DVD

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Posted by motoman 03/31/2009 @ 10:13

Tags : dvd, entertainment

News headlines
Fox to Release '24' DVD Right After Season Finale - New York Times
By BRIAN STELTER After the seventh season of “24” on Fox ends on Monday night, loyal fans can awake the next morning, buy a copy of the DVD, and start watching the 24-hour counterterrorism drama again from the first minute....
RPT-UPDATE 1-Toshiba sues Imation, others over DVD patents - Reuters
N) and several recordable DVD manufacturers and distributors, claiming they are infringing on its patents. The lawsuit, filed in the US District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, says Imation and the other companies do not have licensing...
DVD Review : Star Trek Of Gods and Men - TrekWeb.com
Even several fan films were included on the TREKKIES II DVD release back in 2004. The most ambitious fan film to date has to be the three-part tale OF GODS AND MEN, which was recently named by the syfy Portal Genre Awards as the top web project of 2008...
Blu-ray the victor in DVD war - WA today
The high definition disc format wars could be over after reports revealed that the main backer of HD DVD, Toshiba, is preparing to fall on its sword. The move would mean consumers won't have to worry about choosing a format that could eventually become...
Valkyrie – DVD Review - Monsters and Critics.com
I'm sure I'll watch this DVD over and over and can't wait to get through all of the special features, but this should have been a story of real heroism. We always wonder how a nation of people could not only allow but even aid one man in his quest to...
Win a Man on Wire DVD - Stuff.co.nz
Man on Wire is a new documentary about a Frenchman who walked between New York's Twin Towers in 1974, and we've got three copies of the DVD to give away. ON August 7, 1974, a young Frenchman named Philippe Petit stepped out on a wire illegally rigged...
Prison Break: The Final Break on DVD and Blu-ray (July 21 ... - DVDTOWN.com
By Henning Molbaek Fox will release "Prison Break: The Final Break" on DVD and Blu-ray this July 21st. CENTURY CITY, Calif. – Just when it seemed the cult favorite series was locked up for good, the unstoppable action is back as PRISON BREAK: THE FINAL...
Mega Shark Vs. Giant Octopus DVD review - Den Of Geek
A modern day B movie. With a shark. And an octopus. Starring Debbie Gibson. What's not to like? With a title like this, how could you not be curious on what B movie specialists The Asylum have done? Monster fight movies are not exactly original,...
Toshiba files suit for infringement of its DVD patents - Computer Business Review
By CBR staff writer Japan's Toshiba has filed a suit against Imation and several other manufacturers and distributors of recordable DVD media, claiming that they are infringing its DVD patents. Join forces to deliver Blockbuster's library of digital...

DVD

DVD logo.svg

DVD, also known as "Digital Versatile Disc" or "Digital Video Disc," is an optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are video and data storage. Most DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs) but store more than six times as much data.

Variations of the term DVD often describe the way data is stored on the discs: DVD-ROM (Read Only Memory), has data that can only be read and not written, DVD-R and DVD+R can record data only once and then function as a DVD-ROM. DVD-RW, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM can both record and erase data multiple times. The wavelength used by standard DVD lasers is 650 nm, and thus the light has a red color.

DVD-Video and DVD-Audio discs respectively refer to properly formatted and structured video and audio content. Other types of DVDs, including those with video content, may be referred to as DVD-Data discs.

As next generation High Definition more advanced optical formats such as Blu-ray Disc also use a disc identical in some aspects, the original DVD is occasionally given the retronym SD DVD (for standard definition).

In 1993, two high-density optical storage formats were being developed; one was the MultiMedia Compact Disc (MMCD), backed by Philips and Sony, and the other was the Super Density (SD) disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Hitachi, Mitsubishi Electric, Pioneer, Thomson, and JVC.

Representatives of the SD camp approached IBM, asking for advice on the file system to use for their disk as well as looking for support for their format for storing computer data. A researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center received that request and also learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax of the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts (including representatives from Apple, Microsoft, Sun, Dell, and many others), this group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. The TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a single, converged standard. Lou Gerstner, president of IBM, was recruited to apply pressure on the executives of the warring factions. Eventually, the computer companies won the day, and a single format, now called DVD, was agreed upon. The TWG also collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA) on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system, known as Universal Disk Format (UDF), for use on the new DVDs.

Philips and Sony abandoned their MultiMedia Compact Disc and agreed upon a specification mostly similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc except for the dual-layer option (MMCD was single-sided and optionally dual-layer whereas SD was single-layer but optionally double-sided) and EFMPlus modulation. EFMPlus was chosen due to its great resilience against disc damage such as scratches and fingerprints. EFMPlus, created by Kees Immink, who also designed EFM, is 6% less efficient than the modulation technique originally used by Toshiba, which resulted in a capacity of 4.7 GB as opposed to the original 5 GB. The result was the DVD specification, finalized for the DVD movie player and DVD-ROM computer applications in December 1995. The DVD-Video format was introduced first, in 1996, in Japan, to the United States in March 1997 (Test Marketed), and mid-late 1998 in Europe and Australia. In May 1997, the DVD Consortium was replaced by the DVD Forum, which is open to all other companies.

The official DVD specification documents have never defined DVD. Usage in the present day varies, with DVD, Digital Video Disc, and Digital Versatile Disc being the most common.

DVD was originally used as an initialism for the unofficial term digital videodisk.

It was reported in 1995, at the time of the specification finalization, that the letters officially stood for digital versatile disc (due to non-video applications).

However, the text of the press release announcing the specification finalization only refers to the technology as "DVD," making no mention of what (if anything) the letters stood for.

A newsgroup FAQ written by Jim Taylor (a prominent figure in the industry) claims that four years later, in 1999, the DVD Forum stated that the format name was simply the three letters "DVD" and did not stand for anything.

The basic types of DVD are referred to by a rough approximation of their capacity in gigabytes. In draft versions of the specification, DVD-5 indeed held five gigabytes, but some parameters had to be changed later on to address technical challenges, so the capacity decreased.

The 12 cm type is a standard DVD, and the 8 cm variety is known as a mini-DVD. These are the same sizes as a standard CD and a mini-CD, respectively. The capacity by surface (MiB/cm²) varies from 6.92MiB/cm² in the DVD-1 to 18.0 MiB/cm² in the DVD-18.

Note: As with hard disk drives, in the DVD realm gigabyte and the symbol GB are usually used in the SI sense, i.e. 109 (or 1,000,000,000) bytes. For distinction, gibibyte with symbol GiB is used, i.e. 230 (or 1,073,741,824) bytes. Most computer operating systems display file sizes in gibibytes, mebibytes and kibibytes labeled as gigabyte, megabyte and kilobyte respectively.

Each DVD sector contains 2418 bytes of data, 2048 bytes of which are user data.

In comparison Blu-Ray, the successor to the DVD format, uses a wavelength of 405 nm and one disc has a 50GB storage capacity.

Writing speeds for DVD were 1×, that is 1350 kB/s (1318 KiB/s), in the first drives and media models. More recent models at 18× or 20× have 18 or 20 times that speed. Note that for CD drives, 1× means 150 KiB/s (153.6 kB/s), approximately 9 times slower.

HP initially developed recordable DVD media from the need to store data for backup and transport.

DVD recordables are now also used for consumer audio and video recording. Three formats were developed: DVD-R/RW (minus/dash), DVD+R/RW (plus), and DVD-RAM.

Dual Layer recording allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data, up to 8.54 gigabytes per side, per disc, compared with 4.7 gigabytes for single-layer discs. DVD-R DL was developed for the DVD Forum by Pioneer Corporation; DVD+R DL was developed for the DVD+RW Alliance by Philips and Mitsubishi Kagaku Media (MKM).

A Dual Layer disc differs from its usual DVD counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself. The drive with Dual Layer capability accesses the second layer by shining the laser through the first semitransparent layer. In some DVD players, the layer change can exhibit a noticeable pause, up to several seconds. This caused some viewers to worry that their dual layer discs were damaged or defective, with the end result that studios began listing a standard message explaining the Dual Layer pausing effect on all Dual Layer disc packaging.

DVD recordable discs supporting this technology are backward compatible with some existing DVD players and DVD-ROM drives. Many current DVD recorders support Dual Layer technology, and the price is now comparable to that of single-layer drives, although the blank media remains more expensive. The recording speeds reached by Dual Layer media are still well below those of single-layer media.

There are two modes for Dual Layer orientation. With parallel track path (PTP), used on DVD-ROM, both layers start at the inside diameter (ID) and end at the outside diameter (OD) with the lead-out. With opposite track path (OTP), used on many DVD-Video discs, the lower layer starts at the ID and the upper layer starts at the OD, where the other layer ends; they share one lead-in and one lead-out. However, some DVD-Video discs also use a parallel track - such as those authored episodically, such as a disc with several separate episodes of a TV series, where more often than not, the layer change is in-between titles and therfore would not need to be authored in the opposite track path fashion.

DVD-Video is a standard for storing video content on DVD media. In the U.S., mass retailer sales of DVD-Video titles and players began in late 1997. By June 2003, weekly DVD-Video rentals began out-numbering weekly VHS cassette rentals, reflecting the rapid adoption rate of the technology in the U.S. marketplace. Currently DVD-Video is the dominant form of home video distribution worldwide.

Although many resolutions and formats are supported, most consumer DVD-Video discs use either 4:3 or anamorphic 16:9 aspect ratio MPEG-2 video, stored at a resolution of 720×480 (NTSC) or 720×576 (PAL) at 29.97 or 25 FPS. Audio is commonly stored using the Dolby Digital (AC-3) or Digital Theater System (DTS) formats, ranging from 16-bits/48 kHz to 24-bits/96 kHz format with monaural to 6.1 channel "Surround Sound" presentation, and/or MPEG-1 Layer 2. Although the specifications for video and audio requirements vary by global region and television system, many DVD players support all possible formats. DVD-Video also supports features such as menus, selectable subtitles, multiple camera angles, and multiple audio tracks.

DVD-Audio is a format for delivering high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. It offers many channel configuration options (from mono to 6.1 surround sound) at various sampling frequencies (up to 24-bits/192 kHz versus CDDA's 16-bits/44.1 kHz). Compared with the CD format, the much higher capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music (with respect to total running time and quantity of songs) and/or far higher audio quality (reflected by higher sampling rates and greater bit-depth, and/or additional channels for spatial sound reproduction).

Despite DVD-Audio's superior technical specifications, there is debate as to whether the resulting audio enhancements are distinguishable in typical listening environments. DVD-Audio currently forms a niche market, probably due to the very sort of format war with rival standard SACD that DVD-Video avoided.

DVD-Audio discs employ a DRM mechanism, called Content Protection for Prerecorded Media (CPPM) developed by the 4C group (IBM, Intel, Matsushita, and Toshiba).

To date, CPPM has not been "broken" in the sense that DVD-Video's CSS has been broken, but ways to circumvent it have been developed. By modifying commercial DVD(-Audio) playback software to write the decrypted and decoded audio streams to the hard disk, users can essentially extract content from DVD-Audio discs much in the same way they can from DVD-Video discs.

In 2006, a new format called Blu-ray Disc (BD), designed by Sony, Philips, and Panasonic, was released as the successor to DVD. Another format, HD DVD, competed unsuccessfully with this format in the format war of 2006 to 2008. A dual layer Blu-ray Disc can store 50 GB.

However, unlike previous format changes (e.g. audio tape to compact disc, VHS videotape to DVD), there is no immediate indication that production of the standard DVD will gradually wind down, as they still dominate with around 87% of video sales and approximately one billion DVD player sales worldwide. Consumers initially were slow to adopt Blu-ray, partly due to the cost. By 2009, 85% of stores that sold DVD sold Blu-ray Discs. Currently, Blu-ray players are selling for $198 USD, while titles retail for as cheap as $9.86 USD (but are usually significantly higher in price than SD DVD releases, at a more common $20-$30 USD price). A high-definition TV and appropriate connection cables are also required to take advantage of Blu-ray disc. Some analysts suggest that the biggest obstacle to replacing DVD is due to its installed base; a large majority of consumers are satisfied with DVDs. The DVD had succeeded because it offered a compelling alternative to VHS. In addition, Blu-ray players are designed to be backwards compatible, allowing older DVDs to be played since the media are physically identical; this differed from the change from vinyl to CD and from tape to DVD, which involved a complete change in physical medium.

This situation can be best compared to the changeover from 78 rpm shellac recordings to 45 rpm and 33 1/3 rpm vinyl recordings; because the medium used for the earlier format was virtually the same as the latter version (a disk on a turntable, played using a needle), phonographs continued to be built to play obsolete 78s for decades after the format was discontinued. Manufacturers have announced standard DVD releases well into 2009, and the format remains the preferred one for the release of older television programs and films, with some programs such as Star Trek: The Original Series requiring reediting and replacement of certain elements such as special effects in order to be better received in high-definition viewing.

The Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology that may one day hold up to 3.9 terabytes (TB) of information, albeit the current maximum is 250GB. It employs a technique known as collinear holography.

There are two considerations for an archival medium: obsolescence and durability. If there is no device that can read the medium, it is obsolete and the data is unavailable and thus lost.

Durability of DVDs is measured by how long the data may be read from the disc assuming compatible devices exist that can read it: that is, how long the disc can be stored until data is lost. Five factors affect durability: sealing method, reflective layer, organic dye makeup, where it was manufactured, and storage practices .

According to the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA), "manufacturers claim life spans ranging from 30 to 100 years for DVD-R and DVD+R discs and up to 30 years for DVD-RW, DVD+RW and DVD-RAM," although a manufacturer of 24-karat gold-based DVDs claims lifespans of up to 300 years . Of more conventional manufacturing processes, Taiyo Yuden is frequently recommended for longer durability .

DVDs that have commercial movies and television content recorded on them are subject to copyright. The rise of filesharing and 'piracy', has prompted many copyright owner to display notices on DVD packaging or displayed on screen when the content is played that warn consumers of the illegality of certain uses of the DVD.

Such notices do not always offer a reliable summary of DVD owners' rights.

Generally, retail buyers of commercial prerecorded DVDs are free to sell or exchange their property. Arrangements for renting and lending differ more by geography. In the US, the right to rent or lend out bought DVDs is protected by the first-sale doctrine under the United States Copyright Act. In Europe, rental and lending rights are more limited, under a 1992 European Directive that gives copyright holders broader powers to restrict the commercial renting and public lending of DVD copies of their work.

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DVD TV game

A DVD TV game (or DVDi, "DVD interactive") is a standalone game that can be played on a set-top DVD player. The game takes advantage of technology built into the DVD format to create an interactive gaming environment compatible with most DVD players without requiring additional hardware. This technology has already been used for gaming, advertising, music, education, and corporate training.

DVD TV games were first developed in the late 1990s, and reached the end consumer around the end of the decade. They were poorly received and understood as an entertainment medium.

In 1997 Digital Leisure was formed and started producing a version of the popular Laserdisc game Dragon's Lair on DVD.

In 2002, Screenlife introduced the first DVD board game with the Scene It? Movie Edition. Since then, Screenlife has sold over 15 million games, and has more than 20 titles in its collection. Scene It? is distributed to the mass channel through Mattel and has many other popular licenses, such as American Idol, Thomas and Friends and Banzai. Screenlife Games is considered the front-runner of the overall DVD Game market, having pioneered the category and has won numerous international awards in design, production and authoring since its first release.

In 2004, Snap TV,Inc. a Santa Monica-based toy and interactive game introduced a series of DVD Games. With 12 games that target children ages 3 - 12, the company is the leading producer of DVD games for kids. Some of the games in Snap TV's catalog include Pokémon Champion Island, Major League Baseball Trade Up, I Spy Treasure Hunt, I Spy Spooky Mansion, and I Spy Fantasy. The company has won over 10 awards from organizations including I-Pareting, Dr. Toy and NPPA.

Imagination Games are the leaders in DVD Games with 5 of their titles in the top 10. Titles include Press Your Luck, Deal or No Deal, Family Feud, and Who Wants to be a Millionaire. Imagination Games recently won the Stevie Award for Most Innovative Company Under 2,500 employees in both the USA and Asia Pacific.

In 2007, MGA Entertainment released a DVD Game version of the popular television game show Jeopardy!. The game featured host Alex Trebek, 3 wireless buzzers and a plugin unit for your DVD player that keeps score. They had previously released the hit DVD Game version of the $100,000 Pyramid and have announced they will release a Wheel of Fortune DVD Game in 2008.

In 2008, Pressman Toy Corp released The Office DVD Game based on the hit NBC-TV sitcom. The game is narrated by Paul Lieberstein who plays the character Toby Flenderson on the show.

In addition, the format has been used to import some video games to the DVD format, allowing them to be played with a standard DVD player rather than requiring a PC. Examples include Dragon's Lair and Who Shot Johnny Rock?. At least one PC/console game has also been adapted as a DVD TV game: Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness was released in 2006 as a DVD game entitled Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Action Adventure.

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Led Zeppelin (DVD)

Led Zeppelin cover

Led Zeppelin is a double DVD set by the English rock band Led Zeppelin. The recording of the DVD spans the years from 1969 to 1979 and includes performances from the Royal Albert Hall in 1970, Madison Square Garden in 1973, Earls Court in 1975, and Knebworth in 1979, plus other footage. The DVD was released in the United Kingdom on May 26, 2003 and the United States on May 27, 2003. Bootleg footage from some of the concerts is interspersed with the professionally shot material. Led Zeppelin guitarist, and producer of the DVD, Jimmy Page, put out an open request for bootleg footage for specific concert dates to bootleg traders, many of whom complied.

Much of the footage was painstakingly restored for almost a year. Some of the video tapes were so old and brittle, they had to be baked in ovens in order to regain their flexibility. The audio portions were digitally remixed for stereo and 5.1 surround mixes.

The RIAA certified the Led Zeppelin DVD at 22 times platinum for 1.1 million sales in the United States alone (2.5 million worldwide). It was, for three years the highest selling music DVD in America. As of November 2007, the DVD has had an overwhelmingly positive number of reviews on website Amazon, with 560 out of 618 reviewers giving it five stars.

West and East Mitten Buttes, photographed from the visitor centre at the Navajo Tribal Park located at Monument Valley, Arizona.

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Source : Wikipedia