Beauty

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Posted by bender 03/04/2009 @ 17:14

Tags : beauty, fashion, entertainment

News headlines
Beauty Boutique: An Affordable, Therapeutic Getaway at Home - Courier Herald
If it shines or sparkles, soothes or appeals to the senses it is at the Beauty Boutique and Day Spa. “Our customers come from everywhere,” said owner Patsy Watson. “We have regular customers who live in Vidalia, Sandersville, mcrae, Eastman and even...
Brains before beauty - Philadelphia Inquirer
By John Gonzalez Being a Dallas Cowboys cheerleader isn't just about calendar shoots in exotic locales and skimpy outfits. It's not just about supporting a bunch of soulless mercenaries and shameless underachievers, either. Not anymore....
Truth from a beauty is all ye need to know - Pottstown Mercury
We've been arguing about a beauty pageant, for goodness' sake. But that, too, is why it's so important. When asked, Prejean said: "I think it's great that Americans are able to choose one or the other. We live in a land that you can choose same-sex...
Internet Beauty Sales Up - SkinInc.com
The state of the economy appears to be taking its toll on beauty purchases across most retail channels, with the exception of one—the Internet. According to Emerging Channels Series: Beauty Care Products, Special Focus: The Internet from The NPD Group,...
Beauty as a participation in freedom - Examiner.com
In the modern world, beauty and beautification (especially in religion) is often criticized as being superfluous and neglectful. Despite this popular modern view, beauty represents an important link between the finite and the infinite, between humans...
The coveted summer beauty look doesn't come without some preparation - The Canadian Press
NEW YORK — It's time for the bathing beauties to march in full force to the nearest waterside oasis and take a perch in the sun. Still, before summer's goddesses can soak up their golden rays, there has to be some preparation - and use of a few...
Sleeping Beauty takes to stage at the Vanity Theater - thepaper24-7.com
The Sugar Creek Youth Players will present the timeless Disney classic Sleeping Beauty at the Vanity Theater over the next two weekends. Tickets, priced at $10 for adults and $6 for children 12 and under, are on sale at the Vanity Theater Box Office....
Captivated by the beauty of Utah's springtime - Metro Canada - Halifax
Utah is beautiful in spring: the snow melts and flows over cliffs, forming waterfalls that feed the many rivers and streams flowing along the canyon floors. In turn, the water brings life to the desert. American bellflowers and mountain dandelions...
Humble artist of simple beauty - Los Angeles Times
By Janet Eastman Sam Maloof, a designer and woodworker whose furniture was initially prized for its simplicity and practicality by Southern Californian homeowners in the 1950s and later valued for its beauty and timelessness by collectors,...
The Best New Summer Beauty Products - Allure Magazine
Summertime, and the living is about to get a whole lot easier—thanks to some truly innovative new beauty products. We asked cosmetic chemist Jim Hammer how they work. BY ROBYN BROWN WHAT IT CLAIMS: To keep hair straight and frizz-free for 30 days....

Beauty

Beauty is a dominant theme in western art, as evidenced in Nymph with morning glory flowers by Jules Joseph Lefebvre.

Beauty is a characteristic of a person, place, object, or idea that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure, meaning, or satisfaction. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, sociology, social psychology, and culture. As a cultural creation, beauty has been extremely commercialized. An "ideal beauty" is an entity which is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture.

The experience of "beauty" often involves the interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being. Because this is a subjective experience, it is often said that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder." In its most profound sense, beauty may engender a salient experience of positive reflection about the meaning of one's own existence. A subject of beauty is anything that resonates with personal meaning.

The classical Greek adjective beautiful was καλλός. The Koine Greek word for beautiful was "ὡραῖος", an adjective etymologically coming from the word "ὥρα" meaning hour. In Koine Greek, beauty was thus associated with "being of one's hour". A ripe fruit (of its time) was considered beautiful, whereas a young woman trying to appear older or an older woman trying to appear younger would not be considered beautiful. ὡραῖος in Attic Greek had many meanings, including youthful and ripe old age.

There is evidence that a preference for beautiful faces emerges early in child development, and that the standards of attractiveness are similar across different genders and cultures. Symmetry is also important because it suggests the absence of genetic or acquired defects. Although style and fashion vary widely, cross-cultural research has found a variety of commonalities in people's perception of beauty. Large eyes and a clear complexion, for example, are considered beautiful in both men and women in all cultures. Neonatal features are inherently attractive and youthfulness in general is associated with beauty.

The earliest Western theory of beauty can be found in the works of early Greek philosophers from the pre-Socratic period, such as Pythagoras. The Pythagorean school saw a strong connection between mathematics and beauty. In particular, they noted that objects proportioned according to the golden ratio seemed more attractive. Ancient Greek architecture is based on this view of symmetry and proportion. Modern research also suggests that people whose facial features are symmetric and proportioned according to the golden ratio are considered more attractive than those whose faces are not.

Classical philosophy and sculptures of men and women produced according to these philosophers' tenets of ideal human beauty were rediscovered in Renaissance Europe, leading to a re-adoption of what became known as a "classical ideal". In terms of female human beauty, a woman whose appearance conforms to these tenets is still called a "classical beauty" or said to possess a "classical beauty", whilst the foundations laid by Greek and Roman artists have also supplied the standard for male beauty in western civilization. The ideal Roman was defined as tall, muscular, long-legged, with a full head of thick hair, a high and wide forehead – a sign of intelligence – wide-set eyes, a strong browline, a strong perfect nose and profile, a smaller mouth, and a strong jaw line. This combination of factors would, as it does today, produce an impressive "grand" look of handsome masculinity.

Beauty ideals may contribute to racial oppression. For example, a prevailing idea in American culture has been that black features are less attractive or desirable than white features. The idea that blackness was ugly was highly damaging to the psyche of African Americans, manifesting itself as internalized racism. The black is beautiful cultural movement sought to dispel this notion. Conversely, beauty ideals may also promote racial unity. Mixed race children are often perceived to be more attractive than their parents because their genetic diversity protects them from the inherited errors of their individual parents.

The characterization of a person as “beautiful”, whether on an individual basis or by community consensus, is often based on some combination of inner beauty, which includes psychological factors such as personality, intelligence, grace, congeniality, charm, integrity, congruity and elegance, and outer beauty, which includes physical factors, such as health, youthfulness, sexiness, symmetry, averageness, and complexion.

A common way to measure outer beauty, as based on community consensus, or general opinion, is to stage a beauty pageant, such as Miss Universe. Inner beauty, however, is more difficult to quantify, though beauty pageants often claim to take this into consideration as well.

A strong indicator of physical beauty is "averageness", or "koinophilia". When images of human faces are averaged together to form a composite image, they become progressively closer to the "ideal" image and are perceived as more attractive. This was first noticed in 1883, when Francis Galton, cousin of Charles Darwin, overlaid photographic composite images of the faces of vegetarians and criminals to see if there was a typical facial appearance for each. When doing this, he noticed that the composite images were more attractive compared to any of the individual images. Researchers have replicated the result under more controlled conditions and found that the computer generated, mathematical average of a series of faces is rated more favorably than individual faces. Evolutionarily it makes logical sense that sexual creatures should be attracted to mates who possess predominantly common or average features.

Another feature of beautiful women that has been explored by researchers is a waist-to-hip ratio of approximately 0.70 for women. The concept of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was developed by psychologist Devendra Singh of the University of Texas at Austin. Physiologists have shown that this ratio accurately indicates most women's fertility. Traditionally, in premodern ages when food was more scarce, overweight people were judged more attractive than slender. Beauty is not solely limited to the female gender. More often defined as 'bishōnen,' the concept of beauty in men has been particularly established throughout history in East Asia, and most notably, in Japan. This is distinct from the idea of being metrosexual, which focuses mainly on the behavior of men in traditionally feminine ways. Bishōnen refers to males with distinctly feminine features, physical characteristics establishing the standard of beauty in Japan and typically exhibited in their pop culture idols. The origin of such a preference is uncertain but it clearly exists even today.

Inner beauty is a concept used to describe the positive aspects of something that is not physically observable.

While most species use physical traits and pheromones to attract mates, some humans claim to rely on the inner beauty of their choices. Qualities including kindness, sensitivity, tenderness or compassion, creativity and intelligence have been said to be desirable since antiquity.

Beauty presents a standard of comparison, and it can cause resentment and dissatisfaction when not achieved. People who do not fit the "beauty ideal" may be ostracized within their communities. The television sitcom Ugly Betty portrays the life of a girl faced with hardships due to society's unwelcoming attitudes toward those they deem unattractive. However, a person may also be targeted for harassment because of their beauty. In Malèna, a strikingly beautiful Italian woman is forced into poverty by the women of the community who refuse to give her work in fear that she may "woo" their husbands.

Researchers have found that good looking students get higher grades from their teachers than students with an ordinary appearance. Furthermore, attractive patients receive more personalized care from their doctors. Studies have even shown that handsome criminals receive lighter sentences than less attractive convicts. How much money a person earns may also be influenced by physical beauty. One study found that people low in physical attractiveness earn 5 to 10 percent less than ordinary looking people, who in turn earn 3 to 8 percent less than those who are considered good looking. Discrimination against others based on their appearance is known as lookism.

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Beauty contest

Mrs. Texas crowned in beauty contest (2001)

A beauty contest, or beauty pageant, is a competition based mainly, though not always entirely, on the physical beauty of its contestants, and often incorporating personality, talent demonstration, and question responses as judged criteria. Almost invariably, competitions for men and women are separate events, and those for men are not referred to as beauty contests. Beauty contests for women are more common, and winners are called beauty queens. Beauty contests for men, like Mr. Universe, are more likely to be "body building" contests—quite unlike the traditional "beauty contest" in which women are judged upon many attributes both physical and otherwise. However, in the 1990s, male "beauty contests" began to shift focus. Instead of only considering muscle mass, the competitions began to judge the natural physical attributes of the contestants as well as their physiques. These include Mr. World and Manhunt International.

There are also beauty contests for children . These events are often controversial, particularly when children are dressed provocatively and described in adult terms.

Choosing symbolic kings and queens for May Day and other festivities is an ancient custom in Europe in which beautiful young women symbolize their nation's virtues and other abstract ideas. The first modern American pageant was staged by P. T. Barnum in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down by public protest—he previously held dog, baby, and bird beauty contests. He substituted daguerreotypes for judging, a practice quickly adopted by newspapers. Newspapers held photo beauty contests for many decades: In 1880, the first “Bathing Beauty Pageant" took place as part of a summer festival to promote business in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware. Contests became a regular part of summer beach life, with the most elaborate contest taking place in Atlantic City, New Jersey, where the “Fall Frolic” attracted women from many cities and towns.

The modern beauty pageant's origin is traceable to the Miss America Pageant, which was first held in Atlantic City in 1921, under the title "Inter-City Beauty Contest." The Miss America Pageant eventually included preliminary eliminations, an evening gown competition, musical variety shows, and judging by panel. Still, the contest was at first shunned by middle-class society. Pageants did not become respectable until World War II, when "beauty queens" were recruited to sell bonds and to entertain troops. Scholarships and talent competitions evoked even closer scrutiny of contestants’ morals and backgrounds.

Other major contests include the yearly Miss World competition (founded by Eric Morley in 1951), Miss Universe (founded in 1952), Miss International (founded in 1960) and Miss Earth (founded in 2001 with environmental awareness as its concern), Miss Tourism Queen International (founded in 2004). These are considered the Grand Slam pageants, the five largest and most famous international beauty contests. Minor contests, such as the Miss Bondi contest in Australia, are common throughout the world in the summer months. During the 1950s, pageants thrived to promote county fairs and local products. For example, some of Raquel Welch's titles included "Miss Photogenic" and "Miss Contour." Women from around the world participate each year in local competitions for the chance to represent their country's international title.

Recently there has been a movement to the Internet Beauty Pageant format demonstrated by websites such as The Ultimate Beauty Queen, which aim to level the pageant playing field by allowing more variations in both contestants and judges. The organizers of the major beauty contests represent their contests as being events of world importance—and they are, in that they are viewed by over a billion people every year.

Global beauty pageants have never faced a revolution of its kind before the year of 2002. Christina Sawaya of Lebanon won Miss International pageant, Miss World 2002 is Azra Akin from Turkey and the original winner of Miss Earth 2002 is Džejla Glavović from Bosnia and Herzegovina which are all dominant Muslim countries.

Beauty pageants are generally multi-tiered and popular, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. The worldwide pageants, thus, require hundreds, sometimes thousands, of local competitions. In the United States, there is now a commercial beauty pageant industry that organizes thousands of local and regional events for all ages for profit supported by magazines like The Crown Magazine and Pride of Pageantry, the online epiczine.com, the Pageant News Bureau (pageant.com), and The Crown Magazine, and a host of retailers of everything from tiaras to cosmetic surgery.

The typical perception of a beauty pageant is that it occurs once a year, has women of a petite frame, the event is live on stage, and that a talent is involved somehow. Particularly with the advent of the internet, this perception has changed drastically. Although they are not "live" internet and mail-in pageants have provided a plethora of entertainment to those who compete and an opportunity not available those unable or hesitant to travel.

Beauty Queens, or title holders, are chosen on many criteria. Each individual pageant will provide to prospective delegates its particular methods of competition and scoring. For example, The Worldwide Pageant has a unique scoring system wherein delegates have the potential of earning a score of 110%. The breakdown is 25% evening wear (may be pants or gown), 25% athletic wear, 50% personal interview, and an optional 10% for an achievement portfolio. Diamond Dolls is a photogenic only competition which provides 100% of the score based upon submission of required photos.

Size no longer is a limiting factor as many competitions espouse the goal of "natural" beauty. There are also more and more pageants such as Ms. Classic Beauty, which are dedicated to the "plus sized" delegate. Ms. Classic Beauty takes this one step further by devoting itself to "pageant plus." While a size 14-16 may be considered a traditional plus-size in the US, in the pageant world a size 6-8 may be considered as plus depending upon the pageant system. Ms. Classic Beauty takes this into consideration as well as the difference in size based upon height. Therefore, their criteria for inclusion is based upon size/height ratios.

Although the selection of a Beauty Queen is thought to be an annual event, there are no hard and fast rules as to the frequency of selection. Pageants have also changed dates and frequency based upon the needs of the Organization. Take for instance, Miss America. For decades, Miss America was held during the fall with the pageant usually occurring in September. Recently, the date changed to January. This produced a term of greater than a year length for that Miss America.

On the other hand, some terms have been shortened due to needs of the Organization. For example, during its formative years, the Mrs. United Nation Pageant had several seasonal changes with some Queens holding a term of less than a year.

There are other pageants who take a totally different approach altogether. Particularly in reference to on-line photogenic pageants, there are competitions in which a winner is chosen on a monthly or even weekly basis. There are those who will take each of these as a "preliminary winner" with the intent upon a "final" competition at some later date. Others treat each of these as a "final" winner and provide a title.

Regardless of the method of competition, break down of scores or frequency of selection, all are defined as "entertainment in the form of a beauty pageant." It is up to the individual to determine which is best suited for competition or of particular entertainment interest.

Critics of beauty contests argue that such contests reinforce the idea that women should be valued primarily for their physical appearance, and that this puts tremendous pressure on women to “be beautiful” by spending time and money on fashion, cosmetics, hair styling and even cosmetic surgery. This pursuit of physical beauty even encourages some women to diet to the point of harming themselves. Although some competitions have components that are not based purely on physical appearance, “unattractive” contestants are unlikely to win, no matter how talented, poised, intelligent, educated, resourceful or socially conscious they are. Rather than providing women with opportunities, it can be argued that beauty contests hurt the prospects of women who do not fit the current cultural ideal of beauty, because these contests promote the idea that those who fit this ideal are “better” than those who do not. It could be argued, however, that women who do not excel in other fields may at least have a chance to win a beauty contest.

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Argument from beauty

The argument from beauty is an argument for the existence of God as against materialism.

Points 2, 3 and 4 are relatively un-controversial, and the argument is formally valid, so discussion focuses on the premise (1).

1. There are compelling reasons for considering the level of beauty in the universe to be greater than that would be expected under materialism.

The difficulty with this variation of the argument is that it depends on an essentially subjective assessment of whether the overall level of beauty in the universe is greater than might be expected if God (or gods) did not exist.

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Beauty (2007 film)

Beauty is a 2007 drama film that explores themes of love, beauty, kabuki, and the strength of human spirit.

In a small village of Ina (伊那) district, Nagano Prefecture, Japan, 1930s.

Hanji, a young boy, saw the stage of the kabuki(歌舞伎) for the first time as a dedication event in the village. He was fascinated with the stage that Yukio, as young as Hanji,danced as "Tenryu Koishibuki".

He begins to learn the Kabuki with Yukio and Utako, a girl friend,and he became an excellent actor soon.

One day in 1944, Hanji and Yukio receive the draft cards. The tide of the war was against Japan. The village people held the final stage of the Kabuki for the two young man who might never return there again. The war was over. Japan was defeated. Hanji and Yukio survived, but they were detained in Siberia by USSR.

Few years after, only Hanji could return to the Village, and met Utako again. He saw that the village people were utterly dejected by the war. Hanji decided that he would revive the Kabuki and the Village.

The Kabuki and the village was revived as a miracle by an extraordinary effort of Hanji and Utako.

In 1980s,Hanji knew that the time of his death would come before long. The village people held the final stage of Kabuki for Hanji, and he danced "Tenryu Koishibuki" for Yukio. Japan's miracle revival from the World War Two had been supported by the diligent people who grew up in villages of the country.

Japanese traditional Kabuki, beautiful scenery of Ina district, the sorrow of war, and love. This movie describes a pure spirit of the village people of Japan.

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Source : Wikipedia