Chevrolet Aveo

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Posted by r2d2 04/29/2009 @ 10:08

Tags : chevrolet aveo, chevrolet, cars, leisure

News headlines
General Motors To Idle Mexico Plant For Seven Weeks This Summer - Wall Street Journal
The plant, which produces the compact Chevrolet Aveo and Pontiac G3, will be idled from July 1 to August 21, General Motors de Mexico said in a press release. A two-week summer idling period is normal, GM noted. The company plans to use three to four...
Fuel Efficient Mini Cars Buckle Under Fender Bender Tests - RTT News
The second lowest was the Chevrolet Aveo, with a $1155 average. Five of the seven cars tested in the full-front test underrode the barrier. None sustained less than $1000 damage. The two that engaged the barrier, the Chevrolet Aveo and the Honda Fit,...
Bridge near Lake Anna prompts concerns about safety - The Free Lance-Star
By Kelly Hannon DO YOU DRIVE a minicar, such as a Chevrolet Aveo, Honda Fit, Hyundai Accent, Kia Rio, Mini Cooper, Smart Fortwo or Toyota Yaris? Leave a lot of distance between your car and the vehicle in front of you--or following behind....
2011 Chevrolet Viva: Aveo Successor Takes On Fiesta - TheCarConnection.com
By Marty Padgett June 1st, 2009 The replacement for the Chevrolet Aveo could be the new compact car GM CEO Fritz Henderson acknowledged in future plans as GM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy this morning. That new car may be called the Viva,...
Parkview grad wins new Chevy Aveo - News-Leader.com
The dealership offers the car as an incentive for recent graduates of Springfield Public Schools to attend their school's Project Graduation parties. Project Graduation parties are alcohol free, overnight parties that give the graduating class one more...
Ortonville man injured in Brandon Twp. car crash - Detroit Free Press
Police said that at about 6:30 pm the man, driving a 2001 Chevrolet Cavalier, was stopped or coming to a stop behind a Chevrolet Aveo that was making a left turn from eastbound Oakwood onto Legault. An 18-year-old from Ortonville, driving a 1988 Chevy...
New car going to teen with perfect attendance - OCRegister
The district is offering a lucky high school student, who did not miss a day of school this year, a new 2009 Chevrolet Aveo, valued at about $13000. The car was donated by a local dealership, Guaranty Chevrolet. "We want to offer an incentive for...
Business news in brief - Detroit Free Press
The plant produces the Chevrolet Aveo and Pontiac G3 cars, gm's Mexico unit said Tuesday. General Motors Corp. expects to cut about 440 US executive jobs this year as part of changes to the automaker's leadership. The Detroit automaker plans to reduce...
REPORT: Chevrolet Aveo replacement postponed until 2011 - Autoblog
by Jeremy Korzeniewski on May 23rd 2009 at 12:04PM According to Reuters, Chevrolet's Aveo replacement has been postponed until January 2011 due to the well-publicized financial troubles at General Motors and its Korean subsidiary, Daewoo....
Not Hot: 2009 Pontiac G3 Is Slowest Selling Car in America - TheCarConnection.com
Obviously, the market doesn't care much for the G3's twin either -- the 2009 Chevrolet Aveo. While Chevy struggles to pump out the last of 20000 pre-sold 2010 Camaro models, Aveo sedans and Aveo5 hatchbacks sit around unwanted....

Chevrolet

Chevrolet Logo

Chevrolet (IPA: /ˌʃɛvroʊˈleɪ/ - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand produced by General Motors. It is the top selling GM marque, with "Chevrolet" or "Chevy" being at times synonymous with GM. Chevrolet offers 18 vehicles and many different enhanced versions in its home market. The vehicles range from subcompact cars to medium duty commercial trucks. Its number one seller in the United States is the Silverado pickup. Chevrolet continues to be the performance, price, fuel economy, and value leader for General Motors North America.

Chevrolet was founded by Louis Chevrolet (Swiss-French) and William C. Durant (American). Louis Chevrolet was a race-car driver, and William Durant, founder of General Motors, had been forced out of GM in 1910. He wanted to use Chevrolet's designs to rebuild his own reputation. As head of Buick Motor Company, prior to founding GM, Durant had hired Chevrolet to drive Buicks in promotional races.

Chevrolet first used its "bowtie" logo in 1913. It is said to have been designed from wallpaper Durant once saw in a French hotel. More recent research by historian Ken Kaufmann presents a compelling case that the logo is based from a logo for "Coalettes".

In 1915, Durant was in the process of setting up Chevrolet production facilities in Toronto, Canada. Later that year, during a luncheon meeting in New York with "Colonel Sam" McLaughlin, whose McLaughlin Motor Car Company manufactured McLaughlin-Buick cars, it was agreed that Chevrolets with McLaughlin-designed bodies would be added to the Canadian company's product line. Three years later, the two Canadian operations (Chevrolet was by then a part of GM in the United States) were bought by GM to become General Motors of Canada Ltd.

By 1916, Chevrolet was profitable enough to allow Durant to buy a majority of shares in GM. After the deal was completed in 1917, Durant was president of General Motors, and Chevrolet was merged into GM, becoming a separate division. In the 1918 model year, Chevrolet introduced the Model D, a V8-powered model in four-passenger roadster and five-passenger tourer models. These cars had 288in3 35 hp (26 kW) engines with Zenith carburetors and three-speed transmissions.

Famous Chevy models include the large and luxurious Impala (1958) Aluminum engines were in the air-cooled (rear-engined) Corvair and Vega. Chevrolet had a great influence on the American automobile market during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1957, Chevy made the first fuel injected engine. In 1963, one out of every ten cars sold in the United States was a Chevrolet.

The basic Chevrolet small-block V-8 design has remained in continuous production since its debut in 1955, longer than any other mass-produced engine in the world, although current versions share few if any parts interchangeable with the original. Descendants of the basic small-block OHV V-8 design platform in production today have been much modified with advances such as aluminum block and heads, electronic engine management and sequential port fuel injection, to name but a few. The small block Chevrolet V-8 is used in current production model (2008) Impala sedans, a variety of light and medium duty Chevrolet trucks, and the current generation Corvette sports car. Depending on the vehicle type, they are built in displacements from 4.8 to 7.0 litres with outputs ranging from 295 to 638 horsepower (476 kW) as installed at the factory. It will also be used as a performance option in the forthcoming (2010 model year) revival of the Chevrolet Camaro. The engine design has also been used over the years in GM products built and sold under the Pontiac. Oldsmobile, Buick, Opel (Germany) and Holden (Australia) nameplates. Recently, a 6-litre, 400 horsepower (300 kW) version of the small-block V-8 designed initially for the C-6 Corvette has been installed in a factory-built high performance version of the Cadillac CTS sedan known as the CTS-V.

Even though the Australian market of today mainly consists of Australia's own automotive companies alongside Asian and European automobile brands, Australia once had its fair share of American cars as well. For many decades up until the very early 1960s, Chevrolet cars were manufactured and sold in Australia in the Chevrolet brand in the state of South Australia. Vintage Chevrolet models such as Bel Air, Impala etc, are still found in many states around Australia. Manufacturing has now ceased, and to this day has been succeeded by Dodge, Jeep, and Chrysler in terms of American Cars. The 1998-2001 Chevrolet Suburban was branded under GM Holden for sale within Australia. Today several of Chevrolet's designs are based on their Australian counterparts (GM Holden). Chevrolet is expanding its availability of large pick ups and SUV's in the Australian Market.

Historically, many Latin American-market vehicles from GM were modified derivatives of older models from GM's North American and European operations. The current S10 and Blazer exemplify this strategy. However, more modern vehicles are now being marketed as market conditions change and competition increases. Besides those older models made in Mexico, Ecuador, Colombia and Mercosur countries, Korean sourced cars from former Daewoo factories some markets also get German Opel and US made Chevrolet on top of their local line-ups.

In Brazil, the Chevrolet Opala was based on the German Opel Rekord from the late 1960s, continuing in production until the early 1990s, when it was replaced by a version of the Opel Omega. Other smaller Chevrolets in Brazil, such as the Kadett and Monza, were based on the Opel Kadett and Ascona respectively. Chevrolet's product line-up in Brazil now comprises some exclusive designs like the Corsa "B" based Celta sold in Argentina under the Suzuki brand, the Astra, and a brand new, Brazilian designed Vectra based on the current Opel Astra, while the current Corsa is built and the Omega name is now used on the Holden Commodore. Utility and four wheel drive vehicles line-up includes the S10, the Blazer, and the Montana. The Montana is a compact pickup truck, based on the Corsa, that is also sold in other Latin American markets. From the 1960s to the mid-1980s, there was also a large station wagon, derived from the C10 truck (somewhat similar to the Suburban), called the Veraneio.

Chevrolet production in Chile began in 1962, although at first through local partners (in this case, Avayu with the Nova II). GM still assembles the Isuzu D-Max as LUV D-Max in Arica and Isuzu´ F and N series in Huechuraba, Santiago.

Chevrolet has been operating in Ecuador for 80 years. GM Ecuador sells US Chevrolets alongside GM Daewoo and Opel sourced models. It also sells the 1983 Suzuki Supercarry under the Chevrolet namel, and the Isuzu Rodeo was sold as the Chevrolet Rodeo throughout the 1990s.

In Venezuela, Chevrolet has been operating since 1948, when truck production began in Caracas. In 1979 production moved to a plant in Valencia that was purchased from Chrysler. Chevrolet assembled more than 1,500,000 vehicles in its first 50 years in Venezuela.

In 1924 General Motors starts importing Chevrolet Double Phaeton models and are welcomed with great demand.

In 1925, in order to reduce costs in the Argentine market, General Motors decides to manufacture in Argentina and starts producing a sedan, roadster, a truck chassis and the Chevrolet Double Phaeton now called "Especial Argentino", a model exclusively designed for the Argentinean market. Sales increased and soon the Oldsmobile, Oakland and Pontiac units were incorporated to the assembly line.

When the Second World War broke out the operations were complicated. In 1941 the Chevrolet 250.000 is made, but the shortage of products made car production impossible. The last Chevrolet goes out of the plant in august, 1942. In order to avoid the total stoppage, the company made electrical and portable refrigerators and car accessories amongst other items. After the war, GM started producing the Oldsmobile and Pontiac lines and later Chevrolet is added.

In 1959, manufacturing plants are enlarged and set up to produce cars, pick ups and trucks. On 25 January 1960 the first Argentinean pick up Chevrolet is introduced. The following year the national government approves the investment plan for 45 million dollars which included a plant of 12,000 m2. On 12th march 1962 the first Chevrolet 400 is made based on the North American Chevy II. The original plan considered a national integration of 50% during the first year of production, this amount must get to be 90% in 1964 with a production of 15,000 units. By 1969, the Chevy line, derived from the American Chevy Nova is presented.

In the middle of the seventies, General Motors market share is reduced sharply from 9% in 1976 to 2% in 1978. Losses exceeded the 30 millions dollars and the head company in the USA decides to halt the productive activities in Argentina.

The Chevrolet trade mark reappears in 1985 for the production of the pick up in its versions C-20 and D-20. In 1995 a plan for the manufacturing destined to the exportation specially to Brazil and other countries of Mercosur is materialized with the building of a new facility near Rosario, Santa Fe for the production of the Opel based Chevrolet Corsa and the Suzuki based Chevrolet Grand Vitara 4x4.

Mexico has a mix of Chevrolet models from different GM brands and platforms but branded as Chevrolet. The variety of models comes from Chevrolet USA, Opel Europe, and other origins. Examples of Opel Sourced vehicles are the Vectra, the Astra, the Meriva and the Captiva. Mexico also has some cars of its own, such as the Chevy C2, which is a reworked previous generation Corsa. Vehicles based on US platforms are the Avalanche, the Suburban, the Equinox, the Tahoe, the Cheyenne (which is similar to the Silverado but with minor differences), the Aveo, the HHR, the Traverse, the Malibu and the Corvette. The Chevrolet Optra, assembled in South Korea by GM Daewoo, is also sold in Mexico. The european Epica is sold as a Business only vehicle.

Chevrolet Europe is a Swiss-based firm (in Zürich) that sells the rebranded products of GM Daewoo.

Until 2005, Chevrolet Europe sold a few models, mostly United States domestic market (USDM) models modified to suit European regulations. Among them were the Chevrolet Alero (which was a rebadged Oldsmobile Alero) and the Chevrolet Trans Sport (which was a Chevrolet Venture with the front end of the Pontiac Trans Sport). Among other models sold by Chevrolet Europe were the Camaro, the Beretta, the Corvette, the Blazer, and the TrailBlazer. The current generation of North American-built Chevrolet Impala V-8 sedans has also been available in Europe in recent years, marketed as both large family sedans and more economically-priced alternatives to Jaguars and BMWs as high performance executive cars.

It was in 2005 that all the mainstream models from GM Daewoo were rebranded as Chevrolet in Europe (The ownership of the SUV models in the former Daewoo range had reverted to ownership of Ssangyong by this time). However the Daewoo name was retained in South Korea and Vietnam. In the rest of the world, most Daewoo models have worn the Chevrolet badge since 2003. Exceptions include the use of the Suzuki badge in the United States and Canada, the Pontiac badge in Canada, the Holden badge in Australia and New Zealand, and the Buick badge in China for certain GM Daewoo models.

The Corvette and Cadillac is marketed in Europe through a separate distribution channel operated by Netherlands-based Kroymans Corporation Group. Kroymans Corp is seeking court protection from creditors. Kroymans Corporation also sells Ford, Opel, Nissan, Saab, Volvo and other brands in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. Kroymans is going to concentrate only on the importing, distribution, marketing and car retail sales in the Netherlands.

Because the Chevrolet brand now represents value-driven cars in Europe, the Corvette name was made into a separate marque for Europe and Japan.

The Holden Commodore is badged as the Chevrolet Lumina in Thailand and the Middle East, as well as South Africa. The longer wheelbase Holden Statesman is sold as the Chevrolet Caprice in the Middle East.

In the Middle East, Chevrolet-badged cars, trucks, SUV's, and crossovers are sourced from GM Daewoo (in South Korea), GM in North America, and GM Holden (in Australia). The Middle East market has a separate division called Chevrolet Special Vehicles (CSV), which (as of December 2007) sources the high-performance 400 bhp (300 kW) CR8 sedan from Holden Special Vehicles.

In Pakistan, Chevrolet introduced its cars in collaboration with a local automobile manufacturer called Nexus Automotive. The current models available are the Chevrolet Optra and Chevrolet Joy. As of December 2005, the Chevrolet Joy is being assembled locally in Pakistan.By 2008 Chevrolet launched their own website and added the Chevrolet Aveo and Chevrolet Colorado.

Chevrolet is among the newest brands in India launched by GM's india operations. Until June 6, 2003 (the official birthday of Chevrolet), GM India (which was originally a joint venture with Hindustan Motors) sold the Opel Corsa, Opel Astra, and the Opel Vectra. The Corsa and Astra were built at a plant in Halol, Gujarat.

Since then, Chevrolet currently sells the Chevrolet Optra, Chevrolet Aveo, Chevrolet Tavera, Chevrolet SRV , Chevrolet Spark and Chevrolet Aveo U-VA. The Chevrolet Forester, a rebadged Subaru, was imported directly from Fuji Heavy Industries in Japan until 2005. The Optra and Tavera are built at the Halol plant. The latest Chevrolet launched in India is the Chevrolet Captiva SUV, a rebadged Holden Capitva.

Chevrolet also is the sole Engine supplier for the Formula Rolon single seater series in India.

Since the early 1920's , Chevrolet cars and trucks were marketed in this country. The Master Deluxe Sedan of the late 1930's was considered to be a pinnacle of luxury. All cars sold through the local dealer, Neal and Massey (also franchisee for Vauxhall and Buick) , were right-hand-drive , and imported from Canada and Australia. Throughout the 1940's and 50's, GM maintained a market presence with the Bel Air , Impala and Fleetline . During the late 1960's and early 1970's, Australian Holden DeVilles badged as Chevrolet Caprices were sold, though a few "Islander" limited edition American Chevrolet Caprices were imported. Neal and Massey gave up the GM franchise in 1974 and the brand left the market. During the period 1998-2001, Southern Sales Ltd. imported the Chevy Monza and Joy. Based on the Opel/Vauxhall Corsa platform and assembled in Mexico, these were the cheapest new cars available. Poor build quality, unprofessional dealer service, and a limited spare parts supply saw these cars exit the market with only a few units being sold. In 2003, the local Renault dealer , marketed the Aveo sedan and hatchback , as well as the Optra sedan (a rebadged Suzuki Forenza) with limited success. A more intensive marketing campaign by the latest Chevrolet dealer , Lifestlye Motors , has met with more success. The models available as of 2009 are the Chevrolet Colorado (a rebadged Isuzu D-Max pickup assembled in Thailand), Spark (a reinvention of the defunct Daewoo Matiz), Aveo , Optra , and a rebadged version of the Holden Commodore.

The American-built Chevrolet Colorado pickup is also manufactured in Rayong, Thailand.

General Motors is currently exploring cost cutting options as part of its restructuring plan. One of these options involve expanding the Rayong, Thailand plant to add additional capacity to export Colorado's to the U.S. This would allow the Shreveport, Louisiana plant to be closed (where the Colorado is also produced). This scenario is plausible only if a free-trade agreement is signed between the U.S. and Thailand, as the American tariff on imported pickup trucks from non-FTA countries is currently 25%. The United Auto Workers is the most vocal opponent to a change in the tariff structure.

In the mid 2000s, Suzuki imported and marketed the TrailBlazer and the Chevrolet Optra wagon in Japan. General Motors Asia Pacific (Japan) currently distributes and markets the Chevrolet TrailBlazer in very limited numbers. Suzuki, a GM partner, also assembles and markets the Chevrolet Cruze subcompact and the Chevrolet MW kei car. The MW was originally a rebadged Suzuki Wagon R. As of 2008, it is a rebadged Suzuki Solio. Mitsui currently distributes and markets the Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Express, Chevrolet HHR, and Starcraft versions of the G-Van and Chevrolet Trailblazer. General Motors Japan directly imports and distributes the Corvette, which is marketed under its own marque. Thus there are three distinct distribution channels for Chevrolet-branded vehicles, and a separate network for Corvette-branded cars.

Chevrolet-branded vehicles are not sold in South Korea. However, many global-market Chevrolet vehicles are sourced from GM Daewoo of South Korea.

In South Africa, Chevrolet was GM's main brand name until 1982, with a number of Vauxhall Motors and Holden derivatives being built under the Chevy name from 1964. In the 1970s, the advertising jingle "braaivleis, rugby, sunny skies and Chevrolet" (adapted from the US "Baseball, Hot Dogs, Apple Pies and Chevrolet") came to epitomise the ideal lifestyle of white male South Africans. Holden in Australia used the jingle "Football, Meat Pies, Kangaroos and Holden cars". Originally, Chevrolets were CKD kits of US models assembled in their plant in Port Elizabeth. However, since South Africa was right-hand drive and the US was left-hand drive, along with encouragement by the South African government to use local content, Chevrolets such as the Biscayne were eventually made entirely in South Africa, along with GM's "own car for South Africa": the Ranger.

By the 1970s, larger South African Chevrolets were based on Holden models, the Kommando being based on the Kingswood and the Constantia on the Premier, while the smaller Firenza was based on the Vauxhall Viva. The Chevrolet Nomad sold in South Africa was entirely different from the Nomad sold in America; whereas the American Nomad was originally conceived as a station wagon version of the Corvette and eventually became the station wagon version of the Bel Air, the South African Nomad was an SUV of truck proportions before SUVs were popular.

However, these were replaced by Opel models like the Rekord, Commodore, and Senator, and in 1982 the Chevrolet brand name was dropped in favour of Opel. Because of the political climate at the time, GM decided to divest from South Africa in 1986, and a local group eventually bought out GM's South African operations (including the Port Elizabeth plant) and renamed the company as the Delta Motor Corporation, which concentrated on Opels, Isuzus, and Suzukis, built under licence.

However, thanks to an improved political climate in the 1990s, GM decided to reenter South Africa, eventually buying out the whole of Delta. In 2001, the Chevrolet name made a comeback, used on the Lumina, a rebadged Holden Commodore, and later on, on the Daewoo range of cars. Current Chevrolets include the Spark (a rebadged Daewoo Matiz), Aveo, Optra, the Lumina (including the Ute model), and the Vivant, an MPV that is a rebadged version of the Daewoo Tacuma.

In Russia, various Chevrolet models are available. Current Chevrolets include the Spark, Aveo, Lanos, Lacetti, Rezzo, Epica, Captiva, TrailBlazer, and Tahoe. All of these models (with the exception of the TrailBlazer and Tahoe) are rebadged Daewoo models.

The Chevrolet brand is currently undergoing a product restructuring in North America along with all other GM brands in order to fit into the parent company's turnaround efforts. General Motors is now also trying to have Chevrolet have more efficient vehicles. Since the 2007 hiatus of the Monte Carlo, there is an unknown status as of March 2009. At the 2009 Detroit Auto Show, the production version of the Chevrolet Beat was displayed under the nameplate of Spark; General Motors announced that the Spark along with the Chevrolet Orlando would go into production in the US. The Orlando will be a successor. Along with the Spark and Orlando General Motors will introduce two more models: plug-in electric Chevrolet Volt; and the Chevrolet Cruze,successor to the Cobalt.

In 2007, Chevrolet launched its first watch collection under the Louis Chevrolet watch brand. The watch collection pays tribute to Louis Chevrolet, co-founder of the brand, who was born in a family of a watchmaker and in his childhood helped his father at the workbench. The collection was called Frontenac, the name inherited from the race car company founded by Louis Chevrolet. The Chevrolet watch collection comprises automatic, manually-wound and quartz models, equipped with ETA and Ronda movements.

The Louis Chevrolet Frontenac watches, manufactured in Courgenay, the Swiss Jura region, feature the styling cues suggested by the Chevrolet cars. The collection was developed while applying the same materials as used in the car industry. Pearled appliques on the Chevrolet watches' dials remind the metal forms of the old dashboards. The number '8,' Chevrolet's racing number, is sported on the case back.

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Daewoo Kalos

2004-2008 Chevrolet Aveo LT 5-door (US)

The Daewoo Kalos is a subcompact automobile manufactured by GM Daewoo (the South Korean subsidiary of General Motors) introduced in 2002 and marketed globally in 120 countries – prominently as the Chevrolet Aveo (ah-VAY-o).

Marketed worldwide under five GM brands and eleven different nameplates, the Kalos vehicles have evolved through two re-stylings in the car's first generation and have featured three body styles and five engine configurations – all built on a dedicated platform shared with no other vehicles. The two styling iterations are called T200 and T250 – deriving from the internal coding used by first Daewoo and then GM Daewoo during the car's development.

The nameplate "Kalos" derives from the Greek word kalos (καλός) for "beautiful".

The original Daewoo Kalos was introduced in 2002, based on a then-new Daewoo platform named T200, replacing the Daewoo Lanos (T100). Under development before Daewoo's bankruptcy, the Kalos was the company's first new model introduction following its subsequent takeover by General Motors. Manufacture of the Kalos began in early March, 2002, with pre-production prototypes shown at the Geneva Auto Show in April 2002.

Originally designed by Italdesign Giugiaro, the Kalos derives directly from the Kalos Dream concept vehicle first presented at the 2000 Paris Motor Show and subsequent developmental concepts at the 2001 Frankfurt Motor Show, 2002 Geneva Auto Show, and 2003 at the Geneva Show. (Kalos Dream photos) During this three-year development period Daewoo was struggling financially, with the ultimate fate of the company and the concept vehicle remaining uncertain.

The T200 sedans and hatchbacks featured a swage line running along the lower body to the rear door, which kinks downward prominently on the hatchback. 5-door hatchbacks also feature a side window in the C/D pillar with a distinctively angled lower edge. Interiors feature a circular motif throughout. North American Chevrolet Aveo, Canadian Pontiac Wave and Suzuki Swift+ and Australian Holden Barina variants featured the same grille with slight differences; European versions and some Latin American versions featured a wider grille with larger slanted headlights.

Daewoo's now disbanded Worthing Technical Centre in the UK conducted the initial research and platform engineering, with Daewoo's main Technical Center in Bupyong, Incheon, South Korea completing the majority of the later development programme. Daewoo engineers refined the chassis in Britain, on the proving ground at Motor Industry Research Association near Nuneaton, UK. Long-term testing covered nearly 2.2 million kilometers (1.4 million miles) with further testing outside South Korea on test sites in Arjeplog, Sweden; Granada and Idiada, Spain; Kapuskasing, Canada and Beijing, China.

According to an April, 2003 GMDAT press release, Daewoo built 119 prototypes during the Kalos's design and development, crashing 31 for research and data-gathering purposes, and manufacturing 39 pilot production vehicles to verify standards and quality.

The body's sheet metal panel gaps were kept to 3 mm (0.1 in) and all but the roof panel were galvanized steel. 46% of the Kalos' underlying structural components were produced with high-strength steel, with tailor-welded blanks used in the production of the vehicle to put strength where needed while saving weight.

The front suspension used MacPherson struts with offset coil springs and a stabilizer bar, while the rear featured a semi-independent torsion beam axle.

The Kalos was sold in three available body styles: a 4-door sedan and 5-door hatchback from the beginning of production in 2002, and a 3-door hatchback available in certain European markets beginning in 2005. All body styles meet North American subcompact and European supermini or B-segment size classifications.

All Kalos iterations featured high H-point seating within a relatively narrow, short and high-roofed body that combined a long wheelbase with short front (81 cm/32 in) and rear (49 cm/19 in, hatchback) overhangs to maximize the outward visibility, interior space and maneuverability relative to the vehicle's footprint. Rear seat H-points are higher in all body types, giving the car theatre seating.

Per the German Verband der Automobilindustrie standard, 5-door hatchbacks featured 175 litres (6.2 cu ft) of cargo space with the rear seats in their upright positions and 735 litres (26.0 cu ft) with the rear seats folded down, with a maximum payload rating of 495 kg (1091 lb). Per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ratings the 5-door hatchbacks featured cargo volume of 11.7 cubic feet (330 L) (rear seats up) to 42 cu ft (1,200 L) (rear seats down), with 7.1 cu ft (200 L) available in the sedan.

The interior volume was 102.7 L (3.63 cu ft) (5-door) and 107.4 L (3.79 cu ft) (sedan) according to the EPA, meeting the minimum criterion for a compact vehicle despite being marketed as a sub-compact. Headroom was unmatched in its class at the time of its introduction.

The body featured a drag coefficient of 0.35, with a frontal area of 2.16 m2 (23.3 sq ft) giving aerodynamic resistance of 0.74 m2 (8.0 sq ft).

Korea: models received four stars for both driver and front-seat passenger in crash tests conducted by the Korean Automobile Test and Research Institute (KATRI).

Australia: Holden Barina models received scored 2 stars (of 5) from Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP), a rating that is lower than the previous European-built, Opel-based Barina had scored, and the lowest ANCAP rating since 2004. Notably, the Australian Barina models do not feature the front-seat mounted side airbags offered in other markets (e.g., USA), nor are the ANCAP ratings directly comparable to the ratings of other NCAP programs.

GM introduced a revised sedan at Auto Shanghai 2005, designed in cooperation with PATAC. Bearing the internal code T250 and sold in South Korea as Daewoo Gentra, the revision comprised primarily interior and exterior styling changes, a new interior IP (instrument panel) and minor equipment changes, including increased sound deadening. Incorporation of the radio antenna into the rear glass and extensive wind tunnel testing helped reduce the coefficient of drag from 0.348 to 0.326.

A restyled hatchback with the sedan's updated IP (instrument panel) was presented as the Chevrolet Aveo during the Frankfurt Motor Show 2007, to be marketed in Europe and North America. The Korean market received its own distinct restyle of the hatchback, the Gentra X.

Later iterations, including the Kalos, Aveo, Barina and Gentra sedans, the Gentra X hatchback and the 2007 "Frankfurt Show" hatchbacks were styled in-house and with the assistance of PATAC -- and depart notably from the original Giugiaro exterior and interior styling designs.

With launching Gentra X in South Korea, GMDAT had replaced engines of T250. 1.2 L S-TEC II engine had updated with features such as double overhead camshaft (DOHC) and timing chain (older version has timing belt) system. 1.6 L E-TEC II engine had replaced with ECOTEC (GEN-III) engine with new features such as variable valve timing mechanism.

US Aveo safety features include available four-channel, four-sensor ABS system with electronic brake force distribution (EBD), and front (dual-stage) and side air bags for front row occupants with a passenger-sensing system. Beginning with 2008, Aveo standard equipment includes a tire pressure monitoring system.

The American Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) gave the Aveo an Acceptable overall rating in the frontal offset crash test and overall Marginal rating in the side impact crash test.

Edmunds reported the next-generation Aveo is due in mid-to-late 2010 as 2011 model. The car would use the Gamma 2 global subcompact platform, which would also power next-generation Opel Corsa and Chevrolet Beat. It is believed that the new model is the same as the Viva project, a premium subcompact car to be released in 2009 for the South American markets and face models such as the Citroën C3, Fiat Punto, Honda City and Toyota Yaris.

The T200 was sold as Daewoo Kalos; the hatchback named 'Kalos V' and the sedan 'Kalos S.' Daewoo began selling the T250 sedan in September 2005 as the Daewoo Gentra, replacing Kalos S. "Gentra" is derived from the English word "gentleman" and "transport(ation)".The tagline in the advertising campaign introducing the Gentra in Korea was "Are you gentle?", and the campaign starred Daniel Henny. In October 2007, the Kalos hatchback adopted the T250 underpinnings and was renamed Gentra X.

The T200 models were introduced to the US and Canada 2004 models at the 2003 (February) Chicago Auto Show as the Chevrolet Aveo. The US 5-door and 4-door models went on sale in November 2003, and as reported by the Boston Globe in November 2006, "the Aveo (was) the largest-selling subcompact in the United States".

The T250 sedan debuted in January 2006 as the 2007 Chevrolet Aveo at the Greater Los Angeles Auto Show. Sales commenced in North America in August 2006.

The Aveo 5-door hatchback has been marketed as the "Aveo5" in Canada since its inception and in the US beginning with model year 2007. The models are sold as Pontiac Wave (4-door and 5-door, since the 2005 model year) and Suzuki Swift+ (5-door) in Canada. The T200 Wave sedan was replaced for the 2007 model year with the T250, coinciding with the release of the 2007 T250 Aveo. For the 2009 model year, Pontiac Wave was renamed to Pontiac G3 Wave in Canada. In the United States, Pontiac will sell the 5-door hatchback as the Pontiac G3 starting in the spring of 2009. Because of GM phasing out the Pontiac brand after the 2010 model year, it is the last new model from Pontiac, and the last Pontiac nameplate. The G3 name was first used in 2007 for the Mexican-market Chevrolet Aveo/Pontiac Wave sedan before the Pontiac G8 was introduced to the United States as a 2008 model and Canada as a 2009 model (along with the G3 Wave).

2005: Sidemarker lights change from orange to clear.

2006: Rear Spoiler changes from "hugger" style to pedestal style spoiler with several inches of clearance from body.

2007: Sedans were redesigned. Deleted: 4-door SVM equipment group, Aveo5 LT model. New Features: 6-disc in-dash CD player and MP3 playback audio system, restyled 4-Door Model, new neutral interior in clot and leatherette, steering wheel mounted audio controls, aux input jacks on all 4-door and LS radios, sedan instrument panel and door accents in wood appearance, metallic grain appearance or silver appearance trim on LS and LT models, manual lumbar adjuster on driver seat, driver seat armrest, back glass antenna on 4-door models. Changes: power outside mirrors now on both driver and passenger, Aveo 5-Door models are called Aveo5. Available Spring Edition in Maui Blue (metallic), with alloy wheels, power windows, power moonroof, upgraded stereo with auxiliary input, keyless remote access, power door locks, foglamps and interior silver accents.

2009: Hatchbacks were redesigned. T250 2008.5 Aveo and sedan, Deleted: 15" 5-spoke aluminum wheels, E-TEC II 1.6L engine, Carbon fiber appearance accents. New: new exterior and interior design, Charcoal Perforated Leatherette seating surfaces, OnStar and standard on all models, available XM Satellite Radio, available Leather-wrapped steering wheel wand shift knob are now included with perforated leatherette seating surface option, Driver Information Center with outside temperature display and fuel economy/driving range function, new 15" 5-spoke aluminum wheels, GM Oil Life Monitoring System , ECOTEC 1.6L DOHC 16-valve 4-cylinder MFI engine with Variable Valve Timing and Dual Continuous Variable Cam Phasing (107 hp @ 6400 rpm, 106 ft·lbf (144 N·m) of torque @ 3800 rpm), 5-speed manual transmission to include shift indicator light. Changes: New good-better-best packaging strategy labeled as 1LS, 1LT and 2LT. Power Package called Power and Convenience Package, aux input included on all radios, front wipers variable intermittent, front doors, driver and front passenger seatback map pockets on all models, Alternator 95 amps. Deletions, Additions and Changes per GM's public online order guide.

1.6 L E-TEC II engine used in the 2004-2008 models were criticized for being "un fuel efficient" for an economy car. It delivered the least horsepower (103 hp (77 kW)) from the sub-compact group and the worst fuel economy. Ratings were 32/48MPG(8.9/5.9L/100 km) for city/highway while compared to its major competitors that delivered better horsepower and fuel economy like the Toyota Yaris with 106 hp (79 kW) 40/51MPG (7.0/5.5L/100 km), Hyundai Accent/ Kia Rio with 110 hp (82 kW) at 38/46MPG (7.4/ 6.2L/ 100 km),Nissan Versa with 122 hp (91 kW) with 36/45MPG (7.9/ 6.3L/ 100 km), and Honda fit with 109 hp (81 kW) 40/50MPG (7.1/5.7L/100 km).

The 2009 107 hp (80 kW) ECOTEC VVT engine improves fuel economy numbers making it more competitive for the market at 36/50 MPG (7.9/ 5.7L/ 100 km).

In February 2004 GM issued a "stop delivery" order, to investigate five accidents that occurred in a tight time frame just as the Aveo was introduced to the US market. The order was lifted shortly thereafter, after an investigation revealed no connection among the accidents.

The Aveo was introduced for its market debut in a 60 second television advertisement that first appeared on New Year's Eve 2003, created by the firm of Campbell-Ewald, directed by Michael Bay and featuring the song Magic Carpet Ride by Steppenwolf. The advertisement was titled "An American Revolution, Car Carrier" and featured six yet to be introduced cars and trucks boarding a car carrier as it traversed the United States. It featured the Aveo descending the Twin Peaks of San Francisco and making an airborne leap highly reminiscent of Steve McQueen's Ford Mustang in the movie Bullitt, before boarding the car carrier.

Two other fifteen second TV ads also created by the firm of Campbell-Ewald, spotlighted the Aveo: "Pachyderm" showing an elephant, chased down a city street by an Aveo and "Big Little," in which four basketball players who enter the car appear tiny in big seats, highlighting the vehicle's interior volume.

In Mexico, the T200 is not sold, but the T250 sedan is sold as Pontiac G3 and Chevrolet Aveo. The Automotive News reported in October 2007 that GM would begin producing the Aveo model at the new San Luis Potosí Assembly plant in Mexico (400 km/250 mi northwest of México City) when the plant is complete in June 2009. Production of the Aveo commenced in August 2008.

The T200 is sold as Chevrolet Aveo in Ecuador (3-door), Peru (3-door and 5-door), Venezuela, Colombia and Chile (all body styles). The T250 is sold as Chevrolet Aveo in Peru (4-door). A taxi version of the T200 sedan is available in Ecuador.

Until the end of 2004, the T200 was sold as Daewoo Kalos. In early 2005, the Chevrolet brand replaced the Daewoo brand and the Kalos was rebadged the Chevrolet Kalos, coinciding with the introduction of the 3-door. The new T250 sedan is marketed as the Chevrolet Aveo, replacing the Kalos sedan in 2006. A revised hatchback was introduced in the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show, to go on sale in early 2008 as the Aveo -- replacing the Kalos.

The T200 was sold as Chevrolet Aveo from its introduction in 2003. The T250 has replaced the T200 sedan in 2006, retaining the same name. Versions sold in this region had 1.4 L engines, and were available as both five-door hatchback and four-door sedan.

It was announced in November 2007 that FSO in Warsaw, Poland, would begin assembling the Aveo under a joint venture between GM and FSO's owner, the Ukrainian company UkrAVTO. GM plans to produce 70,000 Aveos at FSO during 2008, with production rising to 100,000 in 2009.

The T200 model was available as the Daewoo Kalos before Daewoo's Australian operations ceased at the end of 2004 and was absent from the Australian market until re-introduced in December 2005 as the TK Holden Barina (3-door and 5-door). The TK Barina replaced the previous XC Barina, which was an imported and rebadged European Opel Corsa. The T250 sedan was introduced in February 2006, and both the T200 and T250 models are sold together as the Barina lineup. The switch from the Opel-sourced Corsa was criticized, given the Kalos' lower ANCAP safety performance. The T250 hatchback, both 3-door and 5-door, was introduced in August 2008.

Indonesia: The T200 is sold as Chevrolet Aveo in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, as well as South Africa and China (5-door and 4-door).

China The T250 sedan is sold as Chevrolet Lova in China.

India The T250 was launched in India in 2006 as Chevrolet Aveo along with the slogan "An Indian Revolution", referencing Chevrolet's An American Revolution ad campaign. The T200 hatchback has been sold in India since December 2006 as the Chevrolet Aveo U-VA. A taxi called Chevytaxi is based on the T200 sedan. Interestingly, the Aveo was promoted in the Bollywood film Ta Ra Rum Pum with decals on the race cars, but the cars were ARCA-spec Chevrolet Monte Carlos.

Most Kalos/Aveos are assembled in the Bupyong plant in South Korea. In Ukraine, Russia and Venezuela, local versions of the Aveo are assembled from complete knock down kits. For the Chinese market, Aveos and Lovas are manufactured by Shanghai GM Dongyue. In India, Aveos are assembled from Halol Plant. Also in Egypt GM assembly plant started in August 2007 producing the Aveo locally in three variants.

Beginning in August 2008, Chevrolet Aveos are also produced at the new General Motors San Luis Potosí plant located in Mexico.

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Captive import

Captive import is an automobile marketing term denoting a foreign-built vehicle that is sold and serviced by a domestic manufacturer through its own dealer distribution system.

The foreign car may be produced by a subsidiary of the same company, be a joint venture with another firm, or acquired under license from a completely separate entity. The brand name used may be that of the domestic company, the foreign builder, or an unrelated marque entirely (this is one type of badge engineering).

This arrangement is usually made to increase the competitiveness of the domestic brand by filling a perceived "hole" in its model lineup, which it is either not practical or not economically feasible to fill from domestic production. Captive imports are often aimed at the lower end of the market, but this is not always so.

In the American market, captive imports have had a spotty record of success.

The Nash Metropolitan, sold in the U.S. from 1954 to 1962, was an interesting example because it was a captive import for Nash Motors produced by Austin in the UK specifically for sale in the U.S. By entering into a manufacturing arrangement, Nash would avoid the expense associated with tooling, body panels, and components. When this two-seater sub-compact car was launched, it was the first time an American-designed car had been only built in Europe, having never been built in the United States. Unlike typical European cars of the era, its look was "American" and it had a design resemblance to the large or "senior" U.S.-built Nashes. It became one of the few small cars to sell well during the most bulk-obsessed period of U.S. automotive history.

When Mercedes-Benz was seeking entry into the American market, the company signed a marketing agreement with Studebaker-Packard and briefly became a captive brand in their showrooms. Around the same time, in a venture now largely forgotten, Pontiac dealers briefly sold Vauxhalls.

Ford, who had invented the modern captive-import system in 1948 with the British Anglia and Prefect, added its own European Ford Capri to its U.S. Mercury line in the 1970s and saw strong sales. During the same period, Dodge did quite well with several small Mitsubishi models, mostly sold as Dodge Colts. However, some others, such as the Plymouth Cricket (born Hillman Avenger) and Ford's entire Merkur line, gained a reputation as being poorly suited to American tastes and faded away quickly.

Other experiments, such as GM's sale of Opel models like the Kadett through Buick dealers in the late 1960s and early 1970s, yielded ambivalent results; the Opels were generally well-regarded and sales were decent but never substantial. In the 1970s, when Buick decided to phase out its Opels and sell small Isuzus instead, the result was a handful of cars carrying a truly global but very amusing brand, Buick Opel by Isuzu. Buick was not the first to rebadge Isuzus — Chevrolet did the same with their LUV pickup truck in 1972.

In 2004, GM began marketing the Chevrolet Aveo subcompact, a rebadged Daewoo Kalos (now a rebadged Daewoo Gentra) assembled in South Korea. In 2008, GM started marketing the Saturn Astra, which is a rebadged Opel Astra, assembled in Belgium. Pontiac has also returned to the captive idea by selling Holden vehicles, first as the Pontiac GTO and then as the Pontiac G8.

In Europe, there have been relatively few cases of captive imports, and most have been unsuccessful. The Chevrolet Venture minivan was sold as the Opel/Vauxhall Sintra in the late-1990s, but was not only not to European tastes, but also gained a bad reputation due to poor results in safety tests.

In Brazil, the Australian-built Holden Commodore is sold since 1998 as Chevrolet Omega, replacing the locally built car bearing the same name. Despite being well received by the press and public, sales are much worse than its locally-built counterpart, simply because of its high price. However, it is used very often as official government cars. Chevrolet also rebranded the Argentine-built Suzuki Vitara as the Chevrolet Tracker after Suzuki stopped selling cars in Brazil, but it never achieved the same selling numbers from the original car.

In Japan, where foreign car manufacturers have traditionally struggled to compete in the local market, even rebadging of U.S. models like the Chevrolet Cavalier as a Toyota have failed to improve sales. In some cases, this can be attributed to the manufacturer's lack to attention to the desires of the Japanese consumer, even to so basic a requirement as availability with right hand drive.

In Australia, GM's Holden operation sold the 1975-84 Isuzu Bellet/Gemini, itself a license built version of the then current Opel Kadett, as the Holden Gemini. Interestingly the name was originally Holden-Isuzu Gemini but after the initial TX series the Isuzu cobranding was dropped. Perhaps the original idea was to foster the Japanese-ness of the model at a time when that might have been seen by customers as a positive, the Nissan's 610 Bluebird being marketed as the Datsun 180B being a big seller at the time. But given the Gemini was assembled in Australia at Acacia Ridge in Queensland and Holden was still the highest selling brand (and selling its other cars on their Australian-ness) it was probably more beneficial and clearer to use the Australian identity. The Chevrolet LUV produced by Isuzu was also sold from 1973 for a couple of years, the only official Chevrolet branded model available in Australia at the time (and since). Also, Ford sold the Taurus in Japan, Australia and Hong Kong in 1996, but discontinued it for 1999 because of poor success.

Various reasons have been suggested as to why captive imports often fail. The question of exchange rates is clearly important, as a sudden shift can quickly raise prices to uncompetitive levels. Some models have been justly criticized for marginal quality, or being a bad match to the local driving environment. The commitment of domestic sales and service staffs to an unfamiliar vehicle has also often been questioned, particularly if the import is seen as reducing sales of other, more profitable vehicles in the lineup.

Others fail due to no fault of their own; the Sunbeam Tiger, for instance, an early 1960s example of the concept of an American Ford Windsor engine in a British (Sunbeam Alpine) body and chassis, enjoyed substantial success until Sunbeam became a captive import of Chrysler Corporation in North America. Chrysler could not be realistically expected to sell a car with a Ford engine, and Chrysler V8 engines all had the distributor positioned at the rear of the engine, unlike the front-mounted distributor of the Ford V8, making it impossible to fit the Chrysler engine into the Sunbeam engine bay without major and expensive revisions. Thus this niche of the automotive market was left to be filled with legendary success by the Ford engined Shelby Cobra.

There may be a deeper, structural issue at work, however. It could simply be that a domestic buyer is unlikely to want an import, and an import buyer is unlikely to enter a domestic showroom. A captive thus easily falls between two stools. This is probably why the practice of using a separate brand name, such as Merkur and General Motors' short-lived Geo, has ceased — the foreignness of the car is thus discreetly made less apparent.

Not every vehicle that appears to be a captive import really is. A vehicle which is foreign-designed or badged but assembled in the market where it is sold does not fall into this category. Such vehicles are frequently the result of joint venture or strategic alliance arrangements between automakers.

For example, the Renault Alliance, which was sold through American Motors (AMC) dealers in the 1980s, was actually assembled by AMC as part of the brief tie-up between the two companies. The Geo Prizm, though it was a Toyota design and shared a showroom with many captives, was built domestically by the GM/Toyota NUMMI joint venture. The Eagle Talon and Plymouth Laser, both sisters to the Mitsubishi Eclipse, were manufactured in the U.S. by Diamond-Star Motors, a Chrysler/ Mitsubishi Motors joint ventue. Australia's Holden, although it often shares planning and hardware with the rest of GM's global empire such as Opel and Isuzu, has generally preferred to assemble its versions of such vehicles locally. Rover and Honda have co-produced models for the European market, as have Alfa Romeo and Nissan. None of these would be considered imports.

In the United States, a vehicle that is assembled in Canada or Mexico and is distributed domestically by a Big 3 automaker is not considered a captive import. This is due to the integration of manufacturing operations by the Big 3 in these countries due to the hospitable trade environment created by the North American Free Trade Agreement, coupled with the proximity of these nations to the U.S. Also, vehicles made and marketed by European automakers that were eventually acquired by the Big 3 automakers, such as Land Rover, Volvo, and Saab, are generally not considered to be captive imports. The Opel vehicles sold in the 1960s and 1970s are exceptions to this rule because they were sold through the Buick distribution channel. Thus, they are captive imports.

Recent examples of captive imports in the U.S. have included the Cadillac Catera, a rebadged Opel Omega, the Chevrolet Aveo, built by GM Daewoo, and the Chrysler Crossfire — an American design which mostly uses Mercedes-Benz mechanicals but is actually built by Karmann in Germany. The most recent Pontiac GTO, which was built alongside the Australian Holden Monaro, also qualifies. The Saturn Astra is another example. It is a rebadged Opel Astra that is imported from Belgium. The successor for Pontiac's seventh generation Grand Prix, the Pontiac G8, is a modified Holden VE Commodore that is imported from Australia.

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ZAZ

Zaz 968 m and 965

ZAZ or Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant (Ukrainian: ЗАЗ, Запорізький автомобілебудівельний завод) is the main automobile-manufacturer of Ukraine, based in the south-eastern city of Zaporizhzhya. It is also known for its former mother company name, AvtoZAZ. In the first half of 2008 ZAZ manufactured 153,407 cars and commercial vehicles, a 29% increase from the same period in 2007.

The company was established in 1960 as ZAZ (Zaporozhskiy avtomobil'nyi zavod) to produce the copy of Fiat 600—a car for the ordinary people. From 1975 to 2002, the factory was a part of AvtoZAZ holding, which was transformed into joint-stock company in 1990s.

The models named "Zaporozhets" were powered by an air-cooled rear mounted V4 engine made by MeMZ (based in neighboring Melitopol'). The body of earlier models 965 was similar to the Fiat 600. The redesigned 966 looked more like a NSU Prinz. Despite low reliability and prestige of those cars, they have shown an unbeaten accessibility and popularity among Soviets, becoming the "car for pensioners and intellectuals".

Newer front wheel drive cars are based on model 1102 Tavria (in production since 1980s) and are powered by a water cooled, front mounted MeMZ engine and fall into micro-class.

When AvtoZAZ-Daewoo joint venture with Daewoo Motors was formed in 1998, ZAZ was assigned to the new company as a 50% share on behalf of AvtoZAZ. Daewoo Motors made large investments and established the production of its own models, while keeping and modernizing the native ZAZ brand. CKD kits of Daewoo Lanos started assembling the same year; at the same time, CKD assembly of a number of older VAZ models started.

Following bankruptcy of Daewoo Motors in 2001, UkrAVTO corporation bought out AvtoZAZ holding in 2002. All of the AvtoZAZ manufacturing facilities (most notably, MeMZ and Ilyichyevsk assembling plant) were reincorporated into ZAZ. The company even adopted a new logo. The Daewoo part in the joint venture was bought out by Swiss venture Hirsch & CIE in 2003.

Ilyichyevsk facility is currently used for CKD-kit assembly of Chevrolet Aveo and Chevrolet Lacetti. An adapted version of the Lanos with a MeMZ engine, Daewoo Sens, was made since 2002. End of 2004 saw the beginning of full-scale production of completely domestic ZAZ Lanos T150, now that CKD kits of Lanos are no longer supplied. UkrAVTO has plans to transfer a transmission plant from the assets of FSO car factory to the ZAZ. It is also considering engine facilities of former Daewoo Motors subsidiary in India.

ZAZ and Polish Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych have a long history of partnership and now form a holding under their parent company UkrAVTO.

ZAZ's products were never held in high esteem by Soviet citizens. In fact, ZAZ's original mission was to create a "people's car", almost like Volkswagen's original mission. Yet most Soviet citizens preferred their Ladas to AvtoZAZ's products, such as the ZAZ Tavria.

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GM Daewoo

GM Daewoo logo.png

GM Daewoo Auto & Technology (GM Daewoo or GMDAT) was first established as National Motor in 1937 in Bupyeong-gu, Incheon, South Korea. After changing its name to Saenara Motor in 1962, Saenara Motor was bought by Shinjin Industrial in 1965, which changed its name to Shinjin Motor after establishing collaborations with Toyota.

After Toyota's withdrawal in 1972, Shinjin Motor started a joint venture with General Motors under the name General Motors Korea, but was renamed again in 1976 to Saehan Motor. After the Daewoo Group gained control in 1982 the name was changed to Daewoo Motor. In the early 1990s the company started to expand heavily throughout the world. Until 1996 all cars were based on models from General Motors. After the Asian financial crisis started in 1997, it took over the troubled 4WD specialist SsangYong in 1998, but ran into financial trouble in 1999.

In 2001 General Motors decided to buy most of Daewoo Motor's assets to form GM Daewoo. The new company started operations on October 17, 2002, with GM and its partners Suzuki and SAIC holding a stake of 66.7% with investments of US$400 million. The GM holding was formally purchased by GM Holden Ltd which holds a seat on the board . The remaining equity stake of 33.3% was held by Korea Development Bank and several other Korean creditors with investments of US$197 million. The deal did not include 15 plants, especially Daewoo's oldest plant in Bupyeong-gu which now operates under the name Daewoo Incheon Motor Company as a supplier to GM Daewoo; General Motors plans to buy this plant by 2008. In 2004, Tata Motors purchased Daewoo's Truck manufacturing unit. In February 2005, GM invested US$49 million to raise its share in the company to 48.2%. Furthermore, GM acquired 6.9 million shares in GM Daewoo for US$21 million from Suzuki Motors in August of the same year. General Motors' share in GM Daewoo then increased to 50.9%. Suzuki still holds 11% of GMDAT but is reported to be considering selling this to GM.

GMDAT has design, engineering, research & development facilities that are involved in development for various GM products. On November 25, 2003, the design center was relocated to the new 2-story building at the Bupyeong-gu headquarters and assigned the task to style a new SUV based on GM's Theta automobile platform to be released in 2006.

GMDAT has manufacturing plants in Korea and an assembly plant in Vietnam. GMDAT-designed cars are also assembled in mainland China, Thailand, India, and Colombia (as of February 2005). Its cars are marketed in over 140 countries (as of February 2005). In 2004, GMDAT sold more than 900,000 vehicles worldwide.

Daewoos were first sold around the world as the Daewoo LeMans or Pontiac LeMans or known as Daewoo Racer, a model based on the Opel Kadett E. The Saehan Bird, based on the General Motors T-car platform, was exported to Malaysia as the Opel Gemini; this was also known in South Korea as the Daewoo Maepsy. A larger Opel Commodore-based model, called the Daewoo Royale was also available. The Daewoo Prince, which had commonalities with the Australian Holden Commodore, was built until 1993.

In the 1990s, Daewoo expanded its presence under its own brand, notably in Europe, where it sold the Opel Ascona-based Espero and Kadett-based Daewoo Nexia (also Racer and Cielo in the domestic market; the latter is often spelled as Ciero for more Korean-like sound. The Cielo was named Heaven (Cielo means heaven in Spanish) in the Chilean market.

Ssangyong models Korando and Musso were sold briefly under the Daewoo brand in certain European countries (most notably France and Germany) from 1999 to 2001.

Under the supervision of Dr. Ulrich Bez, Daewoo developed its own models not based on any GM platform. These were codenamed as the T100, J100 and V100, reflecting the code names used by General Motors, with Italdesign Giugiaro working on the T100 and V100. The J100 was designed by IDEA of Italy. These were exported from late 1998 to Daewoo Motor America as the sub-compact Daewoo Lanos (meaning "pleasure" in Latin), compact Daewoo Nubira ("to go everywhere/anywhere" in Korean), and the mid-size Daewoo Leganza (combining the words elegante and forza, the latter meaning power in Italian). Other markets received these three cars, too. The Leganza's styling was reportedly based on an Italdesign show car based on Jaguar XJ-12 mechanicals; the real thing was more modest, with Holden-built 2.2 L engines shipped from Melbourne to Daewoo's Korean plant.

The Rezzo/Tacuma minivan and the Matiz/Spark micro-car are other models sold by Daewoo in various markets. The Magnus/Evanda is a development of the Leganza. The Daewoo Kalos subcompact was released in late 2002. A new version of the Nubira sedan was released in 2003 while the Daewoo Lacetti, a 5-door hatchback version of the Nubira, followed in 2004. The Kalos and the Lacetti were styled by Giugiaro, and styling of the Nubira sedan was the responsibility of Pininfarina. These models are sold under the Chevrolet brand in Europe.

Daewoo owned a share of ZAZ, an automobile manufacturer based in Ukraine, from 1998 to 2003. The CKD assembly of the Daewoo Lanos started 2002 and lately it was adopted for full-scale production as the ZAZ Lanos. A version of the Daewoo-developed Chevrolet Aveo is being assembled for local market at the Iliychevsk subsidiary.

In August 1992, Daewoo set up UzDaewooAuto, a joint venture and a factory in Asaka city, Andizhan province, Uzbekistan, leveraging the presence of a large local ethnic Korean minority. Currently, the plant assembles the Matiz and the Nexia for both the local market and export, as well as the Lacetti hatchback and sedan for the domestic market only.

Daewoo also invested into Poland's Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych in 1995, forming a joint venture for assembly of the Matiz microcar, a successor to the Tico that was very popular in the Eastern European market. Since January 2005 FSO began to produce Matiz and Lanos under their own trademark.

Since 1995, Daewoo has acquired a factory in Craiova, Romania which was producing a derivate of a Citroën model, the Oltcit. The entire production facility was refurbished to mainly produce the Cielo model and later, other models. Until 2008 it was producing the Daewoo Cielo, Matiz and Nubira models for the Romanian market, but also car parts for export, such as engines and gearboxes to GM Daewoo and to other companies. The factory was acquired by the Romanian Government and sold to Ford in 2007 (the official agreement was signed on 21 March 2008). The production of Daewoo models was stopped in May, 2008, and the name "Daewoo Automobile Romania" was changed to "Ford Romania".

Following the GM buyout in 2002, GM Daewoo lost interest in its overseas assets; the deals on supplies of pre-assembled CKD kits will end in 2005 and the facilities are likely to rely on its own production capabilities from that point on.

GM changed the Daewoo name to something with more prestige in order to increase sales in the local market. GM decided to comply and started selling the Daewoo Lacetti as Chevrolet Optra. This was the first time GM sold re-badged Daewoo cars.

The re-branded Daewoo models sold in Israel succeeded far beyond GM's expectations so the Daewoo re-branding strategy was adopted to other countries as well. In most European countries however, GM retained the Daewoo brand and original model names until December 31, 2004.

GM Daewoo-built vehicles returned to the US market in 2004 and continue to be marketed to this day. The Chevrolet Aveo, Suzuki Forenza and Suzuki Reno, all offered in the US market, are re-badged Daewoos (they are sold in South Korea as the Daewoo Gentra, Lacetti sedan, and Lacetti hatchback, respectively).

In 2005, GM branded most Daewoos as Chevrolets in most markets, with Europe starting in January. Exceptions are China (where the cars are rebadged as Buick and Chevrolet), South Korea (GM Daewoo), Vietnam (where Daewoo is retained), Australia and New Zealand (Holden), the United States (Chevrolet, Suzuki), and Canada (Chevrolet, Pontiac, and Suzuki). The intent of utilizing the Chevrolet brand worldwide is to make Chevrolet a global brand of GM. One casualty of this is that the "Nubira" name disappeared in favor of "Lacetti" in the UK, although the "Nubira" sedan remains in the rest of the Europe.

In areas where GM Daewoo has no official distributors, it is possible to buy the same car under several brand names.

The Daewoo Kalos, which was exported globally as the Chevrolet Aveo, was released in September 2005. The Daewoo Tosca, the Magnus replacement, appeared in early 2006.

The Daewoo Winstorm SUV, based on the Chevrolet S3X concept developed using the GM Theta platform, was released in summer 2006. Two different variants are sold worldwide, including: in South Korea as Daewoo Winstorm, in Europe as the Chevrolet Captiva and Opel/Vauxhall Antara, the USA as the Saturn Vue, and Australia as the Holden Captiva and Captiva Maxx. It features a common rail Diesel engine for the first time in a Daewoo vehicle, in addition to regular four and six cylinder gasoline engines. The diesel engine design is licensed from the Italian engine maker VM Motori.

Developed by a global design and engineering team, Daewoo Lacetti Premier was introduced in October, 2008.

A model based on the Chevrolet T2X, a "sport coupé–SUV" concept car, may join the lineup in 2008.

GM Daewoo will also take responsibility for developing the future version of the GM Gamma platform, currently used by the Opel Corsa D and the Fiat Grande Punto. Therefore, it has been speculated that the Chevrolet Corsa C, sold in Latin America since 2002, may be replaced or joined by a slightly modified version of the Corsa D - in the latter case, it might be named Astra (like the Chevrolet Vectra, which is a Opel Astra C with a different front end), and the Corsa may be followed by a Kalos/Aveo built on the Corsa B's platform with many shared pieces with the Chevrolet Celta.

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Source : Wikipedia