CERN

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Posted by kaori 03/16/2009 @ 22:11

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News headlines
Austria to pull out of CERN - Xinhua
BEIJING, May 11 (Xinhuanet) -- Austria is contemplating withdrawing from CERN, Europe's premier high-energy physics laboratory, in order to use its high cost share to fund fields where there is more impact for businesses and universities....
The mystery of the antimatter - Irish Times
Angels and Demons , which is on general release tomorrow, tells the story of a plot to blow up the Vatican using “antimatter” stolen from Cern, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research. While it is currently impossible to build such a bomb,...
Angels & Demons - Film Preview - Ron Howard Casts His Bread Upon ... - Imperial Valley News
Professor Langdon teams up with beautiful particle physicist Vittoria (Ayelet Zurer) to track down anti-matter stolen from CERN that the Illuminati claims it will use to blow the Vatican to smithereens. Note: If the Illuminati indeed exists as Brown...
Austria to quit CERN particle physics laboratory - Reuters
VIENNA (Reuters) - Austria plans to pull out of the international particle physics laboratory CERN because its share of the high cost is eating up too much of the country's budget for international research. The European Organization for Nuclear...
WTF are CERN Physicists doing? They're 'Colliding Particles.' - Tilzy.TV
Colliding Particles isn't quite as much about the pursuit or ultimate event itself so much as a more down-to-earth meditation on the context and three gentle men who make up a small segment of CERN's scientific community. Each of the three physicists...
Cerner's earnings, revenue rise - Bizjournals.com
In a release after the market closed on Tuesday, the North Kansas City-based health care technology company (Nasdaq: CERN) reported earnings of $40.8 million, or 49 cents a share, for the quarter that ended April 4. This is an 11 percent increase from...
Cerner (CERN) NewsBite - CERN Hits 52-Week High - Market Intelligence Center
Cerner (NasdaqNM: CERN) hit a new 52-Week high of $55.33 so far today. Currently the stock is up $2.27 (4.31%) to $54.95 on 679292 shares traded. Today's high is up $24.58 from a 52-Week Low of $30.37. Cerner stock has been showing support around...
Macedonia, CERN sign cooperation agreement - Portalino
The world´s biggest scientific laboratory --CERN -- has invited Macedonia to participate in scientific research and training. In what is regarded as a major victory for the Macedonian government, a delegation headed by Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski...
Djelic to meet CERN Director General - emportal
Deputy Prime Minister for EU Integration and Minister of Science and Technological Development Bozidar Djelic will meet with Director General of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Rolf-Dieter Heuer, on May 8 at 10:45,...
TheFortuneFinancial.com Initializes Free Analyst Research on RCII ... - SYS-CON Media (press release)
Today, we have asked some of the top analysts worldwide to give us their updated feedback regarding the current market activity and position on Rent- A-Center Inc. (NASDAQ: RCII), Cerner Corporation (NASDAQ: CERN), Stericycle Inc. (NASDAQ: SRCL) and...

CERN

CERN logo.svg

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire), known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced /ˈsɝːn/ (IPA:  in French), is the world's largest particle physics laboratory, situated in the northwest suburbs of Geneva on the Franco-Swiss border, established in 1954. The organization has twenty European member states, and is currently the workplace of approximately 2,600 full-time employees, as well as some 7,931 scientists and engineers (representing 580 universities and research facilities and 80 nationalities).

CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research. It is also noted for being the birthplace of the World Wide Web. Numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN by international collaborations to make use of them. The main site at Meyrin also has a large computer centre containing very powerful data processing facilities primarily for experimental data analysis, and because of the need to make them available to researchers elsewhere, has historically been (and continues to be) a major wide area networking hub.

As an international facility, the CERN sites are officially under neither Swiss nor French jurisdiction. Member states' contributions to CERN for the year 2008 totalled CHF 1 billion (approximately €664 million, US $1 billion).

The convention establishing CERN was signed on 29 September 1954 by 11 countries in Western Europe.a The acronym CERN originally stood, in French, for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for setting up the laboratory, established by 11 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954. According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the acronym could have become the awkward OERN, and Heisenberg said "But the acronym can still be CERN even if the name is ".

Soon after its establishment, the work at the laboratory went beyond the study of the atomic nucleus, into higher-energy physics, an activity which is mainly concerned with the study of interactions between particles. Therefore the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules) which better describes the current research being performed at CERN.

Several important achievements in particle physics have been made during experiments at CERN. These include, but are not limited to, the following.

The 1984 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that led to the discoveries of the W and Z bosons.

The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990 . Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honored by the ACM in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.

Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was aimed at facilitating sharing information among researchers. The first website went on-line in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium website as a historical document.

Prior to the Web's development, CERN had been a pioneer in the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s. A short history of this period can be found here.

More recently, CERN has become a centre for the development of Grid computing, hosting among others the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computing Grid projects. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main Internet Exchange Points in Switzerland. CERN's computer network is connected to JANET (formerly UKERNA), the research and education network, JANET aids CERN to disperse large data over a network grid for closer analysis.

Most of the activities at CERN are currently directed towards building a new collider, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project.

The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva airport and the nearby Jura mountains. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by LEP which was closed down in November 2000. CERN's existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes will be used to pre-accelerate protons which will then be injected into the LHC.

Six experiments (CMS, ATLAS, LHCb, TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE) are currently being built, and will be running on the collider; each of them will study particle collisions under a different point of view, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. Just as an example, to lower the pieces for the CMS experiment into the underground cavern which will host it, a special crane will have to be rented from Belgium, which will be able to lift the almost 2000 tons for each piece. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005.

This accelerator will generate vast quantities of computer data, which CERN will stream to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (making use of a specialised grid infrastructure, the LHC Computing Grid). In April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB per second to seven different sites across the world. If all the data generated by the LHC is to be analysed, then scientists must achieve 1,800 MB per second before 2008.

The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008, the first attempt to circulate a beam through the entire LHC was at 0830Z on 10 September 2008, but the system was taken down for repairs on 19 September 2008 and due to a faulty magnet it must be reheated, repaired, and recooled. With this and the previously scheduled winter shutoff due to power consumption, no results are expected before July 2009.

The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are located underground almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments themselves are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites.

Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter which will be used for LHC experiments).

Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of charmed particles and located at the Prévessin (North Area) site while WA22 used the BEBC bubble chamber at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator.

All founding members have so far (as of 2008) remained in the CERN organisation, except Yugoslavia which left in 1961 and never re-joined.

There are currently twenty member countries, 18 of which are also European Union member states.

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CERN Program Library

The CERN Program Library or CERNLIB is a collection of FORTRAN77 libraries and modules, maintained by CERN. Its content ranges from more specialized data analysis of high energy physics to general purpose numerical analysis. Lower-level parts of the CERN Program Library are most prominently used by the data analysis software PAW and the detector simulation framework GEANT (which themselves are contained in the CERN Program Library).

CERN Program Library uses the year as its version, with not explicitly denoted minor revisions within a year. Besides legacy software dependency, for newer applications written in C++, CERNLIB is mostly superseded by ROOT.

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CERN Axion Solar Telescope

CAST (an acronym of CERN Axion Solar Telescope) is an experiment in astroparticle physics to search for axions originating from the Sun. The experiment, sited at CERN in Switzerland, came online in 2002 with the first data-taking run starting in May 2003. The successful detection of solar axions would constitute a major discovery in particle physics, and would also open up a brand new window on the astrophysics of the solar core.

If the hypothetical axions exist, they may be produced in the Sun's core when X-rays scatter off electrons and protons in the presence of strong electric fields. The experimental setup is built around a 9.26 meter long LHC magnet capable of producing a field of up to 9.5 teslas. This strong magnetic field is expected to convert solar axions back into X-rays for subsequent detection by X-ray detectors. The telescope observes the Sun for about 1.5 hours at sunrise and another 1.5 hours at sunset each day. The remaining 21 hours, with the instrument pointing away from the Sun, are spent measuring background axion levels.

As of October 2006, CAST has not turned up definitive evidence for solar axions. It has, however, considerably narrowed down the range of parameters where these elusive particles may exist. The last phase of data-taking is expected to continue through 2007.

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Source : Wikipedia