Cases

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Posted by bender 04/13/2009 @ 21:11

Tags : cases, components, hardware, technology

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Now 3352 cases of new flu in US, CDC says - Reuters
CHICAGO, May 13 (Reuters) - The United States now has 3352 confirmed cases of the new H1N1 influenza across 45 states and Washington, DC, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported on Wednesday. The outbreak of swine flu has been mostly...
5 more Santa Clara County swine flu cases identified - San Jose Mercury News
By Sandra Gonzales Public health officials Tuesday announced five more swine-flu-related cases in Santa Clara County. Two of the cases were identified as probable and three were confirmed to be swine flu or H1N1. The latest figures bring to 29 the...
Demjanjuk's is 1 of 3 active cases - USA Today
Schrimm said Germany is on the right track to pursue such cases from 60 years ago. "The criticism that not enough was done was certainly once true, but not anymore," he said. "I doubt any country anywhere has done so much to uncover and make amends for...
New swine flu cases reported in Johnson, Wyandotte counties - Kansas City Star
Other confirmed cases are two in Dickinson County, nine in Johnson County, one in Ottawa County, one in Sedgwick County, nine in Wyandotte County and one in Geary County. The state health department has established a phone line for concerned Kansans to...
US has more than 2500 H1N1 flu cases - Reuters
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The United States has 2532 confirmed cases of the new H1N1 swine influenza in 44 states, and three deaths, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said on Sunday. On Saturday, the CDC reported 2254 confirmed cases,...
3 more confirmed swine flu cases in NJ - Philadelphia Inquirer
AP TRENTON, NJ - Health officials say three more confirmed cases of swine flu have been identified in New Jersey. The patients were identified Wednesday as a 34-year-old Camden County woman and two Burlington County siblings , a 13-year-old girl and a...
Florida swine flu cases increase by 2 to 58 - MiamiHerald.com
Officials have confirmed two more cases of swine flu in Florida, bringing the total number of cases in the state to 58. The Florida Department of Health on Wednesday said the new confirmed cases are a 14-year-old female from Broward County and a...
Bank robbed in Newton; possible link seen to Needham, Wellesley cases - Boston Globe
By Globe Staff A bank robbery this afternoon in Newton may be linked to robberies in March and April in Needham and Wellesley, the FBI said. "It seems to be similar. However, it's too early to say with certainty" that there's a link, FBI spokeswoman...
New Flu Cases Confirmed in China, Hong Kong - Wall Street Journal
By PETER STEIN HONG KONG -- Health authorities in China and Hong Kong confirmed two new cases of the A/H1N1 virus, both in people arriving on flights from North America. China's Health Ministry said on its Web site that lab results showed a 19-year-old...
Two more cases of swine flu confirmed in county - Buffalo News
By Henry L. Davis Erie County confirmed two more swine flu cases today, both of them children with mild illness. One case involves a student at Transit Middle School in the Williamsville Central School District, and the other a Willow Ridge Elementary...

Lists of United States Supreme Court cases

Seal of the United States Supreme Court

This is an index of chronological lists of cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States.

These lists are sorted chronologically by Chief Justice and include all notable cases decided by the court. There are articles for almost all cases.

There is also a list with notable cases from the Court's entire history (large article).

These lists contain detailed tables about each term, including which Justices filed the Court's opinion, dissenting and concurring opinions in each case, and information about Justices joining opinions. The tables conclude with term statistics and concordance data.

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Cases Computer Simulations

Cases Computer Simulations (known as C.C.S.) was a software company which specialised in strategy and war games for the ZX Spectrum, a number of which were ported to the BBC Micro and Acorn Electron.

Their cassette inlays often featured quite stylised pictures and they were renowned for producing a succession of high quality games. Many of their later releases were written by well-known wargamer Ken Wright and received excellent reviews in the mid 1980's. They were based at 14, Langton Way, London. SE3 7TL.

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Catholic sex abuse cases

Allegations of sexual abuse of children have been made against public school teachers and a variety of religious groups including but not exclusively Roman Catholic priests, monks, and nuns. Several major lawsuits were filed in 2001 alleging that priests had sexually abused minors. Some priests resigned, others were defrocked or jailed, and financial settlements totaling in the hundreds of millions of dollars were made with many victims. The cases became ongoing national news in the U.S. with the accusations made against Paul Shanley and John Geoghan, and publicized by the Boston Globe in 2002. Some commentators, such as journalist Jon Dougherty, have argued that media coverage of the issue has been excessive, given that the same problems plague other institutions, such as the US public school system, with much greater frequency.

That same year, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops adopted a "zero-tolerance" policy for accused offenders. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops commissioned a comprehensive study that found that four percent of all priests who had served in the U.S. from 1950 to 2002 faced some sort of sexual accusation. According to this report, common actions included touching adolescent males under their clothes and removal of clothing, but more serious acts were committed in many cases. The Church was widely criticized when it was discovered that some bishops knew about allegations and reassigned the accused instead of removing them, although school administrators engaged in a similar manner when dealing with accused teachers, as have the Scouts and Jehovah's Witnesses. Some bishops and psychiatrists noted that the prevailing psychology of the times suggested that people could be cured of such behavior through counseling. Many of the abusive priests had received counseling before being reassigned.

In 1962 Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, the Secretary of the Holy Office, issued an instruction dealing with solicitation by priests in the confessional, Crimen sollicitationis (Instruction on the Manner of Proceeding in Cases of Solicitation). The document dealt with any priest who "tempts a penitent... in the act of sacramental confession... towards impure or obscene matters." It directed that investigation of allegations of solicitation in the confessional and the trials of accused priests be conducted in secrecy.

The 69-page document was discovered in the Vatican's archives, leading to widespread media coverage of its contents. Lawyers for litigants who had been abused as children claimed that the document demonstrated a systematic conspiracy to conceal misconduct. The Church responded that the document was not only widely misinterpreted, but had been superseded by more recent guidelines in the 1960s and 1970s, and especially the 1983 Code of Canon Law.

Although attorney Marci Hamilton says that the Roman Catholic Church is one of the most vocal adversaries to legislative reform that would protect children, some commentators, such as journalist Jon Dougherty, have argued that media coverage of the issue has been excessive, given that the same problems plague other institutions such as the U.S. public school system with much greater frequency.

Pope John Paul II later stated that "there is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young". The Church instituted reforms to prevent future abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees and, because a significant majority of victims were teenage boys, disallowing ordination of men with "deep–seated homosexual tendencies". They now require dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an investigation and remove the accused from duty. In 2008, the Church asserted that the scandal was a very serious problem and estimated that it was "probably caused by 'no more than 1 per cent' (or 5,000) of the over 500,000 Roman Catholic priests worldwide.

During a recent visit to the United States Pope Benedict admitted that he is "deeply ashamed" of the clergy sex abuse scandal that has devastated the American church. Benedict pledged that pedophiles would not be priests in the Roman Catholic Church.

The John Jay Report commissioned by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops was based on surveys completed by the Roman Catholic dioceses in the United States. The surveys provided information from diocesan files on each priest accused of sexual abuse and on each of the priest's victims. That information was filtered, so that the research team did not have access to the names of the accused priests or the dioceses where they worked. The report presented aggregate findings. The dioceses were encouraged to issue reports of their own based on the surveys that they had completed. The Report found accusations against 4,392 priests in the USA, about 4% of all priests.

The Ferns Inquiry (2005) was an official Irish government inquiry into the allegations of clerical sexual abuse in the Irish Roman Catholic Diocese of Ferns. The Inquiry recorded its revulsion at the extent, severity and duration of the child sexual abuse perpetrated on children by priests acting under the aegis of the Diocese of Ferns. The investigation was established in the wake of the broadcast of a BBC Television documentary "Suing the Pope", which highlighted the case of Seán Fortune, one of the most notorious clerical sexual offenders. The film followed Colm O'Gorman as he investigated the story of how Fortune was allowed to abuse him and countless other teenage boys. O'Gorman, through One in Four, the organisation he founded to support women and men who have experienced sexual violence, successfully campaigned for the Ferns Inquiry.

One of the most well-known cases of sex abuse in Ireland involved Brendan Smyth, who is reported to have raped and sexually abused hundreds of boys between 1945 and 1989. The investigation of the Smyth case was obstructed by the Norbertine Order.This was also seen in other cases, such as that of Jim Grennan, a parish priest, who abused children as they prepared for First Communion, and Sean Fortune, who committed suicide before his trial for the rape of children. The abuse by Grennan and others in the Diocese of Ferns in south-east Ireland led to the resignation of the local bishop, Brendan Comiskey.

In Canada the Mount Cashel Orphanage sex abuse cases in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and the Duplessis Orphans in the province of Quebec were of great public concern.

Some bishops have been heavily criticized for moving offending priests from parish to parish, where they still had personal contact with children, rather than seeking to have them permanently removed from the priesthood. Instead of reporting the incidents to police, many dioceses simply submitted the offending priests for psychological treatment and assessment. The priests resumed their previous duties with children only when the bishop was advised by the treating psychologists or psychiatrists that it was safe for them to resume their duties.

In response to questions, defenders of the Church's actions have suggested that in re-assigning priests after treatment, Bishops were acting on the best medical advice then available, a policy also followed by the US public school system when dealing with accused teachers. Critics have questioned whether bishops are necessarily able to form accurate judgments on a priest's recovery.

From a legal perspective, the most serious offense aside from the incidents of child sexual abuse themselves was the active institutional cover-up by the Church's bishops, who failed to report accusations to the police. It should be kept in mind, however, that those who claim to have informed church leaders (such as parents of those subjected to abuse) could themselves have gone to the police, but chose not to do so, which indicates that if there was any "cover-up", there was willing and deliberate participation on both sides.

In response to the failure to report abuse to the police, lawmakers have changed the law to make reporting of abuse to police compulsory. An example of this can be found in Massachusetts, USA.

Reviewers of the Smyth case differ as to whether it was a deliberate plot to conceal his behaviour, incompetence by his superiors at Kilnacrott Abbey, an institution presuming that what happened to its members was its own business, a failure to grasp the human and legal consequences, or some combination of factors. Cardinal Daly, both as Bishop of Down and Connor, a diocese where some of the abuse took place, and later as Cardinal Archbishop of Armagh, is recorded as having been privately scathing at the Norbertine "incompetence".

William McMurry, a Louisville, Kentucky lawyer, filed suit against the Vatican in June 2004 on behalf of three men alleging abuse as far back as 1928, accusing Church leaders of organizing a cover-up of cases of sexual abuse of children. In November, 2008, the United States Court of Appeals in Cincinnati denied the Vatican's claim of soverign immunity and allowed the case to proceed. The Vatican initially stated that it did not plan to appeal the ruling.

Some have alleged that Church members paid off victims of child abuse, either in settlement of compensation claims, or in order to prevent them reporting to the police. In the mid-1990s, Archbishop (later Cardinal) Connell of Dublin lent money to a priest, Ivan Payne, who had abused altar boy Andrew Madden; this money was used to pay compensation to Madden and to prevent him from reporting the abuse to the police. Connell later claimed never to have paid money to a victim, insisting that he had simply lent money to a priest who independently used the money to pay off his victim.

Roman Catholics spent $615 million dollars on sex abuse cases in 2007.

Clergy themselves have suggested their seminary training offered little to prepare them for a lifetime of celibate sexuality. A report submitted to the Synod of Bishops in Rome in 1971, called The Role of the Church in the Causation, Treatment and Prevention of the Crisis in the Priesthood by Dr. Conrad Baars, a Roman Catholic psychiatrist, and based on a study of 1500 priests, suggested that some clergy had "psychosexual" problems. Though the report suggested that immediate corrective action was needed, making ten recommendations, and one of those most active in the Synod was Cardinal Wojtyła, who on October 16, 1978 was elected Pope John Paul II, no implementation of the report's detailed recommendations followed.

Rome's Congregation for Catholic Education issued an official document, the Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders (2005). The document has attracted criticism based on an interpretation that the document implies that homosexuality leads to pedophilia.

Ultra-conservative Roman Catholics have made the charge that the Second Vatican Council itself (1962–1965) fostered a climate that encouraged priests to abuse children. The council essentially directed an opening of the doors to meet the world. This was considered an appropriate way of going forth and spreading Roman Catholicism. However traditional Roman Catholics believe that this led to a conversion of Roman Catholics to secularism rather than vice versa. In the January 27, 2003 edition of Time magazine, actor and traditional Roman Catholic Mel Gibson charged that "...Vatican II corrupted the institution of the church. Look at the main fruits: dwindling numbers and pedophilia." However, abuse by priests was occurring long before the start of Vatican II and that many of the Roman Catholic sex abuse cases did not, strictly speaking, involve pedophilia. For instance the apostolic constitution Sacramentum Poenitentiae which established general notice of the problem of sexual abuse among the clergy was published by Pope Benedict XIV in 1741.

Cardinal Theodore E. McCarrick, retired Archbishop of Washington, blamed the declining morals of the 1960s as a cause of the high number of sexually abusive priests. However it must be realized that the increased reporting of abuse in child-care institutions during this time was concomitant with rising police interest, investigation and prosecution of such crimes. As such it is not certain that a sudden "crisis of abuse" ever existed, instead the dramatic increase in reported abuse cases may simply have heralded the end of a long-term endemic problem found throughout a number of institutions, both secular and religious, prior to the introduction of quality control measures specifically aimed at preventing such abuses from occurring.

Philip Jenkins claims that the Roman Catholic Church is being unfairly singled out by a secular media which he claims fails to highlight similar sexual accusations in other religious groups, such as the Anglican Communion, various Protestant churches, and the Jewish and Islamic communities. Jenkins later authored the book The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice in 2003, touching on some of the same issues. Similar experiences are described in e.g. scouting sex abuse cases and Jehovah's Witnesses and child sex abuse.

Catholic clergy are in short supply in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.

Roman Catholic doctrines and this understaffing combine, it has been claimed, to make Roman Catholic clergy extraordinarily valuable. It is alleged that the Roman Catholic hierarchy acted to preserve the number of clergy and ensure that they were still available to supply priestly services, in the face of serious allegations that these priests were unfit for duty.

Others disagree and believe that the Church hierarchy's mishandling of the sex abuse cases merely reflected their prevailing attitude at the time towards any illegal or immoral activity by clergy. Hierarchs usually suppressed any information which could cause scandal or loss of trust in the Church.

It has been said that there is no indication of a higher rate of child-oriented sexual activity among the unmarried Roman Catholic clergy than that of the married clergy of other denominations and of schoolteachers.

Molestation of pre-pubescent children was rare in the Roman Catholic sex abuse cases and opinion is very divided on whether there is any connection between the Roman Catholic institution of celibacy and the incidence of child abuse. Factual analysis is difficult for a number of reasons, including that there are relatively few statistical studies on the issue of sexual abuse among the clergy and that sexual abuse rates among the general population are almost impossible to determine, since not all of the instances are reported.

Supporters of celibacy claim that Roman Catholic priests suffering sexual temptations are not likely to turn immediately to a teenage boy simply because Church discipline does not permit clergy to marry. Supporters of clerical celibacy suggest, then, that there is some other factor at work.

In the Eastern Rites of the Catholic Church, priests are permitted to marry. Because priestly celibacy is a discipline, and not an infallible dogma of the Church, the discipline of celibacy within the Latin Rite may be lifted in the future, although that is currently unlikely. In the Latin Rite now, only a dispensation from the Vatican can allow clergy within the Latin Rite to marry, and such occasions are rare.

Despite these teachings, some critics have charged that specific doctrines or traditional practices in Roman Catholicism contributed to the problem. Roman Catholic teaching affirms that so long as the officiant has been validly ordained, his personal sins have no effect on the validity of the Masses, absolutions, baptisms, and other sacraments he has administered. The doctrine of apostolic succession makes valid ordinations and institutional affiliation the chief consideration in clerical status.

As distinct from abuse by some parish priests, under diocesan control, there have also been sexual abuse cases concerning those in Roman Catholic orders, which often care for the sick or teach school.

In Sydney's St. Mary's Cathedral, Pope Benedict XVI made a historic full apology for child sex abuse by priests and clergymen in Australia, on July 19, 2008. Before a 3,400 congregation, he called for compensation and demanded punishment for those guilty of the "evil": "Here I would like to pause to acknowledge the shame which we have all felt as a result of the sexual abuse of minors by some clergy and religious in this country. I am deeply sorry for the pain and suffering the victims have endured and I assure them that, as their pastor, I too share in their suffering." The Pope added: "Victims should receive compassion and care, and those responsible for these evils must be brought to justice. These misdeeds, which constitute so grave a betrayal of trust, deserve unequivocal condemnation. I ask all of you to support and assist your bishops, and to work together with them in combating this evil. It is an urgent priority to promote a safer and more wholesome environment, especially for young people." On the 21st of July before flying out of Australia Pope Benedict met with a group of four victims of sexual abuse. He met them at St. Mary's Cathedral in Sydney, listened to their stories and celebrated mass with them.

The Pope met two male and two female victims of sex abuse by priests at St. Mary's Cathedral. Broken Rites criticized the meeting as hand-picked: "I'm afraid that what they've done is selected victims who have agreed with what the church's policies are. The pope should have met with Anthony Foster, the father of two girls abused by a priest, who cut short a holiday in Britain to return to Australia in the hope of meeting the pontiff. The New South Wales Premier Morris Iemma hoped "it will be a sign of righting the wrongs of the past and of a better future and better treatment by the church of the victims and their families." The victim's rights advocacy group Broken Rites welcomed the Pope's apology, but remained disappointed the Pope had not made his apology directly to sexual abuse victims.

In 2002, the U.S. church adopted a "zero tolerance" policy for sexual abuse.

By 2008, the U.S. church had trained 5.8 million children to recognize and report abuse. It had run criminal checks on 1.53 million volunteers and employees, 162,700 educators, 51,000 clerics and 4,955 candidates for ordination. It had trained 1.8 million clergy, employees and volunteers in creating a safe environment for children.

While the church in the United States claims to have addressed the issue, others maintain the only change is the church has hardened its defences while allowing abuse to continue. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops convened a meeting in Dallas on June 12, 2002 to address the sex abuse scandal. However a Dallas Morning News article revealed nearly two-thirds of the bishops attending had themselves at one point covered for sexually abusive priests.

A number of books have been written, see List of books portraying paedophilia or sexual abuse of minors, about the abuse suffered from priests and nuns including Andrew Madden in Altar Boy: A Story of Life After Abuse, Carolyn Lehman's Strong at the Heart: How it feels to heal from sexual abuse and the bestselling Kathy's Story by Kathy O'Beirne which details physical and sexual abuse suffered in a Magdalene laundry in Ireland.

The Magdalene laundries caught the public's attention in the late 1990s as revelations of widespread abuse from former inmates gathered momentum and were made the subject an award-winning film called The Magdalene Sisters (2002). In 2006, a documentary called Deliver Us From Evil was made about the sex abuse cases and one priest's confession of abuse.

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List of grammatical cases

This is a list of grammatical cases as they are used by various inflectional languages that have declension.

Note: Most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well.

For meanings of the terms agent, patient, experiencer, and instrument, see thematic relation.

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Computer case

The latest[when?] versions of Apple's iMacs place all of the computer's internal components behind an LCD screen.  Save for the base, the iMac is about 1.25 inches thick.  This miniaturization is achieved using parts designed for notebook computers.[citation needed]

A computer case (also known as a computer chassis, cabinet, tower, box, enclosure, housing or simply case) is the enclosure that contains the main components of a computer. It has also been erroneously called the CPU, for the primary component housed within the case, harking back to the days when other peripherals were housed in their own separate cases.

Cases are usually constructed from steel (often SECC - Steel, Electrogalvanized, Cold-rolled, Coil), aluminium, or plastic, although other materials such as wood, plexiglas, and Lego have also been used in case designs.

Cases can come in many different sizes (known as form factors). The size and shape of a computer case is usually determined by the form factor of the motherboard, since it is the largest component of most computers. Consequently, personal computer form factors typically specify only the internal dimensions and layout of the case. Form factors for rack-mounted and blade servers may include precise external dimensions as well, since these cases must themselves fit in specific enclosures.

For example, a case designed for an ATX motherboard and power supply may take on several external forms, such as a vertical tower (designed to sit on the floor, height > width) or a flat desktop (height < width) or pizza box (height <= 2 inches) (designed to sit on the desk under the computer's monitor). Full-size tower cases are typically larger in volume than desktop cases, with more room for drive bays and expansion slots. Desktop cases—and mini-tower cases designed for the reduced microATX form factor—are popular in business environments where space is at a premium.

Currently, the most popular form factor for desktop computers is ATX, although microATX and small form factors have also become very popular for a variety of uses. Companies like Shuttle Inc. and AOpen have popularized small cases, for which FlexATX is the most common motherboard size. Apple Computer has also produced the Mac Mini computer, which is similar in size to a standard CD-ROM drive.

Tower cases come in mini-tower, midi-tower, and big-tower/full-tower sizes. Full tower cases are typically 30 inches or more in height and intended to stand on the floor. They have anywhere from six to ten externally accessible drive bays, with more bays only internally accessible. The ratio of external to internal bays is shifting, however, as computing technology moves from floppy disks and CD-ROMs to large capacity hard drives, USB flash drives, and network-based solutions. Midtower cases are smaller, about 24" high with two to four external bays. A minitower case will typically have only one or two external bays and stand from 12" to 18" tall.

Computer cases usually include sheet metal enclosures for a power supply unit and drive bays, as well as a rear panel that can accommodate peripheral connectors protruding from the motherboard and expansion slots. Most cases also a power button or switch, a reset button, and LEDs to indicate power status as wll as hard drive and network activity. Some cases include built-in I/O ports (such as USB and headphone ports on the front of the case. Such a case will also include the wires needed to connect these ports, switches and indicators to the motherboard.

Tower cases have either a single side panel which may be removed in order to access the internal components or a large cover that saddles the chassis. Traditionally, most computer cases required screws to hold components and panels in place (i.e. motherboard, PSU, drives, and expansion cards). Recently there is a trend toward "screwless" cases, in which components are held together with snap-in plastic rails, thumbscrews, and other methods that do not require tools; this facilitates quick assembly and modification of computer hardware.

Through the 1990s, most computer cases had simple rectangular shapes, and were often painted beige. Beige box designs are still found on a large number of budget computers assembled from generic components.

Case modding is the artistic styling of computer cases, often to draw attention to the use of advanced or unusual components. Since the early 2000s, some cases have included clear side panels or acrylic windows so that users can look inside while it is operating. Modded cases may also include internal lighting, custom paint, or liquid cooling systems. Some hobbyists build custom cases from raw materials like aluminum, steel, acrylic, or wood.

Prominent after-market case manufacturers include Ahanix, Antec, AOpen, Chieftec, Cooler Master, Ever Case, Foxconn, Gigabyte Technology, HEC Compucase, IXIUM, Lian Li, Lin Chi, CIRCLE, ODYSSEY, ZEBRONICS, NZXT, OrigenAE, Raidmax, Shuttle Inc., SilverStone Technology, Thermaltake, Yue Lin, and Zalman.

Some computer cases include a biased switch (push-button) which connects to the motherboard. When the case is opened, the switch position changes and the system records this change. The system's firmware or BIOS may be configured to report this event the next time it is powered on.

This physical intrusion detection system may help computer owners detect tampering with their computer. However, most such systems are quite simple in construction; a knowledgeable intruder can open the case or modify its contents without triggering the switch.

Antec Fusion V2 home theater PC case with VFD display, volume control and some ports on front.

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Detective fiction

Daguerreotype of Edgar Allan Poe

Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction in which a detective (or detectives), either professional or amateur, investigate a crime, usually murder. Detective fiction is the most popular form of both mystery fiction and hardboiled crime fiction.

Commonly in detective fiction, the investigator has some source of income other than detective work and some undesirable eccentricities or striking characteristics. He or she frequently has a less able assistant (or foil) who acts as an audience surrogate for the explanation of the mystery at the end of the story.

The earliest known example of a detective story was "The Three Apples", one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights). In this tale, a fisherman discovers a heavy locked chest along the Tigris river and he sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, who then has the chest broken open only to find inside it the dead body of a young woman who was cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and find the murdererer within three days, or be executed if he fails his assignment. Suspense is generated through multiple plot twists that occur as the story progesses. This may thus be considered an archetype for detective fiction.

The main difference between Ja'far in "The Three Apples" and later fictional detectives such as Sherlock Holmes and Hercule Poirot, however, is that Ja'far has no actual desire to solve the case. The whodunit mystery is solved by the murderer himself confessing his crime, which in turn leads to another assignment in which Ja'far has to find the culprit who instigated the murder within three days or else be executed. Ja'far again fails to find the culprit before the deadline, but due to his chance discovery of a key item, he eventually manages to solve the case through reasoning, in order to prevent his own execution.

Another strand of detective fiction is the Ming Dynasty Chinese detective fiction such as Bao Gong An (Chinese:包公案) and the 18th century novel Di Gong An (Chinese:狄公案). The latter was translated into English as Dee Goong An (Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee) by Dutch sinologist Robert Van Gulik, who then used the style and characters to write an original Judge Dee series.

The hero of these novels is typically a traditional judge or similar official based on historical personages such as Judge Bao (Bao Qingtian) or Judge Dee (Di Renjie). Although the historical characters may have lived in an earlier period (such as the Song or Tang dynasty) the novels are often set in the later Ming or Manchu period.

Van Gulik chose Di Gong An to translate because it was in his view closer to the Western tradition and more likely to appeal to non-Chinese readers.

One of the earliest examples of detective fiction is Voltaire's Zadig (1748), which features a main character who performs feats of analysis. The Danish crime story The Rector of Veilbye by Steen Steensen Blicher was written in 1829, and the Norwegian crime novel "Mordet på Maskinbygger Rolfsen" ("The Murder of Engine Maker Rolfsen") by Maurits Hansen was published in 1839.

Another early example of a whodunit is a sub-plot in the vast novel Bleak House (1853) by Charles Dickens. The conniving lawyer Tulkinghorn is killed in his office late one night, and the crime is investigated by Inspector Bucket of the Metropolitan police force. Numerous characters appeared on the staircase leading to Tulkinghorn's office that night, some of them in disguise, and Inspector Bucket must penetrate these mysteries to identify the murderer.

Some readers have suggested much earlier prototypes for the whodunnit, most notably the Old Testament story of Susanna and the Elders (Daniel 13; in the Protestant Bible this story is found in the apocrypha); Oedipus Rex, Sophocles' dramatic masterpiece, in which the young Oedipus tries to find out what happened to his murdered father and to his mother; the story of the dog and the horse related in the third chapter of Voltaire's Zadig (1747).

The four original Queens of Crime were Agatha Christie, Dorothy L. Sayers, Ngaio Marsh and Margery Allingham. Apart from Ngaio Marsh (New Zealand) they were all female British writers; perhaps Josephine Tey could be added.

The most popular writer of the Golden Age whodunnit, and one of the most popular writers of all time, was Agatha Christie, who produced a long series of books featuring her detectives Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple, amongst others, and usually including a complex puzzle for the baffled and misdirected reader to try and unravel. Also popular were the stories featuring Dorothy L. Sayers's Lord Peter Wimsey and S. S. Van Dine's Philo Vance.

The 'puzzle' approach was carried even further into ingenious and seemingly impossible plots by John Dickson Carr - also writing as Carter Dickson - who is regarded as the master of the "locked room mystery" and Cecil Street, who also wrote as John Rhode, whose detective Dr. Priestley specialised in elaborate technical devices, while in the US the whodunnit was adopted and extended by Rex Stout and Ellery Queen, among others. The emphasis on formal "rules" during the Golden Age (as codified in 1929 by Ronald Knox) produced a variety of reactions. Most writers were content to follow the rules slavishly, some flouted some or all of the conventions, and some exploited the conventions with genius to produce new and startling results.

In the late 1930s, Raymond Chandler updated the form with his private detective Philip Marlowe, who brought a more intimate voice to the detective than Hammett's distant, third-person viewpoint. His cadenced dialogue and cryptic narrations were musical, evoking the dark alleys and tough thugs, rich women and powerful men about whom he wrote. Several feature and television movies have been made about the Philip Marlowe character. James Hadley Chase wrote a few novels with private eyes as the main hero, including "Blonde's Requiem" (1945), "Lay Her Among the Lilies" (1950), and "Figure It Out for Yourself" (1950). Heroes of these novels are typical private eyes which are very similar to Philip Marlowe.

Ross Macdonald, pseudonym of Kenneth Millar, updated the form again with his detective Lew Archer, while still writing in what is considered the PI's Golden Age of Detective Fiction, begun by Hammett. Archer, like Hammett's fictional heroes, was a camera eye, with hardly any known past. "Turn Archer sideways, and he disappears," one reviewer wrote. Two of Macdonald's strengths were his use of psychology and his beautiful prose, which was full of imagery. Like other 'hardboiled' writers, Macdonald aimed to give an impression of realism in his work through violence, sex and confrontation; this is illusory, however, and any real private eye undergoing a typical fictional investigation would soon be dead or incapacitated. The 1966 movie Harper starring Paul Newman was based on the first Lew Archer story The Moving Target (1949). Newman reprised the role in The Drowning Pool in 1976.

Michael Collins, pseudonym of Dennis Lynds, is generally considered the author who led the form into the Modern Age. His PI, Dan Fortune, was consistently involved in the same sort of David-and-Goliath stories that Hammett, Chandler, and Macdonald wrote, but he took a sociological bent, exploring the meaning of his characters' places in society and the impact society had on people. Full of commentary and clipped prose, his books were more intimate than his predecessors, dramatizing that crime can happen in one's own living room.

The PI novel was a male-dominated field in which female authors seldom found publication until Marcia Muller, Sara Paretsky, and Sue Grafton were finally published in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Each author's detective was brainy, physical, and could hold her own. Their acceptance, then success, caused publishers to seek out other female authors.

The PI novel today is rich in variety. The strongest characteristic that binds them is that the detective now has a past and a life, while solving cases.

Many detective stories have police officers as the main characters. Of course these stories may take a variety of forms, but many authors try to realistically depict the routine activities of a group of police officers who are frequently working on more than one case simultaneously. Some of these stories are whodunits; in others the criminal is well known, and it is a case of getting enough evidence.

There is also a subgenre of historical detectives. See historical whodunnit for an overview.

The first amateur railway detective, Thorpe Hazell, was created by Victor Whitechurch and his stories impressed Ellery Queen and Dorothy L. Sayers.

Another subgenre of detective fiction is the serial killer mystery, which might be thought of as an outcropping of the police procedural. There are early mystery novels in which a police force attempts to contend with the type of criminal known in the 1920s as a homicidal maniac, such as a few of the early novels of Philip Macdonald and Ellery Queen's Cat of Many Tails. However, this sort of story became much more popular after the coining of the phrase "serial killer" in the 1970s and the publication of The Silence of the Lambs in 1988. These stories frequently show the activities of many members of a police force or government agency in their efforts to apprehend a killer who is selecting victims on some obscure basis. They are also often much more violent and suspenseful than other mysteries.

Up to the present, some of the problems inherent in crime fiction have remained unsolved (and possibly also insoluble). Some of them can be dismissed with a shrug: Why bother at all, even if it is obvious to everyone that an ordinary person is not likely to keep stumbling across corpses? After all, this is just part of the game of crime fiction. Still the fact that an old spinster like Miss Marple meets with an estimated two bodies per year does raise a few doubts as to the plausibility of the Miss Marple mysteries.

De Andrea has described the quiet little village of St. Mary Mead as having "put on a pageant of human depravity rivaled only by that of Sodom and Gomorrah". Similarly, TV heroine Jessica Fletcher is confronted with bodies wherever she goes, but over the years people who have met violent deaths have also piled up in the streets of Cabot Cove, Maine, the cozy little village where she lives. Generally, therefore, it is much more convincing if a policeman, private eye, forensic expert or similar professional is made the hero or heroine of a series of crime novels.

This implausibility is satirized frequently on the TV show Monk, in which the main character, Adrian Monk, is frequently accused of being a "bad luck charm" and a "murder magnet" as the result of the frequency with which otherwise normal people attempt to pull off elaborate schemes for perfect murders when he is in the vicinity. Likewise Kogoro Mori of Detective Conan got that kind of unflattering reputation. Although Mori is actually a private investigator with his own agency, the police has never been intentionally consulting him and he just keeps stumbling from one crime scene to another.

Also, the role and legitimacy of coincidence has frequently been the topic of heated arguments ever since Ronald A. Knox categorically stated that "no accident must ever help the detective" (Commandment No.6).

Technological progress has also rendered many plots implausible and antiquated. For example, the predominance of mobile phones, pagers, and PDAs has significantly altered the previously dangerous situations in which investigators traditionally might have found themselves. Some authors have not succeeded in adapting to the changes brought about by modern technology; others, such as Carl Hiaasen, have.

One tactic that avoids the issue of technology altogether is the historical detective genre. As global interconnectedness makes legitimate suspense more difficult to achieve, several writers -- including Elizabeth Peters, P. C. Doherty, Steven Saylor, and Lindsey Davis -- have eschewed fabricating convoluted plots in order to manufacture tension, instead opting to set their characters in some former period. Such a strategy forces the protagonist to rely on more inventive means of investigation, lacking as they do the scientific tools available to modern detectives.

Several authors have attempted to set forth a sort of list of “Detective Commandments” for prospective authors of the genre.

According to "Twenty rules for writing detective stories," by Van Dine in 1928: "The detective story is a kind of intellectual game. It is more--it is a sporting event. And for the writing of detective stories there are very definite laws--unwritten, perhaps, but nonetheless binding; and every respectable and self-respecting concocter of literary mysteries lives up to them. Herewith, then, is a sort of credo, based partly on the practice of all the great writers of detective stories, and partly on the promptings of the honest author's inner conscience." Ronald Knox wrote a set of Ten Commandments or Decalogue in 1929, see article on the Golden Age of Detective Fiction.

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Source : Wikipedia