Arkansas

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Posted by r2d2 04/06/2009 @ 10:10

Tags : arkansas, states, us

News headlines
Oklahoma rebounds from upset, pounds Arkansas 21-2 - USA Today
(AP) — Lindsey Vandever homered twice as top-seeded Oklahoma bounced back from a first-round loss by setting a school record for runs Saturday in a 21-2 defeat of Arkansas in the NCAA softball tournament. Hours after losing a suspended game to...
TI Prepares for Prison in Arkansas - Bossip
TI is going to serve his sentence in a prison in Arkansas. He's currently partying hard down in Miami with his family and friends before he reports to the federal prison. If there's one place to create wild memories before going away to prison,...
Ole Miss 16, Arkansas 3 - Razorback Central
By Dudley E. Dawson Ole Miss completes a sweep of Arkansas with a 16-3 rout on Saturday at Baum Stadium and grabs a share of the SEC overall title while the Razorbacks skid to their eighth straight league loss. Ole Miss not only broke out the brooms at...
Arkansas man killed in bridge wreck; I-40 westbound closed - Memphis Commercial Appeal
By Cindy Wolff (Contact), Memphis Commercial Appeal A 58-year-old Arkansas man is dead and westbound Interstate 40 is closed at the I-240 split after a wreck this afternoon at the Arkansas/Tennessee state line on the Hernando DeSoto Bridge....
Georgia men trail only Arkansas in SEC track championships - Red and Black
The Arkansas men have taken the points lead at the SEC Outdoor Track and Field Championships, with the No. 20 Georgia men trailing a close second place. The Bulldog men have accumulated 52 points through nine events scored, trailing the Razorback men...
Arkansas at a glance - Arkansas Democrat Gazette
UP NEXT Arkansas vs. Florida WHEN 10 am Central Wednesday WHERE Regions Park, Hoover, Ala. WHO'S HOT In the three-game sweep, Ole Miss batted .324 as a team with 12 extrabase hits, drew 21 walks and had a .442 on-base percentage....
Arkansas team rolls, retains Cup - Arkansas Democrat Gazette
BY JEFFREY SLATTON Democrat-Gazette/BENJAMIN KRAIN Mark Bartlett of Team Arkansas tees off on the eighth hole at Chenal Country Club during the Governor's Cup tournament Saturday. The rain held off, and Team Arkansas poured it on....
EXHIBIT : Haunting prison photos tell stories without words - Arkansas Democrat Gazette
I thought the only danger was being grabbed as a hostage, but the Arkansas prison had made it clear that there was no negotiation. I felt other prisoners would help me to score points for parole." Jackson's visits to the prison began after federal...
End Of The Road For Eight Arkansas Chrysler Dealers - Today's THV
Chrysler is closing 789 dealerships including 8 in Arkansas. To make matters worse Chrysler says it will not buy back the inventory and dealers have until June 9th to sell all their vehicles. Cook Jeep Chrysler in Little Rock was surprised to get a...
NW Arkansas today - Arkansas Democrat Gazette
Arkansas Democrat-Gazette/WILLIAM MOORE Talking antiques Don Allmon (left) and Tom Goodell, both of Rogers and reflected in the side mirror of Allmon's 1930 Ford Model A, talk Saturday during a Model A car show in the parking lot across from the Rogers...

Arkansas

Map of the United States with Arkansas highlighted

Arkansas ( /ˈɑrkənsɔː/ (help·info); AR-kən-saw) is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Arkansas shares a border with six states, with its eastern border largely defined by the Mississippi River. Its diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River. The capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state.

The name Arkansas derives from the same root as the name for the State of Kansas. The Kansas tribe of American Indians are closely associated with the Sioux tribes. The word is a French pronunciation of a Quapaw (a related "Kaw" tribe) word meaning "land of downriver people" or "people of the south wind". The pronunciation of Arkansas was made official by an act of the state legislature in 1881 after a dispute between the two U.S. Senators from Arkansas. One wanted to pronounce the name /ɑrˈkænzəs/ ar-KAN-zəs and the other wanted /ˈɑrkənsɔː/ AR-kən-saw.

The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, and in dozens of places where the current channel of the Mississippi has meandered from where it had last been legally specified. Arkansas shares its southern border with Louisiana, its northern border with Missouri, its eastern border with Tennessee and Mississippi, and its western border with Texas and Oklahoma.

Arkansas is a land of mountains and valleys, thick forests and fertile plains. The so-called Lowlands are better known by names of their two regions, the Delta and the Grand Prairie. The Arkansas Delta is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Further away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape. Both are fertile agricultural areas.

The Delta region is bisected by an unusual geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet (150 m) above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas.

Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Boston Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains and these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; the southern and eastern parts of Arkansas are called the Lowlands. All of these mountains ranges are part of the U.S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains. The highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ozark Mountains; it rises to 2,753 feet (839 m) above sea level.

Arkansas is home to many caves, such as Blanchard Springs Caverns. It is currently the only U.S. state in which diamonds are mined (near Murfreesboro). Arkansas has the only operating diamond mine in the United States.

The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail also runs through Arkansas.

Arkansas generally has a humid subtropical climate, which borders on humid continental in some northern highland areas. While not bordering the Gulf of Mexico, Arkansas is still close enough to this warm, large body of water for it to be the main weather influence in the state. Generally, Arkansas has very hot, humid summers and mild, slightly drier winters. In Little Rock, the daily high temperatures average around 90 °F (32 °C) in the summer and close to 50 °F (10 °C) in winter. Annual precipitation throughout the state averages between about 40 and 60 inches (1,000 to 1,500 mm); somewhat wetter in the south and drier in the northern part of the state. Snowfall is not uncommon, but not excessive in most years, as the average snowfall is approximately five inches (13 cm).

Despite its subtropical climate, Arkansas is known for occasional extreme weather. Between both the Great Plains and the Gulf States, Arkansas receives around 60 days of thunderstorms. As a part of Tornado Alley, tornadoes are not an uncommon occurrence in Arkansas, and a few of the most destructive tornadoes in U.S. history have struck the state. While being sufficiently away from the coast to be safe from a direct hit from a hurricane, Arkansas can often get the remnants of a tropical system which dumps tremendous amounts of rain in a short time and often spawns smaller tornadoes.

High water pouring down the White River caused historic flooding in cities along its path in eastern Arkansas.

The first European to reach Arkansas was the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto at the end of the 16th century. Arkansas is one of several U.S. states formed from the territory purchased from Napoleon Bonaparte in the Louisiana Purchase. The early Spanish or French explorers of the state gave it its name, which is probably a phonetic spelling for the Illinois word for the Quapaw people, who lived downriver from them. Other Native American nations that lived in Arkansas prior to westward movement were the Quapaw, Caddo, and Osage nations. In their forced move westward (under U.S. Indian removal policies), the Five Civilized Tribes inhabited Arkansas during its territorial period.

The Territory of Arkansaw was organized on July 4, 1819, and on June 15, 1836, the State of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state and the 13th slave state. Planters settled in the Delta to cultivate cotton, and this was the area of the state where most enslaved African Americans were held. Other areas had more subsistence farmers and mixed farming.

Arkansas played a key role in aiding Texas in its war for independence with Mexico, sending troops and materials to Texas to help fight the war. The proximity of the city of Washington to the Texas border involved the town in the Texas Revolution of 1835-36. Some evidence suggests Sam Houston and his compatriots planned the revolt in a tavern at Washington in 1834. When the fighting began, a stream of volunteers from Arkansas and the southeastern states flowed through the town toward the Texas battle fields.

When the Mexican-American War began in 1846, Washington became a rendezvous for volunteer troops. Governor Thomas S. Drew issued a proclamation calling on the state to furnish one regiment of cavalry and one battalion of infantry to join the United States Army. Ten companies of men assembled here where they were formed into the first Regiment of Arkansas Cavalry.

The state developed a cotton culture in the east in lands of the Mississippi Delta. This was where enslaved labor was used most extensively, as planters brought with them or imported slaves from the Upper South. On the eve of the Civil War in 1860, enslaved African Americans numbered 111,115 people, just over 25% of the state's population.

Arkansas refused to join the Confederate States of America until after United States President Abraham Lincoln called for troops to respond to the attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, by Confederate forces. The State of Arkansas seceded from the Union on May 6, 1861. While not often cited in historical accounts, the state was the scene of numerous small-scale battles during the American Civil War. Arkansans of note during the Civil War included Confederate Major General Patrick Cleburne. Considered by many to be one of the most brilliant Confederate division commanders of the war, Cleburne was often referred to as "The Stonewall of the West." Also of note was Major General Thomas C. Hindman. A former United States Representative, Hindman commanded Confederate forces at the Battle of Cane Hill and Battle of Prairie Grove.

Under the Military Reconstruction Act, Congress readmitted Arkansas in June 1868. The Reconstruction legislature established universal male suffrage, a public education system, and other general issues to improve the state and help more of the population. Years later, as conservative Democrats began to regain political power, the legislature passed a new constitution in 1874.

In 1874, the Brooks-Baxter War, a political struggle between factions of the Republican Party shook Little Rock and the state governorship. It was settled only when President Ulysses S. Grant ordered Joseph Brooks to disperse his militant supporters.

In 1881, the Arkansas state legislature enacted a bill that adopted an official pronunciation, to combat a controversy then raging around the proper pronunciation of the state's name. (See Law and Government below).

After Reconstruction the state began to receive more immigrants and migrants. Some were originally recruited to work as farm labor in the developing Delta region. Some immigration continued into the early decades of the 20th century. The state witnessed numbers of Chinese, Italian, Syrian and immigrants from eastern Europe who made the Delta more diverse than the rest of the state. In addition, some black migrants moved into the area because of opportunities to develop the bottomlands and own their own property. The Chinese and Italians moved quickly out of positions as farm labor. Many Chinese became such successful merchants in small towns that they were able to educate their children at college.

Construction of railroads enabled more farmers to get their products to market. It also brought new development into different parts of the state, including the Ozarks. In a few years at the end of the 19th century, for instance, Eureka Springs in Carroll County grew to 10,000 people, having become a tourist destination and the fourth largest city of the state. It featured newly constructed, elegant resort hotels and spas planned around its springs. The town's attractions included horse racing and other entertainment. It appealed to a wide variety of classes, becoming almost as popular as Hot Springs.

In the late 1880s, the worsening agricultural depression catalyzed Populist and third party movements, leading to interracial coalitions. Struggling to stay in power, in the 1890s the Democrats in Arkansas followed other Southern states in passing legislation and constitutional amendments that disfranchised blacks and poor whites. Democrats wanted to prevent their alliance. In 1891 state legislators passed a requirement for a literacy test, knowing that many blacks and whites would be excluded, at a time when more than 25% of the population could neither read nor write. In 1892 the state constitution was amended to include a poll tax and related residency requirements, which adversely affected poor people and forced them from electoral rolls. By 1900 the Democratic Party expanded use of the white primary in county and state elections, further denying blacks a part in the political process, as only in the primary was there any competition. The state was one-party for decades.

After the case of Brown v. Topeka Board of Education in 1954, the Little Rock Nine brought Arkansas to national attention when the Federal government intervened to protect African-American students trying to integrate a high school in the Arkansas capital. Governor Orval Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to aid segregationists in preventing nine African-American students from enrolling at Little Rock's Central High School. After attempting three times to contact Faubus, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent 1000 troops from the active-duty 101st Airborne Division to escort and protect the African-American students as they entered school on September 25, 1957. In defiance of federal court orders to integrate, the governor and city of Little Rock decided to close the high schools for the remainder of the school year. By the fall of 1959, the Little Rock high schools were completely integrated.

Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, was born in Hope, Arkansas. Before his presidency, Clinton served nearly twelve years as the 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas.

As of 2006, Arkansas has an estimated population of 2,810,872, which is an increase of 29,154, or 1.1%, from the prior year and an increase of 105,756, or 4.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 52,214 people (that is 198,800 births minus 146,586 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 57,611 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 21,947 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 35,664 people. It is estimated that about 48.8% is male, and 51.2% is female. From 2000 through 2006 Arkansas has had a population growth of 5.1% or 137,472. The population density of the state is 51.3 people per square mile.

The center of population of Arkansas is located in the far northeast corner of Perry County.

People of Irish, German, and English background comprised the majority of Arkansas' European descendant residents.

People of European ancestry have a strong presence in the northwestern Ozarks and the central part of the state. African Americans live mainly in the fertile southern and eastern parts of the state. Arkansans of Irish, English and German ancestry are mostly found in the far northwestern Ozarks near the Missouri border. Ancestors of Irish in the Ozarks were chiefly Scotch-Irish, Protestants from Northern Ireland and the Scottish lowlands, part of the largest group of immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland before the American Revolution. Scots-Irish settled throughout the backcountry of the South and in the more mountainous areas.

As of 2000, 95.07% of Arkansas residents age 5 and older speak English at home and 3.31% speak Spanish. German is the third most spoken language at 0.299%, followed by French at 0.291% and Vietnamese at 0.13%.

In 2006, Arkansas has a larger percentage of tobacco smokers than the national average, with 24% of adults smoking.

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 665,307; the United Methodist Church with 179,383; the Roman Catholic Church with 115,967; and the American Baptist Association with 115,916.

The state's gross domestic product for 2005 was $87 billion. Its per capita household median income (in current dollars) for 2004 was $35,295, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The state's agriculture outputs are poultry and eggs, soybeans, sorghum, cattle, cotton, rice, hogs, and milk. Its industrial outputs are food processing, electric equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, paper products, bromine, and vanadium.

Several global companies are headquartered in the northwest corner of Arkansas, including Wal-Mart (the world's largest public corporation by revenue in 2007), J.B. Hunt and Tyson Foods. This area of the state has experienced an economic boom since the 1970s as a result.

In recent years, automobile parts manufacturers have opened factories in eastern Arkansas to support auto plants in other states. Additionally, the city of Conway is the site of a school bus factory.

Tourism is also very important to the Arkansas economy; the official state nickname "The Natural State" was originally created (as "Arkansas Is A Natural") for state tourism advertising in the 1970s, and is still regularly used to this day.

According to Forbes.com Arkansas currently ranks 21st for The Best States for Business, 9th for Business Cost, 40th for Labor, 22nd for Regulatory Environment, 17th for Economic Climate, 9th for Growth Prospects, 34th in Gross Domestic Product, and positive economic change of 3.8% or ranked 22nd.

Arkansas imposes a state income tax with six brackets, ranging from 1.0% to 7.0%. The first $9,000 of military pay of enlisted personnel is exempt from Arkansas tax; officers do not have to pay state income tax on the first $6,000 of their military pay. Retirees pay no tax on Social Security, or on the first $6,000 in gain on their pensions (in addition to recovery of cost basis). Residents of Texarkana, Arkansas are exempt from Arkansas income tax; wages and business income earned there by residents of Texarkana, Texas are also exempt. Arkansas's gross receipts (sales) tax and compensating (use) tax rate is currently 6%. The state has also mandated that various services be subject to sales tax collection. They include wrecker and towing services; dry cleaning and laundry; body piercing, tattooing and electrolysis; pest control; security and alarm monitoring; self-storage facilities; boat storage and docking; and pet grooming and kennel services.

In addition to the state sales tax, there are more than 300 local taxes in Arkansas. Cities and counties have the authority to enact additional local sales and use taxes if they are passed by the voters in their area. These local taxes have a ceiling or cap; they cannot exceed $25 for each 1% of tax assessed. These additional taxes are collected by the state, which distributes the money back to the local jurisdictions monthly. Low-income taxpayers with a total annual household income of less than $12,000 are permitted a sales tax exemption for electricity usage.

Sales of alcoholic beverages account for added taxes. A 10% supplemental mixed drink tax is imposed on the sale of alcoholic beverages (excluding beer) at restaurants. A 4% tax is due on the sale of all mixed drinks (except beer and wine) sold for "on-premises" consumption. And a 3% tax is due on beer sold for off-premises consumption.

Property taxes are assessed on real and personal property; only 20% of the value is used as the tax base.

In March 2008, The American State Litter Scorecard, presented at the American Society for Public Administration national conference, rated Arkansas a national Worst state for removing litter and debris from highways and public properties. The state has an above national average fatality rate from litter/debris-related vehicle accidents, based on NHTSA statistics .

Little Rock National Airport (Adams Field) and Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport in Highfill in Benton County are Arkansas's main air terminals. Passenger service is also available at Fort Smith, as well as limited service at Texarkana, Russellville,Pine Bluff, Harrison, Ozark Regional Airport Mountain Home, Hot Springs, El Dorado and Jonesboro. Many air travelers in eastern Arkansas use Memphis International Airport.

Amtrak's Texas Eagle makes several stops in Arkansas daily on its run from Chicago to San Antonio and Los Angeles.

The current Governor of Arkansas is Mike Beebe, a Democrat. He was elected on November 7, 2006.

Both of Arkansas's U.S. Senators are Democrats: Blanche Lincoln and Mark Pryor. The state has four seats in U.S. House of Representatives. Three seats are held by Democrats—Marion Berry (map), Vic Snyder (map), and Mike Ross (map). The state's lone Republican congressman is John Boozman (map).

The Democratic Party holds super-majority status in the Arkansas General Assembly. A majority of local and statewide offices are also held by Democrats. This is rare in the modern South, where a majority of statewide offices are held by Republicans. Arkansas had the distinction in 1992 of being the only state in the country to give the majority of its vote to a single candidate in the presidential election—native son Bill Clinton—while every other state's electoral votes were won by pluralities of the vote among the three candidates. Arkansas has become more reliably Republican in presidential elections in recent years. The state voted for John McCain in 2008 by a margin of 20 percentage points, making it one of the few states in the country to vote more Republican than it had in 2004. Obama's relatively poor showing in Arkansas was likely due to a lack of enthusiasm from state Democrats following former Arkansas First Lady Hillary Clinton's failure to win the nomination, and his relatively poor performance among rural white voters. However, the Democratic presence remains strong on the state level; in 2006, Democrats were elected to all statewide offices by the voters in a Democratic sweep that included the Arkansas Democratic Party regaining the governorship, and in 2008, Mark Pryor was re-elected without opposition.

Most Republican strength lies mainly in the areas around Fort Smith and Bentonville, as well as North Central Arkansas around the Mountain Home area. In the latter area, Republicans have been known to get 90 percent or more of the vote. The rest of the state is more Democratic. Arkansas has only elected one Republican to the U.S. Senate since Reconstruction, Tim Hutchinson, who was defeated after one term by Mark Pryor. The General Assembly has not been controlled by the Republican Party since Reconstruction and is the fourth most heavily Democratic Legislature in the country, after Massachusetts, Hawaii, and Connecticut. Starting in 2009, Arkansas will be one of only two states among the states of the former Confederacy that sends two Democrats to the U.S. Senate (the other being Virginia).

Although Democrats have an overwhelming majority of registered voters, the Democratic Party of Arkansas is more conservative than the national entity. Two of Arkansas' three Democratic Representatives are members of the Blue Dog Coalition, which tends to be more pro-business, pro-military, and socially conservative than the center-left Democratic mainstream. Reflecting the state's large evangelical population, the state has a strong social conservative bent. Under the Arkansas Constitution Arkansas is a right to work State, its voters passed a ban on same-sex marriage with 74% voting yes, and the state is one of a handful that has legislation on its books banning abortion in the event Roe vs. Wade is ever overturned.

In Arkansas, the lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor and thus can be from a different political party.

Each officer's term is four years long. Office holders are term-limited to two full terms plus any partial terms prior to the first full term. Arkansas gubernatorial terms became four years with the 1986 general election; before this, the terms were two years long.

Some of Arkansas's counties have two county seats, as opposed to the usual one seat. The arrangement dates back to when travel was extremely difficult in the state. The seats are usually on opposite sides of the county. Though travel is no longer the difficulty it once was, there are few efforts to eliminate the two seat arrangement where it exists, since the county seat is a source of pride (and jobs) to the city involved.

Arkansas is the only state to specify the pronunciation of its name by law (AR-kan-saw).

Article 19 (Miscellaneous Provisions), Item 1 in the Arkansas Constitution is entitled "Atheists disqualified from holding office or testifying as witness," and states that "No person who denies the being of a God shall hold any office in the civil departments of this State, nor be competent to testify as a witness in any Court," despite unanimous decision by the United States Supreme Court in Torcaso v. Watkins (1961) that a similar requirement in Maryland violated protections under First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.

The Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area had 841,326 people in the 2007 census estimates and is the largest in Arkansas.

The Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers metropolitan area is increasingly important to the state and its economy. The US Census estimated the population of the MSA to be 435,714 in 2007, up from 347,045 in 2000, making it one of the fastest growing in the nation.

See also Arkansas Metropolitan Areas.

Population Numbers are According to US Census of July 2007 and Current City Population Numbers.

Names in bold have populations greater than 20,000.

Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings.

And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.

Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the native Indians and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound. It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged.

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University of Arkansas

Plaque on University of Arkansas campus

The University of Arkansas, often shortened to U of A or just UA, is a public co-educational land-grant university. It is the flagship campus of the University of Arkansas System and is located in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Founded as Arkansas Industrial University in 1871, its present name was adopted in 1899 and classes were first held in February 1872. It is noted for its strong architecture, agriculture (particularly poultry science), creative writing and business programs. It is also noted for the fact that University of Arkansas engineering students won the 2006 world championship for solar-powered boats.

The University of Arkansas recently completed its "Campaign for the 21st Century," in which the university raised more than $1 billion for the school, used in part to create a new Honors College and significantly increase the university's endowment. Among these gifts were the largest donation given to a business school at the time ($50 million), and the largest gift given to a public university in America ($300 million), both given by the Walton Family Charitable Support Foundation.

Enrollment for the fall semester of 2008 was 19,194, with 3,192 (16.6%) being graduate students, and 398 being Law School students. The University campus comprises more than 130 buildings on 345 acres (1.40 km2), including the Inn at Carnall Hall, which serves as an on-campus hotel facility. Academic programs are in excess of 200. The ratio of students to faculty is 17:1.

The University of Arkansas was founded in 1871 on the site of a hilltop farm that overlooked the Ozark Mountains, giving it the nickname "The Hill".

Initially, to found the University, $130,000 was raised by the citizens of Washington County. This was in response to the competition created by the Arkansas General Assembly's Organic Act of 1871, providing for the "location, organization and maintenance of the Arkansas Industrial University with a normal department therein." Classes started in February 1872.

Completed in 1875, Old Main, a two-towered brick building designed in the Second Empire style, was the primary instructional and administrative building. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Its design was based on the plans for the main academic building at the University of Illinois, which has since burned down. However, the clock and bell towers were switched at Arkansas. The northern taller tower is the bell tower, and the southern shorter tower is the clock tower. One legend for the tower switch is that the taller tower was put to the north as a reminder of the Union victory during the Civil War. A second legend is that the contractor accidentally swapped the tower drawings after having had too much to drink. Although the southern tower was designed with clock faces, it never held a working clock until 2006. The bell tower has always had some type of chime, initially a bell that was rung on the hour by student volunteers. Electronic chimes were installed in 1959. In addition to the regular chimes of the clock, the university's Alma Mater plays at 5 p.m. every day. Old Main housed many of the earliest classes taught at the university, and has served as the offices of every college within the university during its history. Today, in addition to hosting classes, it contains the restored Giffels Auditorium and historic displays, as well as the administrative offices of the J. William Fulbright College of Arts & Sciences.

The lawn at Old Main serves as an arboretum, with many of the trees native to the state of Arkansas found on the lawn. Sitting at the edge of the lawn is Spoofer's Stone, a place for couples to meet and pass notes. Students play soccer, cricket and touch football on the lawn's open green.

Beginning with the class of 1876, the names of students at University of Arkansas are inscribed in "Senior Walk" and wind across campus for more than five miles (2.5 miles of sidewalk). The sidewalk is one of a kind nationally. More recently, the names of all the recipients of honorary degrees were also added.

One of the more unusual structures at Arkansas is the Chi Omega Greek Theatre, a gift to the school by the national headquarters of the sorority. It marked the first time in the history of Greek letter social organizations that a national sorority had presented a memorial of its foundation to the institution where it was founded. Chi Omega was organized on April 5, 1895, at the University of Arkansas and is the mother (Psi) chapter of the national organization. The theater has been used for commencements, convocations, concerts, dramas and pep rallies. The largest crowd ever assembled there – upwards of 6,000, according to professor Walter J. Lemke – was for a concert by the Army Air Corps Band during World War II. From 1934 to 1991, the space under the stage was used for a rifle range by the Army ROTC.

The University of Arkansas became the first major Southern public university to admit an African-American student without litigation when Silas Hunt of Texarkana, an African American veteran of World War II, was admitted to the university's School of Law in 1948. Roy Wilkins, administrator of the NAACP, wrote in 1950 that Arkansas was the "very first of the Southern states to accept the new trend without fighting a delaying action or attempting to . . . limit, if not nullify, bare compliance." Today the School of Law continues to receive national awards and recognition for its high degree of diversity.

Vitamin E was co-discovered by UA Agricultural Chemistry Professor Barnett Sure (1920-51). Sure, along with fellow professor Marinus C. Kik (1927-67) made major advances in nutrition science during their long tenures at the University of Arkansas. Sure co-discovered vitamin E, and extended knowledge of how vitamin E, amino acids and B-vitamins function on reproduction and lactation. Kik developed the process for parboiling rice (a major agricultural crop in the state) to increase retention of vitamins and shorten cooking time. He documented benefits of adding fish and chicken to rice and grain diets to provide adequate protein for a growing world population. Sure and Kik were Agricultural Experiment Station scientists and professors in the UA Department of Agricultural Chemistry, which merged in 1964 with Home Economics, now the School of Human Environmental Sciences.

In the 1920s, Loy Barnett, an engineering graduate student at the University of Arkansas, set forth the principle of high-level Class B plate modulation for radio transmission and developed the technology that allowed small- and medium-size AM radio stations to flourish across the United States. Barnett later joined RCA and continued research on broadcast technology into the 1960s.

During the 1980s, Professors Allen Hermann and Zhengzhi Sheng of the Department of Physics were in the vanguard of research in superconductivity: the phenomenon whereby Direct Current (DC) electricity, once started, can flow essentially forever. The Thallium-based material they discovered at Arkansas held the world's record for high temperature, 125K, for five years (1988-93) and drew international attention to the University. Their work led to numerous patents and a manufacturing agreement, as well as further advances in high-density electronics.

University of Arkansas plant pathologists George Templeton, Roy Smith (USDA), David TeBeest and graduate student Jim Daniels conducted research in the early 1970s that led to COLLEGO, the first biological herbicide for weed control in a field crop. Other UA scientists and students worked on the project that resulted in EPA registration of COLLEGO by Upjohn in 1982 for control of northern jointvetch in rice and soybeans. The work provided a model used worldwide to develop biological herbicides. Leadership in this area helped the U of A obtain grants from the USDA and others for construction of the Rosen Center for Alternative Pest Control.

Altogether, there are eleven branches and three other units in the University of Arkansas System, including the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock and a branch campus in Pine Bluff. Other branch campuses are in Monticello, Little Rock, and Fort Smith. Additionally, the UA System includes two year or community college campuses in Hope, Batesville, De Queen, Morrilton, and the Phillips Community College in Helena-West Helena. Units also under the UA System include the Clinton School of Public Service, the Criminal Justice Institute, the Arkansas Archaeological Survey, and the Division of Agriculture. The University maintains the most advanced secondary educational institution in Arkansas, the Arkansas School for Mathematics, Sciences, and the Arts in Hot Springs, Arkansas.

The University of Arkansas is also the home for the Southeastern Conference Academic Consortium (SECAC), where the twelve member schools of the Southeastern Conferences pool resources to assist each other academically.

The University of Arkansas campus sweeps across hilltops on the western side of Fayetteville, Arkansas. Among the 130 buildings on the campus, 11 buildings have been added to the National Register of Historic Buildings.

The Fine Arts Complex was designed by Fayetteville native Edward Durell Stone, who also designed Radio City Music Hall and the Museum of Modern Art in New York City and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. The buildings are indicative of Stone's idiosyncratic modern style which included patterns of ornament. The recently demolished campus apartment complex Carlson Terrace was also designed by Stone.

All computers with internet access on the University's campus have IP addresses beginning with 130.184. Also, all non-residence hall telephone numbers begin with 479-575 and most postal addresses include the zip code 72701.

The mascot for the University of Arkansas is the Razorback, a type of wild boar, and Arkansas teams are often referred to as the Hogs (shortened version of Razorbacks). The school competes in the Southeastern Conference (SEC) in Division I of the NCAA. No school in the SEC has more total national championships than Arkansas, and only 4 schools nationwide (UCLA, Southern Cal, Stanford, and Oklahoma State) have more national titles than the Razorbacks.

From 1971 through 2007, Arkansas had completely separate men's and women's athletic departments. On January 1, 2008, the two departments merged, leaving fellow SEC school Tennessee and Texas as the only remaining NCAA Division I schools with separate men's and women's athletic programs.

The team plays its home games either at Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium, located on the University of Arkansas campus, or at War Memorial Stadium, located in Little Rock. The football program won nine SWC titles, three SEC Western Division titles, and won a national title in 1964. During a stretch between December 1963 and January 1966, the Razorbacks won 22 straight football games. On December 11, 2007, former Louisville and Atlanta Falcons head coach, Bobby Petrino accepted an offer to become the Razorbacks head coach for the 2008 season.

The men's basketball team head coach is John Pelphrey (previously at South Alabama). Dana Altman was hired on April 2, 2007 for the head coaching job but decided to return back to Creighton University the following day. Altman would have replaced Stan Heath who was fired on March 26, 2007. The Razorbacks play their home games in Bud Walton Arena on the University of Arkansas campus. The team won the 1994 National Championship under coach Nolan Richardson, who was later dismissed by the University following a steady decline in the program and a 14-15 season. Richardson claimed publicly and in court proceedings to have been the subject of racial discrimination. A federal judge in Little Rock, as well as the US Court of Appeals in St. Louis, sided with the U of A.

The school has been to six Final Fours (1941, 1945, 1978, 1990, 1994, 1995) and was named as the eighth-best program in history by Street and Smith's magazine.

The baseball team, under Dave van Horn, reached the 2004 College World Series. They have made five trips to the College World Series (1979, 1985, 1987, 1989, 2004), going as far as the championship game. The team plays home games in Baum Stadium, which finished several major renovations in 2004. Baum was once recognized by Baseball America magazine as being the top collegiate ball park in America. The stadium has recently undergone expansion, including 20 new skyboxes (34 in all) and seats behind the bullpen in left field. On May 5, 2007, a stadium record 10,541 fans saw Arkansas defeat LSU 5-0. The weekend series drew 29,931, which is the SEC all-time attendance record for a three-game series.

The most successful program in NCAA history, the Arkansas men's track and field teams, led by head coach John McDonnell are the most decorated teams in the athletics department. The program has won 42 national titles in Cross Country and Track & Field. One of its most famous stars is recent graduate Alistair Cragg who competed for Ireland at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Greece. Other Olympians have included Michael Conley, Daniel Lincoln, and Matt Hemingway. The team has a home indoor track at the Randal Tyson Track Center and outdoor field at John McDonnell Field, which is under renovation and expansion, and will host the 2009 NCAA Outdoor Track Championships.

The University of Arkansas has the unique honor of having the world's fastest man, Tyson Gay, and the world's fastest woman , Veronica Campbell as alumni.

The women's teams at the University of Arkansas are also referred to as Razorbacks. There are 11 varsity women's sports: basketball, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, golf, gymnastics, soccer, softball, swimming & diving, tennis, and volleyball. Among the most successful women's teams are volleyball, with 11 SEC Western Division titles; cross country with more SEC championships than any member institution; basketball with 17 postseason appearances in 30 years, including the 1998 NCAA Final Four; track and field with six SEC titles and the first back-to-back women's SEC triple crowns; and gymnastics nationally-ranked since the start of the program in 2002 with two (soon three) NCAA appearances. Sprinter Veronica Campbell was the first Razorback woman to win a gold medal in the Olympics, with marathoner Deena Kastor bringing home a bronze medal in 2004.

The names of University of Arkansas students, starting with the first senior class of 1876, are carved into one of the concrete walkways or sidewalks on campus. This tradition was started by the 1905 graduating class of students, who drew their names into the walkway in front of Old Main, the oldest building on campus. Following classes added their names for more than a decade and then the university took over responsibility for adding new classes, as well as adding the names of students who graduated prior to 1905. Through most of the 20th century, the names were impressed in wet cement using brass letters. As the campus grew, and the graduating classes got bigger, the operation became unduly time-consuming. In 1986, the university's physical plant developed a special machine called the "Senior Sand Hog" to engrave the thousands of names required each year. School superstition states that it is bad luck to step on the Class of 1900; additionally it is said that if one steps on the name of the first graduating class, you will never graduate from the University of Arkansas.

Fans of the University of Arkansas have been "Calling the Hogs" since the 1920s. This tradition, which refers to the school's most popular cheer at sporting events, is said to have begun when a group of farmers attending a game began issuing hog calls to encourage a lagging Razorback football team. The encouragement worked and the attending crowd took notice of the farmers' calling. By the next game, a group of men had organized to cry "Wooo, Pig, Sooie". The call has since become the school's best-known cheer.

The current version of the University of Arkansas Alma Mater was written in 1909 by Brodie Payne, an alumnus of the University of Arkansas. He submitted his song to an ongoing competition that was trying to find a song for the university and won first prize. Henry D. Tovey, who was the director of the Glee Club at that time, set the song to music. In 1931, the University College Song Association in New York reviewed a collection of 500 college tunes, and the University of Arkansas Alma Mater was judged to be one of the twenty-five best college songs of the United States.

It is a student custom to point towards Old Main at the end of the verse when the words "we sing unto you" are sung.

Alma Mater Pure as the dawn on the brow of thy beauty Watches thy soul from the mountains of God Over the Fates of thy children departed Far from the land where their footsteps have trod. Beacon of hope in the ways dreary lighted; Pride of our hearts that are loyal and true; From those who adore unto one who adores us— Mother of Mothers, we sing unto you. We, with our faces turned high to the Eastward, Proud of our place in the vanguard of Truth, Will sing unto thee a new song of thanksgiving— Honor to God and the Springtime of Youth. Shout of the victor or tear of the vanquished; Sunshine or tempest thy heart is e'er true; Pride of the Hills and the white-laden Lowlands— Mother of Mothers, we kneel unto you. Ever the Legions of Sin will assail us, Ever the Battle in Cities afar; Still in the depths will thy Spirit eternal Beckon us on like a piloting Star. Down in dim years do thy dead children call thee, Wafted to Sleep while the Springtime was new; We, of the Present, thy hope of the Future— Mother of Mothers, we pray unto you.

The current version of the University of Arkansas Fight Song was written in the late 1920s. The fight song is usually played at all home Razorback sporting events.

Arkansas Fight Song Lyrics Hit that line! Hit that line! Keep on going, Move that ball right down the field! Give a cheer. Rah! Rah! Never fear. Rah! Rah! Arkansas will never yield! On your toes, Razorbacks, to the finish, Carry on with all your might! For it's A-A-A-R-K-A-N-S-A-S for Arkansas! Fight! Fight! Fi-i-i-ght!

The school color of cardinal red (Pantone # 199) was chosen as the official school color by a vote of the student body in 1895. The two color choices were cardinal and heliotrope. White was added as a complementary color at a later date.

The University of Arkansas mascot has not always been the Razorbacks. From 1894, when the football program began, until 1910, the official mascot was the Cardinals to complement the school color of cardinal red. In 1909, according to school lore, the head football coach Hugo Bezdek gave a speech to a large group of students at the Fayetteville train station after returning from a victory over LSU in 1909 during an undefeated season. Coach Bezdek informed the crowd that his team had performed "like a wild band of Razorback hogs." Although students had begun referring to the team as the Razorbacks as early as 1907, Bezdek's statement popularized the use of Razorback for the team. The Razorback, which is characterized by a ridged back and tenacious wild fighting ability, had long been associated with the backwoods of Arkansas. The students loved the comparison, and the nickname became increasingly popular. In 1910, the student body voted to change the official university mascot from the Cardinal to the Razorback.

The live mascot tradition dates back to the 1960s and a number of hogs have represented Arkansas through the years. Tusk, a 380-pound Russian boar that closely resembles a wild razorback hog, is the current official live mascot. He resides on a local farm and leaves his home to attend all Arkansas home football games, and other select events.

Additionally, the University of Arkansas has a family of uniformed mascots. "Big Red", (also known as the "Fighting Razorback"), is the traditional mascot for the university and attends all athletic events. "Sue E" is the female hog and "Pork Chop" is the kid mascot. "Boss Hog" is a nine-foot inflatable mascot that joined the mascot family during the 1998-99 football season.

The Razorback Marching Band, one of the oldest collegiate bands in the United States, was formed in 1874 as the Cadet Corps Band as part of the military art department. The band participated in all the formalities of the Military Art Department, as well as playing for football games, pageants, and commencement exercises. In 1947, following a steady post World War II growth, the Cadet Corp Band was divided into the three current bands, a football band, a concert band, and an R.O.T.C. band. In 1956, the band adopted the name "Marching Razorbacks". In 2006 the Razorback marching band was awarded the highest honor bestowed upon a collegiate marching band, the Sudler Trophy.

There are 272 registered student organizations (RSOs) including special interest, religious, international and cultural organizations, honorary and professional service groups, and more.

Arkansas is home of UATV, a student-run television station. The university is also home to two radio stations: KUAF, a public radio station and NPR affiliate, and KXUA, an eclectic student-run station.

The University of Arkansas Press is known for publishing works on local and Southern history, including several by former President Jimmy Carter and the former national poet laureate Billy Collins.

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Little Rock, Arkansas

Location in Pulaski County, Arkansas

Little Rock is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Arkansas and the county seat of Pulaski County. The city's population was estimated at 184,422 in 2005. Little Rock, North Little Rock and Conway are co-principal cities of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, an area with a population of 666,401 people, according to 2007 census estimates. The MSA is in turn included in the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 841,325 in the 2007 census estimates. As of 2007 according to the US census, Little Rock now has a population of 187,452.

Located near the geographic center of Arkansas, Little Rock derives its name from a small rock formation on the south bank of the Arkansas River called la Petite Roche ("the little rock"). The "little rock" was used by early river traffic as a landmark and became a well-known river crossing.

Little Rock is the home of the sixth America's Next Top Model, Danielle Evans.

Many artifacts have been found that suggest Native Americans inhabited Central Arkansas thousands of years before European settlers arrived. These original inhabitants may have included the Folsom people, Bluff Dwellers, Mound Builders, Caddo, Quapaw, Osage, Choctaw and Cherokee. Arkansas was first explored by Europeans in 1541 when Hernando de Soto of Spain traveled through the area.

Little Rock was actually named for a little rock. Early travelers used a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River as a landmark. "La Petite Roche" (French for "the Little Rock"), so named in 1722 by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, marked the transition from the flat Mississippi Delta region to the Ouachita Mountain foothills. Travelers would refer to the area as "the Little Rock" and the name stuck.

Little Rock is located at 34°44′10″N 92°19′52″W / 34.73611°N 92.33111°W / 34.73611; -92.33111 (34.736009, -92.331122).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.8 square miles (302.5 km²), of which, 116.2 square miles (301.0 km²) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km²) of it (0.52%) is water.

Little Rock is located on the south bank of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. Fourche Creek and Rock Creek run through the city and flow into the river. The western part of the city is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Just northwest of the city limits is Pinnacle Mountain and Lake Maumelle, which provides Little Rock's drinking water. The city of North Little Rock is located just across the river from Little Rock, but it is a separate city. s>North Little Rock was once the 8th ward of Little Rock. An Arkansas Supreme Court decision on February 6, 1904, allowed the ward to merge with the neighboring town of North Little Rock. The merged town quickly renamed itself Argenta (the local name for the former 8th Ward), but returned to its original name in October 1917.

The city operated under a city manager form of government until 2007 when voters voted to convert to a strong-mayor form of government, making the mayor's position a full-time position with veto power, though the city also retains the city manager position. The city employs over 2500 individuals in 14 different departments including the Police department, the Fire department, Parks and Recreation and the Zoo.

Most Pulaski County government offices are located in the city of Little Rock and include among others the Quorum, Circuit, District, Juvenile Courts and the Assessor, County Judge, County Attorney and Public Defenders offices.

The U.S. Federal District Court (Eastern District) of the St. Louis 8th District and also the Circuit Federal Court of Appeals are located in Little Rock.

Little Rock lies in the Humid subtropical climate zone, with hot, humid summers and cool to chilly winters.

As of the 2000 census, there were 183,133 people, 77,352 households, and 46,488 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,576.0 people per square mile (608.5/km²). There were 84,793 housing units at an average density of 729.7/sq mi (281.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 55.1% White, 40.4% Black, 0.3% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.28% from other races, and 1.28% from two or more races. 2.7% of the population is Hispanic or Latino.

There were 77,352 households, out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.9% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 89.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,572, and the median income for a family was $47,446. Males had a median income of $35,689 versus $26,802 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,209. 14.3% of the population is below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 20.9% of those under the age of 18 and 9.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

The 2007 U.S. Census population estimate for the Metropolitan Statistical Area of Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway was 666,401. The MSA includes the following counties: Pulaski, Faulkner, Grant, Lonoke, Perry, and Saline. The largest cities include Little Rock, North Little Rock, Conway, Jacksonville, Benton, Sherwood, Cabot, Maumelle, and Bryant.

The 2007 U.S. Census population estimate for the Combined Statistical Area (CSA) of Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff was 841,326.

Major corporations headquartered in Little Rock include Alltel, Dillard's Department Stores, Windstream Communications and Acxiom.

Additional large companies headquartered in Little Rock include Metropolitan National Bank, Rose Law Firm, Nuvell Financial Services, Central Flying Service and Stephens Inc.

Large companies headquartered in other cities but with a large presence in Little Rock include Dassault Falcon Jet and Raytheon Aircraft Company near Little Rock National Airport in the eastern part of the city, and Fidelity National Information Services in northwestern Little Rock.

Non-profit organizations include Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now, Heifer International, Lions World Services for the Blind, William J. Clinton Foundation, Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation, Audubon Arkansas, The Nature Conservancy, and Winrock International.

Associations include the American Taekwondo Association, Arkansas Hospital Association, and the Quapaw Quarter Association.

Major employers throughout Little Rock include Arkansas Blue Cross and Blue Shield, Entergy, Raytheon, Siemens, AT&T Mobility, Kroger, Affiliated Foods Southwest and Timex.

One of the largest public employers in the state with over 9,400 employees, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) and its affiliates — Arkansas Children's Hospital and the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System — have a total economic impact in Arkansas of about $4.1 billion per year. UAMS receives less than 11% of its funding from the state. Its operation is funded by payments for clinical services (64%), grants and contracts (18%), philanthropy and other (5%), and tuition and fees (2%).

The Little Rock port is an intermodal river port with a large industrial business complex. It is designated as Foreign Trade Zone 14. International corporations such as Danish manufacturer LM Glasfiber have established new facilities adjacent to the port in recent years.

Little Rock was named 22nd out of 361 metropolitan areas as best places for business in 2005 by Forbes Magazine.

Moody's Investor Services ranks Little Rock as the second most diverse economy in the nation.

Along with Louisville and Memphis, Little Rock houses one of three branches of the St. Louis Federal Reserve district.

In addition, early in the 20th Century, Little Rock was home to brass era automobile maker Climber.

The city has two major universities that are part of the University of Arkansas System. The campuses of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences are located within Little Rock.

The University of Arkansas at Little Rock was founded in 1927 as Little Rock Junior College, under the supervision of the city Board of Education. The first semester open, there were eight instructors and about 100 students. The college is currently accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, a status it has kept since 1929. Housed originally in public school buildings, the college moved in 1949 to its present location between University Ave and Fair Park Blvd, North of Asher Ave, on land donated by Raymond Rebsamen, a Little Rock businessman. The college was also the sole beneficiary of a continuing trust established by former Governor George W. Donaghey at the time. In 1957, the institution began a four-year degree program, became independent and privately supported under a separate board of trustees, and took the name Little Rock University.

In September 1969, The Little Rock University merged into the University of Arkansas System, to create the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. The University of Arkansas System merger began a period of steady growth, which saw UALR go from about 3,500 students and 75 full-time faculty members in 1969 to about 10,000 students and over 400 full-time faculty members in the 1998 academic year. The University's expanded offerings now include 54 undergraduate major programs, an extensive schedule of night, weekend, and off-campus classes, and a wide range of community educational services. UALR began offering graduate and professional work in 1975. Besides the juris doctor offered at the William H. Bowen School of Law, UALR now has three doctoral programs and 29 graduate and professional programs, as well as joint programs with other campuses of the University of Arkansas System.

The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is part of the University of Arkansas System. UAMS has about 2200 students in six academic units: the Colleges of Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Health Related Professions, and Public Health and the Graduate School. UAMS also has more than 660 resident physicians completing their training at UAMS or at one of the seven Area Health Education Centers around the state. UAMS combines the patient care resources of a state-of-the art hospital and outpatient center with the Arkansas Cancer Research Center, Harvey and Bernice Jones Eye Institute, Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy, and Jackson T. Stephens Spine and Neurosciences Institute. Arkansas Children’s Hospital and the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System are affiliates of UAMS.

The outreach efforts of UAMS include seven Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) in Fayetteville, Pine Bluff, El Dorado, Texarkana, Fort Smith, Jonesboro, and Helena, Arkansas.; networks of senior health centers and centers for young children with special health care needs; and interactive video education and medical consultation services to community hospitals around the state. UAMS is the state’s largest basic and applied research institution with internationally renowned programs in multiple myeloma, aging, and other areas.

Located in downtown is the specialized Clinton School of Public Service, a branch of the University of Arkansas System, which offers a masters degree in public service.

The city is also home to two smaller, private historically black colleges, Philander Smith College and Arkansas Baptist College.

The public schools in Little Rock are operated by the Little Rock School District known by residents as LRSD. Currently, the district includes 64 schools with more schools being built. As of the 2005-2006 school year, the district has enrollment of 26,524. It has 5 high schools, 8 middle schools, 31 elementary schools, 1 early childhood (pre-kndergarten) center, 2 alternative schools, 1 adult education center, 1 accelerated learning center, 1 career-techinal center, and about 3,800 employees.

Retailers in Little Rock include Dillard's, J. C. Penney, Sears, Belk, Wal-Mart, Kmart, Target, and Kohl's. Additionally, several smaller and niche retailers can be found throughout the city, with corporations such as Gap Inc., Talbots, Abercrombie & Fitch Co. and Chico's each operating more than one company store concept in Little Rock.

Little Rock was home to the Arkansas Travelers. They are the AA professional Minor League Baseball affiliate of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim in the Texas League. The Travelers played their last game in Little Rock at Ray Winder Field on September 3, 2006, and moved into Dickey-Stephens Park in nearby North Little Rock in April 2007. Little Rock is scheduled to be home to the Little Rock Rivercatz of the American Basketball Association for the 2007-2008 season.

Little Rock is also home to the Arkansas Twisters of the af2 arena football league and the Arkansas RimRockers of the NBA Development League. Both of these teams play at the Alltel Arena in North Little Rock.

Little Rock is home to the University of Arkansas at Little Rock Trojans. The majority of the schools athletic teams are housed in the new state-of-the-art Jack Stephens Center. The Trojans play in the Sun Belt conference, where Arkansas State University is their chief rival.

Little Rock's War Memorial Stadium plays host to at least two University of Arkansas Razorback games each year. The stadium is known for being in the middle of a golf course. Each fall, the city closes the golf course on Razorback football weekends for fans to tailgate. It is estimated that over 80,000 people are present for the tailgating actitivities on these weekends. War Memorial also hosts the Arkansas High School football state championships, and starting in the fall of 2006 hosts one game apiece for the University of Central Arkansas and the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff. Arkansas State University also plays at the stadium from time to time.

Little Rock was a host of the First and Second Rounds of the 2008 NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament. It has also been a host of the SEC Women's Basketball Tournament.

The now defunct Arkansas RiverBlades and Arkansas GlacierCats, both minor-league hockey teams, were located in the Little Rock area. The GlacierCats of the now defunct Western Professional Hockey League (WPHL) played in Little Rock at Barton Coliseum while the RiverBlades of the ECHL played at the Alltel Arena.

Hubert "Geese" Ausbie played basketball at Philander Smith College in Little Rock, where he earned All-Conference and All-American honors. He later gained fame as a member of the Harlem Globetrotters.

John Kocinski, 250 cc and World Superbike motorcycle racing champion, is from Little Rock.

World Champion Middleweight Boxer Jermain Taylor and NBA players Derek Fisher and Joe Johnson were born and/or have roots in Little Rock.

A number of highways converge near Little Rock. I-40 passes through North Little Rock to the north. US 70 parallels I-40 into North Little Rock before multiplexing with I-30 at the Broadway exit (Exit 141B). US 67 and US 167 share the same route from the northeast before splitting. US 67 and US 70 multiplex with Interstate 30 to the southwest. US 167 multiplexes with US 65 and I-530 to the southeast. Other highways include I-430, I-440, I-530, and I-630. I-530 terminates in Little Rock after originating in Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Nine airlines serve 18 national/international gateway cities, e.g. St. Louis, Chicago, Atlanta, Dallas, Charlotte, etc. from Little Rock National Airport. In 2006 they carried approximately 2.1 million passengers on approximately 150 daily flights to and from Little Rock.

Greyhound Lines serves Dallas, Memphis, Houston, and St. Louis, as well as intermediate points, with numerous connections to other cities and towns. Jefferson Lines serves Fort Smith, Kansas City, and Oklahoma City, as well as intermediate points, with numerous connections to other cities and towns. These carriers operate out of the North Little Rock bus station.

Amtrak serves the city twice daily via the Texas Eagle, with northbound service to Chicago and southbound service to San Antonio, as well as numerous intermediate points. Through service to Los Angeles and intermediate points operates three times a week. The train carries coaches, a sleeping car, a dining car, and a Sightseer Lounge car. Reservations are required.

Within the city, public bus service is provided by the Central Arkansas Transit Authority (CATA), with 16 regular daily routes and two express routes throughout the Little Rock area. Additional service includes four connecting routes originating in Little Rock serving North Little Rock daily excluding Sundays; morning and early evening Monday-Friday express routes to Maumelle and Jacksonville/Sherwood; special events shuttle buses; and paratransit service for disabled persons.

Since November 2004, downtown areas of Little Rock and North Little Rock have been additionally served by the River Rail Electric Streetcar system, also operated by CATA.

The Arkansas Democrat Gazette is the largest newspaper in the city, as well as the state. As of March 31, 2006, Sunday circulation is 275,991 copies, while daily (Monday-Saturday) circulation is 180,662, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

All major television networks have local affiliates in Little Rock, in addition to numerous independent stations. As for cable services, Comcast has a monopoly over Little Rock and the majority of Pulaski County. Some suburbs have the option of having Comcast, Charter or other cable companies.

Citizens of Little Rock are commonly referred to by the appellation, "Little Rockers." The city is referred to as "Rock Town" or simply "The Rock" by its citizens.

Federal Express was founded in 1971 by Frederick W. Smith in Little Rock, Arkansas, but moved to Memphis, Tennessee in 1973 after Little Rock National Airport officials would not agree to provide facilities for the fledgling airline. The company is now known as FedEx Corporation.

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Source : Wikipedia