College Basketball

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Posted by sonny 02/28/2009 @ 00:04

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College Basketball Invitational

College Basketball Invitational

The College Basketball Invitational (CBI) is a men's college basketball tournament created in 2007 by The Gazelle Group. The inaugural tournament occurred after the conclusion of the 2007-08 men's college basketball regular season. The CBI selects 16 teams that are not selected for the NCAA Tournament. The CBI competes directly with the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) for teams. Teams in the CBI tournament compete on the home court of the higher seeded team. The tournament is single elimination, until the final two teams are determined, and then the championship is determined by a best two-out-of-three format.

The 2008 College Basketball Invitational was the first new postseason tournament since the Collegiate Commissioners Association Tournament in 1974. The opening round was played on March 18, 2008 and March 19, 2008, with the second round being played on March 24, 2008. The semifinals took place on March 26, 2008. The championship was a best-of-three series with games being played on March 31, April 2 and April 4, 2008. The bracketing was done in east, west, south and midwest regions.

Tulsa was crowned the champion in the 2008 tournament.

On March 4, 2008, the CBI announced an exclusive television partnership with Fox College Sports to broadcast the inaugural CBI. In addition, in the inaugural year, games were available in local markets on Fox Sports Net and DirecTV. The games could also be viewed on the official website for a fee, which varied depending on the different packages. In 2008, single game costed $6.95, a 24-hour pass costed $9.95, and a full tournament subscription cost $12.95.

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College basketball

Game between the Illinois State Redbirds and the Ball State Cardinals on February 17, 2007, in an ESPN Bracketbuster contest.

College basketball most often refers to the American basketball competitive governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Basketball in the NCAA is divided into three divisions: Division I, Division II and Division III.

There are also thirteen independent Division I schools without conference affiliation, for the 2008-09 season.

In past decades, the NBA held to tradition and drafted players who had graduated from college. This was a mutually beneficial relationship for the NBA and colleges—the colleges held onto players who would otherwise go professional, and the NBA did not have to fund a minor league. As the college game became commercialized, though, it became increasingly difficult for "student athletes" to be students. Specifically, a growing number of poor, under-educated, highly talented teenage basketball players found the system exploitative—they brought in funds to schools where they learned little and played without income.

The American Basketball Association began to employ players whose college classes had not yet graduated. After a season of junior college, a season at the University of Detroit, and an Olympic gold medal, Spencer Haywood played the 1969-70 season with the ABA's Denver Rockets. He signed with the NBA's Seattle SuperSonics in 1970, before his college class graduation, defying NBA rules. Haywood pleaded that, as his family's sole wage earner, he should be allowed to earn a living in the NBA or else his family would face destitution. The ensuing legal battle went to the U.S. Supreme Court which ruled in 1971 that the NBA does not have the same antitrust exemption enjoyed by Major League Baseball. Thereafter, collegiate players demonstrating economic hardship were allowed early entry into the NBA Draft. The hardship requirement was eliminated in 1976.

In 1974, Moses Malone joined the Utah Stars of the American Basketball Association (which became part of the NBA after the ABA-NBA merger in 1976) straight out of high school and went on to a Hall of Fame career. The past 30 years have seen a remarkable change in the college game. The best international players routinely skip college entirely, many American stars skip college ( Shawn Kemp, Kevin Garnett, Kobe Bryant, Tracy McGrady, Dwight Howard, Amare Stoudemire and LeBron James) or only play one year (Carmelo Anthony, Chris Bosh), and only a dozen or so college graduates are now among the 60 players selected in the annual NBA Draft. Fewer high schoolers will progress directly to the NBA without at least one year of college basketball beginning in 2006; citing maturity concerns after several incidents involving young players, the labor agreement between players and owners now specifies that players must turn 19 years of age during the calendar year of the draft to be eligible. Additionally, U.S. players must be at least one year removed from their high school graduation.

The pervasiveness of college basketball throughout the nation, the large population of graduates from "major conference" universities, and the NCAA's marketing of "March Madness" (officially the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship), have kept the college game alive and well. Some commentators have argued that the higher turnover of players has increased the importance of good coaches. Many teams have been highly successful, for instance, by emphasizing personality in their recruiting efforts, with the goal of creating a cohesive group that, while lacking stars, plays together for all 4 years and thus develops a higher level of sophistication than less stable teams could achieve.

The NCAA Men's Basketball Rules Committee, consisting of coaches from all three divisions of the NCAA, sets the rules for college men's basketball play. Although many of the NBA rules apply in NCAA play, there are differences that make NCAA play unique.

An NCAA game is divided into two halves, each 20 minutes long, while NBA games are played in four quarters of 12 minutes each. The NCAA shot clock gives a team 35 seconds to shoot while the NBA's shot clock gives teams 24 seconds. Also, NCAA teams are allowed ten seconds to move the ball past half court, while NBA rules allow only eight.

Though the height of the basket, the foul line's distance from the backboard, and the court dimensions are the same, the distance between the three point line and the backboard is different. The NBA three point line measures 23 feet 9 inches (7.2 m) at the top of the circle, or 22 feet (6.7 m) in the corners or baseline. On the NCAA court, the three point line had been a constant 19 feet 9 inches (6.0 m), but the NCAA Rules Committee voted in May 2007 to extend it a foot more to 20 feet 9 inches (6.3 m), which became effective beginning the 2008–09 season. The NCAA lane measures 12 feet (3.7 m) in width, while the NBA lane is 16 feet (4.9 m).

NCAA players are allowed five personal fouls before fouling out, as opposed to their NBA counterparts, who are allowed six. The number of team fouls allotted is also different. In both NBA and NCAA games, team fouls can be categorized as shooting or non-shooting. A shooting foul occurs when a player gets fouled in the act of shooting, giving him the chance to shoot free throws. A non-shooting foul consists of all other fouls, including making contact with the opposing player while "reaching in" to steal the ball.

A team may make a certain number of non-shooting fouls per period before the opposing team is awarded free throws. In the NBA, the fifth team foul in a quarter places the team in penalty. For every foul after the fifth, whether it's shooting or non-shooting, gives the opposing team two free throws. In the NCAA, the penalty begins after the seventh team foul in a half. However, the fouled player must make the first free throw in order to get the second. This is called a "one and one" or "one and the bonus" situation. After the tenth team foul, the "double bonus" situation comes into play, meaning that every subsequent team foul results in two free throws for the opposing team.

When a dispute over ball possession arises, the jump ball is used in the NBA. In the NCAA, no jump ball occurs after the opening tip. Since 1981, a possession arrow on the scorer's table has dictated which team should possess the ball, with the arrow switching directions after each use.

In addition, the NBA limits what types of defense a team can play, primarily in an effort to prevent coaches from slowing down the pace of the game by using zone defenses. Zone defense is permitted in the NBA, however, players cannot stand in the lane for more than three seconds if they are not guarding anyone. In NCAA basketball, no such rules exist, and coaches are free to design a variety of defensive techniques.

The uniforms even have similarities to the NBA. In college basketball, it is required by rule that the home team wears their white or light-colored jerseys while the visiting team wears their darker jersey color. The NBA, like other professional sports leagues, lets the home team decide which uniform to wear, but with a few exceptions the home team has continued the tradition of the college game and wears white (or in the case of the Los Angeles Lakers for non-Sunday home games, gold) at home.

While less commercialized than Division I, Division II and Division III are both highly successful college basketball organizations. Women's Division I is often televised, but to smaller audiences than Men's Division I. Generally, small colleges join Division II, while colleges of all sizes that choose not to offer athletic scholarships join Division III. D-II and D-III games, understandably, are almost never televised, although CBS televises the Championship Final of Division II, while CBS College Sports Network televises the semifinals as well as the Division III Final.

The NAIA also sponsors men and women's college level basketball. The NAIA Men's Basketball National Championship has been held annually since 1937 (with the exception of 1944), when it was established by James Naismith to crown a national champion for smaller colleges and universities. Unlike the NCAA Tournament, the NAIA Tournament features only 32 teams, and the entire tournament is contested in one week instead of three weekends. Since 2002 the NAIA National Tournament has been played in Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, Missouri. (From 1994-2001 it was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and from 1937-1993 it was held at Municipal then Kemper Arena in Kansas City).

Since 1992, the NAIA has sponsored a Division II championship, similar to the NCAA Division I and II.

The only school to have won national titles in both the NAIA and NCAA Division I is Louisville; the Cardinals have also won the NIT title. Southern Illinois has won NAIA and NIT titles. Central Missouri and Fort Hays State have won NAIA and NCAA Division II national titles.

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Men's college basketball on television

Men's College basketball on television includes the broadcasting of college basketball games, as well as pre- and post-game reports, analysis, and human-interest stories. Within the United States, the college version of basketball annually garners high television ratings.

Televising the games allows alumni to follow their alma mater's team, as well as competing schools and top-ranked schools nationally. Not all games are televised. Coverage is dependent on negotiations between the broadcaster and the college basketball conference or team. In general, major programs will be televised more often than smaller programs. The televised games may change from year-to-year depending on which teams are having a strong season, although some traditional rivalry games are broadcast each year. Major match-ups between top-ranked teams or major rivals are often broadcast nationally. Some games are traditionally associated with a specific event or holiday, and viewing the game itself can become a holiday tradition for fans.

The NCAA believed that broadcasting one game a week would prevent further controversy while limiting any decrease in attendance. However, the Big Ten Conference was unhappy with the arrangement, and it pressured the NCAA to allow regional telecasts as well. Finally, in 1955 the NCAA revised its plan, keeping eight national games while permitting regional telecasts during five specified weeks of the season. This was essentially the television plan that stayed in place until the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia filed suit against the NCAA in 1981, alleging antitrust violations.

On June 27, 1984, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in NCAA v. Board of Regents of University of Oklahoma that the NCAA's television plan violated the Sherman Antitrust Act. As a result, individual schools and athletic conferences were freed to negotiate contracts on their own behalf. Together with the growth of cable television, this ruling resulted in the explosion of broadcast options currently available.

One of the most significant side-effects of the changes in television policy since 1984 has been the sharp decrease in independent schools and realignment of athletic conferences, as schools sought to pool and increase their bargaining power.

Notably, each college playing a basketball game is allowed to run a commercial for their school during the halftime break, as is the teams' conference(s).

In addition, some regional syndicators broadcast games on over the air television. Most notably Raycom Sports, and ESPN Plus syndicate their games to broadcast stations.

Raycom in the early 1990s paid ABC $1.8 million for six weeks of network airtime of 26 regional games. The format allowed Raycom to control the games and sell the advertising.

Regional cable networks have long devoted coverage to one or two conferences. The Pac-10 and Big 12 have had deals with Fox Sports Net since 1996, which airs games on its regional family of networks.

The Mountain West Conference has entered into an arrangement with CBS College Sports Network to develop a new regional network called "the Mountain" or "mtn" that is devoted to broadcasting the league's games. The Big Ten also has a similar regional network, with the Big Ten Network having made its debut in August 2007.

ESPN has been airing regular season games since 1980, ESPN2 since 1993, ESPNU since 2005, and to a lesser extent ESPN Classic will show fewer games per season.

College basketball has been a staple for nearly the whole history of ESPN. Scotty Connal, then-vice president of the all-sports network in Bristol, Conn., offered Dick Vitale a position, shortly after being fired from the Detroit Pistons. The coverage of college basketball and the early rounds of the NCAA Tournament increased both college basketball and ESPN's credibility .

In 1974, Brent Musburger started using the term March Madness when describing the tournament.

In 1991, CBS received exclusive rights to the entire tournament for the first time. Previously, ESPN had aired early round games.

The ESPN family of networks currently air the NIT games.

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Source : Wikipedia