California

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Posted by pompos 02/25/2009 @ 00:13

Tags : california, states, us

News headlines
Oops ... baby sea lion makes wrong turn on California highway - Examiner.com
The center has seen a jump in the number of weakened and malnourished sea lions found along the Northern California coast this year. Experts say the increase could be caused by a decline in the number of small fish that younger sea lions rely on for...
Budget magicians use sleight of hand to help close California's ... - San Jose Mercury News
By Mike Zapler Faced with a money crunch the likes of which California has never seen, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger and legislators have pulled a less obvious tool out of the box. Call it budget magic. SACRAMENTO — The menu of options to close...
CALIFORNIA BRIEFING - Los Angeles Times
Trial began Monday in Orange County Superior Court for a woman and her son charged with murder in the slaying of her cancer-stricken husband 11 years ago, allegedly to avoid paying for medical treatment and to profit from his life insurance and estate....
California Gov. Schwarzenegger Says “All's Ok” After Jet Trouble - TheCelebrityCafe.com
“A little adventure just now when my plane made an emergency landing,” tweeted California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger on his twitter page, about his chartered jet, which had smoke coming from the cockpit. But to reassure the public about the status of...
11 inmates injured at Central California prison riot - San Jose Mercury News
Officials say 75 inmates at the California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison were involved in Sunday's incident. The riot started about noon and prison officials think it was planned because fighting broke out in five locations at the...
Medicaid providers in California win in legal challenge over ... - McKnight's Long Term Care News
The US Supreme Court has let stand a federal appeals court ruling that says California's Medicaid providers have a right to challenge state cuts to Medi-Cal provider fees. Victor Norma Jean Vescovo, the executive director of the Independent Living...
Made Green in California (TM)? - Reuters Blogs
California's environmental and other regulations are helping to send manufacturers running, but the state can capitalize on its green image (and should streamline regulations) a new study by the Milken Institute says. The study found that Golden State...
Milken report: California losing manufacturing jobs faster than nation - Bizjournals.com
California is losing a battle with other states to retain and attract manufacturing jobs and the cost of doing business is largely to blame, according to a report released Tuesday by the Milken Institute. "Manufacturing 2.0: A More Prosperous...
Democratic California Assemblyman Juan Arambula re-registers as ... - Los Angeles Times
Rich Pedroncelli / AP State Assemblyman Juan Arambula has frequently clashed with Democrats, having expressed dismay over their deep ties to labor unions and special interests. The switch could pose a problem for Democrats as they try to plug the...
Police Search for Missing 12-Year-Old California Girl - FOXNews
IRVINE — California police are searching for a 12-year-old girl who has been missing since Friday, KTLA News reported. Clarissa Zahedtalab of Irvine left her Irvine home at 6 pm Friday, without telling her family where she was going, according to the...

Baja California

Coat of arms of Baja California

Baja California (pronounced IPA: /ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə/ in English) is the northernmost state of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 71,576 km2 (27,636 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California peninsula, north of the 28th parallel. The state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. State of Arizona, and the Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez), and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.

The state has a population of 2,844,469 (2005 census), much more than the sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south. Over 75% of the population lives in the capital city, Mexicali, or in Tijuana. Both these cities are close to the U.S. border. Other important cities include Ensenada, San Felipe, Playas de Rosarito and Tecate. The population of the state is composed of Mestizos, mostly immigrants from other parts of Mexico, and, as with most northern Mexican states, a large population of Mexicans of European ancestry, and also a large minority group of East Asian, Middle Eastern and Indigenous descent. Additionally, there is a large immigrant population from the United States due to its proximity to San Diego and the cheaper cost of life compared to San Diego. There is also a significant population from Central America. Many immigrants moved to Baja California for a better quality of life and the number of higher paying jobs in comparison to the rest of Mexico and Latin America.

Baja California is the twelfth state by area in Mexico. Its geography ranks from beaches to forests and deserts. The backbone of the state is the Sierra de Baja California; where the Picacho Del Diablo, the highest point of the peninsula, is located. This mountain range effectively divides the weather patterns in the state. In the northwest, the weather is semi-dry, mediterranean. In the narrow center, the weather changes to be more humid due to altitude. It is in this area where a few valleys can be found, such as the Valle de Guadalupe, the major wine producer area in Mexico. To the east of the mountain range, the Sonoran Desert dominates the landscape. In the south, the weather becomes drier and gives place to the Vizcaino Desert. The state is also home to numerous islands in both of its shores. In fact, the westernmost point in Mexico, the Guadalupe Island, is part of Baja California. The Coronado, Todos Santos and Cedros Islands are also on the Pacific Shore. On the Gulf of California, the biggest island is the Angel De La Guarda, separated from the peninsula by the deep and narrow Canal de Ballenas. Baja California Norte has a democratic government.

Common trees are the Jeffrey Pine, Sugar Pine and Pinon Pine. Understory species include Manzanita. Fauna include a variety of reptiles including the Western fence lizard, which is at the southern extent of its range.

Baja California has two sea shores. It borders the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Gulf of California to the east. Even though the state is not large in area, its geography is very diverse. The Sierra de Baja California (also known as the Peninsular Ranges) runs in the middle of the state with different denominations. The two most important are the Sierra de Juarez and the Sierra de San Pedro Martir. These ranges are home to forests similar to those in Southern California. The Picacho del Diablo is the highest peak in the whole peninsula, offering spectacular views of the Gulf of California. Lying in between these mountain ranges, there are some valleys that are suitable for agriculture such as the Valle de Guadalupe and the Valle de Ojos Negros. The mild weather makes this area excellent for the production of citrus fruits and grapes. This area is also rich in minerals. The mountain range gets closer to the Gulf of California towards the south of the state and the western slope becomes wider, forming the Llanos del Berrendo in the border with Baja California Sur.

The cool winds from the Pacific Ocean and the cold California Current make the weather along the northwestern coast pleasant year round. The coastal cities of Playas de Rosarito and Ensenada have the one of the nicest weather patterns in the whole Mexico. But due to the California current, rains from the north barely reach the peninsula and this makes the weather drier towards the south. The area becomes a desert south of El Rosario River. This desert, however, is rich in succulents such as the Cardon, Boojum tree, Ocotillo and others. These plants can flourish in part due to the coastal fog. Driving along MX-1 provides a good view of this area.

There are numerous islands on the Pacific shore. Guadalupe Island is the remote outpost to the west and it is home to big colonies of sea lions. In Cedros Island there is a small community living mostly on fishing. The Todos Santos Islands, in front of Ensenada, are popular with surfers offering some of the highest waves worldwide.

To the east, the Sonoran Desert enters the state from both California and Sonora. Some of the highest temperatures in Mexico are recorded in or nearby the Mexicali Valley in the northeast. However, with irrigation from the Colorado River, this area has become truly an agricultural center. The Cerro Prieto geothermical province is nearby Mexicali as well (this area is geologically part of a large pull apart basin); producing about 80% of the electricity consumed in the state and enough more to export to California. The Laguna Salada, a saline lake below the sea level lying in between the rugged Sierra de Juarez and the Sierra de los Cucapah, is also in the vicinity of Mexicali where there the state has been considering plans to revive the lagoon and are currently (2008) looking at a plan by SDSU Adj. Professor Newcomb (ICATS) to do this using his geothermal desalination system to supply water locally. SEMARNAT belives this to be the first viable plan presented. The highest mountain in the Sierra de los Cucapah is the Cerro del Centinela or Mount Signal. The Cucapah are the primary indigenous people of that area and up into the Yuma AZ area.

The state is also blessed with numerous beaches on its east coast. Fishing and touristic towns such as San Felipe and Bahia de Los Angeles are a major attraction for people in search of adventure, nice beaches and fresh fish. The area south of San Felipe is basically undeveloped and pristine beaches can be found in many bays. All of the islands in the Gulf of California, on the Baja California side, belong to the municipality of Mexicali.

The main source of water in the state are the Colorado River, which empties in the Gulf of California, (but now rarely reaches the Gulf) and the Tijuana River, serving the cities of Mexicali, Tecate, and Tijuana. The rest of the state depends mostly on wells and a few dams. Tijuana also purchases water from San Diego County's Otay Water District. Potable water is the largest natural resource issue of the state.

The first humans came to the peninsula at least 11,000 years ago, probably following the Pacific coast down from Alaska. At the time of European contact, two main native groups were present on the peninsula. In the south were the Cochimí. In the north were several groups belonging to the Yuman linguistic family, including the Kiliwa, Paipai, Kumeyaay, Cocopa, and Quechan. These peoples were diverse in their adaptations to the region. The Cochimí of the peninsula's Central Desert were generalized hunter-gatherers who moved frequently; however, the Cochimí on Cedros Island off the west coast had developed a strongly maritime economy. The Kiliwa, Paipai, and Kumeyaay in the better-watered northwest were also hunter-gatherers, but that region supported denser populations and more sedentary lifeways. The Cocopa and Quechan of northeastern Baja California practiced agriculture in the floodplain of the lower Colorado River.

Europeans reached the present state of Baja California in 1539, when Francisco de Ulloa reconnoitered its east coast on the Gulf of California and explored the peninsula's west coast at least as far north as Cedros Island. Hernando de Alarcón returned to the east coast and ascended the lower Colorado River in 1540, and Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo completed the reconnaissance of the west coast in 1542. Sebastián Vizcaíno again surveyed the west coast in 1602, but outside visitors during the following century were few.

The Jesuits founded a permanent mission colony on the peninsula at Loreto in 1697. During the following decades, they gradually extended their sway throughout the present state of Baja California Sur. In 1751-1753, the Croatian Jesuit mission-explorer Ferdinand Konščak made overland explorations northward into the state of Baja California. Jesuit missions were subsequently established among the Cochimí at Santa Gertrudis (1752), San Borja (1762), and Santa María (1767).

After the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1768, the short-lived Franciscan administration (1768-1773) resulted in one new mission at San Fernando Velicatá. More importantly, the 1769 expedition to settle Alta California under Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra resulted in the first overland exploration of the northwestern portion of the state.

The Dominicans took over management of the Baja California missions from the Franciscans in 1773. They established a chain of new missions among the northern Cochimí and western Yumans, first on the coast and subsequently inland, extending from El Rosario (1774) to Descanso (1817), just south of Tijuana.

The racial make-up of the state is approximately 40% White/European (mostly but not limited to people of Spanish descent), 36% Mestizo (Mixed Amerindian and European), 9% east Asian (predominantly Chinese, Korean and Japanese), the remaining 15% is Native American (of Mexican and Central American origins, but includes Cherokees from the U.S. long settled in Northwest Mexico since the 1850s) and less than 1% Black African.

Historically, the state had sizable east Asian immigration, esp. Mexicali has a large Chinese community, as well many Filipinos from the Philippines arrived to the state during the eras of Spanish and later American rule (1898-1946) in much of the 19th and 20th centuries. Tijuana was a major port of entry for east Asians entering the U.S. ever since the first Asian-Americans were present in California.

Also a significant number of Middle Eastern immigrants such as Lebanese and Armenians settle near the U.S. border, and small waves of Russian settlers in the early 20th century, usually members of the Molokan sect of the Russian Orthodox church fled the Russian Revolution of 1917 when the Soviet Union took power, had established a few villages along the Pacific coast south of Ensenada.

There is also a sizable immigrant community from Central and South America, and from the United States and Canada. An estimated 200,000+ American expatriates live in the state, especially in coastal resort towns such as Rosarito, and San Felipe, known for affordable homes purchased by retirees who continue to hold US citizenship. Tijuana also has a large American population (second largest in Mexico next to Mexico City), particularly for its cheaper housing and proximity to San Diego. Most Americans that live in Tijuana work in San Diego, earning higher wages.

Baja California is subdivided into five municipios (municipalities). See municipalities of Baja California.

Baja California has one of the best educational programs in the country, with first places in schooling and achievement.

The State Government provides education and qualification courses to increase the workforce standards, such as School-Enterprise linkage programs which helps the development of labor force according to the needs of the industry.

91.60% of the population from six to fourteen years of age attend elementary school. 61.95% of the population over fifteen years of age attend or have already graduated from high school. Public School is available in all levels, from kindergarten to university.

The state has 32 universities offering 103 professional degrees. These universities have 19 Research and Development centers for basic and applied investigation in advanced projects of Biotechnology, Physics, Oceanography, Digital Geothermal Technology, Astronomy, Aerospace, Electrical Engineering and Clean Energy, among others. At this educational level supply is steadily growing. Baja California has developed a need to be self-sufficient in matters of technological and scientific innovation and to be less dependent on foreign countries. Current businesses demand new production processes as well as technology for the incubation of companies. The number of various graduate degrees offered, including Ph.D. programs, is 121. The state has 53 graduate schools.

As of 2005, Baja California’s economy represents 3.3% of Mexico’s gross domestic product or 21,996 million USD. Baja California's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 284,255 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. There are a more than 900 companies operating under the federal INMEX or Prosec program in Baja California. The average wage for an employee in Baja California is approximately 217 pesos per day.

In 1973 there was a constitutional amendment called Foreign Investment Law which allowed foreigners to purchase land in the borders and coasts by way of a Trust through a Mexican Bank (Fideicomiso). This trust assures the buyer all the rights and privileges of ownership and can be sold, inherited, leased, or transferred at any time. Since 1994 the Foreign Investment Law stipulates that the Fideicomiso must be to a 50 year term with a 50 year renewal anytime with a petition.

When a Mexican buys your Bank Trust Property he/she has the option to remain within the Trust or opt out of the trust and request the title in “Escritura”.

Reason Why the Bank Trust was Created Mexico’s early history shows foreign invasions and the loss of a vast amount of land, in response to the fear of history repeating the Mexican authorities established in the Constitution the “Restricted Zone”. In 1973 in order to bring in more foreign investment from tourism, the Bank Trust of Fideicomiso was created, thus allowing non-Mexicans to own land with out having to modify the constitution. Since the law went into effect it has undergone many modifications in order to make purchasing land in Mexico a safer investment.

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California Institute of Technology

CaltechLogo.png

The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech maintains a strong emphasis on the natural sciences and engineering. Caltech also operates and manages the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA Center that oversees the design and operation of many unmanned space probes. Caltech is a small school, with only about 2100 students (about 900 undergraduates and 1200 graduate students), but it is ranked in the top ten universities worldwide by metrics such as citation index, Nobel Prizes, and general university rankings.

Caltech began as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop. The school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute, and Throop College of Technology, before acquiring its current name in 1921.

At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904. He joined Throop's board of trustees the same year, and soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fundraiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus. The promise of the lab attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes to commit to developing the institution. Arther Fleming, Caltech's primary benefactor, who had donated the land for the permanent campus site at California and Wilson, later donated $100,000 to establish a physics facility, the Norman Bridge Laboratory, which succeeded in attracting experimental physicist Robert Andrews Millikan to join the faculty and assist in establishing the college as a center for science and technology.

The vocational school was disbanded, and the preparatory program was split off into an independent Polytechnic School in 1910. In 1911, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology," with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time. The board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford and the University of California successfully lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in Southern California, public or private, until the onset of the Second World War necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.

Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has recently afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation. This institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President Scherer, hearing of the formation of the council, immediately offered to take part in its work, and with this object, he secured within three days an additional research endowment of one hundred thousand dollars.

Through the National Research Council, Hale simultaneously lobbied for science to play a larger role in national affairs, and for Throop to play a national role in science. The new funds were designated for physics research, and ultimately lead to the establishment of the Norman Bridge Laboratory, which attracted Millikan from the University of Chicago. During the course of the war, Hale, Noyes and Millikan worked together in Washington on the NRC. Subsequently, they continued their partnership in developing Caltech.

Under the leadership of Hale, Noyes, and Millikan (and aided by the booming economy of Southern California), Caltech grew to national prominence in the 1920s. In 1923, Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. In 1925, the school established a department of geology and hired William Bennett Munro, then chairman of the division of History, Government, and Economics at Harvard University, to create a division of humanities and social sciences at Caltech. In 1928, a division of biology was established under the leadership of Thomas Hunt Morgan, the most distinguished biologist in the United States at the time, and discoverer of the role of genes and the chromosome in heredity. In 1930, Kerckhoff marine laboratory was established in Corona del Mar under the care of Professor George MacGinitie. In 1926, a graduate school of aeronautics was created, which eventually attracted Theodore von Kármán. Kármán later helped create the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and played an integral part in establishing Caltech as one of the world's centers for rocket science. In 1928, construction of the Palomar Observatory began.

Millikan served as "chairman of the executive council" (effectively Caltech's president) from 1921 to 1945, and his influence was such that the Institute was occasionally referred to as "Millikan's School." In the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, Caltech was the home of Murray Gell-Mann and Richard Feynman, whose work was central to the establishment of the so-called "Standard Model" of particle physics. Feynman was also widely known outside the physics community as an exceptional teacher and colorful, unconventional character.

Caltech remains, to this day, a small and highly focused university, with approximately 900 undergraduates, 1300 graduate students, and over 1000 faculty members (including 293 professors, 104 emeritus professors, 66 permanent research faculty, 87 visiting faculty, and over 500 postdoctoral scholars). A private institution, Caltech is governed by its Board of Trustees.

As of 2006, Caltech has 31 Nobel laureates to its name. This figure includes 17 alumni, 14 non-alumni professors, and 4 professors who were also alumni (Carl D. Anderson, Linus Pauling, William A. Fowler, and Edward B. Lewis). The number of awards is 32, because Pauling received prizes in both Chemistry and Peace. With fewer than 25,000 alumni in total, more than one in 1,400 have received the Nobel Prize — a ratio unmatched by any other university. Five faculty and alumni have received a Crafoord Prize from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, while 49 have been awarded the U.S. National Medal of Science, and 10 have received the National Medal of Technology. Other distinguished researchers have been affiliated with Caltech as postdoctoral scholars (e.g., Barbara McClintock, James D. Watson, and Sheldon Glashow) or visiting professors (e.g., Albert Einstein and Edward Witten).

The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), located on the Caltech campus, is the data analysis and community support center for NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The SSC, part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), works in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

In 1917 Hale hired architect Bertram Goodhue to produce a master plan for the 22 acre (89,000 m²) campus. Goodhue conceived the overall layout of the campus and designed the physics building, Dabney Hall, and several other structures, in which he sought to be consistent with the local climate, the character of the school, and Hale's educational philosophy. Goodhue's designs for Caltech were also influenced by the traditional Spanish mission architecture of Southern California.

In 1971 a magnitude-6.5 earthquake in San Fernando caused some damage to the Caltech campus. Engineers who evaluated the damage found that two historic buildings dating from the early days of the Institute — Throop Hall and the Goodhue-designed Culbertson Auditorium — had cracked. These were some of the first reinforced concrete buildings, and their plans did not contain enough details (such as how much reinforcing bar had been embedded in the concrete) to be sure they were safe, so the engineers recommended demolition. However, demolishing these historic structures required considerably more effort than would have been necessary had they been in real danger of collapse. A large wrecking ball was used to demolish Throop Hall, and smashing the concrete revealed massive amounts of rebar, far in excess of safety requirements. The rebar had to be cut up before the pieces could be hauled away, and the process took much longer than expected.

In 2008 Caltech completed a 238 kW solar array which is projected to produce approximately 320,000 kWh in 2009.

Academics at Caltech emphasize quality over size, concentrating on a core of academic disciplines of very high caliber. Caltech is also known for interdisciplinary programs facilitated by the small physical size of the Caltech campus.

Conversely, as a small school, Caltech cannot and does not offer the breadth of academic programs possible at larger universities. It does, however, offer co-operative programs with other schools, such as the Pasadena Art Center College of Design, Occidental College, UCLA, and Scripps College.

Caltech is ranked as the sixth-best "National University", tied with Penn, behind #4 Stanford and MIT and ahead of #8 Columbia University, in the 2009 U.S. News & World Report survey; in 2007, the same ranking put it at #4, tied with MIT and Stanford. Caltech is ranked fifth in the world in the 2008 THES - QS World University Rankings, and sixth in the world in the 2006 Academic Ranking of World Universities.

Caltech is on the trimester system. Because of its schedule, Caltech's school year starts relatively late, in late September, and ends in early June rather than May as at the more common semester-system colleges. Also, Caltech is unusual in that students normally take five classes every term rather than four, as at most colleges. Instead of majors, Caltech has "options", and until 2006 offered only one minor: in control and dynamical systems. During the spring term of 2006 the humanities and social sciences division announced its plans to introduce four more minors in English, history, philosophy, and history and philosophy of science. Approximately 20 percent of students double-major. This is achievable since the humanities and social sciences majors have been designed to be done in conjunction with a science major. Although choosing two options in the same division is discouraged, it is still possible.

For the core curriculum, students are required to take five terms of math, including differential equations, probability and statistics, five terms of physics including quantum mechanics, special relativity, and statistical mechanics, two terms of chemistry, and a term of biology, as well as two terms of laboratory classes.

Few students fail classes or fail out of the school as a whole. This is due to several cushions that help students survive. First of all, the first two terms of freshman year are on a pass/fail grading scheme, easing the transition to college and reducing academic stress. During the second term, "shadow grades" are given to help students gauge their own progress; during the first term, there are no grades at all. Second, there is little competition; collaboration on homework is encouraged (and often necessary for success) in almost every class. This allows even students who are not doing as well as others to learn the material from their peers and not get behind in their studies. Another helpful factor is the Honor System; this system encourages take-home tests, flexible homework schedules, and other freedoms, alleviating some of the practical burdens associated with a five-to-seven course workload.

Caltech has a relatively low four-year graduation rate, compared to most leading US universities. This rate is currently about 80 percent, despite the fact that entering students have consistently higher average test scores (on the SAT 1 and 2) than any other university or college, as indicated by the major college rankings. On the other hand, almost all students major in science or engineering, fields that traditionally suffer low graduation rates. In any case, the situation has improved recently; approximately 90 percent of entering students graduate in six years or less, compared to a substantially smaller fraction in the 1960s and 70s.

Undergraduates at Caltech are also encouraged to participate in research. About half of students do research through the annual Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) program at least once during their stay, and many continue it during the school year. Students write and submit SURF proposals for research projects in collaboration with professors, and about 70 percent of applicants are awarded SURFs. The program is open to both Caltech and non-Caltech undergraduate students. It serves as preparation for graduate school and helps to explain why Caltech has one of the highest percentages of alumni who go on to receive a Ph.D. of all the major universities.

Caltech has athletic teams in baseball, men's & women's basketball, cross country, fencing, men's soccer, swimming & diving, men's & women's tennis, track & field, women's volleyball, and men's & women's water polo. Caltech's mascot is the Beaver, and its teams (with the exception of the fencing team) play in the Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, which Caltech co-founded in 1915. The fencing team competes in the NCAA's Division I, facing teams from USC, UCLA, UCSD, and Stanford, among others.

On January 6, 2007, the Beavers' men's basketball team snapped a 207-game losing streak to Division III schools, beating Bard College 81-52. It was their first Division III victory since 1996. They still carry a 245-game losing streak in conference play. The documentary film Quantum Hoops concerns the events of the Beavers' 2005-6 season.

On January 13, 2007, the Caltech women's basketball team snapped a 50-game losing streak, defeating the Pomona-Pitzer Sagehens 55-53. The women's program, which entered the SCIAC in 2002, garnered their first conference win. On the bench as honorary coach for the evening was Dr. Robert Grubbs, 2005 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. The team went on to beat Whittier College on February 10th, for its second SCIAC win, and placed its first member on the All Conference team. The 2006-2007 season is the most successful season in the history of the program.

In early 2007, the women's table tennis team (a club team) competed in nationals. The women's Ultimate club team, known as "Snatch", has also been very successful in recent years, ranking 44 of over 200 college teams in the Ultimate Player's Association.

During the early 20th century, a Caltech committee visited several universities and decided to transform the undergraduate housing system from regular fraternities to a House System, similar to the residential college system at Oxford, The University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University, Yale, Rice University and Cambridge. Four south houses (or hovses, so named for the inscription on the gates thereof) were built: Blacker House, Dabney House, Fleming House, and Ricketts House. In the 1960s, three north houses were built: Lloyd House, Page House, and Ruddock House. During the 1990s, an additional house, Avery House, was built to accommodate those who felt the original seven houses were not suitable for them. The four south houses closed for renovation in 2005 and reopened on December 15, 2006.

Every Halloween, Dabney House conducts the infamous "Millikan pumpkin-drop experiment" from the top of Millikan Library, the highest point on campus. According to tradition, a claim was once made that the shattering of a pumpkin frozen in liquid nitrogen and dropped from a sufficient height would produce a triboluminescent spark. This yearly event involves a crowd of observers, who try to spot the elusive spark. The title of the event is an oblique reference to the famous Millikan oil-drop experiment which measured e, the elemental unit of electrical charge.

On Ditch Day the seniors ditch school, leaving behind elaborately designed tasks and traps at the doors of their rooms to prevent underclassmen from entering. Over the years this has evolved to the point where many seniors spend months designing mechanical, electrical, and software obstacles to confound the underclassmen. Each group of seniors designs a "stack" to be solved by a handful of underclassmen. The faculty have been drawn into the event as well, and cancel all classes on Ditch Day so the underclassmen can participate in what has become a highlight of the academic year. In 2007, Ditch Day fell on May 15. In 2008, on May 21.

Caltech students have been known for the many pranks (also known as RFs) they have pulled off.

The two most famous are the changing of the Hollywood Sign to read Caltech, by judiciously covering up certain parts of the letters, and the changing of the Rose Bowl scoreboard to an imaginary game where Caltech beat MIT. During the 1961 Rose Bowl Game, Caltech students altered the flip-cards that were raised by the stadium attendees to display "Caltech." This event is now referred to as the Great Rose Bowl Hoax.

Recently, a group of Caltech students pulled a string of pranks during MIT's Campus Preview Weekend for admitted students. These include covering up the word Massachusetts in the "Massachusetts Institute of Technology" engraving on the main building façade with a banner so that it read "That Other Institute of Technology". A group of MIT hackers responded by altering the banner so that the inscription read "The Only Institute of Technology." Caltech students also passed out T-shirts to MIT's incoming freshman class, with MIT on the front and "... because not everyone can go to Caltech" along with an image of a palm tree on the back.

MIT retaliated in April 2006, when students posing as the Howe & Ser Moving Company stole the 130 year old, 1.7 ton Fleming House cannon and moved it to their campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts for their 2006 Campus Preview Weekend, repeating a similar prank performed by nearby Harvey Mudd College in 1986. (The name "Howe & Ser", if said rapidly, and if read recognizing that the & symbol is a ligature of the Latin word "et", sounds like howitzer; it could also mean "how we answer", since the latest prank was an answer to the 2005 prank on MIT.) Thirty members of Fleming House traveled to MIT and reclaimed their cannon on April 10, 2006.

In July 2008, Caltech graduate student Virgil Griffith released an online tool that traced back Wikipedia edits from individual MIT buildings.

Caltech pranks have been documented in three Legends of Caltech books, the most recent of which was edited by alumni Autumn Looijen '99 and Mason A. Porter '98 and published in May 2007.

Life in the Caltech community is governed by the Honor Code, which simply states: "No member of the Caltech community shall take unfair advantage of any other member of the Caltech community." This is enforced by a Board of Control, which consists of undergraduate students, and by a similar body at the graduate level, called the Graduate Review Board.

The Honor Code aims at promoting an atmosphere of respect and trust that allows Caltech students to enjoy privileges that make for a more relaxed atmosphere. For example, the Honor Code allows professors to make the majority of exams as take-home, allowing students to take them on their own schedule and in their preferred environment.

Through the late 1990s, the only exception to the Honor Code, implemented earlier in the decade in response to changes in federal regulations, concerned the sexual harassment policy. Today, there are myriad exceptions to the Honor Code in the form of new institute policies such as the Fire Policy, and Alcohol Policy. Though both policies are presented in the Honor Code Handbook given to new members of the Caltech Community, large portions of the undergraduate population regard them as a slight against the Honor Code and the implicit trust and respect it represents within the community.

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Pasadena, California

Rose Bowl Stadium in Pasadena, California

Pasadena (pronounced /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/) is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Famous for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game and the Tournament of Roses Parade, Pasadena is the home of many leading scientific and cultural institutions, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (the leading robotics and spacecraft design and manufacturing NASA center), Art Center College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, California School of Culinary Arts Pasadena and the Norton Simon Museum of Art. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 133,936. As of 2007, the estimated population is 146,518, making it the 160th largest city in the United States.. Pasadena is the 6th largest city in Los Angeles County, and the main cultural center of the San Gabriel Valley.

Pasadena is located at 34°9′22″N 118°7′55″W / 34.15611°N 118.13194°W / 34.15611; -118.13194 (34.156098, -118.131808). The elevation is 864 feet (263 m) above sea level. The greater Pasadena area is bounded by the Raymond Fault line, the San Rafael Hills, and the San Gabriel Mountains.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 60.0 km² (23.2 mi²). 59.8 km² (23.1 mi²) of it is land and 0.2 km² (0.1 mi²) of it (0.30%) is water.

Pasadena is 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. It is bordered by 11 communities—Highland Park, Eagle Rock, South Pasadena, San Marino, Temple City, Lamanda Park, San Gabriel, Arcadia, Sierra Madre, La Cañada Flintridge, and Altadena. The communities of Eagle Rock, Highland Park and Garvanza are incorporated within the city of Los Angeles and Altadena is an unincorporated part of Los Angeles County.

As of the census of 2000, there were 133,936 people, 51,844 households, and 29,862 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,238.7/km² (5,798.7/mi²). There were 54,132 housing units at an average density of 904.8/km² (2,343.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 53.36% White, 14.42% African American, 0.71% Native American, 10.00% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 16.01% from other races, and 5.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 33.40% of the population.

There were 51,844 households out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.4% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.30.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $61,269, and the median income for a family was $73,143. Males had a median income of $41,120 and $36,435 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,186. About 11.6% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.3% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over.

In the state legislature Pasadena is located in the 21st Senate District, represented by Democrat Jack Scott, and in the 44th Assembly District, represented by Democratic Anthony J. Portantino. Federally, Pasadena is located in California's 29th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +12 and is represented by Democrat Adam Schiff. Though Pasadena has consistently leaned liberal in state politics, in national politics it was a stronghold for moderate Republicans until the 1990s, and was represented in Congress by a Republicans from 1945 to 2001.

The original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation (part of the Shoshone language group) that occupied the Los Angeles Basin. Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. They lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges. For food, they lived on a diet of acorn meal, seeds and herbs, venison, and other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail, also known as the Gabrielino Trail, that goes along the west side of the Rose Bowl and up the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains. That trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is also still in use up what is now called Salvia Canyon. When the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.

Pasadena is a part of the original Spanish land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena, Altadena and South Pasadena.

Prior to the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Spanish owners was Manuel Garfias who was allowed to retain title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area, Dr. Benjamin Eaton, and Dr. S. Griffin. Much of the property was purchased by the honorable Benjamin Wilson who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians, was also owner of the Rancho Jurupa (Riverside, California) and went on to become the first Anglo mayor of Los Angeles. He is the grandfather of WWII General George S. Patton, Jr. and would have Mount Wilson named for him.

In 1873 Wilson was visited by one Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana who was looking for a place in the country that could offer better climate to his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments. Berry was an asthmatic and claimed that he had his best three nights sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape that Wilson grew. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association for which he sold stock. The newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874 they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres (8 km²) of then useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena.

The mail came to the Indiana Colony via Los Angeles so marked. In an attempt to obtain their own Post Office, the Colony needed to change the name to something the Postmaster General would consider more fitting. The town fathers put three names up to a vote. The first was Indianola. The second was Granada, in keeping with the area's Spanish heritage. The third was proposed by Dr. Thomas Elliott, who had contacted an Indian missionary friend in Michigan who had worked with the Minnesota Chippewa Indians. He submitted four names for translation: "Crown of the Valley," "Key of the Valley," "Valley of the Valley," and "Hill of the Valley." The names came back starting with "Weo-quan pa-sa-de-na," "Hat of the Valley." All the names ended in "pa-sa-de-na (of the valley)". The name was put to a vote, and due to its euphonious nature, it was accepted as Pasadena. Pasadena was incorporated, the second incorporated municipality of Los Angeles County after Los Angeles, in March 1886. In 1892, John H. Burnett of Galveston, Texas had visited Pasadena and when returned to his home near Houston, Texas he plotted a town along two bayous and named it Pasadena, Texas after the California city for its lush vegetation.

The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, and Pasadena eventually became a stop on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners. The first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond (1886) atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. The original Mansard Victorian 200 room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895 and was not rebuilt until 1903. It was razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development. The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934.

Two hotel structures have survived, the Green Hotel (a co-op since 1926) and the Vista Del Arroyo (now used as a Federal courthouse).

The Hotel Green started construction on South Raymond Avenue at Kansas Street in 1887 by Mr. Webster who was unable to finish it. Colonel George Gill Green, a wealthy patent medicine distributor from New Jersey, finished the six story edifice in 1888. In 1898, he finished construction on a second edifice on the other side of Raymond and connected the two buildings with a bridge and a tunnel. The patrons arrived by train at the adjacent station. In 1902, the hotel was extended to the P.G. Wooster building at the corner of Fair Oaks Avenue and Green Street. In 1924, the hotel became a private residence. The annex was razed to its first story and sold, today known as Stat's Floral Supply. In 1970, the two wings of the hotel were partitioned creating two separate buildings. The 1898 section remained the private residence now called the Castle Green. The 1902 portion was taken over by the government's HUD program for senior residents and disabled persons, and is called the Green Hotel. In 1929, Kansas Street was widened and renamed Green Street.

The Vista Del Arroyo Hotel on Grand Avenue, commandeered by the Navy as a hospital during World War II, now houses the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

Pasadena is the eastern terminus of the Los Angeles Metro Gold Line light rail, which originates at Union Station in Los Angeles. There are currently 6 Gold Line stations in Pasadena: Fillmore Station, Del Mar Station in Old Pasadena, Memorial Park Station in Old Pasadena, Lake Station in Downtown, Allen Station and Sierra Madre Villa Station. Plans are under consideration to extend the Gold Line east through several additional foothill communities of the San Gabriel Valley.

Pasadena is also served by various bus services. Pasadena ARTS exclusively serves the city while Los Angeles metro area bus services Foothill Transit, LADOT, Metro Local and Metro Rapid also serve Pasadena.

Bob Hope Airport (also known as Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport) in nearby Burbank serves as the regional airport for Pasadena. The airport is owned and operated by the Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority, which is controlled by the governments of the three cities in its name. Since most destinations from Bob Hope Airport are within the western United States, Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles and LA/Ontario International Airport in Ontario are also important airports less than an hour from Pasadena.

Four freeways run through Pasadena and Pasadena is a control city for all of them. The most important is the Foothill Freeway (I-210) which enters the northwestern portion of the city from La Cañada Flintridge. The Foothill Freeway initially runs due south, passing the Rose Bowl before its junction with the Ventura Freeway. At this interchange, the Foothill Freeway shifts its alignment and direction, becoming an east-west freeway, exiting the city on its eastern boundary before entering Arcadia. The Foothill Freeway connects Pasadena with San Fernando (westbound) and San Bernardino (eastbound).

The Ventura Freeway (SR 134) starts at the junction of the Foothill Freeway (I-210) at the edge of downtown Pasadena and travels westward. This freeway is the main connector to Bob Hope Airport and the San Fernando Valley.

A spur of the controversial Long Beach Freeway (SR 710 in Pasadena) is also located in Pasadena. The Long Beach Freeway was intended to connect Long Beach to Pasadena but a gap, known as the South Pasadena Gap, between Alhambra and Pasadena has not been completed due to legal battles involving the city of South Pasadena. The spur starts at the junction of the Ventura Freeway and Foothill Freeway and travels south along the eastern edge of Old Pasadena with two exits for Colorado Boulevard and Del Mar Boulevard before ending at an at-grade intersection with California Boulevard. Currently, Caltrans is researching the possibility of using advanced tunneling technologies to build the Long Beach Freeway under South Pasadena without disturbing the residential neighborhoods on the surface. This would create twin 4.5-mile-long tunnels, which would be the longest in the United States.

The Pasadena Freeway (SR 110) is the first freeway in California, connecting Los Angeles with Pasadena alongside the Arroyo Seco and is the primary access to Downtown Los Angeles. The freeway enters the southern part of the city from South Pasadena. Only one exit is actually inside city limits, the southbound exit connecting to State Street with access to Fair Oaks Avenue. At Glenarm Street, the freeway ends at the six- and four-lane Arroyo Parkway continues northward to Old Pasadena.

Three state highways enter the city of Pasadena. Arroyo Parkyway (SR 110), maintained by the city of Pasadena, runs from the termination of the Pasadena Freeway at Glenarm Street to Colorado Boulevard in Old Town Pasadena. While Arroyo Parkway continues north two more blocks, SR 110 ends at Colorado Boulevard.

Rosemead Boulevard (SR 19) is a state highway on the eastern edge of Pasadena and unincorporated Pasadena from Huntington Drive to Foothill Boulevard.

An obscure portion of the Angeles Crest Highway (SR 2) in the San Gabriel Mountains cuts through Pasadena near the Angeles Crest Ranger Station. This 2-mile (3.2 km) stretch of highway in the Angeles National Forest is north of La Cañada Flintridge and west of Mount Wilson and is approximately 3,000 feet (910 m) in elevation.

Historic U.S. Route 66 used to run through Pasadena until it was deleted in 1964. The historic highway entered Pasadena from the east on Colorado Boulevard and then jogged south on Arroyo Parkway before becoming part of the Pasadena Freeway (SR 110).

The intersection of Fair Oaks Avenue and Colorado Boulevard in Old Pasadena is the zero-zero, east-west, north-south postal division of Pasadena.

The Pasadena Symphony, founded in 1928, offers several concerts a year at the Pasadena Civic Center and the Pasadena Pops plays at nearby Descanso Gardens. The Civic Center also holds a few traveling Broadway shows each year. The Pasadena Playhouse presents seven shows a season, each show running six to eight weeks. The Furious Theatre Company is one of several small theatre companies in Pasadena. They are currently housed in the Carrie Hamilton Theatre adjacent to the Pasadena Playhouse. Boston Court Performing Arts Complex, opened in 2003, is near Lake and Colorado. Its resident theatre company, the award-winning Theatre at Boston Court presents four productions a year. Zebulon Projects presents numerous music concerts each year, ranging from classical to jazz. The Friends of the Levitt organization presents a free summer concert series in Memorial Park, with the 2008 summer season marking its sixth year.

Beckman Auditorium and other venues on the Caltech campus present a wide range of performing arts, lectures, films, classes and entertainment events, mainly during the academic year.

The California Philharmonic performs two series in Pasadena, Cal Phil at the Ambassador Auditorium from November through April, and Cal Phil Music Martinis & the Maestro in the Romanesque Room at the Green Hotel from January to May. They also perform Cal Phil Festival on the Green at nearby Los Angeles County Arboretum & Botanic Garden in Arcadia from July to September, and from July to August Cal Phil at Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles. In conjunction with The Old Mill Foundation, they perform a summer chamber concert series Cal Phil at the Mill in San Marino.

For more than ten years, twice annually Pasadena's cultural institutions have opened their doors for free during ArtNight Pasadena , offering the public a rich sampling of quality art, artifacts and music within the city. This has evolved into the yearly PasadenART Weekend , a three day citywide event which, as of 2007, encompasses ArtNight, ArtWalk, ArtHeritage, ArtMarket, and ArtPerformance, a vibrant outdoor music event showcasing emerging and nationally recognized talent. Free concerts take place on multiple stages throughout Old Pasadena.

In 2007, the native Pasadena band Ozma reunited and produced the album "Pasadena" in tribute to the city. The album photos and artwork were shot at the Colorado Street Bridge.

A number of artists of national repute, such as Guy Rose, Alson S. Clark, Marion Wachtel and Ernest A. Batchelder, made Pasadena their home in the early twentieth century. The formation of the California Art Club, Pasadena Arts Institute and the Pasadena Society of Artists heralded the city's emergence as a regional center for the visual arts.

The Norton Simon Museum contains over 2000 years of art from the Western world and Asia. The Pacific Asia Museum, with its tranquil garden in the center, features art from the many countries of Asia. The nearby Pasadena Museum of California Art hosts many temporary exhibits from Californian artists. The Gamble House, a National Historic Landmark, is a masterpiece of the Arts and Crafts Movement open for tours. The Huntington Library and its botanical garden are adjacent to Pasadena in the city of San Marino.

In 2002 David Ebershoff published the long novel, Pasadena. The novel won praise for its accurate recreation of Pasadena before World War II.

Pasadena has been home to a number of notable radio stations. In 1967 radio iconoclasts Tom and Raechel Donahue took over an aging studio in the basement of the Pasadena Presbyterian Church and introduced Los Angeles to FM freeform radio. Broadcasting under the KPPC-FM call sign at 106.7 FM it quickly became the voice of the counterculture and provided the soundtrack to LA’s hippie era. Early on-air personalities included Michael McKean, David Lander, Harry Shearer and Dr. Demento. The staff was fired en masse in 1971 and the station lost its distinctive personality.

By 1976 KPPC had changed owners, station managers and its format and would reemerge on the radio dial as KROQ 106.7. Broadcasting from cramped studios on Los Robles Ave in central Pasadena, it wasn’t long before KROQ would become one of the most influential radio stations in the United States. Soon after being purchased by Infinity Broadcasting in 1986, KROQ was moved part and parcel to new studios in nearby Burbank, and eventually ending up in Los Angeles proper.

Today the primary radio station in Pasadena goes by the call sign KPCC located at 89.3 FM. Broadcasting from the Pasadena City College campus, this public radio station carries many of the best shows from National Public Radio but maintains a fierce independent streak, committing a large chunk of air time to presenting local and state news. Accordingly, the station has received numerous awards for journalistic excellence and continues to be an important part of the city’s heritage.

Pasadena's largest newspaper is the Pasadena Star-News. The alternative Pasadena Weekly is published by Southland Publishing.

The California Institute of Technology is in the southern-central area of Pasadena, with Pasadena City College located just to the northeast. Fuller Theological Seminary, one of the largest multidenominational seminaries in the world, sits just east of downtown Pasadena. The California School of Culinary Arts is located on Green Street and Madison. The school offers the Le Cordon Bleu accreditation and has five campuses around Pasadena. Pacific Oaks College is located next to Pasadena's National Historic Landmark — The Gamble House. The Art Center College of Design is in the San Rafael Hills overlooking the Rose Bowl, and ranks as one of the top five art schools in the United States and one of the top 10 art schools worldwide; it is particularly known for its design programs. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (managed for NASA by Caltech) is in Pasadena. Ambassador College was opened in the western part of the city just east and south of the route of the Rose Parade. The Pasadena campus of Ambassador was consolidated with its sister campus in Big Sandy, Texas in 1990. The campus is now home to Maranatha High School.

The Pasadena Unified School District encompasses Pasadena, Altadena and Sierra Madre. The private Westridge School for college-bound girls is located on South Orange Grove Boulevard.

The Polytechnic School is a private K-12 institution, adjacent to Caltech's campus.

Old Pasadena is the revitalized old downtown that spans 3 city blocks and provides both locals and tourists a genuinely urban mix for living, shopping, dining, and entertainment. It boasts upscale retail shops like Diesel, J Crew, Guess, Kenneth Cole, Juicy Coiture, and even a Tiffany's! Just to name a few. A wide variety of restaurants, nightclubs, posh outdoor cafés, pubs, and comedy clubs keep this vibrant part of the city alive seven days a week. Locals refer to it as "Old Town".

Paseo Colorado is an upscale shopping mall designed to be a modern urban village. It's an open-air mall that covers three city blocks and includes upscale shops like Tommy Bahama, Coach, BCBG Max Azria, Maxstudio, Sephora, and Lucky Brand. Restaurants include an Islands, PF Changs, Yard House, Tokyo Wako, and Porte Alegre. Paseo Colorado is anchored on the west end by upscale grocery store Gelson's and on the east end by Macy's. Pacific movie theaters center's the middle portion of the mall on the upper level along with 400 loft-style condominiums called Terrace Apartment Homes.

The Rose Bowl Flea Market is a large swap meet that involves thousands of dealers and tens of thousands of visitors in and around the grounds of the Rose Bowl. The merchandise on display ranges from old world antiques to California pottery to vintage clothing. The flea market has been held every second Sunday of the month, rain or shine, since 1967.

A shopping district is located in the South Lake Avenue neighborhood. On Lake Avenue is a Macy's department store and Furniture Gallery. A California historical landmark, the building (formerly Bullock's department store) was constructed in the mid 1940's and recently underwent a major renovation to preserve its unique and historic character.

The Rose Bowl, a National Historic Landmark, is host of the oldest and most famous college football postseason bowl game, the Tournament of Roses Rose Bowl Game, every New Year's Day. It is the home field for the UCLA Bruins football team and has hosted five Super Bowls. Important soccer matches include the 1984 Summer Olympics, the final of the FIFA World Cup 1994 hosted in USA, and the final in FIFA Women's World Cup 1999.

The Rose Bowl stadium was the home ground for the Los Angeles Galaxy of Major League Soccer from the team's inception in 1996 until it moved into the soccer-specific Home Depot Center in 2003; the venue additionally hosted the 1998 MLS Cup.

For some time, Los Angeles has been seeking another National Football League team to replace the Rams and the Raiders, both of whom played in Los Angeles from 1946-1994 and 1982-1994 respectively. In November, 2006, a voter initiative to encourage a deal between the Rose Bowl and the NFL failed at the polls, effectively ruling out a return of the NFL to Pasadena.

The Rose Bowl Aquatics Center is an aquatics facility located adjacent to the Rose Bowl Stadium. The pools hosted the final practices of the 2000 US Olympic swimming and diving team. In 2008, the facility held the US National Diving Championships.

Rose Bowl Tennis is Pasadena's popular tennis facility located just to the south of the Rose Bowl football stadium.

The City of Pasadena planned to host the inaugural Pasadena Marathon on November 16, 2008. However, the event was canceled because of smoke and ash from the Sayre Fire. As of December 8, 2008, the Pasadena Marathon was rescheduled for March 22, 2009.

By 1895, the festivities had become larger than the Valley Hunt Club could manage, and the Tournament of Roses Association was then formed to take charge of the festival. In 1902, it was decided that a football game would be added to the day's events. The game, now known as the Rose Bowl, would become the first post-season college football game ever. The first game was between Stanford University and the University of Michigan. After suffering a tremendous financial loss, the Tournament of Roses Association decided to hold Roman chariot races in lieu of football games. However, in 1916, football returned. When it became clear that the stands in Tournament Park were too small to facilitate the crowd, the Tournament's President, William Leishman, proposed that a stadium be built to house the game. The Rose Bowl, designed by noted southern California architect Myron Hunt, was completed in 1923. The Rose Bowl has since been selling out to crowds since 1947. In 1998, the Rose Bowl celebrated its 52nd anniversary and became the longest running tradition of its kind.

The Rose Parade, as it is familiarly known, still features elaborate floats. According to the organizers, "Every inch of every float must be covered with flowers or other natural materials, such as leaves, seeds or bark. Volunteer workers swarm over the floats in the days after Christmas, their hands and clothes covered with glue and petals. The most delicate flowers are placed in individual vials of water, which are set into the float one by one." Over the two plus hours that the parade occurs, floats and participants travel over five miles (8 km) of terrain and pass by over one million viewers who generally camp out over New Year's Eve to have prime viewing spots along the parade route.

The Rose Parade is satirized by the popular Doo Dah Parade, an annual January event in Pasadena.

Not all of the vast homes along Orange Grove belonged to the eastern titans of industry. As was typical of the early 20th century, many of the wealthy were doctors, politicians and retired military officers, with the odd Right Reverend sprinkled in. Some of the other notable personalities who lived in this area include notorious occultist Aleister Crowley and brilliant, but troubled, rocket scientist John Whiteside Parsons. In fact Parsons died in an explosion while working in his home laboratory just off of Orange Grove Boulevard in 1952.

Today most of the old estates are gone, replaced by 1960’s era apartments and condominiums. Though far less regal than the vast homes they replaced, these apartment units maintain verdant and meticulously trimmed grounds that still exude a sense of wealth and command high property values.

Pasadena has a population of naturalized parrots. The city's website identifies one, a Red-crowned amazon parrot, but according to the Parrot Project of Los Angeles , the parrots fall into as many as five different groups. There is a cycle of regular public outcry about the noise and the sheer oddity of the birds' presence, but most Pasadenans seem to have come to accept the birds as part of the city's life. They can be seen year-round, but are especially noticeable in the winter. The birds are definitely gregarious, and the amount of disturbance their chatter creates is related to the time of day they may choose to chatter.

Theories and myths abound on how these parrots came to claim Pasadena and surrounding towns as their home. A widely accepted story by longtime residents of the area is that they were part of the stock from the large pet emporium at Simpson's Garden Town on East Colorado Blvd. (now the location of OSH Hardware) in the Lamanda Park area. The nursery was burned down in 1959, and the parrots were thereby released to forage in the lush Pasadena area. It is also possible that some parrots moved northward from their normal range in central and northern Mexico as human habitation in the Pasadena area created artificial habitat in which the parrots could survive. Among their favorite foods are the berry kernels of the cedar trees that grow in great abundance around Pasadena.

Pasadena does not allow overnight parking, through the expedient of banning parking on city streets between 2:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m., although overnight permits are available. The city also restricts parking in designated Transit Oriented Districts (TODs), such as the Pasadena Playhouse district. Residents living in TODs who have only one parking space (as mandated by Pasadena's Zoning Code 17.50.340) may not park a second car on the street. Permits for a city lot are available for $60 a month.

The City Hall building recently underwent renovation seismically retrofitted. It was closed in July 2004 due to safety concerns and construction began in March 2005. The retrofit was completed in Summer 2007.

Located on spacious tree-lined Green Street, this building was designed to be the southern anchor of Pasadena’s grand civic plaza. The elegant Central Library lies three blocks due north with City Hall tower in between. The intended visual effect is somewhat lost today as the open air mall Paseo Colorado was built along the north side of Green St. obscuring one’s view of the auditorium’s sister buildings.

This building is where the TV show "American Idol" shoots their "Hollywood Week" performances.

The main auditorium is large and plush. In fact it was home to the Annual Emmy Awards ceremony for nearly 25 years, from 1977 to 2001.

After a performance at Blair High School, the Mayor officially declared September 22 Jessye Norman Day.

Pasadena has a friendship agreement with Kasukabe, Japan. Pasadena's Junior Chamber of Commerce does an exchange each summer alternating every year with Kasukabe citizens coming to Pasadena one summer and Pasadena residents going to Kasukabe the next summer.

The first Busch Gardens was in Pasadena. It opened in 1905 and closed to the public in 1937. During its time, it was one of the major tourist attractions in the Los Angeles area and offered many unique gardens and fairyland landscapes and structures. It was used as a location for several Hollywood motion pictures. After 1937 and the Second World War, much of the land was developed for homes. Close inspection of the area can still reveal many of the original river rock walls and structures.

The Miss Teen USA 2007 pageant was held in Pasadena, California on August 24, 2007. It was the first time the city hosted the pageant. The preliminaries and final competition were held in the Pasadena Civic Auditorium.

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Source : Wikipedia