BP

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Posted by motoman 03/21/2009 @ 08:10

Tags : bp, energy and water, business

News headlines
TNK-BP Tests Two Candidates for CEO - Wall Street Journal
By GREGORY L. WHITE and GUY CHAZAN Struggling to find a new chief executive, BP PLC's TNK-BP Ltd. Russian venture is hiring two men into less-senior posts to try them out for the top job while a representative of BP's Russian partners takes over as...
BP Prudhoe Bay enters $29.5M settlement deal - UAA Northern Light
BP Prudhoe Bay Royalty Trust said May 12 it entered into a $29.5 million settlement agreement with BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc., a unit of British oil company BP PLC. BP Exploration will pay the $29.5 million to the trust. The settlement, signed May 8,...
Pertamina, Indika To Bid For BP Stake In West Java Oil Block - Wall Street Journal
JK) may jointly bid for BP PLC's (BP) stake in the Onshore West Java oil and gas block, a Pertamina spokesman said Monday. "We are calculating how large a share to take and (how large a share will be taken by) Indika, as well as the issue of funding,"...
Big Oil Warms to Ethanol and Biofuel Companies - New York Times
Joe Judice stands nears a patch of tall energy cane that he grows in Louisiana for Verenium Corporation, a small company that is testing new forms of biofuels in alliance with BP. By CLIFFORD KRAUSS JENNINGS, La. — For decades, the big oil companies...
Gazprom Neft, TNK-BP eyeing Kazakh refinery: sources - Reuters
MM) or TNK-BP, sources close to the talks said on Monday. KazMunaiGas plans to buy the refinery from MangistauMunaiGas, a private oil producer, and then sell a large minority stake to a Russian company that can provide it with oil from Siberia,...
BP, Tricorona Start Carbon Trading Ops In Singapore-Trade Min - Wall Street Journal
SINGAPORE (Dow Jones)--BP PLC (BP) and Swedish firm Tricorona have commenced carbon trading operations in Singapore, Minister for Trade and Industry Lim Hng Kiang said Tuesday. BP recently commenced emissions trading in Singapore, and "its carbon...
Paediatrician creates easier way to identify high BP in kids - Hindu
They felt that one of the main reasons may be the complex chart currently used to help physicians identify high BP in children, said a CWRU release. So Kaelber's team simplified the chart - focussing solely on a child's age and gender - eliminating the...
Offshore Oil Is Bubbling Higher (BP, RDS.A, REP) - Investopedia
Here they are, complete with fundamentals and some pertinent recent news for your perusal: Topping the list is British Petroleum (NYSE:BP), whose stock has jumped more than 40% in the last two months as the price of crude rebounded....
Japanese Refiner Going Green? (SWSKF, RDS-A, BP, FSLR) - 24/7 Wall St.
Generally, most think of BP plc (NYSE:BP). It is far too soon to think that reference may change, but this could be at least one starting point. The company makes solar panels that do not use silicon, much like the panels made by First Solar Inc....
Hope Lutheran ends BP's season - Austin Herald
Just like Saturday, the Patriots (17-5 overall) scored their first run on a BP throwing error. This time HL scored in the sixth with two outs when BP threw it away after a bunt by Shaina Laska. The Patriots added another run in the sixth when they...

BP

BP Logo.svg

BP plc (British Petroleum), is the third largest global energy company, a multinational oil company ("oil major") with headquarters in London. The company is among the largest private sector energy corporations in the world, and one of the six "supermajors" (vertically integrated private sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies). The Company is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.

In May 1901, William Knox D'Arcy was granted a concession by the Shah of Iran to search for oil which he discovered in May 1908. This was the first commercially significant find in the Middle East. On 14 April 1909, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was incorporated to exploit this. In 1935, it became the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC).

After World War II, AIOC and the Iranian government initially resisted nationalist pressure to revise AIOC's concession terms still further in Iran's favour. But in March 1951, the pro-western Prime Minister Ali Razmara was assassinated. The Majlis of Iran (parliament) elected a nationalist, Mohammed Mossadeq, as prime minister. In April, the Majlis nationalized the oil industry by unanimous vote. The British government contested the nationalization at the International Court of Justice at The Hague, but its complaint was dismissed.

The British government decided that the only way to regain its control of Iranian oil (which it regarded as a vital national interest), was to remove Mossadegh from office and replace his government with a pro-British prime minister and parliament. Its problem was that it lacked the means to do so without American support. But it was clear the U.S. government would never support a coup d'état designed only to protect Britain's commercial interests. So the British played on America's then paranoia about the Communist threat by producing bogus evidence that Mossadeq was scheming to bring Iran into the Soviet sphere of influence. In early 1953, incoming U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to overthrow the Iranian government. The CIA conspiracy, involving the Shah and the Iranian military, became known by its codename, Operation Ajax.

On 19 August 1953, Mossadeq was forced from office by a CIA-orchestrated military coup. He was replaced by pro-Western general Fazlollah Zahedi. The Shah, who had left the country briefly to await the outcome of the coup, returned to Iran. He abolished the democratic Constitution and assumed autocratic powers. The AIOC became the British Petroleum Company in 1954, and resumed operations in Iran and tried to return to its old position. However "public opinion was so opposed that the new government could not permit it." Instead an international consortium under the nationalized name (National Iranian Oil Company) was created, the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company being just one member and holding 40% of the shares. The consortium agreed to share profits on a 50-50 basis with Iran, "but not to open its books to Iranian auditors or to allow Iranians onto its board of directors." AIOC, as a part of the Anglo-American coup d'état deal, it was not allowed to monopolize Iranian oil as before. It was limited to a 40% share in a new international consortium. For the rest, 40% went to the five major American companies and 20% went to Royal Dutch Shell and Compagnie Française des Pétroles, now Total S.A..

BP continued to operate in Iran until the Islamic Revolution in 1979. The new regime of Ayatollah Khomeini confiscated all of BP's assets in Iran without compensation, finally closing BP's 70-year presence in Iran. However, due to its huge investments outside Iran, especially in the North Sea and Alaska, the company's status as an oil major survived its Iranian disaster.

In 1959 the company expanded beyond the Middle East to Alaska and in 1965 it was the first company to strike oil in the North Sea.

In 1978 BP acquired a controlling interest in Standard Oil of Ohio or Sohio, a breakoff of the former Standard Oil that had been broken up after anti-trust litigation.

Sir Peter Walters was BP's chairman from 1981 to 1990. This was the era of the Thatcher government's privatisation strategy. The British government sold its entire holding in BP in several tranches between 1979 and 1987. The sale process was marked by an attempt by the Kuwait Investment Office, the investment arm of the Kuwait government, to acquire control of BP. This was ultimately blocked by the strong opposition of the British government. In 1987, British Petroleum negotiated the acquisition of Britoil and the remaining publicly traded shares of Standard Oil of Ohio.

Walters was replaced by Robert Horton in 1989. Horton carried out a major corporate downsizing exercise removing various tiers of management within the BP Head Office.

Lord Browne of Madingley, who had been on the board as managing director since 1991, was appointed group chief executive in 1995. Browne was responsible for three major acquisitions; Amoco, ARCO and Burmah-Castrol (see below).

British Petroleum merged with Amoco (formerly Standard Oil of Indiana) in December 1998, becoming BPAmoco until 2000 when it was renamed BP and adopted the tagline "Beyond Petroleum," which remains in use today. It states that BP was never meant to be an abbreviation of its tagline. Most Amoco gas stations in the United States have changed the look and name to the BP brand. In many states, however, BP is selling Amoco branded gasoline, as it was rated the #1 petroleum brand by consumers 16 years in a row (the name of the service station itself is still BP) and Amoco has one of the highest brand loyalty for gasoline in the US with only Chevron and Shell having such high rates as BP/Amoco. In May 2008, however, the Amoco name was mostly phased out in favor of "BP Gasoline with Invigorate", promoting BP's new additive. The highest grade of BP gasoline available in the United States is still called Amoco Ultimate, however. In 2000, British Petroleum acquired Arco (Atlantic Richfield Co.) and Burmah Castrol plc.

In April 2004, BP decided to move most of its petrochemical businesses into a separate entity called Innovene within the BP Group. Their intention was to sell the new company possibly via an Initial Public Offering (IPO) in the US, and in fact they filed their IPO plans for Innovene with the New York Stock Exchange on 12 September 2005. However, on 7 October 2005, BP announced that they had agreed to sell Innovene to INEOS, a privately held UK chemical company for the sum of $9 billion, thereby scrapping their plans for the IPO.

On 23 March 2005, an explosion occurred at BP's Texas City Refinery in Texas City, Texas. It is the third largest refinery in the United States and one of the largest in the world, processing 433,000 barrels (68,800 m3) of crude oil per day and accounting for 3% of that nation's gasoline supply. Over 100 were injured, and 15 were confirmed dead, including employees of the Fluor Corporation as well as BP. BP has since accepted that its mismanagement contributed to the accident. Level indicators failed, leading to overfilling of a heater, and light hydrocarbons spread throughout the area. An unidentified ignition source set off the explosion.

In 2005, BP announced it would be leaving the Colorado market. Many locations were rebranded as Conoco.

According to some private BP-branded gasoline center operators in the Metro Atlanta area, BP plans to leave the Southern market in the next few years. All corporate-owned BP stations, typically known as "BP Connect" will be sold to local jobbers.

In March 2006, a leak in one of BP's pipelines on the North Slope of Alaska caused a spill of oil onto the tundra, leading BP to commit to replace over 16 miles (26 km) of federally regulated Oil Transit Lines (OTLs). As of the end of 2007, one half of the pipeline had been replaced and all 16 miles (26 km) of pipeline are now tested regularly.

BP has recently looked to grow its oil exploration activities in frontier areas like the former Soviet Union for its future reserves. In Russia, BP owns 50% of TNK-BP with the other half owned by three Russian billionaires. TNK-BP accounts for a fifth of BP's global reserves, a quarter of BP's production, and nearly a tenth of its global profits.

On July 19, 2006, BP announced that it would close the last 12 out of 57 oil wells in Alaska, mostly in Prudhoe Bay, that had been leaking. The wells were leaking insulating agent called Arctic pack, consisting of crude oil and diesel fuel, between the wells and ice.

On 12 January 2007, it was announced that Lord Browne would retire at the end of July 2007. The new Chief Executive will be the current head of exploration and production, Tony Hayward. It had been expected that Lord Browne would retire in February 2008 when he reached the age of 60, the standard retirement age at BP. Browne resigned abruptly from BP on 1 May 2007, following the lifting of a legal injunction preventing Associated Newspapers from publishing details about his private life. Hayward succeeded Browne with immediate effect.

In August, 2006, BP shut down oil operations in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, due to corrosion in pipelines leading up to the Alaska Pipeline. BP had spilled over one million litres of oil in Alaska's North Slope. This corrosion is caused by sediment collecting in the bottom of the pipe, protecting corrosive bacteria from chemicals sent through the pipeline to fight this bacteria. There are estimates that about 5,000 barrels (790 m3) of oil were released from the pipeline. To date 1,513 barrels (240.5 m3) of liquids, about 5,200 cubic yards (4,000 m3) of soiled snow and 328 cubic yards (251 m3) of soiled gravel have been recovered. After approval from the DOT, only the eastern portion of the field was shut down, resulting in a reduction of 200,000 barrels per day (32,000 m³/d) until work began to bring the eastern field to full production on October 2, 2006. In May 2007, the company announced another partial field shutdown owing to leaks of water at a separation plant. Their action was interpreted as another example of fallout from a decision to cut maintenance of the pipeline and associated facilities.

On 16 October 2007 Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation officials reported a toxic spill of methanol at the Prudhoe Bay oil field managed by BP PLC. Nearly 2,000 gallons of mostly methanol, mixed with some crude oil and water, spilled onto a frozen tundra pond as well as a gravel pad from a pipeline. Methanol, which is poisonous to plants and animals, is used to clear ice from the insides of the Arctic-based pipelines.

BP has dumped its plans to build out wind farms and other renewable projects in Britain for projects in the United States. The US government incentives for clean energy projects provide convenient tax shelter for oil and gas revenues, something BP is looking for with an estimated $8 billion earmarked for the initiative. Lower economies of scale made the UK wind sector far less attractive than that of the US.

Spring 2009, BP Energy is to start construction of a wind farm in Wyoming County in NE Pennsylvania. Part of this project (the power lines) will destroy a Hang Gliding and Paragliding soaring site. This site is one of only a handful suitable sites left in the Northeast US. BP Energy has been unwilling to consider an alternative route for these power lines with one pole located in the center of the launch slot.

In 2005 BP was considering testing carbon sequestration in one of its North Sea oil fields, by pumping carbon dioxide into them (and thereby also increasing yields). In 2004, BP began marketing low-sulfur diesel fuel for industrial use. BP intends to create a network of hydrogen fueling stations in the state of California. BP Solar is a leading producer of solar panels since its purchase of Lucas Energy Systems in 1980 and Solarex (as part of its acquisition of Amoco) in 2000. BP Solar had a 20% world market share in photovoltaic panels in 2004 when it had a capacity to produce 90 MW/year of panels. It has over 30 years experience operating in over 160 countries with manufacturing facilities in the U.S., Spain, India and Australia and has more than 2000 employees worldwide.

BP was named by Mother Jones Magazine as one of the "ten worst corporations" in both 2001 and 2005 based on its environmental and human rights records. In 1991 BP was cited as the most polluting company in the US based on EPA toxic release data. Since branding itself an environmentally sound corporation in 1997, BP has been charged with burning polluted gases at its Ohio refinery (for which it was fined $1.7 million), and in July 2000 BP paid a $10 million fine to the EPA for its management of its US refineries. According to PIRG research, between January 1997 and March 1998, BP was responsible for 104 oil spills. BP patented the Dracone Barge to aid in oil spill clean-ups across the world.

BP/Amoco was a member of the Global Climate Coalition an industry organization established to promote global warming skepticism but withdrew in 1997, saying "the time to consider the policy dimensions of climate change is not when the link between greenhouse gases and climate change is conclusively proven, but when the possibility cannot be discounted and is taken seriously by the society of which we are part. We in BP have reached that point.".

British Petroleum changed its name to BP in 2000, and introduced a new corporate slogan: “Beyond Petroleum.” It replaced its “Green Shield” logo with the helios symbol, a green and yellow sunflower pattern similar to the emblem of the Green Party of Canada. These changes were intended to highlight the company’s interest in alternative and environmentally friendly fuels. When, in July 2006, BP admitted, only after journalists became aware of the spill, that it was facing criminal charges for allowing 270,000 gallons of crude oil to spread into the Alaskan tundra, critics pointed to the relative lack of press coverage about the spill as evidence that BP had successfully "greenwashed" its image while maintaining environmentally unsound practices.

One of BP's largest refineries in the USA exploded in 2005 causing 15 deaths. The fall-out from the accident continues to cloud BP's corporate image because of the mismanagement at the plant. There have been several investigations of the disaster, the most recent being that from the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. It was preceded by the Baker report and BP's own internal investigation.

A large column filled with gasoline overflowed to form a vapor cloud, which ignited. The explosion caused all the casualties and substantial damage to the rest of the plant. The incident came as the culmination of a series of less serious accidents at the refinery, and the engineering problems were not addressed by the management. Maintenance and safety at the plant had been cut as a cost-saving measure, the responsibility ultimately resting with executives in London.

However, BP's image has been tarnished somewhat by its involvement with the controversial Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, criticized for human rights abuses, environmental and safety concerns.

BP has also been criticized for the increase in fuel prices in the UK. On 25 April 2005 Lord Browne stated in an interview with the BBC that he fully expected petrol prices to stay above £1 per litre.

In July 2006, a group of Colombian farmers won a multi million pound settlement from BP after the British oil and gas company was accused of benefiting from a regime of terror carried out by Colombian government paramilitaries to protect a 450-mile (720 km) pipeline.

As of 11 February 2007 BP announced that they would spend $8 billion over ten years to research alternative methods of fuel, including natural gas, hydrogen, solar, and wind. A $500 million grant to the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, to create an "Energy Biosciences Institute" has recently come under attack, over concerns about the global impacts of the research and privatization of public universities.

In March 2007, BP unveiled its Helios fuel station on Olympic Boulevard in Los Angeles. The station has radical architecture for a fuel station, and is a "living lab" for green technologies. However, although there are solar panels on the roof, as of July 2007 they are not yet operational.

BP Canada has been asked by leading environmental organizations to stop its proposed "Mist Mountain" Coalbed Methane Project in the Southern Rocky Mountains of British Columbia. The proposed 500 km² project is directly adjacent to the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park.

According to the Center for Responsive Politics, BP is the United States' hundredth largest donor to political campaigns, having contributed more than US$5 million since 1990, 72% and 28% of which went to Republican and Democratic recipients, respectively. BP has lobbied to gain exemptions from U.S. corporate law reforms. Additionally, BP paid the Podesta Group, a Washington, D.C.-based lobbying firm, $160,000 in the first half of 2007 to manage its congressional and government relations.

ARCO is BP's retail brand on the US West Coast in the seven Western States of California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Idaho, Arizona, and Utah. BP acquired ARCO (formerly the AtlanticRichfieldCompany) in 1998. ARCO is a popular "cash only" retailer, selling products refined from Alaska North Slope crude at plants at Cherry Point (WA), Los Angeles (CA) and at other contract locations on the West Coast.

BP Travel Centers are large scale destination sites located in Australia which on top of offering the same features of a BP Connect site with fuel and a Wild Bean Cafe, also feature major food-retail tenants such as McDonalds, KFC, Nando's and recently Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, with a large seating capacity foodcourt. There are also facilities for long-haul truck drivers including lounge, showers and washing machines all in the same building. There are 4 travel centers located in South East Queensland, Australia. Two on the Pacific Highway (Coomera and Stapylton) and two on the Bruce Highway (Caboolture). A fifth travel center was opened in 2007 at Chinderah in northern New South Wales.

BP Connect is BP's flagship retail brand name with BP Connect Service stations being operated around the UK, Europe, USA, Australia, New Zealand, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and other parts of the world. BP Connect sites feature the Wild Bean Cafe which offers cafe style coffee made by the staff and a selection of hot food as well as freshly baked muffins and sandwiches. The food offered in Wild Bean Cafe varies from each site. BP Connect sites usually offer table and chair seating and often an Internet kiosk. In the US, the BP Connect concept is gradually being transitioned to the ampm brand and concept.

BP Express was the flagship BP brand prior to the introduction of BP Connect in 2000. There are still some BP Express sites operating around the world but most have been either upgraded to Connect or changed to an alternative brand. BP Express offers a bakery service but doesn't have the selection of food offered in the Wild Bean Cafe and usually coffee is only available through a self service machine.

BP Shop is commonly used on smaller sites mainly independently owned sites. Products vary in each BP Shop but usually a selection of convenience store style food and automotive products.

BP 2go is a franchise brand used for independently operated sites in New Zealand and is currently being rolled out throughout Australia (Although not all BP 2go stores are franchises in Australia). BP 2go sites mainly operate in towns and outer suburbs in New Zealand. BP 2go offers similar bakery food to BP Connect but in a pre-packaged form. Some BP Express sites around New Zealand and Australia that were considered too small to be upgraded to BP Connect were given the option to change to BP 2go others were downgraded to BP Shop. Staff at some BP 2go sites wear a different style of uniform to the rest of the BP branded sites, however in company owned and operated 2go sites in Australia the same uniform is worn across all sites.

The recent BP advertising campaign has been criticized by many as a superficial and stereotypical representation of the common man. Often the ads showcase a series of "man-on-the-street" type questionnaires in which obviously paid actors answer certain questions pertaining to BP. However, the music composed by BP for the purpose of the ads has been praised and lauded.

BP was also recently awarded a satirical prize, the "Emerald Paintbrush" award, by Greenpeace UK. The "Emerald Paintbrush" award was given to BP in order to highlight its alleged greenwashing campaign. Critics point out that while BP advertises its relatively minimal investment in alternative energy sources, the majority of its investments continue to go into fossil fuels.

As of 19 January 2009.

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BP Canada

BP Canada is a Canadian oil company that is a subsidiary of British-owned BP plc (formerly British Petroleum). It began operations in 1948 and for many years was in retail operations until they were acquired by Petro-Canada in the 1980s. In 1971, BP Canada acquired Supertest Petroluem, a Canadian oil and gas company.

BP retail operations disappeared from Canada in the early 1980s when they were sold to Petro-Canada, which was at the time owned by the Government of Canada.

Today BP operates as producer of natural gas and has operations in Alberta, British Columbia, East Coast and in the North. Its headquarters is in Calgary, Alberta with 1400 employees.

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BP Solar

A photovoltaic (PV) module that is composed of multiple PV cells.  Two or more interconnected PV modules create an array.

BP has been involved in solar power since 1973 and its subsidiary, BP Solar, is a solar power company with production facilities in the United States, Spain, India and Australia, employing a workforce of over 2,000 people worldwide. BP solar is a major worldwide manufacturer and installer of photovoltaic solar cells for electricity. Headquarters for BP Solar are located in Frederick, Maryland.

The international photovoltaic industry provides solar cells which convert light into electricity. With concerns about global warming increasing and technological advances driving prices down, the market is growing by about 25% each year. The composition of demand is also changing. In the 1980s and early 1990s, most photovoltaic modules provided remote area power supply or powered consumer products such as watches, calculators and toys, but from around 1995, industry efforts have focused increasingly on developing building integrated photovoltaics and power plants for grid connected applications.

BP Solar has many projects and co-operative activities in developing countries, including supplying power to 36,000 homes in rural Indonesia, installing 1000 solar devices to provide power to 400 remote villages in the Philippines, and setting up a rural electrification scheme in Malaysia to provide power to 30,000 remote homes in Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia.

BP Solar (with the CSIRO) is also involved in the commercialization of a long life deep cycle lead acid battery, which is well suited to the storage of electricity for renewable remote area power systems (RAPS). This GreenGel battery, and CSIRO's new battery charging procedures, will reduce capacity loss and premature failure sometimes encountered with existing battery technology. A significant component of the project will be the establishment of an innovative manufacturing process which will enable the production of these advanced batteries at an internationally competitive price, facilitating a major export market.

BP Solar has begun constructing two new solar photovoltaic (PV) solar cell manufacturing plants, one at its European headquarters in Madrid, and the second at its joint venture facility, Tata BP Solar, in Bangalore, India. For stage one of the Madrid expansion, BP Solar is aiming to expand its annual cell capacity from 55 megawatts (MW) to around 300 MW. Construction of this facility is underway and expected to be completed in 2007. The Bangalore expansion should add another 300 MW to the company's total capacity.

The new cell lines use innovative screen-printing technology. By fully automating wafer handling, the manufacturing lines will be able to handle the very thinnest of wafers available and ensure the highest quality. This is of particular importance since there has been a silicon shortage in recent years.

BP Solar also maintains a manufacturing facility in the United States in Frederick, MD. The Frederick facility is currently undergoing a major expansion to increase production for an expected increase in demand in the coming years. The plant opened as an independent solar power company, Solarex, in the 1970s. Solarex was taken over by Amoco/Enron in 1983 and later became a part of BP. This facility produces polycrystaline solar cells with a blue chromium color, which are slightly less efficient than monocrystalline solar cells, but is offset by a significant reduction in production and sales costs.

The BP Solar building has an integrated 200kW (peak) solar grid. It was built to be a 'solar breeder,' a facility that would produce solar cells using solar power. However, as the building's array aged, the grid was disconnected. Since the 1990s the main array does not produce any usable electricity, however electricity is generated by several new arrays located on a new casting build, as well as several other recent additions. In the future the expansion of the Frederick facility will include a green roof, and other energy saving measures.

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Ap and Bp star

Ap and Bp stars are peculiar stars (hence the “p”) of types A and B which show overabundances of some rare earth metals (e.g., europium) or others (e.g., strontium). These stars have a much slower rotation than normal for A and B type stars , although some exhibit rotation velocities up to ≈ 100 km s − 1. They also have stronger magnetic fields, in some cases reaching ≈ 40kG (4T). The spatial locations of the chemical overabundances have been shown to be connected with the geometry of the magnetic field. Some of these stars have shown radial velocity variations arising from pulsations of a few minutes. For studying these stars high-resolution spectroscopy is used, together with Doppler imaging which uses the rotation to deduce a map of the stellar surface.

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Source : Wikipedia