Derry

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Posted by r2d2 03/04/2009 @ 10:12

Tags : derry, northern ireland, united kingdom, europe, world

News headlines
Derry councilors weigh DEDC funding - Eagle Tribune
By Eric Parry DERRY — Derry officials are still debating whether to fund the business organization with which they've shared a rocky 20-year relationship. The Derry Economic Development Corp. went before the Town Council again last Tuesday to request...
Cork cash in on generous Derry City - Belfast Telegraph
Cork City put their financial troubles to one side last night with Dan Murray's first-half goal giving them a 1-0 win over Derry City at Turners Cross. The Revenue Commissioners issued a petition to wind up the clubs holding company earlier this week,...
Derry woman arrested on cocaine possession charge - Eagle Tribune
By Eric Parry DERRY — A 21-year-old woman was arrested on a cocaine possession charge Friday afternoon after police searched her Laraway Court apartment on a warrant. Iris Colon, of 8 Laraway Court, #3B, was charged with possession with intent to...
Derry pushing to roll back "lavish" benefits packages for supervisors - San Bernardino Sun
By Joe Nelson Third District Supervisor Neil Derry is proposing an ordinance that would roll back what he calls "lavish" and "excessive" benefits packages for the Board of Supervisors. In June 2007, the Board of Supervisors approved a benefits package...
Man's body found in Derry - RTE.ie
The Police Ombudsman is investigating the circumstances surrounding the death of a 44-year-old man in Co Derry. The man's body was discovered at a house in Portstewart shortly after 9am. Police, who were called to a reported assault at the house in the...
McCusker to miss Derry opener - RTE.ie
Derry centre-back Niall McCusker has been ruled out of the Ulster SFC tie against Monaghan at Celtic Park on Sunday week after having groin surgery in Germany earlier this week. It is believed that McCusker could be back within six weeks....
Derry march on to Christy Ring quarters - IrishExaminer.com
Ruairi Convery was the chief marksman, tallying up 1-5, as Derry comfortably accounted for Wicklow by 12 points in this Group 2B encounter at Swatragh. Convery's 21st-minute goal helped the Oak Leafers take a 1-7 to 0-6 interval lead, with Sam Dodds...
Derry swine flu case confirmed - Eagle Tribune
An unidentified Derry adult, listed last week as a possible swine flu patient, has been added to the growing list of New Hampshire's confirmed cases. All the probable cases have now tested definite for swine flu, and the case count in the state now...
Derry, Cork eye top spot - Irish Times
CORK CITY can go three points clear at the top of the table, at least for 24 hours, if they can beat Derry City at Turner's Cross this evening. But, fresh from their win over the league champions last week, the visitors find themselves in with a shout...
Judge refuses venue change for trial of Jesse Brooks - The Union Leader
In individual interviews of 120 prospective jurors, she found only 10 had seen anything in the media regarding the murder of Jack Reid Sr., 57, of Derry. "It can be inferred from this observation that the pretrial publicity has not tainted the...

Derry

Derry is located in Northern Ireland

Derry or Londonderry (Irish: Doire or Doire Cholm Chille, meaning ‘Oak wood of Colm Cille’), often called the Maiden City, is a city in Northern Ireland. The old walled city of Londonderry lies on the west bank of the River Foyle with the location of old Derry on the east bank, the present city now covers both banks (Cityside to the west and Waterside to the east) and the river is spanned by two bridges.

The city district also extends to rural areas to the southeast of the city. The population of the city proper was 83,652 in the 2001 Census. The Derry Urban Area had a population of 90,663, making it the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and Ulster, and the fourth largest on the island of Ireland. The wider Derry City Council area had a population of 107,300 as of June 2006. The district is administered by Derry City Council and contains both Londonderry Port and City of Derry Airport.

The Greater Derry area, that area within about 20 miles of the city, has a population of 237,000 and is comprised of Derry City Council, Limavady Borough Council, Strabane District council excluding the Castlederg area, and parts of North East Donegal in the Irish Republic, namely Inishowen, Letterkenny, Ballybofey/Stranorlar and Lifford.

Derry was the last city in the British Isles to be enclosed with defensive walls, and has the most complete series of city walls in the islands. It is one of the few cities in Europe that never saw these fortifications breached.

Derry is very near the border with County Donegal in the Republic of Ireland. The city has had a very close relationship with what is now County Donegal for centuries. The person traditionally seen as the 'founder' of the original Derry is St. Columba (also known as Colm Cille or St. Columb), a holy man and royal prince from Tír Chonaill, the old name for almost all of modern County Donegal (of which the west bank of the Foyle was a part before c. 1600). Derry and the nearby town of Letterkenny form the major economic core of northwest Ireland.

According to the city's Royal Charter the official name is Londonderry and, as stated in a recent High Court decision in January 2007, remains so. It usually appears as such on maps. The city is known by many as Derry, which is an anglicisation of the old Irish Daire, which in modern Irish is spelt Doire, and translates as ‘Oak-grove’. The name derives from the settlement's earliest references, Daire Calgaich (‘oakwood of Calgach’). The name was changed from Derry in 1613 during the Plantation of Ulster to reflect the establishment of the city by the London guilds.

The name "Derry" is preferred by nationalists and it is broadly used throughout Northern Ireland's Catholic community, as well as those of the Republic of Ireland, whereas many unionists prefer "Londonderry"; however in everyday conversation Derry is also used frequently by Protestants. Apart from this local government decision, official use within the UK the city is usually known as Londonderry. In the Republic of Ireland, the city and county are almost always referred to as Derry, on maps, in the media and in conversation. Whereas official road signs in the Republic use the name Derry, those in Northern Ireland bear Londonderry (sometimes abbreviated to L'Derry), although some of these have been defaced with the reference to London obscured, by those who disagree with the UK's official spelling. Usage varies among local organisations, with both names being used. Examples are City of Derry Airport, City of Derry Rugby Club, Derry City FC and the Protestant Apprentice Boys Of Derry, as opposed to Londonderry Port and Londonderry Chamber Of Commerce. The council changed the name of the local government district covering the city to Derry on 7 May 1984, consequently renaming itself Derry City Council. This did not change the name of the city, although the city is coterminous with the district, and in law the city council is also the "Corporation of Londonderry" or, more formally, the "Mayor, Aldermen and Citizens of the City of Londonderry". The form "Londonderry" is used for the post town by the Royal Mail, however use of Derry will still ensure delivery.

The name Derry is very much in popular use throughout Ireland for the naming of places, and indeed there are at least 6 towns bearing that name and at least a further 79 places, where like in the case of Londonderry, the word Derry forms a part of the place name, for example Derrymore, Derrybeg and Derrylea . This pattern is true of all parts of Ireland, from tip to toe.

The city has long been a focal point for important events in Irish history, including the 1688-1689 siege of Derry and Bloody Sunday on 30 January 1972.

Derry is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in Ireland. The earliest historical references date to the 6th century when a monastery was founded there by St. Columba or Colmcille, a famous saint from what is now County Donegal, but for thousands of years before that people had been living in the vicinity.

Before leaving Ireland to spread Christianity elsewhere, Columba founded a monastery in the then Doire Calgach, on the east side of the Foyle. According to oral and documented history, the site was granted to Columba by a local king. The monastery then remained in the hands of the federation of Columban churches who regarded Colmcille as their spiritual mentor. The year 546 is often referred to as the date that the original settlement was founded. However it is accepted that this was an erroneous date assigned by medieval chroniclers. It is accepted that between the 6th century and the 11th century, Derry was known primarily as a monastic settlement.

The town became strategically more significant during the Tudor conquest of Ireland and came under frequent attack, until in 1608 it was destroyed by Cahir O'Doherty, Irish chieftain of Inishowen.

Planters organised by London livery companies through The Honourable The Irish Society arrived in the 1600s as part of the plantation of Ulster, and built the city of Londonderry across the Foyle from the earlier town, with walls to defend it from Irish insurgents who did not welcome the occupation. The aim was to settle Ulster with a population supportive of the Crown.

This Londonderry was the first planned city in Ireland: it was begun in 1613, with the walls being completed 5 years later in 1618. The central diamond within a walled city with four gates was thought to be a good design for defence. The grid pattern chosen was subsequently much copied in the colonies of British North America. The charter initially defined the city as extending three Irish miles (about 6.1 km) from the centre.

If stones could speake, then London's prayse should sound, Who built this church and cittie from the grounde.

During the 1640s, the city suffered in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which began with the Irish Rebellion of 1641, when the Gaelic Irish insurgents made a failed attack on the city. In 1649 the city and its garrison, which supported the republican Parliament in London, were besieged by Scottish Presbyterian forces loyal to King Charles I. The Parliamentarians besieged in Derry were relieved by a strange alliance of Roundhead troops under George Monck and the Irish Catholic general Owen Roe O'Neill. These temporary allies were soon fighting each other again however, after the landing in Ireland of the New Model Army in 1649. The war in Ulster was finally brought to an end when the Parliamentarians crushed the Irish Catholic Ulster army at the battle of Scarrifholis in nearby Donegal in 1650.

During the Glorious Revolution, only Londonderry and nearby Enniskillen had a Protestant garrison by November 1688. An army of around 1,200 men, mostly "Redshanks" (Highlanders), under Alexander Macdonnell, 3rd Earl of Antrim, was slowly organised (they set out on the week William of Orange landed in England). When they arrived on 7 December 1688 the gates were closed against them and the Siege of Derry began. In April 1689, King James came to the city and summoned it to surrender. The King was rebuffed and the siege lasted until the end of July with the arrival of a relief ship.

The city was rebuilt in the 18th century with many of its fine Georgian style houses still surviving. The city's first bridge across the River Foyle in 1790. During the 18th and 19th centuries the port became an important embarkation point for Irish emigrants setting out for North America. Some of these founded the colonies of Derry and Londonderry in the state of New Hampshire.

Also during the 19th century, it became a destination for migrants fleeing areas more severely affected by the Irish Potato Famine.

During the Irish War of Independence, the area was rocked by sectarian violence, partly prompted by the guerilla war raging between the Irish Republican Army and British forces, but also influenced by economic and social pressures. In July 1920, several thousand unionist ex-British Army servicemen mobilised to try to drive Catholics out of jobs they had taken during the First World War. Severe rioting ensued and the loyalists launched an assault on St Columb's Cathedral, which was resisted by armed IRA members. Many lives were lost and in addition many Catholics and Protestants were expelled from their homes during this communal unrest. After a week's violence, a truce was negotiated by local politicians on both unionist and republican sides.

In 1921, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the partition of Ireland, it unexpectedly became a border city, separated from much of its natural economic hinterland in County Donegal.

During the Second World War Londonderry played an important part in the Battle of the Atlantic. Ships from the Royal Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy, and other Allied navies were stationed in the city and the United States military established a base. The reason for such a high degree of military and naval activity was self-evident: Londonderry was the United Kingdom's westernmost port; indeed, the city was the westernmost Allied port in Europe: thus, Londonderry was a crucial jumping-off point, together with Glasgow and Liverpool, for the shipping convoys that ran between the British Isles/Western Europe and North America. The large numbers of military personnel in Londonderry substantially altered the character of the city, bringing in some outside colour to the local area, as well as some cosmopolitan and economic buoyancy during these years. At the conclusion of the Second World War, some 19 U-boats of the German Kriegsmarine came into the city's harbour at Lisahally to offer their surrender.

All the accusations of gerrymandering, practically all the complaints about housing and regional policy, and a disproportionate amount of the charges about public and private employment come from this area. The area – which consisted of Counties Tyrone and Fermanagh, Londonderry County Borough, and portions of Counties Londonderry and Armagh - had less than a quarter of the total population of Northern Ireland yet generated not far short of three-quarters of the complaints of discrimination...The unionist government must bear its share of responsibility. It put through the original gerrymander which underpinned so many of the subsequent malpractices, and then, despite repeated protests, did nothing to stop those malpractices continuing The most serious charge against the Northern Ireland government is not that it was directly responsible for widespread discrimination, but that it allowed discrimination on such a scale over a substantial segment of Northern Ireland.

Civil rights demonstrations led by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association were declared illegal and then suppressed by the Royal Ulster Constabulary and Ulster Special Constabulary. The events that followed the August 1969 Apprentice Boys parade resulted in the Battle of the Bogside, when Catholic rioters fought the police, leading to widespread civil disorder in Northern Ireland and is often dated as the starting point of the Troubles.

On Sunday January 30, 1972, 13 unarmed civilians were shot dead by British paratroopers during a civil rights march in the Bogside area. Another 13 were wounded and one further man later died of his wounds. This event came to be known as Bloody Sunday.

Violence eased towards the end of the Troubles in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Irish journalist Ed Maloney claims in "The Secret History of the IRA" that republican leaders there negotiated a de facto ceasefire in the city as early as 1991. Whether this is true or not, the city did see less bloodshed by this time than Belfast or other localities.

The city was famously visited by a killer whale in November 1977 at the height of the troubles and was dubbed Dopey Dick by the thousands who came from miles around to see him.

The local district council is Derry City Council, which consists of five electoral areas: Cityside, Northland, Rural, Shantallow and Waterside. The council of 30 members is re-elected every four years, though the 2009 election is expected to be postponed until 2011, when a new council for Derry and Strabane is planned to replace existing councils. As of the 2005 election, 14 Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) members, ten Sinn Féin, five Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), and one Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) make up the council. The mayor and deputy mayor are elected annually by councillors, and SDLP councillor Gerard Diver's term as mayor began in June 2008.

The local authority boundaries correspond to the Foyle constituency of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and the Foyle constituency of the Northern Ireland Assembly. In European Parliament elections, it is part of the Northern Ireland constituency.

According to documents in the College of Arms in London and the Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland in Dublin, the arms of the city were confirmed in 1613 by Daniel Molyneux, Ulster King of Arms. The College of Arms document states that the original arms of the City of Derry were ye picture of death (or a skeleton) on a moissy stone & in ye dexter point a castle and that upon grant of a charter of incorporation and the renaming of the city as Londonderry in that year the first mayor had requested the addition of a "chief of London".

In 1979 Derry City Council commissioned a report into the city's arms and insignia, as part of the design process for an heraldic badge. The published report found that there was no basis for any of the popular explanations for the skeleton and that it was "purely symbolic and does not refer to any identifiable person".

The 1613 records of the arms depicted a harp in the centre of the cross, but this was omitted from later depictions of the city arms, and in the Letters Patent confirming the arms to Londonderry Corporation in 1952. In 2002 Derry City Council applied to the College of Arms to have the harp restored to the city arms, and Garter and Norroy & Ulster Kings of Arms accepted the seventeenth century evidence, issuing letters patent to that effect in 2003.

The motto attached to the coat of arms reads in Latin, "Vita, Veritas, Victoria". This translates into English as, "Life, Truth, Victory".

Derry is characterised by its distinctively hilly topography. The River Foyle forms a deep valley as it flows through the city, making Derry a place of very steep streets and sudden, startling views. The original walled city of Londonderry lies on a hill on the west bank of the River Foyle. In the past, the river branched and enclosed this wooded hill as an island; over the centuries, however, the western branch of the river dried up and became a low-lying and boggy district that is now called the Bogside.

Today, modern Derry extends considerably north and west of the city walls and east of the river. The half of the city the west of the Foyle is known as the Cityside and the area east is called the Waterside. The Cityside and Waterside are connected by the Craigavon Bridge and Foyle Bridge. The district also extends into rural areas to the southeast of the city.

This much larger city, however, remains characterised by the often extremely steep hills that form much of its terrain on both sides of the river. A notable exception to this lies on the north-eastern edge of the city, on the shores of Lough Foyle, where large expanses of sea and mudflats were reclaimed in the middle of the nineteenth century. Today, these slob lands are protected from the sea by miles of sea walls and dikes. The area is an internationally important bird sanctuary.

Other important nature reserves lie at Ness Wood, 10 miles (16 km) east of Derry; and at Prehen Wood, within the city's south-eastern suburbs.

Derry Urban Area (DUA), including the city and the neighbouring settlements of Culmore, Newbuildings and Strathfoyle, is classified as a city by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) since its population exceeds 75,000. On census day (29 April 2001) there were 90,736 people living in Derry Urban Area. Of these, 27.0 per cent were aged under 16 years and 13.4 per cent were aged 60 and over; 48.3 per cent of the population were male and 51.7 per cent were female; 77.8 per cent were from a Roman Catholic background and 20.8 per cent were from a Protestant background; and 7.1 per cent of people aged 16-74 were unemployed.

The mid-2006 population estimate for the wider Derry City Council area was 107,300. Population growth in 2005/06 was driven by natural change, with net out-migration of approximately 100 people.

The city was one of the few in Ireland to experience an increase in population during the Irish Potato Famine as migrants came to it from other, more heavily affected areas. The great majority of these migrants were Catholic.

Concerns have been raised by the Protestant community over the increasingly divided nature of the city. During the course of the Troubles, it is estimated that as many as 15,000 Protestants moved from the cityside. Fewer than 500 Protestants are now living on the west bank of the River Foyle, compared to 18,000 in 1969, with most on the Fountain Estate and it is feared that the city could become permanently divided.

However, concerted efforts have been made by local community, church and political leaders from both traditions to redress the problem. A conference to bring together key actors and promote tolerance was held in October 2006. Dr Ken Good, the Church of Ireland Bishop of Derry and Raphoe, said he was happy living on the cityside. "I feel part of it. It is my city and I want to encourage other Protestants to feel exactly the same", he said.

Support for Protestants in the district has been strong from the former SDLP city Mayor Helen Quigley. Cllr Quigley has made inclusion and tolerance key themes of her mayoralty. The Mayor Helen Quigley said it is time for "everyone to take a stand to stop the scourge of sectarian and other assaults in the city." This referred to assaults on citizens from both communities.

The shirt factory of Messrs. Tille at Londonderry, which employs 1,000 operatives in the factory itself, and 9,000 people spread up and down the country and working in their own houses.

The industry reached its peak in the 1920s employing around 18,000 people. In modern times however the textile industry declined due to in most part cheaper Asian wages.

In the last 15 years there has been a drive to increase inward investment in the city, more recently concentrating on digital industries. Currently the three largest private-sector employers are American firms. Economic successes have included call centres and a large investment by Seagate, which has operated a factory in the Springtown Industrial Estate since 1993. Seagate currently employs over 1,000 people in the Springtown premises, which produce more than half of the company's total requirement for hard drive read-write heads.

A recent but controversial new employer in the area is Raytheon, Raytheon Systems Limited, was established in 1999, in the Ulster Science & Technology Park, Buncrana Road. Although some of the local people welcomed the jobs boost while others in the area objected to the jobs being provided by a firm involved heavily in the arms trade. Following four years of protest by the Foyle Ethical Investment Campaign, in 2004 Derry City Council passed a motion declaring the district a "A 'No – Go' Area for the Arms Trade".

Significant multinational employers in the region include Firstsource of India, DuPont, INVISTA, Stream International, Seagate Technology, Perfecseal, NTL, Raytheon and Northbrook Technology of the United States, Arntz Belting and Invision Software of Germany, and Homeloan Management of the UK. Major local business employers include Desmonds, Northern Ireland's largest privately-owned company, manufacturing and sourcing garments, E&I Engineering, St. Brendan's Irish Cream Liqueur and McCambridge Duffy, one of the largest insolvency practices in the UK.

Even though the city provides cheap labour by standards in Western Europe, critics have noted that the grants offered by the Northern Ireland Industrial Development Board have helped land jobs for the area that only last as long as the funding lasts. This was reflected in questions to the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Richard Needham, in 1990. It was noted that it cost £30,000 to create one job in an American firm in Northern Ireland.

The fact is there has been consistent under-investment in the North West and a reluctance on the part of the Civil Service to see or support anything west of the Bann, except when it comes to rate increases, then they treat us equally.

In July 2005, the Irish Minister for Finance, Brian Cowen, called for a joint task force to drive economic growth in the cross border region. This would have implications for Counties Londonderry, Tyrone, and Donegal across the border.

The city is the north west's major shopping district, housing two large shopping centres along with numerous shop packed streets serving much of the greater county, as well as Tyrone and Donegal. Retail developments in Letterkenny have, however, lessened cross-border traffic from north County Donegal.

The city centre has two main shopping centres; the Foyleside Shopping Centre which has 45 stores and 1430 parking spaces, and the Richmond Centre, which has 39 retail units. The Quayside Shopping Centre also serves the city-side and there is also Lisnagelvin Shopping Centre in the Waterside. These centres, as well as local-run businesses, feature numerous national and international stores. A retail park was recently built called Crescent Link Retail Park located in the Waterside and has many international chain stores, including Homebase, Curries, Carpet Right, PC World, Argos Extra, Toys R Us, Halfords, JJB, Pets at Home, MFI, Tesco Express, M&S Simply Food and Land of Leather. In the short space that this site has been built, it has quickly grown to the second largest retail park in Northern Ireland (second only to Sprucefield in Lisburn).

It is also home to the world's oldest independent department store; Austins. Established in 1830, Austins predates Jenners of Edinburgh by 5 years, Harrods of London by 15 years and Macy's of New York by 25 years. The store's five-story Edwardian building is located in the city centre's Diamond.

There is a distinct architectural quality compared with other Irish cities. This quality can be primarily ascribed to the formal planning of the historic walled city of Londonderry at the core of the modern city. This is centred on the Diamond with a collection of late Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian buildings maintaining the gridlines of the main thoroughfares (Shipquay Street, Ferryquay Street, Butcher Street and Bishop Street) to the City Gates. St Columb's Cathedral does not follow the grid pattern reinforcing its civic status. This Church of Ireland Cathedral was the first post-Reformation Cathedral built for an Anglican church. The construction of the Roman Catholic St. Eugene's Cathedral in the Bogside in the nineteenth-century was another major architectural addition to the city. The more recent infill buildings within the walls are of varying quality and in many cases these were low quality hurriedly constructed replacements for 1970s bomb damaged buildings. The Townscape Heritage Initiative has funded restoration works to key listed buildings and other older structures.

In the three centuries since their construction, the city walls have been adapted to meet the needs of a changing city. The best example of this adaptation is the insertion of three additional gates  — Castle Gate, New Gate and Magazine Gate  — into the walls in the course of the nineteenth century. Today, the fortifications form a continuous promenade around the city centre, complete with cannon, avenues of mature trees and views across Derry. Historic buildings within the city walls include St Augustine's Church, which sits on the city walls close to the site of the original monastic settlement; the copper-domed Austin's department store, which claims to the oldest such store in the world; and the imposing Greek Revival Courthouse on Bishop Street. The red-brick late-Victorian Guildhall, also crowned by a copper dome, stands just beyond Shipquay Gate and close to the river front.

There are many museums and sites of interest in and around the city, including the Foyle Valley Railway Centre, the Amelia Earhart Centre And Wildlife Sanctuary, the Apprentice Boys Memorial Hall, Ballyoan Cemetery, The Bogside, numerous murals by the Bogside Artists, Derry Craft Village, Free Derry Corner, O'Doherty Tower (now home to part of the Tower Museum), the Guildhall, the Harbour Museum, the Museum of Free Derry, Chapter House Museum, the Workhouse Museum, the Nerve Centre, St. Columb's Park and Leisure Centre, St Eugene's Cathedral, Creggan Country Park, The Millennium Forum and the Foyle and Craigavon bridges.

Future projects include the Walled City Signature Project, which intends to ensure that the city's walls become a world class tourist experience.

The city has seen a large boost to its economy in the form of tourism over the last few years. Cheap flights offered by budget airlines have enticed many people to visit the city. Tourism mainly focuses around the pubs, mainly those of Waterloo Street. Other attractions include museums, a vibrant shopping centre and trips to the Giant's Causeway, which is approximately 50 miles (80 km) away.

The transport network is built out of a complex array of old and modern roads and railways throughout the city and county. The city's road network also makes use of two bridges to cross the River Foyle, the Craigavon Bridge and the Foyle Bridge, the longest bridge in Ireland. Derry also serves as a major transport hub for travel throughout nearby County Donegal.

In spite of it being the second city of Northern Ireland (and it being the second-largest city in all of Ulster), road and rail links to other cities are below par for its standing. Many business leaders claim that government investment in the city and infrastructure has been badly lacking. Some have stated that this is due to its outlying border location whilst others have cited a sectarian bias against the region west of the River Bann due to its high proportion of Catholics.There is no direct motorway link with Dublin or Belfast. The rail link to Belfast has been downgraded over the years so that presently it is not a viable alternative to the roads for industry to rely on. There are currently plans for £1 billion worth of transport infrastructure investment in and around the district.

Most public transport in Northern Ireland is operated by the subsidiaries of Translink. Originally the city's internal bus network was run by Ulsterbus, which still provides the city's connections with other towns in Northern Ireland. The city's buses are now run by Ulsterbus Foyle, just as Translink Metro now provides the bus service in Belfast. The Ulsterbus Foyle network offers 13 routes across the city into the suburban areas, excluding an Easibus link which connects to the Waterside and Drumahoe, and a free Rail Link Bus runs from the Waterside Railway Station to the city centre. All buses leave from the Foyle Street Bus Station in the city centre.

Long distance buses depart from Foyle Street Bus Station to destinations throughout Ireland. Buses are operated by both Ulsterbus and Bus Éireann on cross-border routes and also by Lough Swilly buses to Co. Donegal. There is a half-hourly service to Belfast every day, called the Maiden City Flyer, which is the Goldline Express flagship route. There are hourly services to Strabane, Omagh, Coleraine, Letterkenny and Buncrana, and eleven services a day to bring people to Dublin. There is a daily service to Sligo, Galway, Shannon Airport and Limerick.

Northern Ireland Railways (N.I.R.) has a single route from Londonderry railway station (also known as Waterside Station) on the Waterside to Belfast via Bellarena, Castlerock, Coleraine, Ballymoney, Cullybackey, Ballymena, Antrim, Mossley West and Whiteabbey. The service, which had been allowed to deteriorate in the 1990s, has since been boosted by increased investment.

Currently, a plan has been put in place by the Department for Regional Development, for relaying of the track between Derry and Coleraine by 2013, which will include a passing loop, and the introduction of two new train sets. The £86 million plan will reduce the journey time to Belfast by 30 minutes and allow commuter trains to arrive before 9 a.m. for the first time. However, many still do not use the train, due to the fact that at over two hours it is slower centre-to-centre than the 100-minute Ulsterbus Goldline Express service.

At one time, the city was served by four different systems which stretched throughout Northern Ireland and County Donegal and deep into southern Ireland. Indeed, for a long time, Derry served as the main railway hub for County Donegal. At the turn of the last century, Clones was one of the major junctions from Derry, Omagh, and Belfast to north Leinster, in particular, the major market towns of Athlone, Cavan, and Mullingar. This back-bone rail infrastructure was administered by Midland Great Western Railway which also linked to other major centres namely, Sligo, Tullamore, via Clara, other destinations such as Dublin, Limerick, and other market centres of the south coast.

The road network has historically seen under-investment and has lacked good road connections to both Belfast and Dublin for many years. Long overdue, the largest road investment in the north west's history is now taking place in the district with the construction of new dual-carriageways and roads to Dungiven and helping to reduce the time it takes to get to Belfast. This development is bringing a direct dual-carriageway linking between Northern Ireland's two largest cities a step closer. The project is costing £250 million and is expected to be completed in 2015. In October 2006, the Irish Government announced that it was to invest €1 billion in Northern Ireland; and one of the planned projects was the complete upgrade of the A5 Derry-Omagh-Aughnacloy(-Dublin) road, around 90 km (56 mi) long, to motorway standard. It is yet unknown will these two separate projects interconnect at any point, although there has been calls for some form of connection between the two routes. In June 2008, Conor Murphy, Minister for Regional Development, announced that a study looking into the feasibility of connecting the A5 and A6 will occur. Should it proceed, the scheme would most likely run from Drumahoe to South of Prehen along the South East of the City.

City of Derry Airport, the council-owned commercial airport near Eglinton, has been growing in recent years with new investment in a new runway and £10 million towards redeveloping the site. It is hoped that the new investment will add to the airport's limited array of domestic and international flights. At the end of 2008 work will begin on turning the A2 from Maydown to Eglinton and the airport into a dual carriageway, with completion estimated by 2010. The airport receives significant public subsidies. The facility is the main regional airport for County Donegal, West Tyrone and the west of County Londonderry, as well as Derry City itself.

There are scheduled flights to Dublin, London Stansted, Liverpool, Glasgow Prestwick Airport, Birmingham International Airport, Luton, and Alicante all year round and charter flights to Majorca, Barcelona and the Canary Islands during the summer.

Londonderry Port at Lisahally is the United Kingdom's most westerly port and has capacity for 30,000-ton vessels. Recently the Londonderry Port and Harbour Commission has announced record turnover, record profits and record tonnage figures for the year ended March 2008. The excellent figures are as a result of a significant capital expenditure programme for the period 2000 to 2007 of Circa £22 Million. Tonnage handled by Londonderry Port and Harbour Commissioners (LPHC) increased by almost 65 per cent between 2000 and 2007, according to the latest annual results. The port played a vital part for the Allies in World War II during the war's longest running campaign, the Battle of the Atlantic, and saw the surrender of the German U-Boat fleet at Lisahally on 8 May 1945.

Derry is home to the Magee Campus of the University of Ulster, which was formerly Magee College. Given the affordability of housing in the city, the student population has boomed in recent years bringing a revival in the fortunes of the Magee Campus. The North West Regional College is also based in the city.

Secondary schools include St. Columb's College, Oakgrove Integrated College, St Cecilia's College, St. Joseph's Boys' School, Lisneal College, Foyle and Londonderry College, Thornhill College, Lumen Christi College St. Brigid's College and St. Peter's High School. There are also numerous primary schools.

The city is home to sports clubs and teams. Both association football and Gaelic football are popular in the area. In association football, the city's main team (in terms of supporters) is Derry City who play in the national league of the Republic of Ireland. Also playing in the city are Institute and Oxford United Stars, of the Irish League. In Gaelic football Derry GAA are the county team and play in the Gaelic Athletic Association's National Football League, Ulster Senior Football Championship and All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. They also field hurling teams in the equivalent tournaments. There are many Gaelic games clubs in and around the city, for example Na Magha CLG, Steelstown GAC, Doire Colmcille CLG, Seán Dolans GAC and Slaughtmanus GAC.

In addition to the Derry City, Institute and Oxford United Stars, who all play in national leagues, other clubs are based in the city. The local football league is the Derry and District League and teams from the city and surrounding areas participate, including Lincoln Courts, Don Boscos and Trojans, also North West teams like BBOB (Boys Brigade Old Boys). The Foyle Cup youth soccer tournament is held annually in the city. It has attracted many notable teams in the past, including Werder Bremen, IFK Göteborg and Ferencváros.

There are many boxing clubs, the most well-known being The Ring Boxing Club, which is associated with Charlie Nash and John Duddy, amongst others. Rugby Union is also quite popular in the city, with the City of Derry Rugby Club situated not far from the city centre. YMCA RFC is another Rugby club and is based in Drumahoe which is just outside the city. The city's only basketball club is North Star Basketball Club which has teams in the Basketball Northern Ireland senior and junior Leagues.

In recent years the city, and surrounding countryside, has become well-known for its artistic legacy producing such talents as the Nobel Prizewinning poet Seamus Heaney, the poet Seamus Deane, the playwright Brian Friel, the writer and music critic Nik Cohn, the artist Willie Doherty, the socio-political commentator and activist Eamonn McCann as well as bands such as The Undertones. The large political gable-wall murals of Bogside Artists, Free Derry Corner, the Foyle Film Festival, the Derry Walls, St Eugene's and St Columb's Cathedrals and the annual Halloween street carnival are popular tourist attractions.

The local papers the Derry Journal (known as the Londonderry Journal until 1880) and the Londonderry Sentinel reflect the divided history of the city: the Journal was founded in 1772 and is Ireland's second oldest newspaper; the Sentinel newspaper was formed in 1829 when new owners of the Journal embraced Catholic Emancipation, and the editor left the paper to set up the Sentinel. There are numerous radio stations receivable: the largest stations based in the city are BBC Radio Foyle and the commercial station Q102.9. There is a locally based television station, C9TV, which is one of only two local or 'restricted' television services in Northern Ireland.

The city's night-life is mainly centred on the weekend, with several bars and clubs providing "student nights" during the weekdays. Waterloo Street and the Strand Road are central to the City's nightlife. Waterloo Street is a steep street lined with various pubs, both Irish traditional and modern. Live rock and traditional music can frequently be heard emanating from the pub-doors and windows whilst walking up or down the street at night. On the Strand, Derry also has a Wetherspoons outlet, which is popular with punters as a pre-club drinking destination, as well as Lloyds No. 1 Bar (also owned by Wetherspoons). The city is renowned for producing exceptionally talented musicians and many bands perform in venues around the city, for example the Smalltown America duo, Fighting with Wire and Jetplane Landing. Triggerman and Swanee River have resident slots at Mason's Bar, while numerous other young local and indeed international bands perform at the Nerve Centre.

I was born in Londonderry I was born in Derry City too Oh what a special child To see such things and still to smile I know that there was something wrong But I kept my head down and carried on.

In 1803 we sailed out to sea, Out from the sweet town of Derry, For Australia bound if we did not all drown, And the marks of our fetters we carried...

Notable people who were born or have lived in Derry include the Restoration dramatist George Farquhar; authors Joyce Cary, Seamus Deane and Nell McCafferty; poet and Nobel Laureate Seamus Heaney; Social Democratic and Labour Party founder and Nobel Peace Prize winner John Hume; Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland Martin McGuinness; Aston Villa manager Martin O'Neill; Manchester United player Darron Gibson; actress Amanda Burton; Girls Aloud member Nadine Coyle; musician Feargal Sharkey; and Eurovision Song Contest winner and former politician Dana. The band The Undertones, were also all from Derry.

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City of Derry Airport

City of Derry Airport Entrance.

City of Derry Airport (IATA: LDY, ICAO: EGAE) (Irish: Aerfort Chathair Dhoire) is an airport located 7 NM (13 km; 8.1 mi) east northeast of Derry, Northern Ireland, situated in County Londonderry. It is located on the south bank of Lough Foyle and is a short distance from the village of Eglinton, 13 kilometres (8 miles) east north-east of the city centre. Passenger numbers in 2008 were almost 439,000, a 2.7% increase on 2007, but did not rise as projected following numerous flight cuts as the credit crunch affected aviation.

Eglinton Aerodrome, as it is known locally, has a CAA Ordinary Licence (Number P620) that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction as authorised by the licensee (Derry City Council).

The airport has its origins in World War II. In 1941 RAF Eglinton air base was established as home to No. 133 Squadron RAF which flew Hurricane fighters in defence of the city. In 1942 the base was occupied by No. 41 Squadron RAF. In 1943 the airfield became a Fleet Air Arm base called HMS Gannet and was home to No. 1847 Fleet Air Arm Squadron which provided convoy air cover as part of the Second Battle of the Atlantic.

After the war the base remained a military establishment until the 1950s when the Ministry of Defence returned much of the land to the original landowners. The original name of the airport was Londonderry Eglinton Airport and was usually just referred to as Eglinton. Some limited commercial activities were undertaken at the airfield during the 1960s when Emerald Airways operated a Glasgow service. During most of the 1970s the only flying at Eglinton was carried out by Eglinton Flying Club which is still based at the airport. In 1978 Londonderry City Council decided to purchase the airfield with a view to improving the transport infrastructure for the North-West of Ireland. The airport has slowly developed since then with private short-haul charters to various destinations within the British Isles, a service which still continues including the recent addition of helicopter charter services. Loganair introduced the first scheduled flight between Derry and Glasgow in 1979, a route which was recently dropped due to rising fuel costs. This route was the only route for ten years until Loganair introduced an additional daily Manchester service in 1989.

A major redevelopment programme was undertaken by the Council from 1989 to 1993 with grant aid from the European Regional Development Fund. £10.5 million was spent upgrading all of the facilities at the airport including runways, taxiways, access roads, navigation equipment and runway lighting, as well as a new purpose-built terminal and fire station. The new terminal was officially opened in March 1994. The name of the airport was officially changed from Londonderry Eglinton to the City of Derry Airport by Derry City Council following Nationalist support within the newly renamed council. At that time there were still only two scheduled routes carrying about 40,000 passenger each year. 1995 saw the arrival of Jersey European Airways who attempted to operate a short-lived shuttle link between Derry and Belfast City Airport.

During 1998 and 1999 safety improvements were undertaken at the airport. As the airport serves much of the Republic of Ireland as well as Northern Ireland, funding came from the Irish government, as well as the British government and Derry City Council. These improvements meant that larger aircraft could use the airport and Falcon Holidays started holiday charter flights in May 1999 and Ryanair followed with scheduled flights in July 1999. This Ryanair service to London Stansted grew substantially and the Loganair routes continued to operate until October 2008 as a British Airways franchise, including a sector to Dublin, initiated as a public service obligation route, subsidised by the Irish Government. Soaring fuel costs have now seen all British Airways operations to Northern Ireland suspended indefinitely.

A previously successful route between Derry and Manchester was also axed by British Airways in 2005 as part of its rationalisation of regional services. Aer Arann operated services to Manchester and Birmingham for a short time.

In May 2006, the European Commission gave its approval for the British and Irish governments to invest €15 million in the airport. Although this work did not include for the lengthening of the single serviceable runway, it included the expansion of the safety zones at each end which would allow jets to land and take off with full passenger capacities. Operators of Boeing 737 jets were previously limited to 80% capacity as a safety feature due to the short length of the runway. Other works included the expansion of the apron immediately in front of the control tower which would allow for the parking of several aircraft at any one time. As a prelude to the expansion at the airport several families were removed from their homes under a Government Compulsory Purchase scheme before the buildings and outbuildings were levelled.

At the end of 2008, British Airways, operated by Loganair as a franchise agreement, ceased the Glasgow International route which had operated for 30 years, following the loss in July 2008 of their public service obligation route to Dublin. This route is now operated by Aer Arann. Aer Lingus Commuter had operated the route before Loganair until 1994. Also Ryanair discontinued the Bristol route and changed its Derry - East Midlands route to Derry - Birmingham but announced new flights to London Luton and announced the airport's first scheduled international service to Alicante commencing June 2009.

The recently completed runway extension and apron works have allowed Ryanair to lift their self-imposed passenger limit on their aircraft operating out of the airport. This will increase seat availability and passenger throughput at the airport. It has also enabled Ryanair to establish their first continental route from the airport to Alicante and it is hoped that the success of this route will be followed by other announcements.

In January 2009 the council appointed Albert Harrison, the former head of Belfast International Airport, as the new manager of the airport. He has been tasked with turning the loss making facility around and has been given just six months to implement savings of £600,000 per annum and increase the number of carriers, destinations and passengers.

In the summer of 2009 work will begin on dualling the A2 from Maydown to Eglinton and the Airport, completing by 2011 a high speed dual carriageway connection to the city. This scheme is proposed to integrate with future motorway schemes from Derry to the Irish Republic border at Aughnacloy and from Dungiven thus increasing the catchment area where it is a viable alternative to the two Belfast Airports.

Plans have recently been announced in the Derry Journal that City of Derry Council, who own and operate the airport are tendering for a development plan which could see a Hotel, Aircraft Painting Hangers, Freight Buildings and Office Accommodation built in the next 10 years.

Passenger numbers for 2005 fell following a reduction in Ryanair services to London Stansted due to safety restrictions over the absence of a runway overshoot area. Services were then restored following the commencement of work on a runway extension. In 2006 new Ryanair services commenced to East Midlands, Liverpool and Glasgow-Prestwick, with Bristol commencing in November 2007. Passenger numbers for 2008 were 438,996, and are expected to increase again in 2009 despite the credit crunch with the announcement of new flights and removal of passenger number limits on existing flights now that the runway extension has been completed.

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Derry City F.C.

Derry City FC crest

Derry City Football Club (Irish: Cumann Peile Chathair Dhoire, IPA: ) is a Northern Irish football club based in Derry, Northern Ireland. It plays in the FAI Premier Division, the top tier of league football in the Republic of Ireland, and is the only participating club from Northern Ireland. The club's home ground is the Brandywell and the team wears red and white striped shirts from which its nickname, the Candystripes, derives. Others refer to the club as the Red and White Army or abbreviate the name to Derry or City.

The club, founded in 1928, initially played in the Irish League, the domestic league in Northern Ireland, and won a title in 1964–65. In 1971, security concerns related to unrest in Northern Ireland meant matches could not be played at the Brandywell. The team played "home" fixtures 30 miles (48 km) away in Coleraine. Security forces withdrew their objections to the use of the Brandywell the following year, but in the face of insistence from the Irish League that the unsustainable arrangement continue, the club withdrew from the league. After 13 years in junior football, they joined the League of Ireland's new First Division for 1985–86. Derry won the First Division title and achieved promotion to the Premier Division in 1987, and have remained there since. The club went on to win a domestic treble in 1988–89, the only club to ever do so.

Founded in 1928, the club decided against using the official title of the city — Londonderry — in their name, while also deciding against continuing the name of the city's previous main club, Derry Celtic, so as to be more inclusive to all football fans in the city. Derry City were granted entry into the Irish League in 1929 as professionals and were given permission by the Londonderry Corporation to use the municipal Brandywell Stadium. The club's first significant success came in 1935 when they lifted the City Cup. They repeated the feat in 1937, but did not win another major trophy until 1949, when they beat Glentoran to win their first Irish Cup. They won the Irish Cup for a second time in 1954, beating Glentoran again, and for a third time in 1964 — that year also winning the Gold Cup — despite the club's conversion to part-time status after the abolishment of the maximum wage in 1961. This led to the club's first entry into European competition, in the 1964–65 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, in which they were beaten by Steaua Bucharest 5–0 on aggregate. The club won the 1964–65 Irish League and subsequently became the first Irish League team to win a European tie over two legs, beating FK Lyn 8–6 on aggregate in the 1965–66 European Cup. Derry did not complete the next round, as the Irish Football Association (IFA) declared their ground as not up to standard, even though a game had been played there during the previous round. Derry suspected sectarian motives, as they played in a mainly nationalist city and so had come to be supported largely by Catholics. The IFA, Belfast-based, was a cultural focal point of Protestant Northern Ireland and it was widely suspected that it would rather have been represented by a traditionally unionist team. Relations between the club and IFA quickly deteriorated.

There had been no significant history of sectarian difficulties at matches in the first 40 years of the club's history, but in 1969 the Civil Rights campaign against Northern Ireland's government disintegrated into communal violence, ushering in 30 years of the Troubles. Despite the social and political unrest, Derry still managed to perform, reaching the Irish Cup final in 1971, in which they were beaten 3–0 by Distillery. As the republican locality surrounding the Brandywell saw some of the worst violence, numerous unionist-supported clubs were reluctant to play there. The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) ruled the zone unsafe for fixtures and with the use of no other local ground feasible, Derry had to travel to the majority unionist town of Coleraine, over 30 miles (48 km) away, to play their "home" games at the Showgrounds. This situation lasted from September 1971 until October 1972 when, faced with dwindling crowds (most Derry fans were unwilling to travel to Coleraine due to the political situation and the longer journey) and dire finances, the club formally requested permission to return to the Brandywell. Despite a new assessment by the security forces concluding that the Brandywell was no longer any more dangerous than any other league ground and a lifting of the security ban, football rivalries were seen as echoing of the wider sectarian nature of Northern Irish society and Derry's proposal fell by one vote at the hands of their fellow Irish League teams. Continuing without a ground was seen as unsustainable and on Friday 13 October 1972 Derry withdrew from the league amidst a perception that they were effectively forced out while a complex of victimisation and marginalisation developed within the nationalist community behind the club.

The club continued as a junior team during the 13-year long "wilderness years", playing in the local Saturday morning league, and sought re-admission to the Irish League. Each time, the club nominated the Brandywell as its chosen home-ground but the Irish League refused re-admission. Suspecting refusal was driven by sectarianism, and believing they would never gain re-admission, Derry turned their attentions elsewhere.

Derry applied to join the reorganised Football League of Ireland (the league in the Republic of Ireland) in 1985 with the Brandywell as their home. The move required special dispensation from the IFA and FIFA, but eventually Derry were admitted to the league's new First Division for 1985, joining as semi-professionals. As their stadium was situated in a staunchly republican area once known as "Free Derry", with a history of scepticism towards the RUC in the local community, Derry received special permission from UEFA to steward their own games. The presence of the RUC was regarded as more likely to provoke trouble than help prevent it. The policy continues today and although effective, has, along with the participation in the Republic's league, confirmed Derry's identity as a nationalist club, alienating many original or potential Protestant supporters.

Derry's first match in the new system was a 3–1 League Cup win over Home Farm of Dublin at the Brandywell on 8 September 1985. The return of senior football to Derry attracted large crowds. Later in the season, after turning professional, they won the League of Ireland First Division Shield with a 6–1 aggregate victory over Longford Town. The following year — 1987 — Derry won the First Division and promotion to the Premier Division, staying there since. The club reached the 1988 FAI Cup final, but lost to Dundalk. The next season — 1988–89 — the club were financially forced to revert to semi-professional status but Jim McLaughlin's side managed to win a treble; the league, the League Cup and the FAI Cup. Qualifying for the 1989–90 European Cup, they met past winners, Benfica, in the First Round.

Since 1989, Derry have won the Premier Division once — in 1996–97 — but have been runners-up on three occasions. They added three more FAI Cups to their tally in 1995, 2002 and 2006, were runners-up in 1994, 1997, and 2008 and have also won six further League Cups.

However, the club has also been beset by financial problems and was on the verge of bankruptcy due to an unpaid tax bill in 2000. An extensive fund-raising effort was undertaken by local celebrities and the city's people to save the club from extinction. Derry played high-profile friendlies against clubs such as Celtic, Manchester United, Barcelona and Real Madrid to raise extra money. This helped keep the club in operation, but difficulties remained and Derry nearly lost their Premier Division place in 2003 when they finished ninth and had to contest a two-legged relegation-promotion play-off with local rivals, Finn Harps of Donegal. However, Derry won the game 2–1 on aggregate after extra-time at the Brandywell and remained in the top-flight, avoiding further damage.

With finances secured, the club became the first in Ireland to be awarded a premier UEFA licence in 2004. Derry re-introduced professional football and their form improved, as they finished second in 2005. Derry's 2005 League Cup victory also saw the club qualify for the cross-border Setanta Cup for the first time in 2006. They entered the 2006–07 UEFA Cup's preliminary rounds, beating IFK Göteborg and Gretna to reach the First Round where they faced Paris Saint-Germain; after a home 0–0 draw they lost 2–0 away. Derry finished second again in 2006, but went on to win the FAI Cup and League Cup double. They qualified for the 2007 Setanta Cup, as well as the preliminary rounds of the 2007–08 UEFA Champions League, and were accepted into the restructured FAI Premier Division for 2007. The club had a disppointing league campaign last season, finishing 7th despite being pre-season favourites. They did manage to win their 8th eircom League Cup, though, thanks to a 1-0 victory over Bohemians at the Brandywell.

Derry City wore claret and blue jerseys with white shorts for their first season — 1929–30. The colours lasted until 1932, when white jersies with black shorts were adopted. This style was replaced by the now-traditional red and white "candystripes" with black shorts in 1934. The style derived from Sheffield United, who wore the pattern and, specifically, Billy Gillespie, a native of nearby Donegal. He played for Sheffield United from 1913 until 1932, captaining them to a 1925 FA Cup win. The club's most capped player with 25 appearances for Ireland, he was held in such high regard in his home country that when he left Sheffield United in 1932 to become Derry's player-manager, they changed their strip within two years in appreciation of his career at Sheffield United.

Derry have worn red and white stripes since, except from 1956 to 1962, when the club's players wore amber and black. Jerseys since 1962 have had "candystripes" of varying thickness. The kit features white socks — originally black socks were used and occasionally red if a clash with the opposition occurred. Similarly, white shorts were adopted for a spell in the early 1970s and for 1985. They are still sometimes worn if a clash occurs, as are black socks. Away jerseys have varied in colour from white, to navy and green stripes, to yellow, to white and light-blue stripes, and to black.

Derry have had various kit suppliers, including Adidas, Avec, Erreà, Fila, Le Coq Sportif, Matchwinner, Umbro, Spall and currently, O'Neills,. Commercial sponsorship logos to appear on the shirt's front have included Northlands, Warwick Wallpapers, Fruit of the Loom, Smithwick's and AssetCo. Logos to have appeared on the sleeve have included the Trinity Hotel, Tigi Bed Head and Tigi Catwalk. For 2007, the logos of local media, Q102.9 and the Derry News, appear on the back of the shirt just below the neck, along with the logo of Meteor Electrical on the jersey's front.

In April 1986 the club ran a competition in local schools to design a crest for them. The winning entry was designed by John Devlin, a St. Columb's College student, and was introduced on 5 May 1986 as Derry hosted Nottingham Forest for a friendly. The crest depicted a simplified version of the city's Foyle Bridge, which had opened 18 months previously, the traditional red and white stripes of the jersey bordered by thin black lines, the year in which the club were founded and a football in the centre representing the club as a footballing entity. The name of the club appeared in Impact font.

With the novelty of the Foyle Bridge wearing off over time, the crest lasted until 15 July 1997, when the current one was unveiled at Lansdowne Road with the meeting of Derry City and Celtic during a pre-season friendly tournament. The modern crest also features a centred football, the year of founding and the club's name in a contemporary sans-serif font — Industria Solid. The famous red and white stripes are present along with a red mass of colour filling the left half of the crest, separated from the right by a white stripe. Known cultural landmarks or items associated with the city are absent from the minimalist design. The crests have always been positioned over the heart on the home jerseys.

Derry City's home ground is the municipal Brandywell Stadium, situated just south-west of the Bogside in the Brandywell area of Derry. It is often abbreviated to "the Brandywell" and is also a local greyhound racing venue, with an ovoid track encircling the pitch. The dimensions of the pitch measure 111 by 72 yards. The legal owner is the Derry City Council which lets the ground to the club. Due to health and safety regulations the stadium has a seating capacity of 2,900 for UEFA competitions, although it can accommodate 7,700 on a normal match-day, terraces included. The curved cantilever all-seated "New Stand" was constructed in 1991, while development on the still-insufficient facilities is set to continue with the planned £12 million upgrade to an expandable 8,000 all-seater by 2010.

Plans of Derry City's to purchase a pitch fell through after their formation due to the tight time-scale between their birth in 1928 and the season's beginning in 1929 and so the Londonderry Corporation (now the Derry City Council) was approached for the use of the Brandywell which had been used for football up until the end of the 19th century. They agreed and the club still operate under the constraints of the Honourable the Irish Society charter limitations which declare that the Brandywell must be available for the recreation of the community. In effect, the club do not have private ownership and, thus, cannot develop by their own accord with that discretion or whether to sell being left to the Derry City Council.

Derry City's first game at the Brandywell was a 2–1 loss to Glentoran on 22 August 1929. In 1933, the purchase of Bond’s Field in the Waterside was mentioned, but it was thought to be too far away from the fan-base which had built up on the Cityside, especially in the Brandywell area. They also had first option on Derry Celtic’s old ground, Celtic Park, but hesitated on a final decision and the Gaelic Athletic Association bought it ten years later. They also decided against buying Meenan Park for £1,500.

Because of Northern Ireland's volatile political situation during the Troubles and security fears for Protestants and those of the unionist tradition visiting the mainly nationalist city of Derry, the Brandywell has not always been the home ground of Derry City. In 1970 and 1971, Derry had to play their "home" ties against Linfield at Windsor Park in Belfast — the home-ground of Linfield. From September 1971 until October 1972 Derry were forced to play all their "home" games at the Showgrounds in mainly Protestant Coleraine, over 30 miles (48 km) away, as police ruled the republican Brandywell area as too unsafe for visiting unionists. The Brandywell did not see senior football for another 13 years as the Irish Football League upheld a ban on the stadium and Derry decided to leave the league as a result. Only greyhound meetings and junior football were held during this time. Derry's admission to the League of Ireland in 1985 saw a return of senior games.

Derry City FC controversially currently bans the display of national flags at games in the Brandywell. This rule in particular extends to away fans from south of the border who are not permitted to display tricolours with team slogans etc on them as they would at other Eircom League grounds. However, this does not apply to European competition when Derry City FC openly displays the national flag of Ireland as representatives of the Football Association of Ireland.

Derry City have made numerous appearances in popular culture. In the world of music, the club were given exposure by Derry punk band, The Undertones, who had the cover of their 1980 hit single, My Perfect Cousin, feature a Subbuteo figure sporting the colours of Derry City. The song's video saw the group's front-man, Feargal Sharkey, kick and leap to head a ball while wearing the red and white jersey. Similarly, on the cover of their second ever single, Get Over You, the words "Derry City F.C." can be seen.

The club have also featured on popular television. Due to the fact that they are a club based in Northern Ireland playing in the league of the Republic of Ireland they often receive the attention of broadcasters in both jurisdictions. In the BBC documentary series Who Do You Think You Are? shown the night before Derry's clash with Paris St. Germain in the 2006–07 UEFA Cup's First Round, it was highlighted that Archie McLeod, the grandfather of David Tennant, the Doctor Who actor, was a Derry City player. Derry had supplied a lucrative signing-on fee and had enticed him over from Scotland. Likewise, features about the club were run by Football Focus prior to and after the same UEFA Cup game. Irish television has also featured the club. Derry City played in the first League of Ireland match ever to be shown live on television when they visited Tolka Park to play Shelbourne during the 1996–97 season. The game was broadcast on RTÉ's Network 2 and finished 1–1 with Gary Beckett scoring for Derry.

Another medium to play host to the club has been the radio. On 20 April 2005, Derry City featured in an audio documentary The Blues and the Candy Stripes on RTÉ Radio 1's Documentary on One. The documentary was produced in the aftermath of the historic friendly game between Derry and Linfield that took place on 22 February 2005 — the first between the two teams to occur since a game on 25 January 1969 during which Linfield's fans had to be evacuated from the Brandywell by police at half-time due to civil unrest and ugly scenes within the ground. The 2005 match was organised as a kind of security test in the run-up to the likely possibility that both teams, with socially polar fan-bases, would qualify for and be drawn against one another in a near-future Setanta Cup competition.

Current player, Peter Hutton, holds the club record for matches played in League of Ireland football with 573 competitive appearances since the 1990–91 season. Paul Curran has made the second highest number of appearances for the club in the League of Ireland with 518, followed by Sean Hargan with 408 since 1995.

The club's all-time highest goal-scorer is Jimmy Kelly with 363 goals between 1930 and 1951. Since the entry of the club into League of Ireland football, Liam Coyle is Derry's top scorer with 112 goals after 390 competitive appearances for the club between 1988 and 2003. Derry's first ever scorer was Peter Burke at home to Glentoran on 22 August 1929 as the club lost 2–1. Two days later, Sammy Curran had the honour of scoring Derry's first hat-trick, as the club came back from 5–1 down away to Portadown, only to lose 6–5 to a late goal. Barry McCreadie was Derry's first scorer in the League of Ireland as he scored during a 3–1 home win over Home Farm on 8 September 1985. Derry's first hat-trick in the League of Ireland was scored by Kevin Mahon away to Finn Harps on 15 December 1985. Derry's 1000th league goal was scored by Conor Sammon on the 9 May 2008 against Shamrock Rovers. A number of capped internationals have also played for Derry.

Derry's record League of Ireland defeat was to Longford Town in January, 1986 — the score was 5–1. The club's record League of Ireland win was 9–1 against Galway United in October, 1986. The club has never been relegated in either the Irish League or the League of Ireland. Derry are one of only two League of Ireland teams to have completed a treble. Derry's 5–1 away win against Gretna at Fir Park, Motherwell in the 2006–07 UEFA Cup's Second Qualifying Round is the largest away winning margin for any League of Ireland team in European competition. Derry played a record number of 54 games in the whole 2006 season, including all competitions. Previously, the record had been the 49 games played in all competitions during the treble-winning 1988–89 season.

The Brandywell's record attendance in the League of Ireland system is 9,800 people who attended an FAI Cup Second Round tie between Derry and Finn Harps on 23 February 1986. In the Irish League, a crowd of 12,000 attended the 1929–30 season home game against Linfield.

By Irish standards, Derry City have a relatively large and loyal fan-base. The club were considered among the strongest and best-supported teams in the Irish League, and upon the club's entry into the League of Ireland in 1985, crowds of nearly 10,000 attended to the Brandywell for the return of matches. Derry's average home attendance of 3,127 was the highest of any team for the 2006 season. The highest attendance was the last-night-of-the-season meeting between Derry and Cork City at the Brandywell on Friday 17 November when 6,080 watched Derry win 1–0. Domestically, Derry's supporters travel to away games in "bus-loads". They gave large support in the club's 2006 UEFA Cup run — around 3,000 travelled to Motherwell and "maintained a wall of sound" as Derry beat Gretna 5–1 in Fir Park, and over 2,000 went to Paris to see Derry play Paris Saint-Germain in the Parc des Princes. During the home legs, ticketless fans desperate to see the games watched from a distance while standing on the high vantage point overlooking the Brandywell offered by the City Cemetery in Creggan and parked hired double-decker buses outside the stadium to help them see over the ground's perimeter.

Support for the club is quite dependent on geography and crosses social boundaries. Fans come from both working class areas, such as the Brandywell area and Bogside, and more affluent regions of the city, like Culmore. The Cityside is seen as the traditional base of the club, especially the Brandywell area, although the Waterside is also home to a smaller number of supporters. The club are supported mainly by Derry's nationalist community. The connection is rooted mainly in geography, as well as social, cultural and historical circumstances, as opposed to the club or its fans pushing towards the creation of a certain identity. The club has a small minority of supporters of a Protestant upbringing. The city's Protestant community is largely apathetic, though some unionists and loyalists damn the club as a symbol of Catholicism and nationalism. Joining the Republic of Ireland's league augmented the perception and, on occasion, Protestant hooligans have thrown missiles at Derry's supporter buses as they journeyed to or returned from games across the border. Minor nationalist elements within the Derry City support-base see football as a means of reinforcing sectarian divides.

With the city being a focal point of culture and activity serving the north-west region of Ireland, support stretches beyond the urban border and into the surrounding county; Limavady, Strabane in nearby County Tyrone and areas of bordering County Donegal contain support. The club has numerous supporter clubs, along with ultra fans, and support beyond Ireland — mainly emigrated city natives. Derry City Chat is a discussion website run by fans. Derry's fans share a rivalry with the supporters of Finn Harps and sing the Undertones' Teenage Kicks as a terrace anthem.

Derry City supporters have also created a unique bond with West Belfast Irish League side Donegal Celtic, with supporters from both sides attending games in Derry and Belfast. Both sets of supporters are known to be noisy and colourful.

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History of Derry

Last remaining tower of Derry Jail, Bishop Street Without, 2007

In the 6th century, a Christian monastery was founded on the hill of Doire to the east of the River Foyle. The site was allegedly granted by a local king who had a fortress there. A similar kind of fortress can be seen at the spectacular Gríanán of Aileach, a few miles west of the city in County Donegal. According to legend the monastery of Doire was established by the great Irish saint Colmcille/Columba (521-597). Colmcille founded many important monasteries in Ireland and Scotland, including Durrow Abbey in the Irish midlands and Iona on an island off the west of Scotland. The claim that he founded a settlement at Doire is less certain, although that monastery definitely belonged to the federation of Columban churches which looked to Colmcille as their spiritual founder and leader. The monastery of Doire would have been quite small at the beginning. The location of the first church was probably where the beautiful little Church of Ireland Chapel of St Augustine stands today. During the later Middle Ages the old monastery of Derry evolved into an Augustinian congregation. The church of that monastery survived up to the seventeenth century and was used, as their first place of worship, by the London colonists who came here to build the walled city.

Although the Vikings certainly sailed up the loughs and rivers of this area, the monastery of Derry escaped the worst effects of their raids. Doire's medieval heyday was in the 12th centuries and 13th centuries when the local Mac Lochlainn dynasty moved into the settlement. Under their patronage, Derry prospered: the population grew; the monastery and its school thrived; and prestigious buildings were erected. With the decline of the Mac Lochlainns, some of whom claimed to be kings of all Ireland, Derry also sank into unimportance.

Throughout the second half of the 16th century, Queen Elizabeth I's military leaders tried to conquer the province of Ulster, the only part of Ireland still outside English control. The English first came to Derry in 1566 but the garrison established there at that time lasted only a few years. A second, more successful garrison returned in 1600 during the Nine Years War against the Gaelic O'Neill and O'Donnell earls. On this occasion the English managed to hold on to Derry and, when the war came to an end in 1603, a small trading settlement was established and given the legal status of city. In 1608 this 'infant city' was attacked by Cahir O'Doherty, Irish chieftain of Inishowen, and the settlement was virtually wiped out.

This attack came about shortly after the Flight of the Earls when the O'Neill and O'Donnell chieftains, together with their principal supporters, fled to the continent, leaving Gaelic Ulster leaderless. The new king in London, James I, decided on a revolutionary plan designed once and for all to subordinate Ulster. The 'Plantation of Ulster' required the colonising of the area by loyal English and Scottish migrants who were to be Protestant in religion. One part of this colonisation was to be organised by the ancient and wealthy livery companies of the City of London. In 1623 the new county granted to the Londoners and its fortified city, built across the River Foyle from the recently destroyed settlement, were renamed Londonderry in honour of this association. At this point the city was granted a Royal Charter by King James I. The usage of "Derry" versus "Londonderry" is still controversial.

The City of Londonderry was the jewel in the crown of the Ulster plantation. It was laid out according to the best contemporary principles of town planning, imported from the continent (the original street lay-out has survived to the present almost intact). More importantly, the city was enclosed by massive stone and earthen fortifications. At the time, it was the largest planned settlement in the British Isles. It was the last walled city built in Ireland and the only city on the island whose ancient walls survive complete. Among the city's new buildings was St. Columb's Cathedral (1633). This is one of the most important seventeenth century buildings in the country and was the first specifically Protestant cathedral erected anywhere in the world following the Reformation.

The new city was slow to prosper. By the 1680s it still had only about 2,000 inhabitants; and yet it was, by far, the largest town in Ulster. Along with most parts of Britain and Ireland, the city suffered from the upheavals in the 1640s. This began with the Irish Rebellion of 1641, when the Gaelic Irish insurgents made a failed attack on the city. For the next ten years of war, Derry and its environs became a stronghold for the British Protestant settlers, who raised the "Lagan army" to defend themselves from the Irish Confederates. However, the Protestants were disunited about how to respond to the events of the English Civil War, with some of them supporting the King, some the English Parliament and some the Scottish Covenanters. In 1649 the city and its garrison, which supported the republican Parliament in London, were besieged by Scottish Presbyterian forces loyal to King Charles I. The Parliamentarians besieged in Derry were relieved by a strange alliance of Roundhead troops under George Monck and the Irish Catholic general Owen Roe O'Neill. These temporary allies were soon fighting each other again however, after the landing in Ireland of the New Model Army in 1649. The war in Ulster was finally brought to an end when the Parliamentarians crushed the Irish Catholic Ulster army at the battle of Scarrifholis in nearby Donegal in 1650.

Among Derry's most famous citizens in the second half of the seventeenth century was George Farquhar, one of the so-called Restoration dramatists.

In 1688, Ireland became the battleground for the Glorious Revolution in England, when James II was deposed by William of Orange. Catholic Ireland strongly supported James, but many Protestants in Ulster secretly supported William. James II had his Catholic viceroy Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell take action to ensure that all strong points in Ireland were held by garrisons loyal to the Jacobite cause. By November 1688, only the walled city of Londonderry and nearby Enniskillen had a Protestant garrison. An army of around 1,200 men, mostly "Redshanks" (Highlanders), under Alexander Macdonnell, 3rd Earl of Antrim, was slowly organised (they set out on the week William of Orange landed in England). When they arrived on 7 December 1688 the gates were closed against them and the Siege of Derry began.

On April 18, 1689, while his attempts to regain his throne in what became the Williamite war in Ireland with the Jacobites got under way, King James came to the city and summoned it to surrender. The King was rebuffed and actually fired at by some of the more determined defenders; tradition has the apprentice boys closing the gates and saving the city. As a policy of 'no surrender' was confirmed, the Jacobite forces outside the city began the famous Siege of Derry. For 105 days the city suffered appalling conditions as cannonballs and mortar-bombs rained down, and famine and disease took their terrible toll. Conditions for the besiegers were no better and many thousands of people died, both inside and outside the walls. The cannon used to defend the city can be seen on the walls and at other places around the city. Finally at the end of July, a relief ship broke the barricading 'boom' which had been stretched across the river, near where the new Foyle Bridge now stands. The Siege was over but it has left its mark on the traditions of the city to the present day (see Apprentice Boys of Derry).

The city was rebuilt in the 18th century with many of its fine Georgian style houses still surviving. George Berkeley, Ireland's most important philosopher, was Dean of Derry (1724-33), and another well-known and eccentric cleric, Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol, was Bishop of Londonderry (1768-1803). It was Hervey, the so-called Earl Bishop, who was responsible for building the city's first bridge across the River Foyle] in 1790. During the 18th and 19th centuries the port became an important embarkation point for Irish emigrants setting out for North America. Some of these founded the colonies of Derry and Londonderry in the state of New Hampshire. By the middle of the nineteenth century a thriving shirt and collarmaking industry had been established here, giving the city many of its fine industrial buildings. Four separate railway networks emanated from the city, the interesting history of which can be examined at the Foyle Valley Railway Centre. The city became a university city when its Magee College was incorporated into the Royal University of Ireland in 1880. Magee College continues university scholarship today, as a campus of the University of Ulster.

The early 1920s in Ireland were marked by political violence over the issue of Irish independence. During the Irish War of Independence, Derry was rocked by sectarian violence, partly prompted by the guerrilla war raging between the Irish Republican Army and the State Forces, but also influenced by economic and social pressures. In July 1920, several thousand unionist ex-British Army servicemen mobilised to try to drive Catholics out of jobs they had taken during the First World War. Severe rioting ensued and the loyalists launched an assault on St Columb's Cathedral, which was resisted by armed IRA members. Many lives were lost and in addition many Catholics and Protestants were expelled from their homes during the communal unrest. After a week's violence, a truce was negotiated by local politicians on either side.

In 1921, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the partition of Ireland, Derry unexpectedly became a border city, with much of its natural economic hinterland in County Donegal cut off. Amelia Earhart gave the city a much needed boost when she landed here in 1932 becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. Her connection with the city is reflected in a display at the Amelia Earhart Cottage at Ballyarnett.

During the Second World War the city played an important part in the Battle of the Atlantic with a substantial presence from the Royal Navy and a large number of GIs disembarked here. At the end of the war, 19 U-boats from the German Kriegsmarine surrendered in the city's harbour.

Derry perceived itself as suffering under unionist government in Northern Ireland, both politically and economically. In the late 1960s the city became the flashpoint of disputes about institutional discrimination and gerrymandering. Despite having a nationalist majority the city was permanently controlled by unionists due to the partisan drawing of electoral boundaries. In addition the city had very high unemployment levels and very poor housing. Overcrowding in nationalist areas was widely blamed on the political agenda of the unionist government, who wanted to confine Catholics to a small number of electoral wards. Yet another contentious issue was the reluctance of the authorities to grant Derry the new University of Ulster, which was instead granted to the predominantly unionist town of Coleraine.

Civil rights demonstrations were declared illegal and then violently suppressed by the Royal Ulster Constabulary and Ulster Special Constabulary, and Catholics were regularly attacked after loyalist parades. The events that followed the August 1969 Apprentice Boys parade resulted in the Battle of the Bogside, when Catholic rioters fought the police, leading to widespread civil disorder in Northern Ireland and is often dated as the starting point of the Troubles.

The city is often regarded as "the cockpit of the Troubles". On Sunday January 30, 1972, 13 unarmed civilians were shot dead by British paratroopers during a civil rights march in the Bogside area. Another 13 were wounded and one further man later died of his wounds. This event came to be known as Bloody Sunday.

Because of these events, certain areas of Derry produced strong support for republican paramilitaries. Up to 1972, both the Provisional Irish Republican Army and Official IRA operated in the city. However in 1972 the OIRA called a ceasefire following their unpopular killing a local 18 year old who was on leave from the British Army. The PIRA however continued attacking security targets and bombing Derry's commercial centre. In the words of Eamonn McCann in his book, "War and an Irish Town", the city centre "looked as if it had been bombed from the air". Prominent among local Provisional IRA members was Martin McGuinness. After 1974, the smaller group, the Irish National Liberation Army also developed a presence in the city.

The violence in Derry eased towards the end of the Troubles in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Irish journalist Ed Maloney claims in "The Secret History of the IRA" that republican leaders there negotiated a de facto ceasefire in the city as early as 1991. Whether this is true or not, the city did see less bloodshed by this time than Belfast or other localities.

Derry has become known worldwide on account of the troubles. Less well-known is its reputation voted by the Civic Trust in London as one of the ten best cities of its kind to live in, in the United Kingdom.

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Source : Wikipedia