Chrysler

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Posted by kaori 02/25/2009 @ 18:05

Tags : chrysler, daimler ag, automotive, business, chrysler llc, cars, leisure

News headlines
Chrysler Plans to Shut 1 in 4 of Its US Dealers - New York Times
Managers at the Lochmoor Chrysler Jeep dealer near Detroit review a list of 789 company dealerships set to be terminated. Lochmoor was among those slated for liquidation. By BILL VLASIC and NICK BUNKLEY DETROIT — The historic downsizing of the American...
Chrysler Names Supplier Choices for Post-Bankruptcy - Bloomberg
By Alex Ortolani May 15 (Bloomberg) -- Chrysler LLC plans to notify about 1200 suppliers that they've been chosen to continue providing parts to the automaker after a new company it's seeking to form emerges from bankruptcy....
Fiat's New Prospects Dazzle Italy - Washington Post
By Craig Whitlock and Steven Mufson TURIN, Italy -- Almost overnight, Fiat Group has transformed itself from a bit player into a global titan in the auto industry, effectively taking over Chrysler and possibly a big chunk of General Motors....
UAW oks Chrysler-Fiat labor peace - Detroit Free Press
BY GREG GARDNER • FREE PRESS BUSINESS WRITER • May 14, 2009 The UAW, prodded by the US Treasury Department, has agreed not to strike Chrysler-Fiat at least through the fall of 2015, according to a document filed this week in US Bankruptcy Court....
Lear Says GM, Chrysler Exposure 'Manageable' Despite Shutdowns - CNNMoney.com
GM and Chrysler, both surviving on US government loans, are trimming production further over the summer. "Our exposure with Chrysler and GM is very manageable," said Simoncini on a conference call after Lear reported a first-quarter net loss of $264.8...
Chrysler to go on with about 1200 suppliers - Detroit Free Press
BY JEWEL GOPWANI • FREE PRESS BUSINESS WRITER • May 16, 2009 Chrysler LLC plans to keep doing business with about 1200 automotive parts suppliers -- the vast majority of its supply base, the automaker says -- as it transitions out of Chapter 11...
Jobless Claims in US Increase More Than Forecast - Bloomberg
By Shobhana Chandra and Bob Willis May 14 (Bloomberg) -- More Americans than forecast filed first-time claims for unemployment insurance last week, mainly reflecting a jump in applications related to the Chrysler LLC bankruptcy....
$1.6 billion raised in share offering gives Ford strength with ... - Detroit Free Press
Chrysler LLC has filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, and General Motors Corp. remains on the brink of doing the same. Ford's stock price has benefited, too, soaring to over $6 a share recently from $1.58 per share on Feb. 20. Ford shares closed Wednesday...
Ohio AG files objection to Chrysler sale - Bizjournals.com
The Ohio attorney general has filed a legal objection to the pending sale of Chrysler LLC, saying the filing is an attempt to protect Ohio's workers' compensation system in the pending asset sale. Richard Cordray, Ohio's attorney general,...
Chrysler Agreement Prevents Strike by UAW Until at Least 2015 - Bloomberg
By Mike Ramsey May 13 (Bloomberg) -- Chrysler LLC, seeking to sell most of its assets out of bankruptcy to a new company run by Fiat SpA, won't have to contend with a strike by the United Auto Workers until at least 2015. The union's contract with...

Chrysler

1936 Chrysler Airflow Series C-9

Chrysler LLC is an American automobile manufacturer that has manufactured automobiles since 1925. From 1998 to 2007, Chrysler and its subsidiaries were part of the German based DaimlerChrysler (now Daimler AG). Prior to 1998, Chrysler Corporation traded under the "C" symbol on the NYSE. Under DaimlerChrysler, the company was named "DaimlerChrysler Motors Company LLC", with its U.S. operations generally referred to as the "Chrysler Group".

On May 14, 2007 DaimlerChrysler AG announced the sale of 80.1% of Chrysler Group to American private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management, L.P., although Daimler continues to hold a 19.9% stake. This was when the company took on its current name. The deal was finalized on August 3, 2007.

On August 6, 2007, after the announcement of the spin-off to Cerberus, the Chrysler LLC, or "The New Chrysler", unveiled a new company logo and launched its new website with a variation of the previously used Pentastar logo. Robert Nardelli also became Chairman and CEO of Chrysler under the ownership of Cerberus.

On October 23, 2008, Daimler announced that its stake in Chrysler had a book value of zero dollars after write offs and charges.

Amid the 2008 automobile crisis, Chrysler announced in December 2008 that it was almost out of cash, and might not survive past 2009. After the defeat of the auto bailout in the Senate, Chrysler stated that they would most likely file for bankruptcy and shut down all operations permanently. On December 17, 2008, Chrysler announced that it would close all of its North American plants on December 19 for at least a month or longer. That same day, President Bush announced a $13.4 billion rescue loan for the American automakers, including Chrysler.

The company was founded by Walter P. Chrysler on June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company was re-organized into the Chrysler Corporation.

Walter Chrysler had originally arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s, having been hired to take over and overhaul the company's troubled operations (just after having done a similar rescue job at the Willys car company).

In late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended.

Then in January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile. The Chrysler was a 6-cylinder automobile, designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, but at a more affordable price than they might expect. (Elements of this car are traceable back to a prototype which had been under development at Willys at the time that Walter Chrysler was there).

The Maxwell was then dropped after its 1925 model year run, although in truth the new line of lower-priced 4-cylinder Chryslers which were then introduced for 1926 were basically Maxwells which had been re-engineered and rebranded.

It was during this period that Walter Chrysler assumed the presidency of the company, with the company then ultimately incorporated under the Chrysler name.

The advanced engineering and testing that went into Chrysler Corporation cars helped to push the company to the second-place position in U.S. sales by 1936, a position it would last hold in 1949. Among the innovations in its early years would be the first practical mass-produced four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a system nearly completely engineered by Chrysler with patents assigned to Lockheed, and rubber engine mounts to reduce vibration. The original 1924 Chrysler included a carburetor air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication, and an oil filter, at a time when most autos came without these features.

Chrysler developed a road wheel with a ridged rim, designed to keep a deflated tire from flying off the wheel. This safety wheel was eventually adopted by the auto industry worldwide.

In 1928, Chrysler Corporation began dividing their vehicle offerings by price class and function. The Plymouth brand was introduced and aimed at the low-priced end of the market by re engineering and rebadging Chrysler's 4-cylinder models. At the same time, the DeSoto marque was introduced in the medium-price field. Shortly thereafter, Chrysler bought the Dodge Brothers automobile and truck company and launched the Fargo range of trucks. By the late 1930s, the DeSoto and Dodge divisions would trade places in the corporate hierarchy. This proliferation of marques under Chrysler's umbrella might have been inspired by the similar strategy employed successfully by General Motors. Beginning in 1955, Imperial, formerly the top model of the Chrysler brand, became a marque of its own, and in 1960, the Valiant was introduced likewise as a distinct marque. In the U.S. market, Valiant was made a model in the Plymouth line and the DeSoto make was discontinued for 1961. With those exceptions per applicable year and market, Chrysler's range from lowest to highest price from the 1940s through the 1970s was Valiant, Plymouth, Dodge, DeSoto, Chrysler, and Imperial. After acquiring AMC in 1987, Chrysler fulfilled one of AMC's conditions of sale by creating the Eagle marque in 1988 to be sold at existing AMC-Jeep dealers. The Eagle brand lasted a decade, being discontinued in 1998, while Plymouth was ended three years later.

By 2001 and as of 2009, the company has three marques worldwide: Dodge, Jeep, and Chrysler.

In the 1930s, the company created a formal vehicle parts division under the MoPar brand (a portmanteau of Motor Parts), with the result that "Mopar" remains a colloquial term for vehicles produced by Chrysler Corporation. The MoPar (later Mopar) brand was not used in Canada, where parts were sold under the Chryco and AutoPar brands, until the Mopar brand was phased into the Canadian market beginning in the late 1970s.

Many Chrysler Corporation vehicle parts also bore variants of the DPCD monogram, for Dodge-Plymouth-Chrysler-DeSoto, well after the 1961 end of DeSoto production.

Chrysler's Airtemp marque for stationary and mobile air conditioning, refrigeration, and climate control was launched with the first installation in 1930's Chrysler Building, though the Airtemp Corporation would not be incorporated until 1934, when it used a former Maxwell factory. Airtemp invented capacity regulators, sealed radial compressors, and the self-contained air conditioning system, along with a superior high-speed radial compressor, and by 1941 had over 500 dealers selling its air conditioning and heating systems. The company supplied medical refrigeration units in World War II, and dominated the industry in the 1940s but slowly fell behind. By the 1970s Airtemp was losing money, and was sold to Fedders in 1976.

In 1934 the company introduced the Airflow models, featuring an advanced streamlined body, among the first to be designed using aerodynamic principles. Chrysler created the industry's first wind tunnel to develop them. Buyers rejected its styling, and the more conventionally-designed Dodge and Plymouth cars pulled the firm through the Depression years. Plymouth was one of only a few marques that actually increased sales during the cash-strapped thirties.

The unsuccessful Airflow had a chilling effect on Chrysler styling and marketing, which remained determinedly conservative through the 1940s and into the 1950s, with the single exception of the installation of hidden headlights on the very brief production run of 1942 DeSotos. Engineering advances continued, and in 1951 the firm introduced the first of a long and famous series of Hemi V8s. In 1955 things brightened with the introduction of Virgil Exner's successful Forward Look designs. With the inauguration of the second generation Forward Look cars for 1957, Torsion-Aire suspension was introduced. This was not air suspension, but an indirect-acting, torsion-spring front suspension system which drastically reduced unsprung weight and shifted the car's center of gravity downward and rearward. This resulted in both a smoother ride and significantly improved handling. A rush to production of the 1957 models led to quality control problems including poor body fit and finish, resulting in significant and early rusting. This, coupled with a national recession, found the company again in recovery mode.

Starting in the 1960 model year, Chrysler built all their passenger cars with Unibody (unit-body or monocoque) construction, except the Imperials which retained body-on-frame construction until 1967. Chrysler thus became the only one of the Big Three American automakers (General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and Chrysler) to offer unibody construction on the vast majority of their product lines. This construction technique, now the worldwide standard, offers advantages in vehicle rigidity, handling, and crash safety, while reducing squeak and rattle development as the vehicle ages. Chrysler's new compact line, the Valiant, opened strong and continued to gain market share for over a decade. Valiant was introduced as a marque of its own, but the Valiant line was placed under the Plymouth marque for US-market sales in 1961. The 1960 Valiant was the first production automobile with an alternator (generating alternating current, paired with diodes for rectification back to direct current) rather than a direct current electrical generator as standard equipment. It proved such an improvement that it was used in all Chrysler products in 1961. The DeSoto marque was withdrawn from the market after the introduction of the 1961 models due in part to the broad array of the Dodge lines and the general neglect of the division. The same affliction plagued Plymouth as it also suffered when Dodge crept into Plymouth's price range. This would eventually lead to the demise of Plymouth several decades later. An ill-advised downsizing of the full-size Dodge and Plymouth lines in 1962 hurt sales and profitability for several years.

In April 1964, the Plymouth Barracuda, which was a Valiant sub-model, was introduced. The huge glass rear window and sloping roof were polarizing styling features. Barracuda was released almost two weeks before Ford's Mustang, and so the Barracuda was chronologically the first pony car. Unlike the Mustang, Barracuda didn't do as well in sales as other division's models. Even so the Mustang still outsold the Barracuda 10-to-1 between April 1964 and August 1965.

In the 1960s Chrysler expanded into Europe, attaining a majority interest in the British Rootes Group in 1964, Simca of France and Barreiros of Spain, to form Chrysler Europe. For the Rootes Group one outcome of this take over was the launch of the Hillman Avenger in 1970 (briefly sold in the U.S. as the Plymouth Cricket), which sold in Britain alongside the rear-engined Imp and the Hunter. During the 1970s the former Rootes Group got into severe financial difficulties. The Simca and Barreiros divisions were more successful, but in the end the various problems were overwhelming and the firm gained little from these ventures. Chrysler sold these assets to PSA Peugeot Citroën in 1978, which in turn sold the British and Spanish truck production lines to Renault of France .

More successfully, at this same time the company helped create the muscle car market in the U.S., first by producing a street version of its Hemi racing engine and then by introducing a legendary string of affordable but high-performance vehicles such as the Plymouth GTX, Plymouth Road Runner, and Dodge Charger. The racing success of several of these models on the NASCAR circuit burnished the company's engineering reputation.

The 1970s were tumultuous for Chrysler. Previously, American cars had been developed without much emphasis on fuel economy, safety, or emissions, but now all automobile manufacturers had to develop smaller, lighter engines that ran much cleaner and still produced enough power to move large automobiles. U.S. anti-trust laws were interpreted as prohibiting the formation of a Japanese- or European-style industry consortium for rapid and cost-effective development of solutions to the new car safety and antipollution regulations. No cost-sharing was possible; each company had to solve each problem on its own, and Chrysler's lower sales volumes meant these new development and implementation costs made up a larger proportion of a vehicle's cost compared to Ford and General Motors. To avoid pricing themselves out of the market, they had to retrofit and detune their existing engines to meet emission requirements, which resulted in poor fuel economy just when fuel prices were rising. There was a rush of sales for the compact Dodge Dart and Plymouth Valiant, but the 1973 oil crisis sharply reduced demand for the large, fuel-thirsty vehicles Americans had previously bought in large number and which made up the bulk of Chrysler's product line.The Japanese automakers' American market share sharply increased, since their smaller cars were generally much more fuel-efficient. Chrysler bought a 15% stake of Japan's Mitsubishi Motors in 1971 and began selling rebadged Mitsubishi models in the United States.

At mid-decade, the company scored a conspicuous success with its first entry in the personal luxury car market, the Chrysler Cordoba. The hurried introduction of the Dodge Aspen and Plymouth Volaré in 1976 brough enormous warranty costs to repair faulty design and shoddy construction, and destroyed the longstanding loyalty built up by the Dart and Valiant predecessors. Chrysler Europe essentially collapsed in 1977, and was offloaded to Peugeot the following year, soon after having helped design the new Plymouth Horizon and Dodge Omni. Shortly thereafter, Chrysler Australia, which was producing a local Valiant and selling rebadged Japanese Mitsubishi Galants, was sold to Mitsubishi Motors. The subcompact Horizon was reaching the US market as the second gas crisis struck, devastating sales of Chrysler's larger cars and trucks, and the company had no strong compact line to fall back on.

On September 7, 1979, The Chrysler Corporation petitioned the United States government for US$1.5 billion in loan guarantees to avoid bankruptcy. At the same time former Ford executive Lee Iacocca was brought in as CEO. He proved to be a capable public spokesman, appearing in advertisements to advise customers that "If you find a better car, buy it." He would also provide a rallying point for Japan-bashing and instilling pride in American products. His book Talking Straight was a response to Akio Morita's Made in Japan.

The United States Congress reluctantly passed the "Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979" (Public Law 96-185) on December 20, 1979 (signed into law by President Jimmy Carter on January 7, 1980), prodded by Chrysler workers and dealers in every congressional district who feared the loss of their livelihoods. The military then bought thousands of Dodge pickup trucks which entered military service as the Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle M-880 Series. With such help and a few innovative cars (such as the K-car platform), especially the invention of the minivan concept, Chrysler avoided bankruptcy and slowly recovered.

In February 1982 Chrysler announced the sale of Chrysler Defense, its profitable defense subsidiary to General Dynamics for US$348.5 million. The sale was completed in March 1982 for the revised figure of US$336.1 million.

By 1983, the loans were fully repaid, and new models based on the K-car platform were selling well. A joint venture with Mitsubishi called Diamond Star Motors strengthened the company's hand in the small car market. Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1987, primarily for its Jeep brand, although the failing Eagle Premier would be the basis for the Chrysler LH platform sedans. This bolstered the firm, although Chrysler was still the weakest of the Big Three.

Another significant aspect of Chrysler's recovery was the revitalization of the company's manufacturing facilities, led by Richard Dauch. The factories were streamlined with more efficient machinery, more robots, better paint equipment, and so on. The resultant improvements in efficiency and vehicle quality played a big role in saving the company.

In the early 1990s, Chrysler made its first steps back into Europe, setting up car production in Austria, and beginning right hand drive manufacture of certain Jeep models in a 1993 return to the UK market. The continuing popularity of Jeep, bold new models for the domestic market such as the Dodge Ram pickup, Dodge Viper (badged as "Chrysler Viper" in Europe) sports car, and Plymouth Prowler hot rod, and new "cab forward" front-wheel drive LH sedans put the company in a strong position as the decade waned.

In 1998 Daimler-Benz purchased Chrysler, forming DaimlerChrysler AG. Chrysler Corporation then was legally renamed DaimlerChrysler Motors Company LLC, while its total operations began doing business as Chrysler Group. This was initially declared to be a merger of equals, but it quickly became evident that Daimler-Benz was the dominant partner. Despite offering a range of attractive models, Chrysler went into another of its financial tailspins soon after the merger, greatly depressing the stock price of the merged firm and causing alarm at headquarters in Germany, which sent Dieter Zetsche, who would later become CEO, to take charge. The Plymouth brand was phased out in 2001, and plans for cost cutting by sharing of platforms and components began. The Mercedes-based Chrysler Crossfire was one of the first results of this program. A return to rear-wheel drive was announced, and in 2004 a new line of full size cars, spearheaded by the Chrysler 300 using some Mercedes-Benz technology and a new HEMI V8 engine appeared and was successful. Financial performance began to improve, with Chrysler providing a significant share of DaimlerChrysler profits due to restructuring efforts at the Mercedes Car Group. The partnership with Mitsubishi was dissolved as DaimlerChrysler divested its stake in the firm due to Mitsubishi's demand for more control in the management.

According to the April 2007 issue of Der Spiegel, CEO Dieter Zetsche expressed a desire to dismantle Chrysler and sell off the majority stake and at the same time keep Chrysler "dependent" upon Mercedes-Benz after the sale.

On April 4, 2007, Dieter Zetsche said that the company was negotiating the sale of Chrysler, which was rumored for weeks before the announcement. One day after, investor Kirk Kerkorian placed a 4.5 billion dollar bid for Chrysler. On 12 April, Magna International of Canada announced it was searching for partners to place a bid for Chrysler. Magna's offer was outbid.

On May 14th of the same year, DaimlerChrysler AG announced that it would sell 80.1% of its stake in the Chrysler Group to Cerberus Capital Management for $7.4 Billion. Chrysler Group (DaimlerChrysler Corporation) would officially become Chrysler Holding LLC (changed to Chrysler LLC upon completion of the sale), with two subsidiaries – Chrysler Motors LLC (new name of DaimlerChrysler Motors Company), which produces Chrysler/Dodge/Jeep vehicles, and Chrysler Financial Services LLC (new name of DaimlerChrysler Financial Services Americas LLC), which took over the operations of Chrysler Financial. DaimlerChrysler AG changed its name to Daimler AG.

On October 10, 2007, the new company experienced its first labor dispute. A strike deadline of 11 a.m. had been set by the United Auto Workers (UAW) union leadership pending successful negotiation of a new contract patterned after the pact with GM. As the talks progressed past the deadline, most Chrysler unionized workers walked off their jobs. With media speculation about the impact of a long strike, an impromptu announcement after 5 p.m. the same day indicated that a tentative agreement had been reached, thus ending the walkout after just over six hours.

Chrysler collaborates with Tata Motors Limited of India: Tata's all-electric Ace mini truck will be sold through Chrysler's Global Electric Motorcars division. Chrysler announced in February 2008 that it would be reducing its product line from 30 models to 15 models. Chrysler was reported in August 2008 to be in talks with Fiat.

In October 2008, Cerberus and General Motors discussed an exchange of GM's 49% stake in GMAC for Chrysler, potentially merging two of Detroit's "Big Three" automakers. These talks did not come to fruition, and were discontinued the next month. On October 24, 2008, Chrysler announced a 25% cut (5,000 jobs) in its salaried and contract workforce in November 2008. Michigan Gov. Jennifer Granholm announced that she, along with 5 other governors, sent a letter to Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke requesting emergency funding for the Detroit Big Three Automakers. On the same day, General Motors asked the Treasury Department of the United States for $10 billion to help restructure both their company and possible future sibling, Chrysler so that in turn, they can become one massive company.

On November 5, 2008 it has been published that Chrysler sales in the US market have fallen 34.9 percent in only 12 months. A week later, Chrysler CEO Robert Nardelli said, in a speech at an Ernst & Young conference, that the company can only remain viable by forming an alliance with another automaker, domestic or global, as well as receiving government assistance in the form of an equity stake. Several days later, Chrysler together with Ford and General Motors, sought financial aid at a Congressional hearing in Washington D.C. in the face of worsening conditions caused by the automotive industry crisis. All three companies were unsuccessful and were invited to draft a new action plan for the sustainability of the industry.

On November 25, 2008 The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety released their Top Safety Pick awards for the year. Seventy-two vehicles earned the Top Safety Pick award for 2009. This is more than double the number of 2008 recipients and more than 3 times the number of 2007 winners. However Chrysler LLC. is the only major automaker still lacking a single Top Safety Pick.

At the beginning of December 2008, Chrysler announced that they were dangerously low on cash and may not survive past 2009. On December 17, 2008, Chrysler announced that it planned to halt production at all 30 of its manufacturing plants through January 19, 2009. In addition, Chrysler announced that it would charge fees on dealers holding inventories of new cars and trucks that are unsold after more than 360 days, and will require immediate payment of all remaining balances on inventories of used vehicles that remain unsold after six months. On December 19, President George W. Bush announced a $13.4 billion rescue loan for the American automakers, including Chrysler.

Chrysler's 2008 performance was hard hit among the Big Three U.S. automakers, with 398,119 automobiles and 1,055,003 trucks sold during the year.

On 20 January 2009, the Italian Fiat S.p.A. and Chrysler LLC announced that they have a non-binding term sheet to form a global alliance. Under the terms of the potential agreement, Fiat could take a 35% stake in Chrysler and gain access to its North American dealer network in exchange for providing Chrysler with the platform to build smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles in the US and reciprocal access to Fiat's global distribution network.

With its inception in 1925, Chrysler's logo was a round medallion with a ribbon bearing the name CHRYSLER in uppercase block letters.

Virgil Exner's radical "Forward Look" redesign of Chrysler Corporation's vehicles for the 1955 model year was underscored by the company's adoption of a logo by the same name. The Forward Look logo consisted of two overlapped boomerang shapes, suggesting space age rocket-propelled motion.

As the Forward Look styling cycle was ending, Chrysler President Lynn Townsend sought a new logo usable by all of Chrysler's worldwide divisions and subsidiaries, automotive and non-automotive, on packaging, stationery, signage and advertising. He wanted something that would be immediately identifiable as Chrysler's mark to anyone who saw it, in any culture. In September 1962, the company adopted a logo named Pentastar, made of five triangles arranged so their bases formed the sides of a pentagon. The Pentastar was simple and easily recognizable, even on revolving signs, and was not tied to any particular automotive styling feature as had been the previous Forward Look logo. Because the symbol contained no text, it facilitated Chrysler's expansion in international markets. The Pentastar was extensively used on dealer signage, advertisements, and promotional brochures, as well as on Chrysler products themselves.

Chrysler-Plymouth literature, advertisements, and dealership signage used a blue Pentastar or a white one on a blue background, while Dodge used a red Pentastar or a white one on a red background. Divisional logos such as Dodge's Fratzog were gradually phased out until, by 1981, all Chrysler divisions used only the Pentastar. All vehicle brands and all the other Chrysler divisions and services — air conditioning systems, heating, industrial engines, marine engines, outboard motors, boats, transmissions, four-wheel drive systems, powdered metal products, adhesives, chemical products, plastics, electronics, tanks, missiles, leasing, finance and auto parts — were identified by the Pentastar.

The Pentastar was placed as a maker's mark on the lower passenger-side fender of all Chrysler products, including non-US brands, from 1963 into the 1972 model year. It was placed on the passenger-side fender so it could be viewed by passers-by, a subtle method of getting the symbol ingrained in the public's mind: a nameplate has to be read, but a symbol is quickly recognizable without reading. Thus left-hand drive cars had the Pentastar on the right fender, while right-hand drive cars had it on the left. Starting in the 1980s, hood ornaments on Chrysler-brand vehicles used a gem-like version of the pentastar to signify the brand's upscale status.

The Pentastar's final badging appearance was on special editions of the 1996-2000 Plymouth Voyager. It was also applied to the steering wheel, keys, and fenders of the Voyager and the other Chrysler NS minivans.

The Pentastar continued to represent Chrysler until the merge with Daimler in 1998, when it was retired. Among the few remaining traces of this motif was a large, star-shaped window at DaimlerChrysler's American headquarters in Auburn Hills, Michigan, and Pentastar Aviation, a former DaimlerChrysler subsidiary which reverted to its original name after being purchased by a member of the Ford family. Many dealerships still have signage and other traces still visually apparent to the Pentastar, where a five-Pentastar logo remains in use as the logo of the "Five Star Dealer" service rank. Despite having been officially retired under Daimler, the Pentastar continued to make a few relatively inconspicuous appearances on Chrysler Group cars and trucks in markings on window glass and on individual components and molded-plastic assemblies. Chrysler engineers also managed to have the Pentastar cast into every third-generation Hemi cylinder block, unnoticed, apparently, by the Stuttgart bosses.

Divisional logos began to supplant the companywide Pentastar application in the early 1990s. The Dodge division phased in a ram's-head logo beginning with the 1993 Intrepid and Spirit. The Chrysler brand began using a medallion based on its original logo starting with the 1995 Cirrus and Sebring, and this logo was applied to all Chryslers by 1996. That same year, Plymouth adopted a new sailboat logo, which was a simplified version of the brand's pre-Pentastar Mayflower ship logo.

On May 17, 2007, an internal email stated that Chrysler was going to revive the Pentastar logo, in updated form, after their split from Daimler. The new three-dimensional Pentastar was formally introduced when Chrysler LLC began doing business as a private company in August 2007.

The design shown here is an adaptation of the original medallion logo which Chrysler used on its cars at its inception in 1925. The logo was revived for the Chrysler division in 1996, and was surrounded by a pair of silver wings after the Daimler-Benz merger in 1998. When sold to Cerberus, Chrysler readopted the Pentastar (see above) as their corporate logo, although the winged logo is still used on the cars themselves.

For many years, Chrysler developed gas turbine engines for automotive use. Turbines were common in many military vehicles, and Chrysler built many prototypes for passenger cars. In the 1960s, mass production seemed almost ready. Fifty Chrysler Turbine Cars, specialty designed Ghia-bodied coupes were built in 1962 and placed in the hands of regular people for final testing. The turbine engines never saw production.

Chrysler intends to pursue new drive concepts through ENVI, an in-house organization formed to focus on electric-drive vehicles and related technologies. Established in September, 2007, Chrysler's ENVI division led by Lou Rhodes specifically deals with new all-electric and hybrid vehicles not based on existing models.

With a sharp consumer slowdown in the U.S., Chrysler was exploring the possibility of foreign partnerships as it lacks resources to convert its production to smaller, more fuel-efficient cars given the soaring oil prices in 2008.

Chrysler LLC brought a wide range of green vehicles to the Detroit Auto Show, including three concept vehicles that incorporate electric drive technologies.

The Dodge ZEO concept—short for "Zero Emissions Operation"—is an all-electric sport wagon combining a 64-kilowatt-hour lithium-ion battery pack with a 200-kilowatt (268 horsepower) electric motor. The rear-wheel-drive vehicle accelerates to 60 miles per hour (mph) in less than six seconds and has a range of at least 250 miles (400 km). There is also a plug-in hybrid electric version.

The Chrysler ecoVoyager concept combines a similar battery pack and motor with a small hydrogen fuel cell to achieve a 300 miles (480 km) range. The vehicle can travel about 40 miles (64 km) on battery power alone and can accelerate to 60 mph (0.027 km) in less than eight seconds.

And the Jeep Renegade concept, a plug-in hybrid, combines a lithium-ion battery pack with dual 200-kilowatt electric motors on each axle. The Jeep can travel 40 miles (64 km) on battery power alone and can travel 400 miles (640 km) with the help of its 1.5-liter, 3-cylinder clean diesel engine. The vehicle features a lightweight aluminum architecture.

Chrysler is currently planning at least three hybrid vehicles, the Chrysler Aspen hybrid, Dodge Durango hybrid, and the Dodge Ram including HEMI engines. Chrysler plans to use hybrid technology developed jointly with General Motors and BMW AG in vehicles beyond the two hybrid SUVs it had already announced to introduce in 2008.

All-new Dodge Ram 1500 pickup will be available as a hybrid in 2010. The Dodge Ram HEMI Hybrid will combine a two-mode hybrid system with a 5.7-liter HEMI V-8 engine. For the 2009 Dodge Ram, Chrysler is launching an improved version of its HEMI V-8 engine featuring variable valve timing and a four-cylinder mode with an expanded operating range. The result is more power and torque, along with a 4% increase in fuel economy.

Chrysler has also been experimenting with a Hybrid Diesel truck for military applications.

At the 2009 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, has unveiled the Chrysler 200C EV Concept, a sports sedan with an all-electric range of 40 miles and an extended range of about 400 miles (640 km). It also added the Jeep Patriot EV, another range-extended electric vehicle.If Chrysler does release an all-electric sports car in 2010, it will be in direct competition with two North American startup companies: Tesla Motors and Fisker Automotive.

Chrysler's ENVI division, which is dedicated to creating production electric drive vehicles, announced in September 2008 that Chrysler LLC will have electric vehicles in showrooms by 2010. They showed three "production intent" vehicles and stated that these are going to be the first of a broad portfolio of electric vehicles.

Chrysler is in the Advisory Council of the PHEV Research Center.

In 1987, it was discovered that Chrysler sold an estimated 32,750 cars that had been test-driven with disconnected odometers - some as much as 500 miles - before being shipped to dealers. Chrysler settled out of court with complainants. Chrysler CEO Lee Iacocca sought to minimize damage to the corporation's public image by calling a news conference in which he termed the action "dumb" and "unforgivable".

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Chrysler Voyager

2001-2003 Chrysler Voyager

The Chrysler Voyager was a minivan marketed by Chrysler LLC in the United States from 2000-2007 exclusively as a short wheelbase (SWB) model, replacing the Plymouth Voyager after Chrysler dropped the Plymouth brand — and offered only in Generation III and IV of Chrysler's five generation minivan series.

Though no longer available in North America, Chrysler continues to use Chrysler Voyager nameplate in global markets, e.g., Mexico, Europe.

Together with its nameplate variants, the Dodge Caravan, Chrysler Town & Country, Plymouth Voyager and Volkswagen Routan, the Chrysler minivans have ranked as the 13th bestselling automotive nameplate worldwide, with over 12 million sold.

The European Chrysler Voyager was first released in 1988, nearly identical to its American counterpart, the Plymouth Voyager; the only visual differences between the two were the head/taillights and grille. Besides of the slightly different appearance European Voyagers were sold with different engines, including diesel engines, which are popular in Europe; the trim was also different.

The current European Voyagers are very similar to the 2008 Chrysler Town & Country cars. Although produced in Ontario now, they are still available with diesel engines. They are sold as Chrysler Grand Voyagers in Europe, since 2008 only in the long wheelbase version (as in North America).

For 2000, the Chrysler Voyager was identical to the Plymouth Voyager except that the 3.8 L V6 was not available for the Chrysler Voyager. Base models of the Voyager were offered in most states with either a 2.4 L four-cylinder or a 3.0 L Mitsubishi V6 engine, except in California and several northeastern states, where the Mitsubishi V6 didn't meet emissions standards. In those locales, the 3.3 L engine was offered instead.

From 2001 to 2007, the Voyager was offered in the SWB model only, replacing the SWB Plymouth Voyager. It resembled the Town and Country more than the previous generation, the only major cosmetic difference besides the trim (where the Town and Country's is fancier) was the placement of the Chrysler emblem on the grille. After the 2007 model year, the Voyager was discontinued and replaced by the Chrysler Town and Country, SWB model.

Chrysler began offering the Voyager with Generation I, followed by a Generation II model marketed as the Town and Country in 2001 with a new engine range — including larger, more economical diesel engines and more fuel-efficient petrol engines.

The 2009 Grand Voyager uses a 2.8 L (2768 cc, 169 cu in) CRD 163 hp (120 kW) diesel motor that gets a combined fuel economy of 9.3 L/100 km (30 mpg-imp; 25 mpg-US).

In 1996, Chrysler had introduced a system of seats to simplify installation, removal, and re-positioning— marketed as Easy-Out Roller Seats. The system remained in use throughout the life of the Chrysler Voyager.

When installed, the seats are latched to floor-mounted strikers. When unlatched, eight rollers lift each seat, allowing it to be rolled fore and aft. Tracks have locator depressions for rollers, thus enabling simple installation. Ergonomic levers at the seatbacks release the floor latches single handedly without tools and raise the seats onto the rollers in a single motion. Additionally, seatbacks were designed to fold forward. Seat roller tracks are permanently attached to the floor and seat stanchions are aligned, fascillitating the longitiudinal rolling of the seats. Bench seat stanchions were moved inboard to reduce bending stress in the seat frames, allowing them to be lighter.

When configured as two and three person benches, the Easy Out Roller Seats could be unwieldy. Beginning in 2001, second and third row seats became available in a 'quad' configuration — bucket or captain chairs in the second row and a third row three-person 50/50 split "bench" — with each section weighing under 50 lbs.

According to EuroNCAP crash test results, the 1996 model Chrysler Voyager 'did so badly in the frontal impact that it earned no points, making it the worst of the group. The body structure became unstable and the steering column was driven back into the driver's chest and head'. The 2006 model Chrysler Voyager fared little better, achieving just 19% in the frontal impact test, with an overall score of 2 stars out of a possible 5. However, chest compression measurements on the test dummy 'indicated an unacceptably high risk of serious or fatal injury. As a result, the final star in the adult occupant rating is struck-through'.

In the early years of the European Voyager the cars were produced in North America and were exported to Europe (1988-1991). In 1991 the first "made-in-Austria" Voyagers were produced in Austria at the Eurostar plant nearby Graz. Eurostar was a Joint Venture between Chrysler and the Austrian company Steyr-Daimler-Puch. It was later acquired by Daimler-Chrysler and finally the plant was sold to Magna Steyr in 2002. The minivan production ended there at the end of 2007. Units produced in Austria were marketed in Europe, Asia, and Africa. They were built with Gasoline and diesel engines, in short wheelbase (SWB) and long wheelbase versions and in right and left-hand drive versions (all sold as Chrysler Voyager cars).

The current European Voyagers (2008 model) are now produced in Windsor, Ontario, Canada and exported to the European market.

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Daimler AG

Daimler AG (ISIN: DE0007100000) (formerly Daimler-Benz AG, DaimlerChrysler AG) is a German car corporation (not to be confused with the British Daimler Motor Company) and the world's thirteenth largest car manufacturer as well as the largest truck manufacturer in the world. In addition to automobiles, Daimler manufactures trucks and provides financial services through its Daimler Financial Services arm. The company also owns major stakes in aerospace group EADS, high-technology and parent company of the Vodafone McLaren Mercedes racing team McLaren Group, Japanese truck maker Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation and a minority stake in US automaker Chrysler Holding LLC.

DaimlerChrysler was founded in 1998 when Mercedes-Benz manufacturer Daimler-Benz (1926-1998) of Stuttgart, Germany merged with the US-based Chrysler Corporation. The deal created a new entity, DaimlerChrysler. However, the buyout failed to produce the trans-Atlantic automotive powerhouse dealmakers had hoped for, and DaimlerChrysler announced on May 14, 2007 that it would sell Chrysler to Cerberus Capital Management of New York, a private equity firm that specializes in restructuring troubled companies. On October 4, 2007 a DaimlerChrysler Extraordinary Shareholders' Meeting approved the renaming of the company. From October 5, 2007, the company has been titled Daimler AG. The US company adopted the name Chrysler LLC when the sale completed on August 3, 2007.

Daimler produces cars and trucks under the brands of Mercedes-Benz, Maybach, Smart, Freightliner and many others.

Daimler AG is a German manufacturer of automobiles, motor vehicles, and engines, which dates back more than a century.

An Agreement of Mutual Interest was signed on May 1, 1924 between Benz & Cie (founded 1883) of Karl Benz and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (founded 1890) of Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach.

Both companies continued to manufacture their separate automobile and internal combustion engine brands until, on June 28, 1926, when Benz & Cie. and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft AG formally merged—becoming Daimler-Benz AG—and agreed that thereafter, all of the factories would use the brand name of Mercedes-Benz on their automobiles.

In 1998 Daimler-Benz AG "merged" with the American automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation, and formed DaimlerChrysler AG. In 2007, when the Chrysler group was sold off to Cerberus Capital Management, the name of the parent company was changed to simply Daimler AG.

Chrysler has suffered a series of setbacks in recent years, culminating in DaimlerChrysler's agreement to sell the unit to Cerberus Capital Management in May 2007 for US$6 billion. Through most of its history, Chrysler has been the third largest of the "Big 3" US auto makers, but in January 2007, DaimlerChrysler, excluding its luxury Mercedes and Maybach lines, also outsold traditionally second place Ford, though behind General Motors and Toyota.

Chrysler reported losses of US$1.5 billion in 2006. It then announced plans to lay off 13,000 employees in mid-February 2007, close a major assembly plant and reduce production at other plants in order to restore profitability by 2008.

The merger was contentious with investors launching lawsuits over whether the transaction was the 'merger of equals' that senior management claimed or actually amounted to a Daimler-Benz takeover of Chrysler. A class action investor lawsuit was settled in August 2003 for US$300 million while a suit by billionaire investor activist Kirk Kerkorian was dismissed on April 7, 2005. The transaction claimed the job of its architect, Chairman Jürgen E. Schrempp, who resigned at the end of 2005 in response to the fall of the company's share price following the transaction. The merger was also the subject of a book Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off With Chrysler, (2000) by Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz.

Another issue of contention is whether the merger delivered promised synergies and successfully integrated the two businesses. As late as 2002, DaimlerChrysler appeared to run two independent product lines. Later that year, the company launched products that appear to integrate elements from both sides of the company, including the Chrysler Crossfire, which used extensive Mercedes parts and the Dodge Sprinter/Freightliner Sprinter, a re-badged Mercedes-Benz Sprinter van.

DaimlerChrysler had reportedly approached other carmakers and investment groups to sell Chrysler in early 2007. General Motors was reported to be a suitor while Volkswagen, the Renault-Nissan auto alliance, and Hyundai Motor Company had said that they weren't interested in buying the company.

On August 3, 2007, DaimlerChrysler completed the sale of Chrysler Group to Cerberus Capital Management. The original agreement stated that Cerberus would take an 80.1 percent stake in the new company, Chrysler Holding LLC. DaimlerChrysler changed its name to Daimler AG and retained the remaining 19.9% stake in the separated Chrysler.

The terms saw Daimler pay Cerberus US$650 million to take Chrysler and associated liabilities off its hands. This is a remarkable reverse in fortunes on the US$36 billion paid to acquire Chrysler in 1998. Of the US$7.4 billion purchase price, Cerberus Capital Management will invest US$5 billion in Chrysler Holdings and US$1.05 billion in Chrysler’s financial unit. The de-merged Daimler AG received US$1.35 billion directly from Cerberus but directly invested US$2 billion in Chrysler itself.

Dr. Dieter Zetsche has been the Chairman of Daimler and Head of Mercedes-Benz Cars since January 1, 2006 as well as member of Board of Management since 1998. He was former President and CEO of the Chrysler, LLC (previously owned by Daimler AG), he maybe best known in the United States as Dr. Z from a Chrysler advertising campaign called "Ask Dr. Z".

Current members of the Supervisory Board of Daimler AG are: Heinrich Flegel, Juergen Hambrecht, Thomas Klebe, Erich Klemm, Arnaud Lagardère, Jürgen Langer, Helmut Lense, Sari Baldauf, William Owens, Ansgar Osseforth, Valter Sanches, Manfred Schneider, Stefan Schwaab, Bernhard Walter, Lynton Wilson, Mark Wössner, Manfred Bischoff, Clemens Börsig and Uwe Werner. Dr Manfred Bischoff serves as the Chairman of the Supervisory Board of Daimler AG and Erich Klemm as Vice-Chairman.

The largest shareholder of Daimler AG is the Kuwait Investment Authority with 7.6% (as of August 1, 2008).

Tesla Motors has supposedly inked some sort of technology deal with Daimler .

Daimler AG is involved in a joint project with Archer Daniels Midland Company and Bayer CropScience to develop jatropha as a biofuel.

Carmaker Daimler AG and utility RWE AG are going to beging a joint electric car and charging station test project in the German capital, Berlin, called "E-Mobility Berlin." .

Mercedes-Benz is launching its first passenger car model equipped with a hybrid drive system in summer 2009, the Mercedes-Benz S 400 BlueHYBRID .

Daimler Trucks is the world market leader in hybrid systems. With its “Shaping Future Transportation” initiative, Daimler is pursuing a clear-cut objective for trucks and buses. The Mitsubishi Fuso “Aero Star Eco Hybrid” is now setting new standards in practical trials in Japan .

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Chrysler Australia

Prototype of the "Hemi" 245 cubic inch engine

Chrysler Australia is a trading name for DaimlerChrysler Australia/Pacific Pty Ltd. It is the importer of Chrysler, Jeep and Dodge vehicles for sale in the Australian marketplace. However, there was another "Chrysler Australia Ltd" which operated from 1951 until 1981.

Chrysler departed the Australian car market in 1981 when it sold the remainder of its shareholding in Chrysler Australia Ltd to the Mitsubishi Motor Corporation of Japan. The new owner renamed the company "Mitsubishi Motors Australia Ltd" and this company continues to operate today as an importer of Mitsubishi vehicles. Manufacturing ceased in March 2008.

Chrysler established its presence in Australia in 1951, when it acquired the long established South Australian motor body builder TJ Richards. Richards had built bodies for North American Chrysler chassis for many years in their factory at Keswick in Adelaide. This building still stands today, with faded "Chrysler" signage still visible. (The building is now a furniture retailing warehouse).

During the 1950s and 1960s, Chrysler made a substantial investment in Australian manufacturing facilities, including building a new assembly plant at Tonsley Park in 1966 and an engine foundry in 1967. During this time, Chrysler established its position as the third of the "Big 3" Australian motor manufacturers (the others being General Motors-Holden and Ford).

Initially, Chrysler Australia assembled North American Chrysler passenger cars and trucks. Their most popular car in the 1950s was the US sourced badge engineered trio: Plymouth Cranbrook, Dodge Kingsway and De Soto Diplomat, each based on the 1954 US Plymouth. A coupe utility variant was also developed by Chrysler Australia and this was marketed in nine different versions; the Plymouth Cranbrook, Savoy & Belvedere, the Dodge Kingsway Custom, Kingsway Crusader & Kingsway Coronet and the De Soto Diplomat Custom, Diplomat Regent & Diplomat Plaza. The Plymouth sedan was a popular choice for taxicab usage however the rise in popularity of the Holden during this decade led to the decline of this range of cars.

In 1957, Chrysler Australia consolidated each of the badge engineered marques in one car- the Chrysler Royal. This was a facelifted version of the 1954 Plymouth, and it was to continue in production until 1963. The Royal was an automotive curiosity. Starting life as a side valve 6 cylinder manual, with 3 speed manual column gearchange, it was progressively modified, with the addition of US sourced engineering features such as power steering, the push button "Powerflite" automatic gearbox and an OHV V8. On the styling front US "Forward Look" style tailfins were grafted on the rear of the car, while the front end gained dual (vertically stacked) headlights. These changes failed to arrest the slide in sales, as General Motors-Holden came to dominate the Australian market, and the Royal was viewed as being outmoded and expensive. Production ceased in 1963.

The saving grace for Chrysler at this time was the French Simca Aronde- a popular 4 cylinder compact car which Chrysler Australia assembled from CKD kits at their Keswick factory. Local engineers developed a unique to Australia Aronde station wagon, with a then novel for Australia wind down rear window and tailgate. (Chrysler USA acquired an interest in Simca in 1958, hence providing the basis for sourcing of this car).

Chrysler Australia also produced the American sourced Dodge Phoenix from 1960 to 1973.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Chrysler initially imported, then assembled the Valiant - developing a unique Australian version of the Chrysler A body car.

Initially, Chrysler assembled the Plymouth Valiant - rebadged "Chrysler", but by 1964, they developed a local version, with distinctive styling, so that the car would have a separate identity from the US Plymouth and Dodge variants. The reason for developing a distinctive car was concern that the local manufacturer could not afford to make substantial styling changes as quickly as in the US. Hence, a modified appearance would minimise the risk of accusations that Australia was sellng "last year's model".

Through the 1960s, Chrysler expanded the Valiant range, with 2 door hardtop, long wheelbase (VIP) and sporty (Pacer) variants.

Also, in 1966, with the Chrysler USA acquisition of the British Rootes Group, Chrysler Australia took over the Rootes Australia as well as the operation of their Port Melbourne factory. The principal Rootes model sold in Australia was the Hillman Hunter and this car became a steady seller for Chrysler until 1973.

In 1970, they introduced the unique to Australia "Hemi" 6 cylinder engine- launched with an endorsement from Stirling Moss. Billed as being "Right- for all the right reasons", this engine went on to become the most powerful 6 cylinder engine produced in Australia (equipped with triple Weber carburettors).

This engine was based on a US engine design for trucks. However, it was never produced in North America.

The Valiant was a good seller, but never quite gained the level of market acceptance as its major competitors- the Holden and the Falcon.

In 1971, Chrysler Australia released what is their most memorable car - the Valiant Charger. This was a short wheelbase (105 inch) two door hardtop version of the standard Valiant. The car had distinctive sporty styling, including an integrated rear spoiler.

The base model Charger was $A2750, and the range extended upwards with high performance and luxury models.

Charger won the "Wheels" magazine Car of the Year award in 1971. It was also a winner in the sales stakes, capturing the imagination of the Australian public in the same way as the Ford Mustang did in the US and the Ford Capri did in the UK.

In 1975, Chrysler introduced the Centura with a choice of a 2 litre 4 cylinder or 3.5 litre or 4.0 litre 6 cylinder engines, and two trim levels- XL and GL.

This was a medium size competitor for the Holden Torana and the Ford Cortina.

The Centura was based on the European Chrysler 180 (which had been introduced in Europe in 1970), with facelifted front and rear styling (reputedly based on the intended design for a Sunbeam version of this car, which never reached production).

The launch of Centura was delayed by several years as a result of embargoes placed on French imports which impeded the supply of parts (the embargoes were due to France conducting Pacific nuclear bomb tests).

By the time the car arrived in Australia, its appearance was dated and as a result, the Centura did not generate significant market interest. It quietly disappeared from the market in 1978.

Chrysler Australia increasingly relied upon Japanese sourced Mitsubishi cars- commencing assembly of the Galant in 1972, then adding the Lancer and commercial vehicles. Interestingly, between 1972-5, the Galant was sold as the "Valiant Galant".

The association with Mitsubishi gave Chrysler Australia another winner- the 1977 Chrysler Sigma. With a range of 4 cylinder "Silent Shaft" engines, competitive pricing, "Japanese" style and the availability of a luxurious "SE" version, with optional leather trim (an innovative sales approach in its era), the Sigma marked Chrysler's sales comeback. Sigma soon became market leader in its class.

At this time, Chrysler US staged its retreat from Australia, progressively selling its interest in Chrysler Australia Ltd to Mitsubishi- and finally departing in 1981.

Chrysler re-entered the Australian marketplace in the early 1990s, initially selling the Jeep Wagoneer, then expanding the range to include the Chrysler Neon (discontinued in 2002) Grand Cherokee, Jeep Commander, PT Cruiser, Crossfire, 300C, Voyager and Dodge Caliber.

Initially, the attraction of the Jeep range was "value for money" although the first cars became known for poor reliability.

The current range of vehicles are imported from the United States, Mexico, Germany, and Austria.

The Chrysler 300C has rapidly carved out a successful niche as an alternative to Australian prestige cars (which are extended wheelbase versions of traditional Australian "family" cars) - the Holden Statesman and Ford Fairlane. Indeed, sales of the Fairlane have declined to the stage that Ford Australia have announced that it will be discontinued. In this respect, the 300C can be viewed as a successor to the large cars previously marketed by Chrysler Australia Ltd (Chrysler Royal, Dodge Phoenix, Chrysler Valiant Regal, Chrysler VIP and "Chrysler by Chrysler").

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Source : Wikipedia