3.4186886938551 (1937)
Posted by kaori 04/24/2009 @ 00:15

Tags : colorado, states, us

News headlines
Houston at Colorado - USA Today
(Sports Network) - The Houston Astros and Colorado Rockies wrap up a three- game series that's seen plenty of offense when the two teams square off again this afternoon at Coors Field. The Rockies were the only ones with the bats working in the opener,...
Colorado officials reconsider drilling tax credit - Boston Globe
A preliminary analysis shows that repealing the deduction could cost oil and gas producers in Colorado at least $1 billion in tax benefits, Ritter said. That could discourage companies' investments and drive up costs for consumers, he added....
10 Colorado Chrysler Dealerships to Close - KKTV 11 News
11News has learned 10 of those dealers are in the state of Colorado. That's about a quarter of its dealers. The automaker is facing bankruptcy. The dealers likely will have a right to appeal to get off the list. But if they do close, Chrysler will not...
$400M paid so far to Colorado nuclear workers - Forbes
The money went to 5042 Colorado claimants under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, which was created to help people suffering cancer and other illnesses caused by exposure to toxic substances, the department said...
Hewlett-Packard gets a sweeter offer from Colorado Springs -
As Hewlett-Packard Co. prepares to build a data center on its existing campus in Colorado Springs, the city has offered it tax rebates to keep more jobs in the area. According to local news reports, Colorado Springs will give HP up to $4.8 million in...
Texas Deputy DA Arrested in Colorado for DUI - Avvo
A county deputy district attorney from El Paso, Texas was arrested by Colorado Springs police for a DUI after the suspect allegedly ran a red light and hit a curb, NBC affiliate KOAA reports. Sebasti Emma Adams, 30, has reportedly been suspended with...
realtytrac: Colorado 9th in April foreclosures -
Colorado had the ninth-highest foreclosure rate in the nation in April, up from 10th in March, according to realtytrac Inc. A total of 5495 Colorado properties were in foreclosure in April, or one per every 387 households, according to data released at...
Crocs to close Colorado distribution center, consolidate LA operations -
Crocs Inc. will close its distribution center in Aurora, Colo., on July 8 as part of a move to cut costs by consolidating warehouse facilities in Los Angeles, the Colorado shoemaker said Monday. The move will eliminate 37 jobs at the distribution...
Dick Monfort throws support behind Hurdle -
Hurdle, in his seventh season with Colorado, is in the final year of his contract. The Rockies' record since they won the National League pennant in 2007 -- by winning 21 of their final 22 games -- has led to speculation about Hurdle's future....
Colorado prisons ease flu-related limits on visits - KRDO
AP - May 13, 2009 9:14 PM ET DENVER (AP) - Colorado prison officials are lifting restrictions on visits to inmates that were enacted after swine flu spread to the state. The state Department of Corrections said Wednesday that it was lifting the...


Map of the United States with Colorado highlighted

The State of Colorado (pronounced /kɒləˈrædoʊ/ or /kɒləˈrɑːdoʊ/ (help·info)) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. Colorado may also be considered to be a part of the Western and Southwestern regions of the United States. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the state population was 4,861,515 in 2007, a 13.03% increase since the U.S. Census 2000. Denver is the capital of Colorado and the state's most populous city. Residents of Colorado are properly known as "Coloradans", although the archaic term "Coloradoan" is still used.

The State of Colorado is defined as the geoellipsoidal rectangle that stretches from 37°N to 41°N latitude and from 102°03'W to 109°03'W longitude (25°W to 32°W from the Washington Meridian). Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah are the only three U.S. states that have only lines of latitude and longitude for boundaries and that have no natural borders. When government surveyors established the border markers for the Territory of Colorado, minor surveying errors created several small kinks along the borders, most notably along the border with the Territory of Utah. The surveyors' benchmarks, once agreed upon by the interested parties, became the legal boundaries for the Colorado Territory.

The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet (4,401 m) elevation in Lake County is the state's highest point and the highest point in the entire Rocky Mountains. Colorado has more than 100 mountain peaks that exceed 4,000 meters (13,123 ft) elevation. Colorado is the only U.S. state that lies entirely above 1,000 meters (3,281 ft) elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County, Colorado, and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in the State of Colorado at 3,315 feet (1,010 m) elevation. This crossing point holds the distinction of being the highest low point of any U.S. state.

Nearly half of the state is flat in stark contrast to Colorado's rugged Rocky Mountains. East of the Southern Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Colorado at elevations ranging from roughly 3350 to 6500 feet (1010 to 2000 m). The states of Kansas and Nebraska border Colorado to the east. The plains are sparsely settled with most population along the South Platte and the Arkansas rivers. Precipitation is meager, averaging from 12 to 18 inches (300 to 450 mm) annually. There is some irrigated farming, but much of the land is used for dryland farming or ranching. Winter wheat is a typical crop and most small towns in the region boast both a water tower and a grain elevator.

The bulk of Colorado's population lives along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This region is partially protected from prevailing storms by the high mountains to the west.

To the west lies the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains with notable peaks such as Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak, and the Spanish Peaks near Walsenburg in the south. This area drains to the east, is forested, and partially urbanized. During the drought of 2002 devastating forest fires swept this area.

Hinsdale County, with Lake City (population appx. 300) as it's seat, has been judged the most remote county in the 48 contiguous states. It has only one incorporated town (Lake City). It is one of the only places within the continental United States that one can venture more than 10 miles (16 km) from any road.

The Continental Divide stretches across the crest of the Rocky Mountains. To the west of the Continental Divide is the Western Slope. Water west of the Continental Divide drains west into the Sea of Cortez via the Colorado River.

Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks or high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is North Park. North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Wyoming. Just south but on the west side of the Continental Divide is Middle Park, drained by the Colorado River. South Park is the headwaters of the South Platte River. To the south lies the San Luis Valley, the headwaters of the Rio Grande, which drains into New Mexico. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the San Luis Valley lies the Wet Mountain Valley. These basins, particularly the San Luis Valley, lie along the Rio Grande Rift, a major geological formation, and its branches.

The Rocky Mountains within Colorado contain 53 peaks that are 14,000 feet (4,267 m) or higher elevation, known as fourteeners. The mountains are timbered with conifers and aspens to the tree line, at an elevation of about 12,140 feet (3,700 m) in southern Colorado to about 10,500 feet (3,200 m) in northern Colorado; above this only alpine vegetation grows. The Colorado Rockies are snow-covered only in the winter; most snow melts by mid-August with the exception of a few small glaciers. The Colorado Mineral Belt, stretching from the San Juan Mountains in the southwest to Boulder and Central City on the front range, contains most of the historic gold- and silver-mining districts of Colorado.

The Western Slope is generally drained by the Colorado River and its tributaries. Notable to the south are the San Juan Mountains, an extremely rugged mountain range, and to the west of the San Juans, the Colorado Plateau, a high desert bordering Southern Utah. Grand Junction is the largest city on the Western Slope. Grand Junction is served by Interstate Highway I-70. To the southeast of Grand Junction is Grand Mesa, the world's largest flat-topped mountain. Further east are the ski resorts of Aspen, Vail, Crested Butte, and Steamboat Springs. The northwestern corner of Colorado bordering Northern Utah and Western Wyoming is mostly sparsely populated rangeland.

From west to east, the state consists of desert-like basins, turning into plateaus, then alpine mountains, and then the grasslands of the Great Plains. The famous Pikes Peak is just west of Colorado Springs. Its lone peak is visible from near the Kansas border on clear days.

Colorado is also one of only four states in the United States to share a common border (Four Corners), along with Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. At this intersection, it is possible to stand in four states at once.

The climate of Colorado is quite complex compared to most of the United States. The typical south-north/cooler-warmer variation in other states is not generally applicable in Colorado. Mountains and surrounding valleys greatly affect local climate. As a general rule, with an increase in elevation come a decrease in temperature and an increase in precipitation. A main climatic division in Colorado occurs between the Rocky Mountains on the west and the plains on the east; the foothills form a transitional zone between the two.

The climate of the Eastern Plains is a semi-arid continental climate (Koppen climate classification BSk) of low humidity and moderately low precipitation, usually from 10 to 15 inches (250 to 380 mm) annually. The area is known for its abundant sunshine and cool clear nights, which give this area the highest average diurnal temperature range in the United States. In summer, this area can have many days above 95 °F (35 °C) and sometimes 100 °F (38 °C), although 105 °F (41 °C) is the maximum in the front range cities above 5000 ft (1500 m). In those areas, −25 °F (−31.7 °C) is the all-time record low. About 75% of the precipitation falls within the growing season, from April to September, but this area is very prone to droughts. Most of the precipitation comes in the form of thunderstorms, which are often severe, and the form of major snowstorms that happen most often in the early spring and in late autumn, and sometimes winter, from low pressures that bring the right conditions. Otherwise, winters tend to be drier and cold, even though it's known for having a number of mild days in many winters. In much of this region, March and April are the snowiest months. April and May are normally the rainiest months, while April is the wettest month that has the most combination of rain and snow. The Front Range cities closer to the mountains tend to be warmer in the winter due to chinook winds which warm the area, sometimes bringing temperatures up to 60 °F (16 °C) or higher in the winter. The average July temperature is 57 degrees in the morning and 87 degrees in the afternoon. The average January temperature is 15 degrees in the morning and 43 degrees in the afternoon, although the daily high may be 60 one day and 0 the next.

West of the plains and foothills, the weather of Colorado is much less uniform. Even places a few miles (kilometers) apart can experience entirely different weather, depending on the topography of the area. Most valleys also have a semi-arid climate, which becomes an alpine climate at higher elevations. Humid microclimates also exist in some areas as well. Generally, the wettest season is in the winter in Western Colorado while June is the driest month, which is the opposite of precipitation patterns in the east. The mountains have cool summers with many days of high temperatures around 60 °F (16 °C) and 70 °F (21 °C), although frequent thunderstorms can cause a sudden drop in temperatures. Summer nights are cool, and cold at the highest altitudes which can sometimes bring snow even in the middle of the summer. The winters bring abundant, powdery snowfall to the mountains which the skiers love, although even in the winter, there can be many days with abundant sunshine in between major storms. The Western Slope has high summer temperatures similar to those found on the plains while the winters tend to be slightly cooler due to the lack of any warming winds which are common in the plains and Front Range. Other areas in the west have their own unique climate. The San Luis Valley is generally dry with little rain or snow, although the snow that falls tends to stay on the ground all winter.

Extreme weather is a common occurrence in Colorado. Thunderstorms are common east of the Continental divide in the spring and summer, and Colorado is one of the leading states in deaths due to lightning. Hail is a common sight in the mountains east of the divide and in the northwest part of the state. The Eastern Plains have some of the biggest hail storms in North America. While not as common as some of the states to the east, much of the Eastern Plains are also prone to tornadoes, and there have been some damaging tornadoes there. Examples include the 1990 Limon F3 tornado and the 2008 Windsor EF3 tornado which devastated the town. Floods are also a factor in the plains, not just from the thunderstorms, but also due to heavy snow in the mountains followed by a warm, dry period which swells rivers with melted snow. In 2008, from July through August, a new record was set that was previously held in 1901 of twenty-three straight days of 90 degree heat, surpassing the previous record by almost a week. Colorado is also known for its droughts that occur every few years, causing major wildfires such as the Hayman Fire, one of the largest wildfires in US history.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Colorado was 118 °F (48 °C) on July 11, 1888, at Bennett, while the lowest was -61 °F (-52 °C) on February 1, 1985, at Maybell.

The region that is today the State of Colorado has been inhabited by Native Americans for more than 13 millennia. The Lindenmeier Site in Larimer County contains artifacts dating from approximately 11200 BCE to 3000 BCE. The Ancient Pueblo Peoples lived in the valleys and mesas of the Colorado Plateau. The Ute Nation inhabited the mountain valleys of the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Western Rocky Mountains. The Arapaho Nation and the Cheyenne Nation moved west to hunt across the High Plains.

The United States acquired a territorial claim to the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains with the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803. The U.S. claim conflicted with Spain's claim that a huge region surrounding its colony of Santa Fé de Nuevo Méjico was its sovereign trading zone. Zebulon Pike led a U.S. Army reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region in 1806. Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalry in the San Luis Valley the following February, taken to Chihuahua, and expelled from México the following July.

The United States relinquished its claim to all land south and west of the Arkansas River as part of the U.S. purchase of Florida from Spain with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. México finally won its independence from Spain in 1821, but it surrendered its northern territories to the United States after the Mexican-American War with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. In 1849, the Mormons of Deseret (now Utah) organized the extralegal Provisional State of Deseret which claimed all land drained by the Green River and the Colorado River. The federal government refused to recognize the new government, and the Mormons declined to settle east of the Green River for more than 20 years. The United States divided the area of the future Colorado among the Territory of New Mexico and the Territory of Utah organized in 1850, and the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska organized in 1854.

Most American settlers traveling west to Oregon, Deseret, or California avoided the rugged Rocky Mountains and instead followed the North Platte River and Sweetwater River through what is now Wyoming. On April 9, 1851, Hispanic settlers from Taos, New Mexico, settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico Territory, but now Colorado's first permanent European settlement. Gold was discovered along the South Platte River in western Kansas Territory in July 1858, precipitating the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. The placer gold deposits along the rivers and streams of the region rapidly played out, but miners soon discovered far more valuable seams of hard rock gold, silver, and other minerals in the nearby mountains.

The Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson was organized on August 24, 1859, but the new territory failed to secure federal sanction. The election of Abraham Lincoln for U.S. President on November 6, 1860, led to the secession of six slave states and the threat of civil war. Seeking to augment the political power of the free states, the Republican led U.S. Congress hurriedly admitted the eastern portion of the Territory of Kansas to the Union as the free State of Kansas on January 29, 1861, leaving the western portion of the territory, and its gold fields, unorganized.

Thirty days later on February 28, 1861, outgoing U.S. President James Buchanan signed an act of Congress organizing the free Territory of Colorado. The original boundaries of Colorado remain unchanged today. The name Colorado was chosen because it was commonly believed that the Colorado River originated in the territory. Early Spanish explorers named the river the Rio Colorado for the reddish-brown silt the river carried from the mountains. In fact, the Colorado River did not flow through the State of Colorado until House Joint Resolution 460 of the 66th United States Congress changed the name of the Grand River to the Colorado River on July 25, 1921.

The United States Congress passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado to become a state. On August 1, 1876 (28 days after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting the State of Colorado to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State". The discovery of a major silver lode near Leadville in 1878, triggered the Colorado Silver Boom. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 envigorated silver mining, but the repeal of the act in 1893 led to a major collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of the state.

Colorado women were granted the right to vote beginning on November 7, 1893, making Colorado the first U.S. state to grant universal suffrage by popular vote. By the 1930 U.S. Census, the population of Colorado exceeded one million residents. The state suffered through the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s, but a major wave of immigration following World War II boosted Colorado's fortune. Tourism became a mainstay of the state economy, and high technology became an important economic engine. Colorado's population exceeded 4.3 million at U.S. Census 2000.

Three warships of the United States Navy have been named USS Colorado. The first USS Colorado was named for the Colorado River. The later two ships were named in honor of the landlocked state.

The state's most populous city, and capital, is Denver. The Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area, home to 2,927,911 people, contains more than two-thirds of the state's population. Residents of Colorado are properly referred to as Coloradans, although the term Coloradoans is still used.

As of 2005, Colorado has an estimated population of 4,665,177, which is an increase of 63,356, or 1.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 363,162, or 8.4%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 205,321 people (that is 353,091 births minus 147,770 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 159,957 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 112,217 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 47,740 people.

The largest increases are expected in the Front Range Urban Corridor, especially in the Denver metropolitan area. The state's fastest growing counties are Douglas and Weld. Large numbers of new residents in the state originate from California, which led some locals to feel that their state was "Californicated" in the 1990s (esp. Denver resembled more of Los Angeles) when real estate home prices, lower cost of living and a healthier economy in growth rates drew in over 100,000 Californians at the time, and there are others who moved in from East Coast states. The center of population of Colorado is located just north of the town of Critchell in Jefferson County.

Colorado has one of the highest proportions of Hispanic citizens of any U.S. state; only five states have a higher percentage. Denver and some other areas have significant Mexican populations, while southern Colorado has a large number of Hispanos, the descendants of early New Mexican settlers of colonial Spanish origin. The 2000 U.S. Census reports that 10.52% of people aged 5 and over in Colorado speak Spanish at home. Colorado, like New Mexico, is very rich in archaic Spanish idioms.

Colorado has a history of African-Americans communities which are located in northeast Denver in the Montbello, Green Valley Ranch, Park Hill and Colfax Park areas. The state has sizable numbers of Asian-Americans of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian and Japanese descent. The Denver metropolitan area is considered more liberal and diverse than much of the state when it comes to political issues and environmental concerns.

According to the 2000 Census, the largest ancestry groups in Colorado are German (22%) including of Swiss and Austrian nationalities, Irish (12.2%), and English (12%). Persons reporting German ancestry are the largest group in the state and are especially strong in the Front Range, the Rockies (west-central counties) and Eastern parts/High Plains. Denver and nearby areas on the Front Range has sizable Scandinavian, Italian, Slavic and Jewish American communities, partly a legacy of gold rushes in the late 19th century (1861-1889).

There were a total of 70,331 births in Colorado in 2006. (Birth Rate of 14.6). Although Non-Hispanic Whites constituted 73.5% of the population they accounted for only 48.90% of all the births. The first time in state history with the statistic of non-Hispanic whites have fewer babies. But 14.06% of the births happened to parents of different races (About two-thirds to White-Latino parents). Westernmost counties where the majority of residents are adherents of Mormonism there's a slightly higher percentage of families with children and those of under age 18.

Colorado has a higher number of younger persons in median age: 33, according to the 2000 Census report. Large numbers of married couples in professional careers with young children move to the state in a belief it's a better place to raise a family. Colorado is also a major retirement destination by senior citizens in search of a warmer climate, recreation activities and the higher altitude in most of Colorado is said to provide health benefits for those with respiratory diseases.

Colorado's population is predominately Christian, although it has a high percentage of religiously unaffiliated residents like most other Western states. Colorado, and specifically the City of Colorado Springs, serves as the headquarters of numerous Christian groups, many of them Evangelical. Focus on the Family is a major conservative Christian organization headquartered in Colorado Springs. Catholicism is popular in Colorado, and is becoming more so with the influx of Latino immigrants.

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 752,505; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 92,326; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 85,083.

Colorado also has a reputation for being a state of very active and athletic people. According to several studies, Coloradans have the lowest rates of obesity of any state in the US. As of 2007 the 17.6% of the population was considered medically obese, and while the lowest in the nation, the percentage had increased from 16.9% from 2004. Colorado Governor Bill Ritter spoke that “As an avid fisherman and bike rider, I know first-hand that Colorado provides a great environment for active, healthy lifestyles,” although he did highlight the need for continued education and support to slow the growth of obesity in the state.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that the total state product in 2006 was $230 billion. Per capita personal income in 2003 was $34,561, putting Colorado eighth in the nation. To see a 2004 per capita personal income comparison table on a state basis. The state's economy broadened from its mid-19th century roots in mining when irrigated agriculture developed, and by the late 19th century, raising livestock had become important. Early industry was based on the extraction and processing of minerals and agricultural products. Current agricultural products are cattle, wheat, dairy products, corn, and hay.

The federal government is also a major economic force in the state with many important federal facilities including NORAD, United States Air Force Academy and Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs; NOAA and the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder; U.S. Geological Survey and other government agencies at the Denver Federal Center in Lakewood; the Denver Mint, Buckley Air Force Base, and 10th Circuit Court of Appeals in Denver; and a federal Supermax Prison and other federal prisons near Cañon City. In addition to these and other federal agencies, Colorado has abundant National Forest land and four National Parks that contribute to federal ownership of 24,615,788 acres (99,617 km2) of land in Colorado, or 37% of the total area of the state. In the second half of the 20th century, the industrial and service sectors have expanded greatly. The state's economy is diversified and is notable for its concentration of scientific research and high-technology industries. Other industries include food processing, transportation equipment, machinery, chemical products, minerals such as gold and molybdenum, and tourism. Colorado also produces the largest amount of beer of any state. Denver is an important financial center.

A number of nationally known brand names have originated in Colorado factories and laboratories. From Denver came the forerunner of telecommunications giant Qwest in 1879, Samsonite luggage in 1910, Gates belts and hoses in 1911, and Russell Stover Candies in 1923. Kuner canned vegetables began in Brighton in 1864. From Golden came Coors beer in 1873, CoorsTek industrial ceramics in 1920, and Jolly Rancher candy in 1949. CF&I railroad rails, wire, nails and pipe debuted in Pueblo in 1892. The present-day Swift packed meat of Greeley evolved from Monfort of Colorado, Inc., established in 1930. Estes model rockets were launched in Penrose in 1958. Fort Collins has been the home of Woodward Governor Company's motor controllers (governors) since 1870, and Waterpik dental water jets and showerheads since 1962. Celestial Seasonings herbal teas have been made in Boulder since 1969. Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory made its first candy in Durango in 1981.

Colorado has a flat 4.63% income tax, regardless of income level. Unlike most states, which calculate taxes based on federal adjusted gross income, Colorado taxes are based on taxable income - income after federal exemptions and federal itemized (or standard) deductions. Colorado's state sales tax is 2.9% on retail sales. When state revenues exceed state constitutional limits, full-year Colorado residents can claim a sales tax refund on their individual state income tax return. Many counties and cities charge their own rates in addition to the base state rate. There are also certain county and special district taxes that may apply.

Real estate and personal business property are taxable in Colorado. The state's senior property tax exemption was temporarily suspended by the Colorado Legislature in 2003. The tax break is scheduled to return for assessment year 2006, payable in 2007.

Major philanthropic organizations based in Colorado, including the Daniels Fund, the Anschutz Family Foundation, the Gates Family Foundation, the El Pomar Foundation and the Boettcher Foundation, grant approximately $400 million each year from approximately $7 billion of assets.

Colorado has significant energy resources. According to the Energy Information Administration, Colorado hosts seven of the Nation’s 100 largest natural gas fields and two of its 100 largest oil fields. Conventional and unconventional natural gas output from several Colorado basins typically accounts for more than 5 percent of annual U.S. natural gas production. Substantial deposits of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal are also found in the State. Colorado's high Rocky Mountain ridges offer wind power potential, and geologic activity in the mountain areas provides potential for geothermal power development. Major rivers flowing from the Rocky Mountains offer hydroelectric power resources. Corn grown in the flat eastern part of the State offers potential resources for ethanol production. Notably, Colorado’s oil shale deposits hold an estimated 1 trillion barrels (160 km3) of oil – nearly as much oil as the entire world’s proven oil reserves. Oil production from those deposits, however, remains speculative.

Like all U.S. states, Colorado's constitution provides for three branches of government: the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The governor heads the state's executive branch. The Colorado Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in the state. The state legislative body is the Colorado General Assembly, which is made up of two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House has 65 members and the Senate has 35. Currently, Democrats are in control of both chambers of the General Assembly. The 2005 Colorado General Assembly was the first to be controlled by the Democrats in forty years. The incumbent Governor of the State of Colorado is August William "Bill" Ritter, Jr. (D).

Many Coloradans are transplanted citizens (over half of them were Californians in the 1990s), and this is illustrated by the fact that the state has not had a native-born governor since 1975 (when John David Vanderhoof left office) and -- until Bill Ritter's election in November 2006 -- had not elected one since 1958, in the person of Stephen L.R. McNichols. Vanderhoof ascended from the Lieutenant Governorship when John Arthur Love was given a position in Richard Nixon's administration in 1973.) Bill Ritter (D), a humanitarian missionary worker in Africa and former Denver District Attorney, defeated former congressman and banker Bob Beauprez (R) in the 2006 gubernatorial election.

Colorado is considered a swing state in both state and federal elections. Coloradans elected 17 Democrats and 12 Republicans to the governorship in the last 100 years. In presidential politics, Colorado supported Democrats Bill Clinton in 1992 and Barack Obama in 2008, and supported Republican presidential nominee Robert J. Dole in 1996 and George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004. It was the second most accurate indicator of the national vote in 2008, after Virginia.

Colorado politics has the contrast of conservative cities such as Colorado Springs and liberal cities such as Boulder. Democrats are strongest in metropolitan Denver, the college towns of Fort Collins and Boulder, southern Colorado (including Pueblo), and a few western ski resort counties. The Republicans are strongest in the Eastern Plains, Colorado Springs, Greeley, some Denver suburbs, and the western half of State (including Grand Junction). The fastest growing parts of the state particularly Douglas, Elbert, and Weld Counties, in the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan Area, are somewhat Republican.

Colorado has 271 incorporated municipalities and 83 active United States Census Designated Places.

Colorado is divided into 64 counties, including two counties with consolidated city and county governments.

The United States Census Bureau has defined seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs), and one Combined Statistical Area (CSA) in the State of Colorado.

Colorado is the least populous state with a franchise in each of the major professional sports leagues. The state is able to support the teams because it contains a large metropolitan area with a higher population than any other city within 550 miles (885 km). Therefore, many of the residents in the surrounding states support the teams in Denver, as shown by the reach of the Broncos' radio network.

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Colorado River

Downstream view of the Colorado River at river mile 175 in the Grand Canyon

The Colorado River ('Aha Kwahwat in Mojave) is a river in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately 1,450 mi (2,330 km) long, draining a part of the arid regions on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains. The natural course of the river flows into the Gulf of California, but the heavy use of the river as an irrigation source for the Imperial Valley has desiccated the lower course of the river in Mexico such that it no longer consistently reaches the sea.

The Colorado River drains 242,900 sq mi (629,100 km²). Total flows of the river range from 4000 cubic feet per second (113 m³/s) in droughts to 1,000,000 ft³/s (28,000 m³/s) in severe floods. With the construction of massive power dams on the lower course of the river, flows of over 70,000 ft³/s (2000 m³/s) are unusual. The mean flow of the river was 22,000 ft³/s (620 m³/s) during the period between 1903-34. From 1951-80, the average flow was less than 4,000 ft3/s. Historically the flow was much higher before water usage began in the basin.

The existence of the Colorado River was first noted in the records of written history in September, 1539, when Francisco de Ulloa sailed to the head of the Gulf of California and rowed a short distance upstream. It was next seen by Hernando de Alarcon who in 1540 led the maritime contingent of Coronado's expedition. The plan was to meet the land based force and resupply them. Alarcon ascended the river about 85 Spanish miles to the limit of navigation near present-day Yuma, Arizona. He waited for Coronado, but eventually despaired, cached some supplies and correspondence, left a note on a tree, and departed. Coronado's land forces never reached that location, but Melchior Diaz, on his third expedition, went to see if he could establish contact with Alarcon. By the time he reached the Colorado, however, Alarcon had already left. The Native Americans told him what they knew of Alarcon's presence and that he had left a cache of supplies. Diaz found the note and the supplies. Diaz named the river Rio del Tizon ("River of Embers" or "Firebrand River") based on a practice used by the natives for warming themselves. Meanwhile, Coronado (who at the time was near Zuni, New Mexico) had learned from one of his scouting parties that the natives spoke of a large river to the west. He sent Garcia Lopez de Cardenas to lead a contingent of men to find this river. They did find it at what is now known as the Grand Canyon, becoming the first people of European background to see it. Their failed attempts at reaching the river led them to conclude that it would not be possible to be supplied via the Gulf of California and the river.

Comparisons of 17th, 18th, and early 19th-century maps reveal a parade of names being applied to the Colorado and its tributaries, as well as a variety of courses, as cartographers learned or made up the geography of the region. On a map by Nicholas Sanson (1650) the R. del Tecon and the R. de Coral share a common mouth on the gulf. A number of maps show the Gila River (sometimes just the lower, sometimes the whole) as the Rio Grande de las Apostoles. A 1763 map by Emanuel Bowen equates the Apostles with the del Coral. A 1720 map by Fer Nicholas labels the main body of the Colorado as Rio del Tison, and a tributary of the Apostles/Gila as Rio Colorade. In 1703 Guillaume de L'Isle showed a Rio de buena esperanza as a major tributary of the Tison, but it is not clear if this tributary corresponds better with the Little Colorado or the San Juan. A map by Herman Moll (1720) charts the Tison and the Gila with separate mouths. Upriver from a tributary of the Tison that would appear to correspond with today's Virgin River, the name for the main channel is given as R. of Good Hope. On other maps Good Hope/Buena Esperanza are transferred to a tributary of the Gila. A map of 1757 gives the name of the main course as Rio Colorado de los Martyres. A map of 1781 by Jonathan Carver charts a major split in the river and labels the eastern branch "Colorado" and the western branch Martyres. A map from 1758 by Didier Robert de Vaugondy applies the name Colorado to a river that reaches north to the headwaters of the Missouri, best corresponding to today's Green River. When Jedediah Smith first reached the lower Colorado in 1826, he first called it the Seedskeedee, as the headwaters of the Green River were known to the trappers, but also noted that the natives called it the Colorado.

It is not clear when or why the name "Colorado" first replaced "Tizon" (Tecon/Tison), which had been the most common name on maps since 1540. Among the maps in the Library of Congress, every use of "Colorado" (or Colorade) from 1720 and before is applied to a tributary of what is now the Gila River that seems best to correspond with today's Verde River. The earliest map in that collection that replaces "Tizon" with "Colorado" is a map from 1743.

The map that resulted from Escalante's expedition in 1776 labels the main channel as the Colorado up to the confluence of the Nabajoo and Zaguananas rivers. The associated information leads one to conclude that the Nabajoo corresponds to the San Juan and the Zaguananas to the Colorado from there to the Dolores River. On this map the Colorado above the Dolores is called the Rafael, and the Green River (named Buenaventura River) is erroneously diverted to the southwest and to what is now called Sevier Lake. Where Escalante's journal records his crossing of the San Rafael, he notes that the Native Americans knew this river as the Colorado. He also notes that the natives said this river had it source in a distant lake, but the lake is not charted on the resulting map. It is evident from a number of maps of the period that people were not aware of the distance between the Colorado's confluence with the Dolores and the western slopes of the Front Range. On a map from 1847 by John Disturnell, the Rafael is replaced with the Green River, while the upper Colorado (or more correctly, what would be called the Grand River) is not shown at all.

A map by David H. Burr (1839) shows the "Colorado River of the West" flowing from the headwaters of the Green River to the Gulf of California, with the "Grand River" as a tributary branching to the east, the third tributary upriver from the Nabajoo (San Juan). The Green River is not separately named. The headwaters of the Grand are depicted as being very close to the headwaters of the Rio Grande (which is labeled "Rio Bravo del Norte") as well as those of the Arkansas River. A textual note on the map indicates that little is known of this area.

In 1921, U.S. Representative Edward T. Taylor petitioned the Congressional Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce to rename the Grand River as the Colorado River. On July 25, 1921 the name change was made official in House Joint Resolution 460 of the 66th Congress, over the objections of representatives from Wyoming and Utah and the United States Geological Survey which noted that the drainage basin of the Green River was more than 70% more extensive than that of the Grand River, although the Grand carried a slightly higher volume of water at its confluence with the Green.

It is the opinion of some geologists that before the Gulf of California came into being some 7-8 million years ago, the Colorado River initially had its outlet somewhere along what is now the California coast. They believe that the massive Monterey Submarine Canyon under Monterey Bay along with the associated undersea sedimentary fan may be remnants of the Colorado's ancient outlet. The canyon has moved north to its current location by the action of the San Andreas Fault and would have been approximately where Santa Barbara is located when both the San Andreas Fault and the Gulf of California came into being.

The Colorado River's source is La Poudre Pass Lake, located high in Rocky Mountain National Park, just west of the Continental Divide. Below Rocky Mountain National Park, the river flows through the Kawuneeche Valley and then flows through Grand Lake, the largest natural body of water in Colorado, before being dammed to create Shadow Mountain Reservoir. The river then flows into Lake Granby, another reservoir, and finally begins its journey to the Gulf of California where U.S. Highway 40 roughly parallels the river to the town of Kremmling, where it enters Gore Canyon. Most of the river's tributaries within Colorado are small. However there are exceptions, such as the Gunnison and Roaring Fork Rivers, in which massive amounts of water flow. About a hundred miles later it meets the Eagle River in the town of Dotsero, Colorado, and where I-70 parallels the river through Glenwood Canyon. The river then passes through the city of Glenwood Springs where it is joined by the swift flowing Roaring Fork River. West of Glenwood Springs, the Colorado runs through the Grand Valley and is joined by the Gunnison River in Grand Junction. From there it flows westward to the Utah border and Westwater Canyon. The Colorado here ranges from 200 to 1200 feet wide (60 to 370 m) and from 6 to 30 feet in depth (2 to 9 m) with occasional deeper areas.

The river turns southwest near Fruita, Colorado, and is joined by the Dolores River soon after entering Utah. It partially forms the southern border of Arches National Park near Moab, Utah, and then passes by Dead Horse Point State Park and through Canyonlands National Park where it is met by one of its primary tributaries, the Green River. The Colorado then flows into Lake Powell, formed by the Glen Canyon Dam. Below the dam, water released from the bottom of Lake Powell makes the river clear, clean, and cold. Just south of the town of Page, Arizona, the river forms the dramatic Horseshoe Bend, then at Lees Ferry is joined by another tributary, the warm, shallow, muddy Paria River, and begins its course through Marble Canyon. Here, the Colorado ranges from 175 to 700 feet in width (53 to 213 m) and 9 to 130 feet in depth (3 to 40 m).

At the southern end of Marble Canyon, the river is joined by another tributary, the Little Colorado, and the river then turns abruptly west directly across the folds and fault line of the plateau, through the Grand Canyon, which is 217 miles long (349 km) and from 4 to 20 miles wide (6 to 30 km) between the upper cliffs. The walls, 4000 to 6000 feet high (1200 to 1800 m), drop in successive escarpments of 500 to 1600 feet (150 to 490 m), banded in splendid colours toward the narrow gorge of the present river.

Below the confluence of the Virgin River of Nevada, the Colorado abruptly turns southward. Hoover Dam, built during the Great Depression, forms Lake Mead, a popular recreation site as well as the supplier of most of the water for the city of Las Vegas. From Hoover Dam, the river flows south and forms part of the boundary between Arizona and Nevada and between Arizona and California. Along the California-Arizona reach of the river, four additional dams are operated to divert water for agricultural irrigation and for recreation. Lake Mohave, formed by Davis Dam, lies in the southern portion of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Lake Havasu, formed by Parker Dam, provides recreation as well as the home of the retired New London Bridge. The two remaining dams supply irrigation water: Palo Verde Diversion Dam and Imperial Dam. Here, the Colorado River ranges in width from 700 to 2500 feet (210 to 760 m) and from 8 to 100 feet in depth (2 to 30 m).

Below the Black Canyon the river lessens in gradient and in its lower course flows in a broad sedimentary valley's distinct estuarine plain upriver from Yuma, where it is joined by the Gila River. The channel through much of this region is bedded in a dike-like embankment lying above the floodplain over which the escaping water spills in time of flood. This dike cuts off the flow of the river to the remarkable low area in southern California known as the Salton Sink, Coachella Valley, or Imperial Valley. The Salton Sink is located below sea level; therefore, the descent from the river near Yuma is very much greater than the descent from Yuma to the gulf.

The lower course of the river, which forms the border between Baja California and Sonora, is essentially a trickle or a dry stream today due to use of the river as Imperial Valley's irrigation source. Prior to the mid 20th century, the Colorado River Delta provided a rich estuarine marshland that is now essentially desiccated, but nonetheless is an important ecological resource.

According to the Natural Resources Defense Council the Colorado River Basin, which stretches from Wyoming to Mexico, is at the center of hotter climate changes in the Western United States. Since the 1970s, rising temperatures have contributed to earlier snowmelts, and the basin has warmed more than any other area in the contiguous United States.

As a result, the volume of water in the basin is decreasing. The years 2000 to 2004 were the only five consecutive years in recorded history with water flow below average. Lake Powell, one of the basin's main reservoirs, is only 45 percent full.

Note that the significant difference between the present height of the rim of the Grand Canyon (about 8000 ft; 2440 m) and the levels at which the river enters/exits it gives rise to the geologic theory that its upheaval must have begun around the same time the river began flowing through it and eroding it (since rivers do not run uphill, it would have otherwise followed some other path around the upheaval). Estimates for the beginning of this erosion/upheaval process range from 5 to 70 million years ago.

In the autumn of 1904, the river's waters escaped into a diversion canal a few miles below Yuma, Arizona, creating the New River and Alamo River. The rivers re-created in California a great inland sea in an area that it had frequently inundated before, for example, in 1884 and 1891, when it had for a time practically abandoned its former course through Mexican territory to the Sea of Cortez. However, it was effectively dammed in the early part of 1907 and returned to its normal course, from which, however, there was still much leakage to the Salton Sea. In July 1907, the permanent dam was completed. From the Black Canyon towards the sea the Colorado normally flows through a desert-like basin.

The Colorado River is a major and in some cases life-sustaining source of water for irrigation, drinking, and other uses by people living in the arid American southwest. Allocation of the river's water is governed by the Colorado River Compact. Several dams have been built along the Colorado River, beginning with Glen Canyon Dam near the Utah-Arizona border. Other dams include Hoover Dam, Parker Dam, Davis Dam, Palo Verde Diversion Dam, and Imperial Dam. Since the completion of the dams, the majority of the river in normal hydrologic years is diverted for agricultural and municipal water supply. The Colorado's last drops evaporate in the Sonoran Desert, miles before the river reaches the Gulf of California. Almost 90% of all water diverted from the river is for irrigation purposes. The All-American Canal is the largest irrigation canal in the world and carries a volume of water from 15,000 to 30,000 ft³/s (420 to 850 m³/s), making it larger in volume than New York's Hudson River. The canal's waters are used to irrigate the parched but fertile Imperial Valley, where several years can pass between measurable rainfalls. Hydrology transport models are used to assess management of the river's flow and water quality.

Hoover Dam (originally Boulder Dam, and the first dam of its type) was completed in 1936. Its impoundment of the river in the Mojave Desert creates Lake Mead, which provides water for irrigation and the generation of hydroelectric power.

Several cities such as Los Angeles, Las Vegas, San Bernardino, San Diego, Phoenix, and Tucson have aqueducts leading all the way back to the Colorado River. One such aqueduct is the Central Arizona Project ("CAP") canal, which was begun in the 1970s and finished in the 1990s. The canal begins at Parker Dam and runs all the way to Phoenix and then Tucson to supplement those cities' water needs.

The lower Colorado is navigable by moderate to large-sized craft. The lower river from Davis Dam to Yuma is navigable by large paddlewheel boats and river barges, but commercial navigation on the river is unimportant because the river is cut off from the sea, making other means of transportation more efficient in the region. Before the railroads arrived, the lower Colorado River from the sea to near present-day Laughlin, Nevada was an important means of transportation via large steamers. Most of the rest of the river, excluding the rapids in the canyons, is navigable by small to moderate-sized river craft and power boats.

Atlas Mineral Corporation operated a uranium processing mill in the area of Moab, Utah, on the north bank of the Colorado River just under three miles (5 km) from downtown Moab. As a byproduct of uranium processing activities, an estimated 16 million ton pile of chemically and radioactively hazardous tailings exists. The pile is located about 700-800 feet from the Colorado River. Although no contamination has been detected, the proximity of the material to the watershed has been a concern. The Senate has authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to budget $22.8 million in 2007 to begin the project of moving the uranium tailings farther from the river. The plan is to move the contaminated materials 30 miles (48 km) north to a disposal site located at Crescent Junction, Utah. The project is expected to be completed by 2028 with current funding plans, at total estimated cost of US$720 million.

The Colorado River basin is home to fourteen native species of fish. Four are endemic and endangered: Colorado pikeminnow (formerly Colorado squawfish), razorback sucker, bonytail chub, and humpback chub. The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program is a controversial effort by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, in conjunction with the Arizona Game and Fish Department, the Colorado Division Of Wildlife, and the Utah Department Of Wildlife to recover these endangered fish.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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Colorado State University

Seal of Colorado State University (Trademark of CSU)

Coordinates: 40°34′29.41″N 105°4′51.52″W / 40.5748361°N 105.0809778°W / 40.5748361; -105.0809778 Colorado State University is a public institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. Colorado State University is the state's land grant university and the flagship campus university of the Colorado State University System. The current enrollment is approximately 25,000 students. The university has approximately 1,400 faculty in eight colleges and 55 academic departments. Bachelor's degrees are offered in 62 fields of study, with Master's degrees in 59 fields. Colorado State confers doctoral degrees in 38 fields of study, in addition to a professional degree in veterinary medicine.

Colorado State University is a land-grant institution classified as a Carnegie Doctoral/Research University-Extensive. CSU was founded as Colorado Agricultural College in 1870, six years before the Colorado Territory gained statehood. It was one of 68 land-grant colleges established under the Morrill Act of 1862. Doors opened to a freshman class of 5 students in 1879.

The act to create the university was signed by Colorado Territory governor Edward M. McCook in 1870 arising from the Morrill Act. During the first years of its official existence, the university existed only on paper. A board of 12 trustees was formed to "purchase and manage property, erect buildings, establish basic rules for governing the institutions and employ buildings." But the near complete lack of funding by the territorial legislature for this mission severely hampered progress.

The first 30-acre (120,000 m2) parcel of land for the campus was deeded in 1871 by Robert Dazell. In 1872, the Larimer County Land Improvement Company contributed a second 80 acre (320,000 m²) parcel. The first $1000 to erect buildings was finally allocated by the territorial legislature in 1874. The funds were not sufficient, however, and trustees were required to find a matching amount, which they eventually obtained from local citizens and businesses.

Among the institutions which donated matching funds was the local Grange, which was heavily involved in the early establishment of the university. As part of this effort, in the spring of 1874 Grange No. 7 held a picnic and planting event at the corner of College Avenue and West Laurel Street, and later plowed and seeded 20 acres (80,000 m²) of wheat on a nearby field. Within several months, the university's first building, a 16-foot (4.9 m)-by-24-foot red brick building nicknamed the "Claim Shanty" was finished, providing the first tangible presence of the institution in Fort Collins.

After Colorado achieved statehood in 1876, the territorial law establishing the college was required to be reauthorized. In 1877, the state legislature created the eight-member State Board of Agriculture to govern the school. Early in the 21st century, the governing board was renamed the Board of Governors of the Colorado State University System. The legislature also authorized a railroad right-of-way across the campus, and mill levy to raise money for construction of the campus' first main building, Old Main, which was completed in December 1878. Despite wall cracks and other structural problems during the first year, the building was opened in time for the welcoming of the first five students on September 1, 1879 by university president Elijah Evan Edwards.

During Colorado Agricultural College's first term in fall 1879, the school functioned more as a college-prep school than a college because of the lack of trained students. Consequently the first course offerings were arithmetic, English, U.S. history, natural philosophy, horticulture and farm economy. Students also labored on the college farm and attended daily chapel services. The spring term provided the first true college-level instruction. Despite his accomplishments, Edwards resigned in spring 1882 because of conflicts with the State Board of Agriculture, a young faculty member and with students. The board's next appointee as president was Charles Ingersoll, a graduate and former faculty member at Michigan Agricultural College, who began his nine years of service at CAC with two full-time faculty members and 67 students, 24 of whom were women.

Agricultural research was growing rapidly under Ingersoll. The Hatch Act of 1887 provided federal funds to establish and maintain experiment stations at land-grant colleges. Ainsworth Blount, CAC's first professor of practical agriculture and manager of the College Farm, had become known as a "one man experiment station", and the Hatch Act expanded his original station to five Colorado locations. The curriculum expanded as well, introducing coursework in engineering, animal science, and liberal arts. New faculty members brought expertise in botany, horticulture, entomology, and irrigation engineering. CAC made its first attempts at animal science during 1883-84, when it hired veterinary surgeon George Faville. Faville conducted free weekly clinics for student instruction and treatment of local citizen's diseased or injured animals. Veterinary science at the college languished for many years following Faville's departure in 1886. President Ingersoll believed the school neglected special programs for women. Despite the reluctance of the institution's governing board, CAC began opening the door to liberal arts in 1885, and by Ingersoll's last year at CAC the college had instituted a "Ladies Course" that offered junior and senior women classes in drawing, stenography and typewriting, foreign languages, landscape gardening and psychology. Ingersoll's belief in liberal yet practical education conflicted with the narrower focus of the State Board of Agriculture, and a final clash in April 1891 led to his resignation. In 1884, CAC would celebrate the commencement of its first three graduates.

Alston Ellis encountered limited funding and rapidly decision in 1895 to reduce the number of Experiment Stations. Female students grew in number from 44 in 1892 to 112 in 1896, and by fall 1895, the college's new domestic-economy program was in place. Football had a one-year stint at CAC in 1893, but Ellis was not a supporter of extracurricular activities and especially was hostile toward football.

Barton Aylesworth became the school's fourth president in 1899, and the combination of his non-confrontational style with the presence of the vocal Colorado Cattle and Horse Growers Association on the governing board allowed ranching and farming interests to take the college's agricultural programs to new heights, greatly influencing the development of the entire school. Initially, the influence of ranching interests brought tremendous progress to CAC's agricultural programs. Enrollment quadrupled, studies in veterinary medicine were re-established, and CAC's Experiment Station benefited from lobbying that finally secured state appropriations. Eventually, conflicts with agricultural interests may have prompted Aylesworth to begin promoting a balanced curriculum at CAC, which he then fought hard to defend. The conflict also led him to tire and negotiate his resignation.

Aylesworth was a big supporter of extracurricular activities. Football returned to the college in fall 1899, but baseball was the school's most popular sport. In 1903, the women's basketball team won CAC's first unofficial athletic championship, culminating with a victory over the University of Colorado. New clubs, fraternities, and sororities also emerged. By 1905, the school had a fledgling music department, which two years later became the Conservatory of Music.

Taking office in 1909, CAC President Charles Lory oversaw the school's maturation and reconciled longstanding conflicts between supporters of a broad or specialized curriculum. He embarked on a demanding schedule of personal appearances to make Colorado Agricultural College known as an institution that served the state's needs. Another of Lory's notable achievements was putting the school on solid fiscal ground, meeting rising construction costs and freeing the institution of debt.

The onset of World War I influenced all aspects of CAC, but nowhere was the impact more apparent than in the institution's programs for farmers. World War I created demands for American agricultural products, and CAC established new food production committees, information services and cultivation projects to help improve food production and conservation in Colorado. World War I also drew men from campus to Europe's battlefields. In June 1916, the National Defense Act created the Reserve Officers Training Corps. A few months later CAC applied to establish an ROTC unit in Fort Collins and resurrected a defunct National Guard unit on campus. During the early 1930s, CAC's community-wide activities were greatly influenced by the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. The Extension Service organized relief programs for inhabitants of Eastern Colorado, of whom a survey found 20,000 to be urgently in need of food, and helped sustain cropland threatened by pests and drought. President Lory sought to help Colorado farmers by pushing for major tax reforms to relieve them of high tax burdens, and played a significant role in a 1930s project that supplied irrigation water for agricultural development in Eastern Colorado.

Lory and the State Board had challenges of their own back on campus. In response to claims that the university was falling behind national standards, the board retired or demoted several senior professors and administrators deemed past the peak of their proficiency, and hired new doctorate-holding personnel while consolidating sections of lecture courses. A student petition led to the governing-board to change the college's name to more accurately reflect the diversity of its academic programs, and the school became the Colorado State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, or Colorado A&M, in 1935. President Lory announced his retirement in 1938, after 31 years of leadership.

Soon after Pearl Harbor, Colorado A&M began to look like a military post, with the college serving as many as 1,500 servicemen. New President Roy Green tried to prepare for the sudden departure of students and arrival of servicemen by improving ROTC facilities, and introducing military-training programs. Although servicemen filed onto campus, student enrollment at Colorado A&M, 1,637 in fall 1942, dropped to 701 by fall 1943, and female students outnumbered their male counterparts for the first time. When the war ceased in 1945, soldiers returning from Europe and the Pacific filled U.S. higher-education institutions. Nearly 1,040 students attended the college in fall 1946, and about 1,600 students enrolled by spring 1946. Close to 80 former Aggies died in World War II including football talent Lewis "Dude" Dent. President Green did not live long enough to enjoy more stable days at Colorado A&M, his life taken by a heart attack in 1948.

Colorado A&M shed its image as a narrow technical college and became a university in appearance and title during the 1950s under president Bill Morgan. Providing adequate student housing for an increasing number of youth approaching college age and improving cramped instructional facilities were among the first tests of Morgan's leadership. He responded, and five new residence halls were completed between 1953-1957. Colorado A&M took advantage of a new mill levy won through aggressive lobbying to construct several new academic facilities, among them Morgan Library, completed in 1964.

Academic offerings grew to include advanced degrees. The State Board of Agriculture approved a doctoral degree in civil engineering in 1951, and three years later allowed other qualified departments to offer doctorates. Morgan believed students earning this advanced degree should hold it from a university, and so began a campaign to change the name of Colorado A&M. In 1957, the Colorado General Assembly approved the new name of Colorado State University.

Colorado State became a scene of intense student activism during the 1960s and early 1970s. The reduction of strict campus regulations for women was among the early targets of student activists, coming to the forefront in 1964 when a 21-year-old female student moved into unapproved off-campus housing to accommodate her late hours as editor of the student newspaper. Continual student protests eventually led to the loosening of curfews for women and the opportunity for junior and senior coeds to live off campus.

The civil-rights movement on campus also picked up momentum and visibility. In spring 1969, shortly before Morgan's retirement, Mexican-American and African-American student organizations presented a list of demands to university officials primarily urging increased recruitment of minority students and employees. The demonstrators' occupation of the Administration Building continued to the front lawn of Morgan's home. Students and university representatives took their concerns to state officials, but Colorado legislators rejected a subsequent university request for funds to support minority recruitment.Civil rights tension resurfaced in January 1970 during a peaceful student demonstration before a Colorado State-Brigham Young University basketball game in protest of alleged racist practices of the Mormon Church. The demonstration became violent and clashes with riot police ensued.

Anti-military protest took place in dramatic form at Colorado State from 1968-70. On March 5, 1968, several hundred students and faculty with anti-war sentiments marched to Fort Collins' downtown War Memorial and wiped blood on a placard tied to the memorial. Hecklers and blockaders created such a disturbance that police had to disperse the non-marchers. In May, 1970, as campus peace activists held the second day of a student strike in the gymnasium in response to the U.S. invasion of Cambodia and the student deaths at Kent State University, one or more arsonists set Old Main ablaze, destroying the 92-year-old cornerstone of Colorado State.

Colorado State entered the 1980s with a new Veterinary Teaching Hospital and a rating of Class I research university by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Education. The first half of the 1990s brought a renewed emphasis on undergraduate teaching and outreach arms of the university. To support the balance, CSU President Albert Yates appointed a Commission on the Undergraduate Experience, established the Programs of Research and Scholarly Excellence, and implemented a post-tenure review policy for faculty. Under Yates, the university also made significant efforts to improve administrative efficiency and reexamined its annual strategic planning.

On the evening of July 28, 1997, a flash flood ripped through Fort Collins and the Colorado State University campus. Known as the "Spring Creek Flood of '97", the flood resulted from a series of heavy thunderstorms over a two-day period in west Fort Collins. Five people drowned south of campus, and estimated damages citywide were in excess of $200 million. Colorado State University campus suffered millions of dollars in damages to buildings and property, with Morgan Library and the Lory Student Center among the hardest hit. Fortunately, no people on campus suffered serious injuries or death.

While maintaining historic ties to local agriculture, administration officials have also emphasized the desire to better connect with the local community. Currently, CSU is party to UniverCity, a multi-organization initiative that links the school with city government, community and business associations to expand and synchronize working relationships. Another goal set by the university is to improve undergraduate education. Essential tasks, Penley says, are access and graduation rates, particularly for qualified low-income and minority students, and an education international in scope suited to a global economy. Facilities improvements underway include a new biocontainment research lab, a campus center for the arts, and a new computer science building. With state financial support declining, CSU has also put a focus on alternate funding models based on market-based financial strategies and increased forms of private support. Marketing and public relations have also become part of university strategy to attract quality students and increase public awareness of Colorado State.

Colorado State University is located in Fort Collins, Colorado, a mid-size city of approximately 142,000 residents at the base of the Rocky Mountains. The university's 579-acre (2.3 km2) main campus is located in central Fort Collins. CSU is also home to a 1,705-acre (6.9 km2) Foothills Campus, a 101-acre (0.41 km2) veterinary teaching hospital, a 1,432-acre (5.8 km2) agricultural campus, and the 1,177-acre (4.8 km2) Pingree Park mountain campus. CSU utilizes 3,994 acres (16.2 km2) for research centers and forestry service outside of Larimer County.

At the heart of the CSU campus lies the Oval, an expansive green area 2,065 feet (629 m) around, lined with 65 American Elm trees. Once the center of campus, the Oval is still a center of activity and a major landmark at CSU. The administration building, constructed in 1924, faces the Oval from the south end, and several academic building occupy its perimeter. The music building, once the university library, and Ammons Hall, formerly the women's recreational center and current home to Career Services, are among the structures around the Oval. Guggenheim Hall, which stands at the north end of the Oval, was constructed in 1910 as a gift from U.S. Senator Simon F. Guggenheim to promote the study of home economics, and was recently renovated according to green building standards.

Another campus focal point is the main plaza, around which can be found several academic buildings, Lory Student Center, and Morgan Library. The Lory Student Center, named for former CSU president Charles Lory, houses Student Media, numerous organization offices, Student Government, and spaces to eat, drink and study. The Morgan Library was originally constructed in 1965 and named for former CSU president William E. Morgan. This facility went through an extensive improvement project, completed in 1998 following the flood, which included an addition to the main building and a renovation of the existing structure. Holdings currently include more than 2 million books, bound journals, and government documents.

Colorado State University's oldest existing building is Spruce Hall, constructed in 1881. Originally a dormitory that played a vital role in the early growth of the school's student enrollment, Spruce now houses the Division of Continuing Education and the Office of Admissions. The Molecular and Radiological Biosciences building and the Natural and Environmental Sciences building are two of CSU's newest academic buildings, constructed in 1989 and 1994, respectively.

The James L. Voss Veterinary Teaching Hospital complex was constructed in 1979 and consists of four main buildings, the Main Hospital, the Horse and Food Animal Hospital, the Large Animal Isolation Facility, and the Raptor Facility. Located south of the main campus in Fort Collins, the Main Hospital is a full service hospital divided into small and large animal clinics that annually serve 19,000 small animals and 2,700 large animals from around the world. The Veterinary program at Colorado State is one of the most respected in the country.

In addition to university property in Fort Collins, large tracts of land for research exist in CSU's name throughout the state of Colorado. Among these is the Pingree Park campus situated in the Mummy Range 53 miles (85 km) northwest of town. It was initially selected by former CSU president Charles A. Lory and began classes for Civil Engineering and Forestry students in 1913 and 1915, respectively. In the summertime, Pingree Park hosts educational programs for students in the College of Natural Resources, and is also used as a conference space for numerous corporations, government and private organizations, and universities.

The 1,705-acre (6.9 km2) Foothills Campus, located on northwest edge of Fort Collins, is home to atmospheric sciences, as well as several research and outreach centers. The Center for Disease Control, Engineering Research Center, Agricultural Research Center, B.W. Pickett Equine Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, The Colorado Division of Wildlife, and the Animal Reproduction Biotechnology Lab can all be found at the Foothills Campus.

A new addition to the Foothills Campus, the Regional Biocontainment Laboratory, opened in Fall of 2007 as an addition to the Judson M. Harper (former Vice President of Research) Research Complex. It houses some of the University's top research facilities including three high-security containment "pods". This laboratory is among few in the United States to have level-tree biocontainment security.

Colorado State University is a public land-grant institution and Carnegie Doctoral/Research University Extensive. The Board of Governors presides over the Colorado State University System, which is composed of Colorado State University and Colorado State University-Pueblo. The Board consists of nine voting members appointed by the Governor of Colorado and confirmed by the Colorado State Senate, and four elected non-voting members. Voting members are community leaders from many fields, including agriculture, business, and public service. A student and faculty representative from each university act as non-voting Board members.

The president of CSU also serves as the chancellor of the CSU System. The current Chairman of the Board is Douglas L. Jones.

Colorado State offers 150 programs of study across 8 colleges and 55 departments. In addition to its notable programs in biomedical sciences, engineering, environmental science, agriculture, and human health and nutrition, CSU offers professional programs in disciplines including business, journalism, and construction management as well as in the liberal and performing arts, humanities, and social sciences.

Colorado State employs a total of 1,468 faculty members, with 973 on tenure-track appointments. The student:faculty ratio is 17:1. CSU awarded 5,474 degrees in 2006-2007, including 4,169 bachelor's degrees, 965 master's degrees, 211 doctoral degrees, and 129 Doctor in Veterinary Medicine. CSU's current president, serving in an interim capacity, is Tony Frank. His predecessor, Larry Penley, was inducted on August 1, 2003 , and is the thirteenth president in the history of the University . Penley resigned his position as University president in November of 2008.

Preparing students in land stewardship and natural resources, the College of Agricultural Sciences offers majors in traditional disciplines such as agronomy, animal science, and horticulture and Landscape Architecture, in addition to Organic Agriculture and Agribusiness degrees suited to contemporary developments. College facilities include greenhouses, farms, ranches, and an equine center. In conjunction with the School of Education, the College of Agricultural Sciences provides an interdisciplinary program that leads to a Bachelor of Science and a teaching license in Agricultural Education. The College offers master's degrees in Agricultural Education, Agricultural Extension Education, Integrated Resource Management, and the Peace Corps Masters International Program. The college-sponsored Specialty Crops Program aims to help local growers master production systems, and explore marketing opportunities for their specialty crops.

With programs in education, individual and family development, health, housing, or design, studies in the College of Applied Human Sciences are human-centered, focused on social problems and quality of life issues. CAHS is one of the largest on campus with nearly 4,000 undergraduate students and over 850 graduate students. Extension specialists, such as in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, provide valuable health, nutrition, and food safety information to the public. The Human Performance Clinical Research Laboratory in the Department of Health and Exercise Science provides heart attack prevention evaluations to underserved populations, and the Center for Community Partnerships works with citizens with disabilities. The college also has a role in the new Colorado School of Public Health, to be jointly operated with UC Denver Health Sciences Center and the University of Northern Colorado.

Colorado State University's College of Business offers a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration with 6 concentrations, Accounting, Computer Information Systems, Finance, Marketing, Organization and Innovation Management, and Real Estate. Colorado State's on-campus Master of Business Administration (MBA) began in 1968, and offers several distinctive degrees. The Computer Information Systems concentration within the Master of Science in Business Administration is one of the oldest CIS degrees in the country. The new Global and Sustainable Enterprise MSBA takes on environmental conservation, microfinance, public health, alternative energy and agriculture from a business perspective. Each student completes a summer of fieldwork, typically in a developing country. The Denver-based Executive MBA Program instructs professionals, emerging business leaders and mid-to-senior level managers. For over 40 years, CSU has also provided a well-regarded Distance MBA Program.

The College of Engineering, originally the first engineering program in the state of Colorado, contains the departments of Atmospheric Science, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering. A new degree concentration in International Engineering is available as a dual degree in the Liberal Arts and Engineering Science. College of Engineering students are engaged in international service projects through groups such as Engineers Without Borders.

In 2005, college faculty generated $50 million in research expenditures, exceeding an average of $500K per faculty member. The College is home to four recognized Colorado State University Programs of Research and Scholarly Excellence: the Department of Atmospheric Science, the Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology, the Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory, and the Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program.

Liberal Arts is the largest college at Colorado State, with 12 departments and one center, more than 4600 undergraduate students and 550 graduate students. The following 12 departments comprise the College of Liberal Arts: School of the Arts, Anthropology, Economics, English, Foreign Languages and Literatures, History, Journalism and Technical Communication, Performing Arts, Philosophy, Political Science, Sociology, Speech Communication, and the Center for Applied Studies in American Ethnicity. Interdisciplinary programs offered are Intensive English, Women's Studies, International Studies and Environmental Affairs.

The origins of the Warner College of Natural Resources can be traced to CSU's first forestry course in 1904. Over the following 100 years the College has grown to become a comprehensive natural resources college, with academic programs and research in forest sciences, fisheries, wildlife and conservation biology, geosciences, rangeland ecology, recreation and tourism, watershed management and environmental sciences.

The College has traditionally been very involved in supporting the local farming community. The Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP) tracks Colorado's rare and imperiled species and habitats, and Colorado Water Knowledge provides water information of all kinds. The Environmental Learning Center, located three miles (5 km) east of campus on the Poudre River, hosts many CSU research projects and educational programs. The Western Center for Integrated Resource Management works on sustainability and profitability with graduate students and local farmers. On an international scale, the college provides technical assistance, training, and research opportunities for protected area managers and students in over 28 sites in Latin America, Asia, and the United States.

The College of Natural Sciences had the third highest enrollment of all colleges on CSU's campus with 3,684 students and the third largest undergraduate major, psychology. One quarter of participants in the CSU Honors Program are in Natural Sciences, and the college provides students the opportunity to participate in a Living Learning Community in Ingersoll Residential College. Graduate and undergraduate students complete their coursework the departments of Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics, Physics, Psychology, Statistics, Zoology, and the Center for Science Math and Technology Education. Interdisciplinary degree programs cover Cellular and Molecular Biology, Ecology, Neuroscience, and Biomedical Engineering.

The College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences is home to the No. 2 ranked veterinary medicine program in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report. The program is an integral part of the four departments that along with the James L. Voss Veterinary Medical Center and the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory comprise the college. Two faculty members are members of the National Academy of Sciences, five faculty members are University Distinguished Professors, and one faculty member is a University Distinguished Teaching Scholar. Undergraduate programs are offered in Biomedical Sciences, Environmental Health and Microbiology. The college houses a variety of graduate programs at both the M.S. and Ph.D. levels, many of which also require the doctor of veterinary medicine degree. Interdisciplinary programs explore biotechnology, neuroscience, resource and livestock management.

The College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University has the largest research program of any college of veterinary medicine in the world. Research facilities and programs include the Robert H. and Mary G. Flint Animal Cancer Center, and the Equine Orthopedic Research Center. The Environmental Health Advanced Systems Laboratory researches the use of computer-based technology in environmental health studies. Over the last 10 years, The EHASL has worked with the US Environmental Protection Agency, National Cancer Institute, and Centers for Disease Control.

US News and World Report: The Professional Veterinary Medicine program is currently ranked second in the nation by US News and World Report and first in the country in federal research dollars. In the 2008 edition, US News and World Report's "Best Colleges" ranked CSU in the prestigious Top Tier (rank of 124) among public and private national universities and 59th among public universities. In its rankings of America's Best Graduate Schools, Occupational Therapy Master's ranked 7th, and Career and Technical Education was 8th.

National Science Foundation: CSU is among the nation's top 5% universities in terms of federal research dollars received for engineering and the sciences.

In 2007, total research expenditures were $296 million, 73% from federal funds. The figures, announced CSU president Larry Penley, represent an 11% increase over 2006, and a 49% increase over the past 5 years. Historically, CSU faculty were at the forefront of radiation treatment for cancer, environmental and animal ethics, and weather forecasting. A 1961 feasibility study at CSU was crucial for the establishment of the Peace Corps.

CSU faculty members are noted for their research on great global challenges including the reemergence of tuberculosis, the brown cloud of air pollution in Asian cities, severe weather forecasting, nutrition and wellness, and bio-terrorism. CSU researchers in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences process and manage incoming data from a new satellite called CloudSat, which enables scientists to see cloud properties and vertical structure. Since its launch, CloudSat has made 5,307 orbits around the Earth. AVA Solar, a start-up formed by a CSU engineering professor, is commercializing a method for manufacturing low-cost, high-efficiency solar panels. Another recent research project has taken CSU faculty to Mexico to study dengue fever. Research in the Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory has created a technological solution to limit pollutants from single-stroke engines, and is now in widespread use in the Philippines.

Outlying campuses cater to a range of research activities including crops research, animal reproduction, public health and watershed management. The Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES) was established in 1888 in accordance with provisions of the Hatch Act calling for experiment stations at land-grant universities. State and federal funds support CAES research programs. In 2007, research activities included pest management, food safety and nutrition, environmental quality, plant and animal production systems, and community and rural development. The NSF Engineering Research Center for Extreme Ultra Violet Science and Technology, funded by the National Science Foundation, partners industry with Colorado State University, CU-Boulder, and the University of California-Berkeley. The center has three research thrusts in Engineered EUV Sources , Imaging, Patterning, and Metrology , and Novel Linear and Non-Linear Spectroscopies The Colorado Center for Biorefining and Biofuels (C2B2) is the first research center created under the umbrella of the new Colorado Renewable Energy Collaboratory, involving CSU, CU, Colorado School of Mines, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The center develops biofuels and bio-refining technologies.

Colorado State's new research Supercluster model brings together researchers across disciplines to work on topics of global concern in which CSU has a demonstrated expertise. Research results are connected to the marketplace through transfer, patenting and licensing activities carried out by experts with a focus on each research area. CSU has established Superclusters in Infectious Disease and Cancer Research and Treatment. A third, in clean energy, is being developed. CSU has a well established research program in infectious disease. The new Regional Biocontainment Laboratory, funded by the National Institutes of Health, is home to scientists developing vaccines and drugs for some world's most devastating diseases. The Biocontainment Laboratory also houses one of 10 US Regional Centers of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, funded by a $40 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Much of the Cancer Supercluster, which involves the collaboration of 5 colleges, is based around the work of the university's Animal Cancer Center, the largest center of its kind in the world.

The Programs of Research and Scholarly Excellence at Colorado State University, initiated in 1991, are internally distinguished every four years following an extensive nomination and review process.

Currently designated Programs of Research and Scholarly excellence are the following: Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory Center for Extreme Ultraviolet Science and Technology Center for Research on Writing and Communication Technologies Department of Atmospheric Sciences Department of Chemistry Department of Occupational Therapy Department of Statistics Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory Environmental and Water Resources Engineering Program Infectious Diseases Program Musculoskeletal Research Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory The Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory studies the environment and promotes sustainability through collaborative application of ecology and ecosystem science principles. NREL has widened in scope since its beginnings in 1968 as a leader in grassland research. Current projects include The African Ecosystems Program, Program for Global Environmental Sustainability, and the Rocky Mountain Environment and Society Program.

Approximately 700 students per year participate in educational programs abroad, and 1,200 foreign students and scholars from more than 90 countries are engaged in academic work and research on campus. The initial pilot studies for the Peace Corps were conducted by Colorado State faculty, and the university is consistently one of the top-ranking institutions in the nation for the recruitment of Peace Corps volunteers . Since 1988, CSU and the Peace Corps have participated in four cooperative master's degree programs in English, Food Science and Human Nutrition, Natural Resources, and Agriculture. The program involves at least 2 semesters of course work at CSU combined with time abroad as a Peace Corps volunteer. Colorado State offers various programs on campus for students interested in international issues. Regional specializations with core courses and electives are available in Asian Studies, Middle Eastern Studies, Latin American and Caribbean Studies, or Russian, Eastern and Central Europe Studies. The Global Village Living Learning Community is a housing option for students with international interests.

The Honors Program provides challenging and enriching programs for high achieving students in all majors through two academic tracks. One track is designed for students aiming to complete their general education requirements within the Honors Program, and a second is composed of upper division courses, usually appropriate for currently enrolled or transfer students. The Academic Village, which opened in fall 2007, offers 180 Honor students the opportunity to live in the Honors Living Learning Community. 1,126 students participated in the Honors Program in fall 2007.

Colorado State offers 16 graduate programs online, allowing traditional and non-traditional students alike to further their chosen course of study from anywhere in the world. Students with 2 or more years of undergraduate education can also complete a bachelor's degree online. Credit courses and certificate programs allow for study in a concentrated area without the expense or time commitment of seeking an entire degree. The College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences offers online continuing education for veterinarians and veterinary technicians. Additionally, the CSU Board of Governors has approved an online, non-profit university to be launched by Colorado State in conjunction with the Colorado Community College system. The university, called CSU-Global Campus, has fully accredited bachelor's, master's, and professional degrees.

Colorado State University competes in 16 sponsored intercollegiate sports, including 10 for women (cross country, indoor track, outdoor track, volleyball, basketball, golf, tennis, swimming, softball, and water polo) and six for men (football, cross country, indoor track, outdoor track, basketball, and golf). Colorado State's athletic teams compete along with 8 other institutions in the Mountain West Conference, which is an NCAA Division I conference and sponsors Division I FBS football. The Conference was formed in 1999, splitting from the former 16-member Western Athletic Conference. CSU has won 9 MWC tournament championships and won or shared 11 regular season titles. Rams football teams won or shared the Mountain West title in 1999, 2000 and 2002.

Fort Collins is located 65 miles (105 km) north of Denver, approximately 2 hours from major ski resorts and 45 minutes from Rocky Mountain National Park. There are opportunities for students to be active with bike trails and hiking nearby. In 2006, Money Magazine ranked Fort Collins as the "Best Place to Live" in the United States.

There are 325 student organizations and 34 honor societies at CSU. 60% of undergraduates participate in intramural sports while 5% join one of 19 fraternities and 14 sororities. There are 27 club sports, including cycling, baseball, water polo, triathlon and Rugby. 300 music, theatre and dance performances, exhibitions, and other arts events take place on campus each year. The student government is the Associated Students of Colorado State University. CSU's daily newspaper is the Rocky Mountain Collegian. CSU also has a student-run campus television station and a student radio station, KCSU FM.

Sport Clubs at Colorado State University were established in 1978. There are currently 27 Sport Club teams. Every year the clubs take a combined 150 trips. There are over 1,000 students associated with the program. The programs have enjoyed a significant amount of recent success with National Championships in: Woman's Lacrosse (2008); Baseball (2004,2005,2006,2008); Men's Lacrosse (1999,2001,2003,2006).

The Rocky Mountain Collegian is CSU's student-run daily newspaper, where students have complete control over editorial decisions. The paper was founded in 1891, and was a weekly publication by the 1930s. During the 1940s and 1950s, the paper earned disrepute in the local community for its unpopular support of women's rights and anti-racism stance. By the 1970s, the Collegian was consistently publishing daily. Editorial quality and financial support have varied over the years, at times rising among elite college newspapers and at others struggling to publish. During the 1990s, the paper was twice selected as one of the top 12 daily student papers in the country.In late 2007, the Collegian published a staff article that incited national debate about free speech. This event, as well as president Penley's considerations of "partnering" out the Collegian by Gannett in January 2008, lead to proposals in making CSU's student media, including the Rocky Mountain Collegian, a not-for-profit organization independent from the university. .

KCSU is Colorado State's student run station, with a format focusing on alternative and college rock music, including indie rock, punk, hip-hop and electronic music. News, sports and weather updates along with talk programs and specialty shows round out the programming schedule. Broadcasting at 10,000 watts, KCSU is among the larger college stations in the country, reaching approximately 250,000 listeners. KCSU first began broadcasting in 1964 as a station owned, operated and financed by students. Following a long period as a professional station, KCSU again became student run in 1995, at which time the current format was adopted. As with the Collegian and CTV, KCSU was hit hard by the 1997 flood, and for a time was forced to broadcast from remote locations. Now back in its original Lory Student Center location, KCSU has benefited from revamped production facilities and updated equipment.

CTV is CSU's student-run television station, and is a recent winner of fourteen Rocky Mountain Collegiate Media Association awards and a Student Emmy Award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Heartland Chapter. Content includes news, sports, and music videos. CTV was founded in 1989, and currently broadcasts weeknights on the university cable station from 8pm to midnight.

Student-run magazine College Avenue was founded in 2005 with the goal, as put forth by its founding editors, of giving students a new forum to address controversial issues affecting the campus community from their own vantage point. Since its first issue in fall 2005, the magazine has been released quarterly, the most recent issue released in spring 2008.

Greek life at Colorado State began in the fall of 1915. Currently 5% of undergraduates join one of CSUs 19 fraternities and 14 sororities. The CSU Inter-Fraternity Council acts as the governing body for the 19 fraternities, each with a delegate representative. Similarly, the CSU Panhellenic Council governs the sororities. CSU Greek organizations are involved in a number of philanthropic activities around campus, among them CSUnity, Cans around the Oval, Habitat for Humanity and RamRide. The governing bodies recently raised $25,000 towards the sponsorship of a Habitat for Humanity home.

12 residence halls provide on campus living for about 5,100 students. 718 apartments for students with families and 190 apartments for older or graduate students are other living options. CSU offers theme floors for people with shared interests. The halls also have a number of Living-Learning communities that directly link the on-campus living environment with a specific academic focus in Honors, engineering, natural sciences, health and wellness, equine sciences, leadership development, or pre-veterinary medicine. The Key Academic Community creates an academically focused residential community for freshmen who share a desire for academic achievement, active involvement in classes, community service, campus activities, and appreciation of diversity. Residents share classes and take advantage of yearlong service opportunities with a close knit group of 19 other students.

CSU Honors Program participants have the opportunity to live in the Honors Living Community. The new Academic Village, which opened in fall 2007, houses Living Learning Communities for 180 Honors and 240 Engineering students. Students in the College of Natural Sciences can choose to live in the Ingersoll Residential College.

In fall 2007, CSU opened its doors to 24,983 students, among them 20,765 undergraduates, 2,332 master's students, 1,347 doctoral students, and 539 professional students in the College of Biomedical and Veterinary Medicine. 80% of undergraduates are Colorado residents, and within the student population 50 states and 79 countries are represented. 52% of undergraduates are women, 13.2% of undergraduates are ethnic minorities (excluding international students), and 3% of undergraduates are 30 and over. Of minority students, 48% are Hispanic, 24% Asian American, 16% African American, and 12% Native American. Over the past ten years, minority enrollment has increased 35%, from 2,361 to 3,178, an increase from 10.9% to 13.2% of the student population. Though progress has been made, increasing minority enrollment at CSU has been a challenge for school administrators, one made yet more difficult by high dropout rates in many Colorado high schools with concentrated minority populations.

The Monfort Lecture Series has brought important speakers to campus. Past Lecturers include Jane Goodall, Ernesto Zedillo, Mikhail Gorbachev, Madeleine Albright, General Norman Schwarzkopf and Archbishop Desmond Tutu.

CSU has 169,935 living alumni with 50 active alumni chapters (14 in Colorado and 37 out of state) and 9 national interest groups. CSU graduates include Pulitzer Prize winners, astronauts, CEOs, and the current governor of Colorado.

The highest academic recognition awarded by the University, the title "University Distinguished Professor", is bestowed upon no more than 12 full professors at any one time on the basis of outstanding scholarship and achievement.

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