hardy. A former member of the Walker party put a bullet through his lungs, and soon the Hualapai War was spread across northwestern Arizona.

Like most conflicts during this period, the war rarely consisted of pitched battles. The Pais swooped down on freighters or stoned miners to death in their shafts. Cavalry detachments from Fort Mohave responded by attacking Pai rancherías, burning wikiups and cornfields, and capturing women and children. Mohaves occasionally joined these campaigns or mounted ones of their own, using the Hualapai War as a pretext to avenge themselves on their traditional adversaries. The army exploited these antagonisms just as the Spaniards and Mexicans had done for nearly 200 years. Arizona's Indians were never able to forge intertribal alliances. Each group helped defeat each other in turn.

The Pais held out for more than two years against their better-armed foes. On one occasion Sherum mobilized several hundred Pais to attack soldiers at Beale's Springs. On several others he held off U.S. forces even though his warriors had only forty rifles and muskets among them. After one such engagement, a surprise attack on Sherum's own ranchería in the Cerbat Mountains, Captain Samuel Young and his men were forced to withdraw after one hour and twenty-five minutes.

Between June 1867 and December 1868, cavalry columns destroyed at least sixty-eight Pai racherías and killed about 175 Pais, nearly one-fourth of the tribe. During the last summer of the war, an epidemic of whooping cough or dysentery further devastated the resistance fighters. Under Chief Leve Leve of the Yavapai Fighters, the Pais therefore began to surrender at Fort Mohave and were temporarily interned along the Colorado River. Sherum laid down his arms after twice escaping from soldiers who were trying to deport him to Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. A year later, 50 Pais were scouting for army forces campaigning against the Yavapais, and the military was ready to penetrate the Apachería itself.

Indian affairs in early 1870s Arizona lurched back and forth between peace and war. Each new round of Indian hostilities brought increasing conflict between the settlers and the soldiers, leading General E.O.C. Ord to declare that war was the foundation of the Arizona economy and that civilians demanded more troops because they wanted profit, not peace. Westerners generally favored exterminating the Indians. Easterners vacillated between the ploughshare and the sword. The report of the Indian Peace Commission, in 1867, led to the creation of the Board of Indian Commissioners two years later. Investigating abuses within the Office of Indian Affairs, the two commissioners, led by Colyer, spearheaded a growing movement for Indian rights that culminated in the "Quaker Policy" of President Grant's administration. That policy placed the appointment of Indian agents in the hands of Protestant religious organizations, not political patrons. The frontiersmen were infuriated by having the Eastern clergymen tell them what to do.

The biggest problem Arizona's military faced was that they had too few soldiers for too vast of a land. Although most chronicles of the time regarded Apaches as the biggest menace, but Yuman-speaking Yavapais, who were usually identified as Apache Mohaves or Apache Yumas, resisted Anglo intruders just as tenaciously. Divided into four subtribes, the Tolkapaya (Western Yavapais), the Yavepe and the Wipukpaya (Northeastern Yavapais), and the Kewevkapaya (Southeastern Yavapais), the Yavapais ranged from the Colorado River to the Tonto Basin. Like the Apaches, they were mobile and extremely independent, their only political authorities being war chiefs and advisory chiefs selected by local groups. This made it extremely difficult for the U.S. military to run down or negotiate with more than one Yavapais group at a time. Troopers, many of them German and Irish immigrants, had to pursue the Yavapais across rough desert terrain. Many of the soldiers deserted, fleeing places like Camp Grant, a sun-scorched collection of adobes.

Early in 1871 a 37 year old first lieutenant named Royal Emerson Whitman assumed command of Camp Grant on the San Pedro River about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Tucson. In February 1871 five old Apache women straggled into Camp Grant to look for a son who had been taken prisoner. Whitman fed them and treated them kindly, so other Apaches from Aravaipa and Pinal bands soon came to the post to receive rations of beef and flour. That spring, Whitman created a refuge along Aravaipa Creek about five miles (8 km) east of Camp Grant for nearly 500 Aravaipa and Pinal Apaches, including Chief Eskiminzin. The Apaches began cutting hay for the post's horse and harvesting barley in nearby ranchers' fields.

Whitman may have suspected that peace could not last. He urged Eskiminzin to move his people to the White Mountains near Camp (later Fort) Apache, which was established in 1870, but he refused. During the winter and spring, William Oury and Jesús María Elías formed the Committee of Public Safety, which blamed every depredation in southern Arizona on the Camp Grant Apaches. After Apaches ran off livestock from San Xavier on April 10, Elías contacted his old ally Francisco Galerita, leader of the Tohono O'odham at San Xavier. Oury collected arms and ammunition from his fellow Anglos.

On the afternoon of April 28, six Anglos, 48 Mexicans, and 94 O'odham gathered along Rillito Creek and set off on a march to Aravaipa Canyon. At dawn on Sunday, April 30, they surrounded the Apache camp. O'odham were the main fighters, while Anglos and Mexicans picked off any Apaches that tried to escape. Most of the Apache men were off hunting in the mountains. All but eight of the corpses were women and children. Twenty-seven children had been captured and more than 100 Aravaipas and Pinals had been mutilated and slain.

Lieutenant Whitman searched for the wounded, found none, buried the bodies, and dispatched interpreters into the mountains to find the Apache men and assure them that his soldiers had not participated in the "vile transaction." The following evening, the surviving Aravaipas began trickling back to Camp Grant. Most of the settlers in southern Arizona considered the attack justifiable homicide and agreed with Oury. The U.S. military and Eastern press called it a massacre. President Grant informed Governor A.P.K. Safford that if the perpetrators were not brought to trial, he would place Arizona under martial law. The trial lasted five days, and after 19 minutes of deliberation, the jury acquitted every defendant.

Many army officers considered the trial a travesty and believed that a nefarious "Tucson Ring" of freighters and government contractors had encouraged the Camp Grant Massacre in order to provoke the Aravaipas and keep supplies flowing to the troops, though the arguments made the common mistake in Western history of attributing the massacre to Anglos when the leading participants had been O'odham or Mexicans.

Arizona's army exercised little control over both Indians and civilians. Dissension continued to wrack the federal government as the "peace party" and the "war party" savaged each other in the White House, Congress, and the press. General George Crook took command of the Department of Arizona in June 1871, siding with Oury and Elías against Whitman over the Camp Grant Massacre. He interviewed every officer in southern Arizona before deciding on a course of action and realized that the Yavapais and Apaches had to be pursued into every corner of their territory before they would accept confinement on reservations. He also recognized that neither soldiers nor civilians knew the Apachería well enough to make that pursuit successful. After experimenting with Navajos and Mexicans, Crook turned to the Apaches themselves and enlisted members of the White Mountain bands as scouts. Other Spanish, Mexican and American military commanders had used Apaches to fight Apaches, but Crook systematized that strategy until it became an essential part of his campaign.

In the fall of 1872, the federal government unleashed Crook and his troops. Three columns left Camp Hualpai northwest of Prescott to sweep the area from Camp Verde to the San Francisco Peaks. Two detachments from Camp Date Creek and two from Camp Verde pursued the Yavapais in the Hassayampa, Agua Fria, and Verde drainages. Other expeditions rode out from Camp Apache, Camp Grant, and Fort McDowell. By the end of the year, Crook had nine columns in the field. After scouring the margins of Yavapais and Apache country, the veterans slowly began to converge upon the Tonto Basin where the Tonto Apaches lived. Starvation and cold forced the Indians out of the desert and onto higher ground.

The offensive turned out to be a success. Although there were major battles such as the massacre at Skeleton Cave in the Salt River Canyon, where soldiers shot or stoned to death 76 Yavapais from the Kewevkapaya subtribe, most engagements were less decisive. A few Indian men would be killed and a few women and children captured if the soldiers spared them. More important to the outcome of the war than the body count was the destruction of weapons, clothing, and food supplies. During the winter, the Apaches and Yavapais subsisted almost entirely upon stores of cornmeal, dried meat, wild seeds, and roasted mescal that had been pounded into cakes and spread out to dry. Those caches were confiscated and burned, part of the concept of "total war" advocated by General William T. Sherman and General Phillip Sheridan during the Civil War.

By the spring of 1873, Yavapais and Western Apache resistance was broken. After months in the saddle and days on foot after an epidemic devastated army horse herds, Crook's cavalry had driven the Indians from the Bradshaws, Mazatzals, Sierra Anchas, Superstitions, Pinals, and the foothills of the Mogollon Rim. The last war chief to surrender was Delshay, a Tonto Apache from the Mazatzals.

Hostilities did not completely cease after Crook's offensive, but the surrender of most of the surviving Yavapais and Western Apaches, and the increasing availability of Apache scouts made life outside the reservations more dangerous for Native Americans. Bourke estimated that troops from Camp Grant alone killed more than 500 Indians. Life in captivity became a slow death itself. Corrupt Indian agents would cheat them out of their rations and epidemics swept across the reservations, killing hundreds. Indians living on early reservations had the advantage of remaining in their home ranges, surrounded by landmarks, which constituted a moral as well as a physical geography for the Indians who lived there.

This changed in 1874, when the government decided to consolidate many of the smaller reserves into one giant reservation where the Indians could be isolated and controlled. That reservation was San Carlos, the southern part of the White Mountain Apache Reservation. San Carlos straddled the Gila River downstream from Safford where Mexican and Mormon farmers were already diverting the Gila onto their fields. From there it stretched northward over the Gila Mountains to Ash Flat and the Natanes Plateau. Then it descended into the canyons of the Black River, which joined with the White River to form the Salt about 20 miles (30 km) southwest of Camp Apache.

Before relocation, this was the territory of the San Carlos band of the Western Apaches, who were closely related to the Pinal Apaches to the west and the Aravaipa Apaches to the south. To the north and west of the Mogollon Rim were bands of Carrizo, Cibecue, and Canyon Creek Apaches. To the north and east were the Western and Eastern White Mountain Apaches. The mountains were sacred sources of supernatural power to the Apaches and were one of the deepest sources of Apache identity and culture.

The federal government established San Carlos in one of the lowest and hottest portions of the reservation, a flat where San Carlos Creek trickled into the Gila. The spot was chosen because it was relatively close to Tucson, where powerful freighters and merchants lived, and because the terrain was open and the army could keep an eye on the Indians confined there. The government conducted an experiment in relocation unmatched in Arizona history until the internment of the Japanese during World War II, throwing thousands of Yavapais, Chiricahaus, and Western Apaches together with little regard for cultural, political, or linguistic differences.

The first group removed against their will were Yavapais and Tonto Apaches living near Camp Verde and Date Creek. The forced march from Camp Verde to San Carlos began on February 27, 1875. For eight days, 1,400 Yavapais and Tonto Apaches trudged across 180 miles (290 km) of the roughest country in their territory. By the end of the journey, more than 100 Indians had died. Afterward the Indians at Camp Apache, from which Crook recruited his earliest scouts, were moved 60 miles (100 km) southwest to San Carlos.

During the early 1870s the reservation escaped much of the upheaval wracking the rest of the Apachería. The Dutch Reformed Church, which was given jurisdiction over the Apaches by the Grant administration, appointed James E. Roberts as an agent in December 1872. Roberts encouraged stock raising and agriculture among the White Mountain people, convinced that the Indians would "become civilized just as soon as they became lovers of money." By the spring of 1874, Roverts's charges had dug more than five miles (8 km) of canals and were irrigating more than 500 acres (2 km²) of land around Camp Apache. The military responded by purchasing 100 bushels (4 m³) of beans, 6,000 bushels (210 m³) of corn, and 150 tons of hay from the Apache farmers. In Roberts's mind, the first steps toward Apache capitalism had begun.

Then the soldiers started interfering in the internal affairs of the reservation. They undercut Roberts's authority to issue passes and took over the dispensation of rations. In 1874, Roberts became caught up in a complex scheme to reduce the size of the reservation because copper ore had been discovered near modern Clifton. Territorial officials, including Governor A.P.K. Safford and Delegate to Congress Richard C. McCormick, were attempting to return the area to public domain. Roberts grew increasing unstable, which gave the military a convenient excuse to occupy agency buildings, remove Roberts from office, and seize control of the reservation itself.

To prevent a complete breakdown in civil-military relations, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs placed the White Mountain Apaches under the jurisdiction of the San Carlos agent, John Clum, a member of the Dutch Reformed Church. When he arrived at San Carlos in August 1874, Clum was almost twenty-three years old and was convinced that the army did more harm than good on Indian reservations. He struck a lifelong friendship with Eskmininzin and persuaded many of the White Mountain people to move south to San Carlos. By visiting Apache camps without soldiers and by fiercely defending the Apaches against the military, Clum won the confidence of his charges. They responded by turning in their weapons, setting up a tribal court to try minor infractions, and organizing their own police under Clum's command. The agent soon had 4,200 Indians, Apaches and Yavaais, living on his semi-arid reservation. The military grudgingly stated that he was doing a good job.

Unlike Eskiminzin, whose people had been shatterd by the Camp Grant Massacre, the Chiricahua chiefs had not yet been broken by the new order taking shape in Arizona, and they despised Clum's arrogance. They also hated San Carlos, where they first experienced malaria. Most of all they had loved how their mountain homelands gave them access to both the United States and Mexico, allowing them to retreat to Mexico when pressure in the U.S. became too intense. Because Mexico had recovered from the revolution and the Mexican War by the early 1870s, many chiefs, including Cochise, were ready to talk peace.

According to legend, the key figure in these negotiations was Thomas Johnathan Jeffords, a redheaded steamboat captain on the Great Lakes who had drifted into Arizona during the Civil War. While working for the Southern Overland Mail, Jeffords supposedly rode into Cochise's camp alone in the early 1860s to persuade the chief to stop killing his riders, and Cochise was so impressed with his bravery that they became close friends. The Bascom Affair had made Cochise hate Anglos and his friendship with Tom Jeffords made him trust them again. This moral fable was simplified for the movie myths of Blood Brother and Broken Arrow and other Western novels and Hollywood movies.

The Jeffords myth overemphasized the role of Anglo Americans in Arizona and ignored the roles of Mexicans in Apache wars. Cochise's biographer, historian Edwin Sweeney, concludes that Jeffords and Cochise probably did not meet until the early 1870s when Cochise was already beginning to talk with U.S. authorities at the Cañada Alamosa Reservation in New Mexico. Cochise trusted Jeffords and arranged with him to negotiate with the U.S. military, but he did so because he and his people were being harassed from all sides by Chihuahuan scalp hunters, Sonoran soldiers, O'odham revenge parties, and Manso Apaches from Tucson bankrolled by merchant Estevan Ochoa.

Peace was not easily achieved. Cochise first met with army officers in late September 1871. The army wanted Cochise and other Chiricahuas to settle at Tularosa, New Mexico. Cochise refused. A year later, General O.O. Howard met with Cochise, accompanied by Jeffords, two Chiricahuas, and his aide, Lieutenant Joseph Sladen. The party rode into the Dragoon Mountains east of the San Pedro River on September 30, 1872. The next day, Cochise came to the general's camp with his youngest wife, his youngest son, and his sister, a fifty-year-old widow who was one of his most trusted advisors.

Howard offered to meet Cochise's earlier demand and allow the Chircahuas to move to Cañada Alamosa near the Black Range in New Mexico. Cochise countered with a proposal that surprised the party. He said, "Why not give me Apache Pass? Give me that and I will protect all the roads. I will see that nobody's property is taken by the Indians." Howard agreed to a reservation in Chokonen Chiricahua territory, one that ran from the Dragoon Mountains on the west to the Peloncillo Mountains on the east. It included the Chiricahua Mountains and ran south to the Mexican border. Howard offered promised rations of food and clothing to be distributed by Jeffords. Chokonen depredations in southern Arizona ceased, but the Chiricahuas continued to raid Sonora and Chihuahua just as they always had. Cochise himself did not join the raiding parties, but neither he nor Jeffords did much to discourage them.

By then Crook had launched his campaign against the Yavapais and Western Apaches and was searching for a legitimate excuse to take up arms against Cochise as well. He formulated a plan to provoke Cochise by demanding that the Chiricahuas submit to a daily roll call. If they refused, he wrote Governor Pesqueira of Sonora, who was complaining bitterly about Chiricahua hostilities in his state, "I will commence hostilities against them without delay." Cochise and Jeffords were able to fend off Crook and by the end of 1873, Cochise had convinced many of his own people and some of the Nednhi Chiricahuas living on the reservation to stop their Mexican raids.

Cochise died of a stomach ailment complicated by heavy drinking on June 8, 1874. Jeffords lived on for two more years, but did not have the influence over the Apaches that Cochise had. Many Americans, including Crook, did not trust him either. When the government cut Jeffords's beef ration from 889,000 to 650,000 pounds (403,000 to 295,000 kg) in the spring of 1876, a few Chiricahuas resumed raiding in southeastern Arizona. Then Nicolas Rodgers sold whiskey to a Chiricahua named Pionsenay and several companions at the Sulphur Springs state station. Pionsenay killed him and his cook after Rogers refused to sell more.

John Wasson, editor of the Tucson Weekly Citizen, thundered that Jeffords was an "incarnate demon" and accused him being a drunkard, being in collusion with whiskey peddlers and ammunition dealers, and receiving gold and livestock stolen by the Chiricahuas in Mexicos. Jeffords denies the accusations, but on May 3 the government ordered Chum to suspend Jeffords and, if "practicable", transfer the Chiricahuas to San Carlos.

After waiting for military reinforcements to arrive, Clum began the relocation in early June. Cochise's sons Taza and Naiche agreed to the move and killed several Chircahuas, including Eskinya, Cochise's trusted ally, when he insisted they go to war. Nednhi Chirica led by Juh also requested transfer. Clum granted them three days to round up their kinsmen. They used that time to elude the cavalry and flee south. Of the more than 1,000 Chiricahuas enumerated in Jeffords's infrequent censuses, only 42 men and 280 women and children accompanied Clum north.

The firing of Jeffords and the abolition of the reservation in southeastern Arizona drove the Chiricahuas deeper into Mexico or over to the Ojo Caliente reservation in New Mexico. In April 1877 the Interior Department ordered Clum to remove the bands at Ojo Caliente to San Carlos as well. Victorio and the Chihenne Chiricahuas acquiesced at first. Geronimo, on the other hand, appeared "defiant" to Clum, so he supposedly hid his Apache police in the commissary building at Ojo Caliente and surprised Geronimo, seizing his rifle and throwing him in shackles.

A total of 453 Chiricahuas, 100 from Geronimos band and the rest under Victorio, reached San Carlos in late May. From the very beginning they began quarreling with the other Apaches confined there. Clum's feuds with the military escalated until he resigned and left San Carlos on July 1, nearly three years after he had arrived. He was replaced by a series of agents who were renowned for their corruption. Two months later, Victorio, Loco, and 308 other Chiricahuas bolted for New Mexico, killing twelve ranchers before surrendering at Fort Wingate in early October.

Victorio and his people returned to Ojo Caliente, where they lived peacefully for less than a year before the government attempted to transfer them to San Carlos again in October 1878. Victorio escaped, and after a year of unsuccessful peace negotiations, he gathered Chiricahuas, Mescaleros, and a few Comanches and embarked on a guerilla campaign. He and his 125 to 150 men always traveled with women and children, some of whom were accomplished warriors themselves. For more than a year Victorio's little band outran thousands of soldiers and killed hundreds of settlers across New Mexico and west Texas.

In July and August 1880, Black cavalrymen (Buffalo Soldiers) in Southern New Mexico and West Texas relentlessly harried Victorio and his people, keeping him from the few sources of water in the nearby land. To escape them, Victorio crossed the Rio Grande near Fort Quitman and drifted south into the deserts of northeastern Chihuahua. There he met his end at the hands of Mexican militia, when the American force was ordered out of the country. On October 15, Joaqín Terazas, 260 Chihuahuans, and Tarahumara Indians hunted the Apaches down on three rocky outcrops called Tres Castillos. Victorio and his band fought until their ammunition ran out, and then they died, 78 of them, 62 of whom were men. Terrazas also took sixty-eight prisoners. Victorio did not survive.

Other Apaches continued on, despite Victorio's death. Nana, Victorio's old lieutenant, carried out devastating raids in Chihuahua and New Mexico during the summer of 1881, covering more than 1000 miles (1600 km) and killing 30 to 50 Anglos. Five women captured at Tres Castillos were taken to Mexico City and sold as slaves, including Sitki, a daughter of Loco. They endured captivity for three years before they escaped and headed for the deserts of northern Mexico with blankets and knives and joined Geronimo's band in the Sierra Madre.

The Apaches at San Carlos were thoroughly demoralized, hungry, and poorly clothed. They were also convinced that their agent, John Tiffany, was selling their rations to Americans off the reservation. Most of the Apaches realized that resistance was futile. so they turned to the Western Apache medicine man Noch-del-klinne as a prophet. He told his followers that if they held dances similar to the Ghost Dance, two dead chiefs would be resurrected and the whites would be driven away. As Noch-del-klinne's dances in the remote Cibecue Valley attracted more and more Apaches, General Eugene Carr at Fort Apache grew alarmed. In late August 1881, he organized an expedition of 117 troops to arrest the Apache leader. When he did, many of his Apache scouts rebelled. Shots were fired, people scattered, and both soldiers and Apaches were killed, including Noch-del-klinne. It was the only time during the history of the Apache Wars that Apache scouts turned against U.S. troops.

Crook believed that the scouts had been provoked and argued that "any attempt to punish any of the Indian soldiers for participation in it would bring on war." The army still court-martialed five of the scouts who surrendered anyway, sending two to the military prison of Alcatraz. The other three, Sergeant Dandy Jim, Sergeant Dead Shot, and Private Skippy, were hung at Fort Grant on March 3, 1882.

Many at San Carlos thought the army intended to punish them as well, so Juh, Chato, Naiche, Geronimo, and 66 other members of the Nednhi band slipped away in September 1881. For the next four years the Chiricahuas and their pursuers fought a war of attrition, most of it on Mexican soil. In the winter of 1882, Juh ambushed and killed a party of Mexicans led by the veteran Indian fighter Juan Mata Ortiz, Terrazas's second-in-command at Tres Castillos. The following year, Chihuahuan militia surprised Juh's camp and killed his wife and daughter. Sometime after that, Juh's horse slipped on a steep mountain trail above the Ríos Aros in northwestern Chihuahua, tumbling the chief into the water. Although other Chiricahuas tried to revive him, he never regained consciousness. From then on, Geronimo led most of the Chiricahuas who refused reservation life.

Geronimo's principal opponent was Crook, who returned to take over the Department of Arizona in 1882. On July 29, Mexico signed a treaty allowing U.S. troops to chase hostile Apaches across the international boundary. In May 1883, Crook gathered about 50 soldiers and 200 Quechan, Mohave, and Apache scouts and rode up the rugged valley of the Bavispe River in the northwestern Sonora until he turned east into the Sierra Madre. Captain Emmet Crawford and his scouts were the first to encounter the Chiricahuas, attacking the ranchería of Chato and Bonito, which turned out to be the only hostile engagement of the entire campaign. The penetration of their territory by U.S. troops was threat enough, and soon the Apaches, including Geronimo, made their way to Crook's camp in the Sierra Madre.

For the next several days, Crook and Geronimo sparred with each other for several days over the details of the surrender. Crook realized if he insisted complete submission, the Apaches would scatter into the mountains and the war would drag on for years. He accepted Geronimo's promise to return to San Carlos on his own, a move that prompted critics to charge that Geronimo had captured Crook rather than vice versa. Crook then led Nana, Loco, Bonito, and 225 other Chiricahuas back to Arizona, arriving at San Carlos on June 23.

Confounding the skeptics, Geronimo kept his part of the bargain in late February 1884. He and the other Chiricahuas settled along Turkey Creek 15 miles (24 km) below Fort Apache, where they cultivated 4,000 acres (16 km²) and harvested 3,850,000 pounds (1,750,000 kg) of corn, 600,000 pounds (270,000 kg) of wheat and other cereals, 540,000 pounds (240,000 kg) of beans, 20,000 pounds (9,000 kg) of potatoes, and 200,000 pumpkins. Still, the officers at Fort Apache clashed incessantly with the agents at San Carlos. Accusations of corruption kept surfacing with the agents at San Carlos. Accusations of corruption kept surfacing, and in May Crook prohibited alcohol on the reservation, outlawing the brewing of tizwin, a fermented corn liquor favored by the Apaches. Under the guise of preventing wife beating, the military also began to interfere in the personal affairs of Apache families themselves. On May 15 the Chircahuas demonstrated their contempt by getting drunk on tizwin and flaunting their disobedience. Two days later, Geronimo, Naiche, Nana, and 131 other Chiricahuas deserted the reservation.

Crook organized another expedition into northern Sonora, and once gain Apache scouts, including former Chiricahua rebelts like Chato, led the way. The general and Geronimo sat down in a cottonwood-shaded ravine called Cañon de los Embudos on March 25, 1886. Crook's superiors wanted unconditional surrender. The Chiricahuas wanted an immediate return to San Carlos. Crook and Geronimo agreed to a compromise that would have allowed the Chiricahuas to return to the reservation after a two-year imprisonment back east, but as soon as General Phillip Sheridan and President Grover Cleveland learned of the agreement, they rejected it. By then, Geronimo, Naiche, and forty other Chiricahuas, including 14 women and six children, had slipped away.

When Sheridan heard that the peace talks had collapsed, he concluded that the Apache scouts had allowed Geronimo to escape and told Crook to use regular troops from then on. He also ordered Crook to load the rest of the Chiricahuas onto railroad cars and ship them to Fort Marion (now Castillo de San Marcos National Monument) in St. Augustine, Florida with no promise of return. Crook asked to be relieved.

His successor was General Nelson Miles, who was given 5,000 soldiers, one-fourth of the entire U.S. army, to capture or kill Geronimo's little band. Miles deployed his regulars and erected twenty-seven heliograph stations to keep track of the hostiles. Two Chiricahua scouts under Captain Charles Gatewood, Kayitah and Martine, tracked Geronimo to the Torres Mountains southeast of Fronteras. Gatewood met with the Chiricahua leader in late August and persuaded him to surrender for the fourth and final time. Geronimo did so at Skeleton Canyon in the Peloncillo Mountains on September 4, 1886.

The result of the surrender was a train ride to Florida and an exile that lasted 23 years. Miles and the U.S. government believed Arizona would not be secure until the Chiricahuas were destroyed, and their opinion prevailed. The first to go were seventy-seven Chiricahuas rounded up during Crook's second campaign. The government dispatched them to Fort Marion in April 1886. Miles then persuaded Sheridan that all the Chiricahuas in Arizona had to be removed, although he argued for Indian Territory in Oklahoma as their destination rather than Florida, where the Apaches "would in a short time most likely die." He even arranged to send Chato and twelve other Chiricahua leaders, including three women, on a tour of Indian Territory to persuade them to settle there.

Instead, President Cleveland brought Chato and the rest of the Chiricahua delegation to Washington D.C., where Chato was presented with a silver medal. Cleveland asked him to convince his people to move to Florida. Chato refused and demanded a "paper" allowing them to stay in Arizona. Cleveland responded by giving the illiterate scout a document that proclaimed he had visited the nation's capital. Then, after the Chiricahuas were on their way back to Arizona, Chato and the others were arrested as prisoners of war at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

The military called in the rest of the peaceful Chiricahuas and Indians married to Chiricahuas for a "routine count" at Fort Apache and reprimanded them to Fort Marion as well. Geronimo and his rebels were last to go. By the end of the year, the government had confined nearly 500 Chiricahuas on the other side of the continent. The men were sent to Fort Pickens near Pensacola, and the women and children were sent to Fort Marion on Florida's Atlantic coast. The Apache wars had come to an end.

Crook spent the last years of his life protesting the treatment of the Chiricahuas. On January, 1890, he even visited them at Mount Vernon, Alabama, where they had been transferred after 119 of the 498 exiles had died in the overcrowded prisons of Florida. He returned to Washington to lobby for a bill to settle the Chiricahuas at Fort Sill in Oklahoma, but after he died on March 21 of that year, the bill expired as well.

For the next four years the Apaches remained in Alabama, and in 1894 the government finally sent them to Fort Sill where they scattered across the reservation in "villages" that resembled their traditional local groups. Although Indian agents helped them become farmers and ranchers, most remained refugees on the Southern Plains. In 1913, after Arizona had become the 48th state of the U.S., they were offered a choice: private land in Oklahoma or a part of the Mescalero reservation in central New Mexico. After living outside the Southwest for nearly three decades, 187 of the 271 surviving Chiriciahuas, including Chato, chose to return home. No other Southwestern Indians had been moved so far or been gone so long.

The Yavapais interned at San Carlos also began to trickle back into their traditional ranges, but the government did not create reservations for them until 1904 at Fort McDowell, 1910 near Camp Verde, and 1935 near Prescott. Hualapais were taken to La Paz on the Colorado River reservation in 1874, but they escaped a year later to find their country overrun by ranchers. The stockmen had run their cattle over the grasslands, destroying several of the wild plant species on which the Hualapais relied. In order to contain them, the government established a small reservation along the south rim of the Grand Canyon in 1883.

The Pimas had been allies of the Europeans ever since Kino rode through their country in the 17th century, and during the California Gold Rush they fed thousands of American and Mexicans with the produce of their floodplain fields. They had become the first agricultural entrepreneurs of Arizona in the 1840s, and because of the establishment of a stagecoach route through their territory in 1857 and the Civil War in 1861, they were selling three million pounds (1,400,000 kg) of wheat a year by 1870. If their water rights had been respected, it might have been the Pimas that built Phoenix.

During the late 1860s, Anglo and Mexican farmers settled the upriver from the Pima villages around Florence and dug irrigation ditches that siphoned off the waters of the Gila. In 1873, Chief Antonio Azul led a delegation of Pimas to Washington, D.C. to protest the situation. The Government responded by suggesting that the Pimas emigrate to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. The O'odham refuse, but 1,200 did move north to the Salt River where irrigation water was more plentiful. Then, in 1887, the construction of a large canal near Florence diverted the Gila once and for all. By 1895, conditions were so poor that the government began issuing rations to the O'odham.

The territory of Arizona was admitted to the Union as the 48th state on February 14, 1912.

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