Document Management

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Posted by r2d2 03/25/2009 @ 04:14

Tags : document management, software, technology

News headlines
Oce Business Services to Spotlight Records Management Solutions at ... - PR Newswire (press release)
Executives at the Oce Business Services' booth will be on hand to discuss findings of the company's recent survey that details how organizations are leveraging document management strategies to meet current economic challenges....
Focus On SMBs To Boost ECM Sales - Business Solutions Magazine
By establishing a sales model that targets SMBs, this document management solutions provider has grown its business by nearly $2 million in less than two years. Digitex Corporation evaluated many document management software products in its search for...
Cabinet NG Becomes Microsoft Partner for Document Management - CMSWire
CNG software offers file and workflow management, document security and retention with format independence via a range of linked packages. The API is also available for in-house developers to link CNG's apps into other systems....
Add On To Your Imaging Contract With MFPs - Business Solutions Magazine
Its existing document management solution is largely nonintegrated, and processing all the incoming travel expense reports is increasingly difficult. For example, employees in the AP (accounts payable) department are required to receive, verify,...
Sid Thorne, Sales Manager for Brown & Meyers, Receives CompTIA ... -
The professional certification from CompTIA (Computer Technology Imagining Association) designates expertise in the best practices and technology used to plan, design and specify document imaging and document management systems....
excelleRx Streamlines Prescription Processes With Westbrook's ... - SYS-CON Media (press release)
Westbrook Technologies is a leader in enterprise document management software providing solutions to businesses of all sizes, from departmental to enterprise-wide implementations, and across every vertical market. The Company develops Fortis document...
Murky reg-review process set stage for frenzy over OMB climate memo - New York Times
At issue was a flurry of press reports Tuesday about an unsigned, undated document (pdf) from the White House Office of Management and Budget that laid out serious concerns about the possible damaging economic effects of EPA's proposed finding that...
Lowndes County Court System Selects DataMagine(TM) Document ... - PR Newswire (press release)
The DataMagine document management solution by Agilysys scans, indexes and archives documents and images for retrieving, e-mailing, faxing or printing. The patented system integrates seamlessly with existing applications and is especially beneficial to...
Digital Closing Docs Launches Forever Marketing Platform; A ... - PR Newswire (press release)
ORLANDO, Fla. , May 15 /PRNewswire/ -- ROI Systems/Digital Closing Docs (, a pioneer in closing document management systems, announced today the launch of their newest version of Digital Closing Docs 2.0 with the addition of the...
Electronic Content Management Solutions Simplify, Expedite Audits ... - PR Leap (press release)
"At ACOM, we often serve as our own test bed, and we proved the efficacy of our EZContentManager document management system in our operations before ever taking the product to market," Snider said. "When the auditors arrive, we simply show them how to...

Document management system

A document management system (DMS) is a computer system (or set of computer programs) used to track and store electronic documents and/or images of paper documents. The term has some overlap with the concepts of content management systems and is often viewed as a component of enterprise content management (ECM) systems and related to digital asset management, document imaging, workflow systems and records management systems. Contract management and contract lifecycle management (CLM) can be viewed as either components or implementations of ECM.

Beginning in the 1980s, a number of vendors began developing systems to manage paper-based documents. These systems managed paper documents, which included not only printed and published documents, but also photos, prints, etc.

Later, a second system was developed, to manage electronic documents, i.e., all those documents, or files, created on computers, and often stored on local user file systems. The earliest electronic document management (EDM) systems were either developed to manage proprietary file types, or a limited number of file formats. Many of these systems were later referred to as document imaging systems, because the main capabilities were capture, storage, indexing and retrieval of image file formats. These systems enabled an organization to capture faxes and forms, save copies of the documents as images, and store the image files in the repository for security and quick retrieval (retrieval was possible because the system handled the extraction of the text from the document as it was captured, and the text indexer provided text retrieval capabilities).

EDM systems evolved to where the system was able to manage any type of file format that could be stored on the network. The applications grew to encompass electronic documents, collaboration tools, security, and auditing capabilities.

Currently, the availability of the standards is perhaps scattered all over industries and it is not hard to adopt some of those for each business interest. The following is the list of some of the relevant ISO documents. Divisions ICS 01.140.10 and 01.140.20 , . The ISO has also published a series of standards regarding the technical documentation, covered by the division of 01.110 .

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Integrated Document Management

Integrated Document Management is a term used to describe the technologies, tools, and methods used to capture, manage, store, preserve, deliver and dispose of 'documents' across an enterprise. In this context 'Documents' can be used to describe a myriad of information assets including images, office documents, graphics and drawings as well as the new electronic objects such as Web pages, email, instant messages and video.

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Xerox 2008 Logo.png

Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced /ˈziːrɒks/) is a global document management company which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut (moved from Stamford, Connecticut in October 2007), though its largest population of employees is based in and around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded.

Xerox was founded in 1906 in Rochester, New York as "The Haloid Company", which originally manufactured photographic paper and equipment. The company subsequently changed its name to "Haloid Xerox" in 1958 and then simply "Xerox" in 1961. The company came to prominence in 1959 with the introduction of the first plain paper photocopier using the process of xerography developed by Chester Carlson, the Xerox 914. The 914 was so popular that by the end of 1961, Xerox had almost $60 million in revenue. By 1965, revenues leaped to over $500 million. Before releasing the 914, Xerox had also introduced the first xerographic printer, the "Copyflo" in 1955.

The company expanded substantially throughout the 1960s, making millionaires of some long-suffering investors who had nursed the company through the slow research and development phase of the product. In 1960, the "Wilson Center for Research and Technology" was opened in Webster, New York, a research facility for xerography. In 1961, the company changed its name to "Xerox Corporation". Xerox common stock (XRX) was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1961 and on the Chicago Stock Exchange in 1990.

In 1963, Xerox introduced the Xerox 813, the first desktop plain-paper copier, bringing Carlson's vision of a copier that could fit on anyone's office desk into a reality. Ten years later in 1973, a color copier followed.

The laser printer was invented in 1969 by Xerox researcher Gary Starkweather by modifying a Xerox copier. This development resulted in the first commercially available laser printer, the Xerox 9700, being launched in 1977. Laser printing eventually became a multi billion dollar business for Xerox. Archie McCardell was named president of the company in 1971. During his tenure, Xerox introduced its first color copier. During McCardell's reign at Xerox, the company announced record revenues, earnings and profits in 1973, 1974, and 1975. John Carrol became a backer, later spreading the company throughout North America.

Following these years of record profits, in 1975 Xerox resolved an anti-trust suit with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which at the time was under the direction of Frederic M. Scherer. The Xerox consent decree resulted in the forced licensing of the company’s entire patent portfolio, mainly to Japanese competitors. This action marked the start of an activist approach to managing competition by the FTC and U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). It resulted in the forced licensing of tens of thousands of patent from some of America's leading companies, including IBM, AT&T, DuPont, Bausch & Lomb, and Eastman Kodak. Within four years of the consent decree, Xerox's share of the U.S. copier market dropped from nearly 100% to less than 14%. Between 1950 and 1980 Japanese companies consummated more than 35,000 foreign licensing agreements, mostly with U.S. companies, for free or low-cost licenses made possible by the FTC and DOJ.

In 1970, under company president Charles Peter McColough, Xerox opened the Xerox PARC (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center) research facility. The facility developed many modern computing technologies such as the mouse and the graphical user interface (GUI). From these inventions, Xerox PARC created the Xerox Alto in 1973, a small minicomputer similar to a modern workstation or personal computer. This machine can be considered the first true personal computer, given its versatile combination of a cathode-ray-type screen, mouse-type pointing device, and a QWERTY-type alphanumeric keyboard. But the Alto was never commercially sold, as Xerox itself could not see the sales potential of it. In 1979, several Apple Computer employees, including Steve Jobs, visited Xerox PARC, interested in seeing their developments. Jobs and the others saw the commercial potential of the GUI and mouse, and redirected development of the Apple Lisa to incorporate these technologies. In 1980, Steven Jobs invited several key PARC's researchers to join his company in order that they would be able to fully develop and implement their ideas.

Xerox later released a similar system to the Alto, the Xerox Star in 1981 as a workstation. It was the first commercial system to incorporate various technologies that today have become commonplace in personal computers, including a bit-mapped display, a window-based GUI, mouse, Ethernet networking, file servers, print servers and e-mail. The Xerox Star, despite its technological breakthroughs, did not sell well due to its high price, costing $16,000 per unit. A typical Xerox Star-based office would have cost $100,000.

In the mid 1980s, Apple considered buying Xerox; however, a deal was never reached. Apple instead bought rights to the Alto GUI and adapted it into to a more affordable personal computer, aimed towards the business and education markets. The Apple Macintosh was released in 1984, and was the first personal computer to popularize the GUI and mouse amongst the public.

The company was revived in the 1980s and 1990s, through improvement in quality design and realignment of its product line. Development of digital photocopiers in the 1990s and a revamp of the entire product range—essentially high-end laser printers with attached scanners which were able to be attached to computer networks—again gave Xerox a technical lead over its competitors. Xerox worked to turn its product into a service, providing a complete "document service" to companies including supply, maintenance, configuration, and user support. To reinforce this image, the company introduced a corporate signature, "The Document Company" above its main logo and introduced a red "digital X". The "digital X" symbolized the transition of documents between the paper and digital worlds.

In 2000, Xerox acquired Tektronix color printing and imaging division in Wilsonville, Oregon, for US$925 million. This led to the current Xerox Phaser line of products as well as Xerox solid ink printing technology.

In September 2004, Xerox celebrated the 45th anniversary of the Xerox 914. More than 200,000 units were made around the world between 1959 and 1976, the year production of the 914 was stopped. Today, the 914 is part of American history as an artifact in the Smithsonian Institution.

Xerox's turnaround was largely led by Anne M. Mulcahy, who was appointed president in May 2000, CEO in August 2001 and chairman in January 2002. Mulcahy launched an aggressive turnaround plan that returned Xerox to full-year profitability by the end of 2002, along with decreasing debt, increasing cash, and continuing to invest in research and development.

In October 2008, Xerox Canada Ltd. was named one of Greater Toronto's Top Employers by Mediacorp Canada Inc., which was announced by the Toronto Star newspaper.

Xerox today manufactures and sells a wide variety of office and production equipment including LCD Monitors, photo copiers, Xerox Phaser printers, multifunction printers, large-volume digital printers as well as workflow software under the brand strategy of FreeFlow. The impact of Xerox FreeFlow products on the graphic arts market and the print industry in general has grown exponentially since May 2006, largely as a result of the Xerox presence at IPEX 2006. Xerox also sells scanners and digital presses. On 29 May 2008, xerox launches XEROX iGen 4 digital press.

Xerox sells both color and black and white printers under the Xerox Phaser brand, with the color consumer model starting at US$299; the most expensive color model costs US$6,799.

Xerox also produces fax machines, professional printers, black and white copiers, and several other products.

In addition, Xerox produces many printing and office supplies such as paper, in many forms; and markets software such as DocuShare Xerox MarketPort and FlowPort, offers consulting services, ECM Digital Repository Services and printing outsourcing.

Although Xerox is a global brand, it maintains a joint venture, Fuji Xerox, with Japanese photographic firm Fuji Photo Film Co. to develop, produce and sell in the Asia-Pacific region. Fuji Photo Film Co. is currently the majority stakeholder, with 75% of the shareholding.

Xerox India, formerly Modi Xerox, is Xerox's Indian subsidiary derived from a joint venture formed between Dr. Bhupendra Kumar Modi and Rank Xerox in 1983. Xerox obtained a majority stake in 1999 and aims to buy out the remaining shareholders.

Xerox now sponsors the Factory Ducati Team in the World Superbike Championship, under the name of the "Xerox Ducati".

European operations, Rank Xerox, later extended to Asia and Africa, has been fully owned by Xerox Corporation since 1997. The Rank Xerox name was discontinued following the buyout.

U.S. office workers print an average of 10,000 pages per year. However, developing and designing printers consumes thousands of reams of paper a day. This is not usually seen by the general public but needs to be disclosed nonetheless. According to Xerox, around 40 percent of the pages printed out by people are only viewed once before being thrown away. Xerox is making attempts at reducing that number with “erasable paper.” This new type of paper is embedded with chemicals that are sensitive to light. When different wavelengths of light touch its surface, the paper darkens, and this in turn gives the “printed text or image” look. The images stay on the paper for between 16 and 24 hours before dissolving, and this allows the paper to be used again in the future.

The average American emits 9.44 tons of carbon dioxide a year. To help offices realize their environmental impact, Xerox released the “sustainability calculator” in late March 2008. The calculator has been created as a method to measure “the environmental benefits so we can use that in our reports and marketing materials” says Patty Calkins, who is the vice president of environment, health, and safety at Xerox, as well as to optimize the office equipment.

Since the 1990’s, Xerox, has been an innovator in the domain of the eco-friendly or the green corporation. Its mission statement on the environment states “At Xerox, sustainability is our way of doing business. … We strive to maintain the highest standards to preserve our environment and protect and enhance the health and safety of our employees and communities.” In fact, Xerox has managed to create environmentally friendly products that are also save millions of dollars per year. In 1993, Xerox created a product stewardship program that began by reprocessing still functioning parts from old office equipment into new parts. This is called the ‘end-of-life take-back program.’ In 1990, Xerox introduced its waste-free packaging system where it created two different extendable boxes that would be used to transport and take back equipment and would then be reprocessed after its life cycle. In 2006, Xerox introduced the re-usable or erasable paper, its biggest innovation yet.

Xerox created a product stewardship program in 1993 whose keystone program was the ‘end-of-life equipment take-back’ program. This program was first developed in Europe. Whenever possible, Xerox would take back machines that it had previously sold to companies and reprocessing them into new parts. Previously, companies would specify that new items must be created from 100% new virgin materials. However, Xerox found that equipment that was not useful anymore still had parts that were still functioning. The process was as follows: Xerox would “Carefully dismantle equipment down to the base-unit level and then inspect and clean it in the base-unit-preparation stage. Thorough analysis determines each component’s remaining life. The company reprocesses re-usable components and test them to ensure that they meet Xerox’s standards and puts them back into the same assembly lines as virgin parts.” The company would then test the product thoroughly in an environment that resembles its final location. In 1997, Xerox reprocessed 3.8 million parts from 160,000 pieces of equipment. This process has been emulated over the years by a number of corporations.

Environmental benefits from this process include “an end-of-use collection process for customers, reduction of waste to landfills, the avoidance of raw material purchases and the associated use of energy, and the ability to produce environmentally sound equipment.” As well, parts reprocessing process is labor intensive and Xerox hired 400 additional staff. In addition, net savings totaled over 80$ million in Europe since disposal costs were transformed into revenue. To combat consumer hesitancy in procuring items that are not made from 100% virgin materials, Xerox offered 3 year guarantee on these products made from recycled materials, the same as its completely new materials. “Xerox’s approach was to build customer confidence. For example, Xerox Europe always maintained its focus on total customer satisfaction by combining environmental responsibility with stringent control over manufacturing processes. It offered a total three-year satisfaction guarantee on equipment containing reprocessed parts to demonstrate its confidence in its products, the same as that given on new equipment.” Finally, Xerox, stopped distinguishing its products as new or built from manufactured parts and promised to have all new products created with both 100% new and manufactured or reprocessed parts.

A second eco-friendly innovation was the waste-free packaging program created in 1990. Xerox created two standard returnable boxes, one steel and one wood, that replace its 25 different disposable packaging boxes. These new, reusable boxes can be reused up to 25 times but were manufactured to last 10 cycles and can be extended to suit past, present and future products. At the end of their life cycle, Xerox will fix the wooden boxes and will reprocess the steel boxes. These totes “reduce disposal costs, increase operational productivity and reduce inventory.” In addition, using re-usable packaging reduces the cost to the consumer by 15$ and its estimated annual savings in Europe were approximately 3.5 million $. The program has been widely popular.

Xerox most current eco-friendly innovation is its creation of an erasable form of paper for copiers. The product has yet to be released for commercial use but Xerox believes that it may do so in the next few years. Brinda Alal, an anthropologist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center estimates that, “Of the 1,200 pages the average office worker prints per month, 44.5 percent are for daily use — assignments, drafts or e-mail. In her research, scouring the waste produced by office workers, she found that 21 percent of black-and-white copier documents were returned to the recycling bin on the same day they were produced.” That is why Xerox began developing a new technology that would allow paper to become re-usable. The new system produces documents on special yellow paper; the ink has no toner and is a purple tint. The ink then disappears within 16 hours and the process can be hastened by heating the paper. Currently, individual pieces of paper can be printed on up to 50 times but this number is only limited by the paper; if Xerox could create a type of paper that does not lose quality over time, then a paper could then be reprinted on indefinitely. “Xerox has not yet decided whether it will commercialize its technology, … but the goal is to create a system where the specially coated paper costs between two and three times standard copier paper, making the total cost of the system substantially less than conventional paper when paper is reused repeatedly.” The biggest challenge to this new technology will be to find a market. It is very promising and would reduce the amount of deforestation occurring in all the world’s forests by reducing the amount of paper being consumed.

Xerox continues to be an innovator in the areas of reducing waste and reducing the consummation of paper worldwide. It has also been a leader in allowing other companies to follow its lead in a shift to “green consumerism.” The erasable paper is by far its greatest achievement, one that will surely catch on in the future due greater demands from consumers to reduce waste and reduce deforestation by reducing the amount of paper consumed worldwide.

On April 11, 2002, the Securities and Exchange Commission filed a complaint against Xerox. The complaint alleged Xerox deceived the public between 1997 and 2000 by employing several "accounting maneuvers," the most significant of which was a change in which Xerox recorded revenue from copy machine leases — recognizing a "sale" when the period of a lease contract was signed, instead of recognizing revenue notably over the entire length of the contract. At issue was when the revenue was recognized, not the validity of the revenue. Xerox's restatement only changed what year the revenue was stated.

In response to the SEC's complaint, Xerox Corporation neither admitted nor denied wrongdoing. It agreed to pay a $10 million penalty and to restate its financial results for the years 1997 through 2000. On June 5, 2003, six Xerox senior executives accused of securities fraud settled their issues with the SEC and neither admitted nor denied wrongdoing. They agreed to pay $22 million in penalties, disgorgement, and interest.

On January 29, 2003, the SEC filed a complaint against Xerox's auditors , KPMG, alleging four partners in the "Big Five" accounting firm permitted Xerox to "cook the books" to fill a $3 billion "gap" in revenue and $1.4 billion "gap" in pre-tax earnings. In April 2005 KPMG settled with the SEC by paying a US$22.48 million fine. As part of the settlement KPMG neither admits nor denies wrongdoing.

During settlement with the Securities and Exchange Commission, Xerox began to revamp itself once more. As a symbol of this transformation, the relative size of the word "Xerox" was increased in proportion to "The Document Company" on the corporate signature and the latter was dropped altogether in September-2004, along with the digital X. However, the digital X and "The Document Company" were still used by Fuji Xerox until April-2008.

The word "xerox" is commonly used as a synonym for "photocopy" (both as a noun and a verb) in many areas; for example,"I xeroxed the document and placed it on your desk." or "Please make a xeroxed copy of the articles and hand them out a week before the exam". Though both are common, the company does not condone such uses of its trademark, and is particularly concerned about the ongoing use of Xerox as a verb as this places the trademark in danger of being declared a generic word by the courts. The company is engaged in an ongoing advertising and media campaign to convince the public that Xerox should not be used as a verb.

To this end, the company has written to publications that have used Xerox as a verb, and has also purchased print advertisements declaring that "you cannot 'xerox' a document, but you can copy it on a Xerox Brand copying machine". Xerox Corporation continues to protect its trademark diligently in most if not all trademark categories. Despite their efforts, many dictionaries continue to mention the use of "xerox" as a verb, including the Oxford English Dictionary.

In 2008, Xerox changed its logo to a red sphere with a white X with three grey stripes. The change is meant to reflect less on the photo copying duties Xerox has carried out and instead to refocus on document management and solutions across the world for companies.

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Information science

The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval.

Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. Practitioners within the field study the application and usage of knowledge in organizations, along with the interaction between people, organizations and any existing information systems, with the aim of creating, replacing or improving information systems. Information science is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science. However, it is actually a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but often diverse fields such as cognitive science, commerce, communications, law, library science, management, mathematics, public policy, and the social sciences.

Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and then applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. In this respect, information science can be seen as a response to technological determinism, the belief that technology "develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available, and must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society." Within information science, attention has been given in recent years to human–computer interaction, groupware, the semantic web, value sensitive design, iterative design processes and to the ways people generate, use and find information. Today this field is called the Field of Information, and there are a growing number of Schools and Colleges of Information.

Information science should not be confused with information theory, the study of a particular mathematical concept of information, or with library science, a field related to libraries which uses some of the principles of information science.

Some authors treat informatics as a synonym for information science, especially related to the concept developed by A. I. Mikhailov and other soviet authors in the mid sixties, which suggested that informatics is a discipline related to the study of Scientific Information. Because of the rapidly evolving, interdisciplinary nature of informatics, a precise meaning of the term "informatics" is presently difficult to pin down. Regional differences and international terminology complicate the problem. Some people note that much of what is called "Informatics" today was once called "Information Science" at least in fields such as Medical Informatics. However when library scientists began also to use the phrase "Information Science" to refer to their work, the term informatics emerged in the United States as a response by computer scientists to distinguish their work from that of library science, and in Britain as a term for a science of information that studies natural, as well as artificial or engineered, information-processing systems.

Information Science consists of having the knowledge and understanding on how to collect, classify, manipulate, store, retrieve and disseminate any type of information.

Information science, in studying the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information has origins in the common stock of human knowledge. Information analysis has been carried out by scholars at least as early as the time of the Abyssinian Empire (during the time of King Solomon) with the emergence of cultural depositories, what is today known as libraries and archives. Institutionally, information science emerged in the 19th Century along with many other social science disciplines. As a science, however, it finds its institutional roots in the history of science, beginning with publication of the first issues of ‘‘Philosophical Transactions,’’ generally considered the first scientific journal, in 1665 by the Royal Society (London).

The institutionalization of science occurred throughout the 18th Century. In 1731, Benjamin Franklin established the Library Company of Philadelphia, the first “public” library, which quickly expanded beyond the realm of books and became a center of scientific experiment, and which hosted public exhibitions of scientific experiments. Academie de Chirurgia (Paris) published ‘‘Memoires pour les Chirurgiens,’’ generally considered to be the first medical journal, in 1736. The American Philosophical Society, patterned on the Royal Society (London), was founded in Philadelphia in 1743. As numerous other scientific journals and societies are founded, Alois Senefelder develops the concept of lithography for use in mass printing work in Germany in 1796.

By the 19th Century the first signs of information science emerged as separate and distinct from other sciences and social sciences but in conjunction with communication and computation. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a punched card system to control operations of the cloth weaving loom in France. It was the first use of "memory storage of patterns" system. As chemistry journals emerged throughout the 1820s and 1830s, Charles Babbage developed his "difference engine," the first step towards the modern computer, in 1822 and his "analytical engine” by 1834. By 1843 Richard Hoe developed the rotary press, and in 1844 Samuel Morse sent the first public telegraph message. By 1848 William F. Poole begins the ‘‘Index to Periodical Literature,’’ the first general periodical literature index in the US.

In 1854 George Boole published ‘‘An Investigation into Laws of Thought...,’’ which lays the foundations for Boolean algebra, which is later used in information retrieval. In 1860 a congress is held at Karlsruhe Technische Hochschule to discuss the feasibility of establishing a systematic and rational nomenclature for chemistry. The congress does not reach any conclusive results, but several key participants return home with Stanislao Cannizzaro's outline (1858), which ultimately convinces them of the validity of his scheme for calculating atomic weights.

By 1865 the Smithsonian Institution began a catalog of current scientific papers, which became the ‘‘International Catalogue of Scientific Papers’’ in 1902. The following year the Royal Society began publication of its ‘‘Catalogue of Papers’’ in London. In 1866 Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, and S. W. Soule produced the first practical typewriter. By 1872 Lord Kelvin devised an analogue computer to predict the tides, and by 1875 Frank Stephen Baldwin was granted the first US patent for a practical calculating machine that performs four arithmetic functions. Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison invented the phonograph and telephone in 1876 and 1877 respectively, and the American Library Association was founded in Philadelphia. In 1879 ‘‘Index Medicus’’ was first issued by the Library of the Surgeon General, U.S. Army, with John Shaw Billings as librarian, and later the library issues ‘‘Index Catalogue,’’ which achieved an international reputation as the most complete catalog of medical literature.

The discipline of European Documentation, which marks the earliest theoretical foundations of modern information science, emerged in the late part of the 19th Century together with several more scientific indexes whose purpose was to organize scholarly literature. Most information science historians cite Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine as the fathers of information science with the founding of the International Institute of Bibliography (IIB) in 1895. However, “information science” as a term is not popularly used in academia until after World War II.

Documentalists emphasized the utilitarian integration of technology and technique toward specific social goals. According to Ronald Day, “As an organized system of techniques and technologies, documentation was understood as a player in the historical development of global organization in modernity – indeed, a major player inasmuch as that organization was dependent on the organization and transmission of information.” Otlet and Lafontaine (who won the Nobel Prize in 1913) not only envisioned later technical innovations but also projected a global vision for information and information technologies that speaks directly to postwar visions of a global “information society.” Otlet and Lafontaine established numerous organizations dedicated to standardization, bibliography, international associations, and consequently, international cooperation. These organizations were fundamental for ensuring international production in commerce, information, communication and modern economic development, and they later found their global form in such institutions as the League of Nations and the United Nations. Otlet designed the Universal Decimal Classification, based on Melville Dewey’s decimal classification system.

Otlet not only imagined that all the world's knowledge should be interlinked and made available remotely to anyone (what he called an International Network for Universal Documentation), he also proceeded to build a structured document collection that involved standardized paper sheets and cards filed in custom-designed cabinets according to an ever-expanding ontology, an indexing staff which culled information worldwide from as diverse sources as possible, and a commercial information retrieval service which answered written requests by copying relevant information from index cards. Users of this service were even warned if their query was likely to produce more than 50 results per search. By 1937 documentation had formally been institutionalized, as evidenced by the founding of the American Documentation Institute (ADI), later called the American Society for Information Science and Technology.

With the 1950s came increasing awareness of the potential of automatic devices for literature searching and information storage and retrieval. As these concepts grew in magnitude and potential, so did the variety of information science interests. By the 1960s and 70s, there was a move from batch processing to online modes, from mainframe to mini and micro computers. Additionally, traditional boundaries among disciplines began to fade and many information science scholars joined with library programs. They further made themselves multidisciplinary by incorporating disciplines in the sciences, humanities and social sciences, as well as other professional programs, such as law and medicine in their curriculum. By the 1980s, large databases, such as Grateful Med at the National Library of Medicine, and user-oriented services such as Dialog and Compuserve, were for the first time accessible by individuals from their personal computers. The 1980s also saw the emergence of numerous special interest groups to respond to the changes. By the end of the decade, special interest groups were available involving non-print media, social sciences, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science largely examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web.

Bibliometrics is a set of quantitative methods used to study or measure texts and information and is one of the largest research areas within information science.

Bibliometric methods include the journal Impact Factor, a relatively crude but useful method of estimating the impact of the research published within a journal, in comparison to other journals in the same field. Bibliometrics is often used to evaluate or compare the impact of groups of researchers within a field. In addition it is also used to describe the development of fields, particularly new areas of research.

Data modeling is the process of creating a data model by applying a data model theory to create a data model instance. A data model theory is a formal data model description. See database model for a list of current data model theories.

When data modelling, we are structuring and organizing data. These data structures are then typically implemented in a database management system. In addition to defining and organizing the data, data modeling will impose (implicitly or explicitly) constraints or limitations on the data placed within the structure.

Managing large quantities of structured and unstructured data is a primary function of information systems. Data models describe structured data for storage in data management systems such as relational databases. They typically do not describe unstructured data, such as word processing documents, email messages, pictures, digital audio, and video.

Document management and engineering is a computer system (or set of computer programs) used to track and store electronic documents and/or images of paper documents. Document management systems have some overlap with Content Management Systems, Enterprise Content Management Systems, Digital Asset Management, Document imaging, Workflow systems and Records Management systems.

Groupware is software designed to help people get involved in a common task to achieve their goals. Collaborative software is the basis for computer supported cooperative work.

Such software systems as email, calendaring, text chat, wiki belong in this category. It has been suggested that Metcalfe's law — the more people who use something, the more valuable it becomes — applies to such software.

The more general term social software applies to systems used outside the workplace, for example, online dating services and social networks like Friendster. The study of computer-supported collaboration includes the study of this software and social phenomena associated with it.

Human-computer interaction (HCI), alternatively man-machine interaction (MMI) or computer–human interaction (CHI), is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers. It is an interdisciplinary subject, relating computer science with many other fields of study and research. Interaction between users and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply interface), which includes both software and hardware, for example, general purpose computer peripherals and large-scale mechanical systems such as aircraft and power plants.

Information architecture is the practice of structuring information (knowledge or data) for a purpose. These are often structured according to their context in user interactions or larger databases. The term is most commonly applied to Web development, but also applies to disciplines outside of a strict Web context, such as programming and technical writing. Information architecture is considered an element of user experience design.

The term information architecture describes a specialized skill set which relates to the management of information and employment of informational tools. It has a significant degree of association with the library sciences. Many library schools now teach information architecture.

An alternate definition of information architecture exists within the context of information system design, in which information architecture refers to data modeling and the analysis and design of the information in the system, concentrating on entities and their interdependencies. Data modeling depends on abstraction; the relationships between the pieces of data is of more interest than the particulars of individual records, though cataloging possible values is a common technique. The usability of human-facing systems, and standards compliance of internal ones, are paramount.

Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy, moral agency (e.g. whether artificial agents may be moral), new environmental issues (especially how agents should one behave in the infosphere), problems arising from the life-cycle (creation, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information (especially ownership and copyright, digital divide). Information Ethics is therefore strictly related to the fields of computer ethics (Floridi, 1999) and the philosophy of information.

Dilemmas regarding the life of information are becoming increasingly important in a society that is defined as "the information society". Information transmission and literacy are essential concerns in establishing an ethical foundation that promotes fair, equitable, and responsible practices. Information ethics broadly examines issues related to, among other things, ownership, access, privacy, security, and community.

Information technology affects fundamental rights involving copyright protection, intellectual freedom, accountability, and security.

Professional codes offer a basis for making ethical decisions and applying ethical solutions to situations involving information provision and use which reflect an organization’s commitment to responsible information service. Evolving information formats and needs require continual reconsideration of ethical principles and how these codes are applied. Considerations regarding information ethics influence personal decisions, professional practice, and public policy.

Information retrieval (IR), often studied in conjunction with information storage, is the science of searching for information in documents, searching for documents themselves, searching for metadata which describe documents, or searching within databases, whether relational stand-alone databases or hypertextually-networked databases such as the World Wide Web. There is a common confusion, however, between data retrieval, document retrieval, information retrieval, and text retrieval, and each of these has its own bodies of literature, theory, praxis and technologies. IR is, like most nascent fields, interdisciplinary, based on computer science, mathematics, library science, information science, cognitive psychology, linguistics, statistics, physics.

Automated IR systems are used to reduce information overload and to scale indexing and access. Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals, and other documents. IR systems are often related to digital objects and query. Queries are formal statements of information needs that are put to an IR system by the user. An object is an entity which keeps or stores information in a database. User queries are matched to objects stored in the database. A document is, therefore, a data object. Retrieval order is based on similarity of the query to the object and, more recently, to a level of importance of the document, such as PageRank. Sometimes the documents themselves are not kept or stored directly in the IR system, but are instead represented in the system by document surrogates.

Information society is a society in which the creation, distribution, diffusion, use, and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. The knowledge economy is its economic counterpart whereby wealth is created through the economic exploitation of understanding.

Specific to this kind of society is the central position information technology has for production, economy, and society at large. Information society is seen as the successor to industrial society. Closely related concepts are the post-industrial society (Daniel Bell), post-fordism, post-modern society, knowledge society, Telematic Society, Information Revolution, and network society (Manuel Castells).

An information system is a technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions, as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions.

The technology used for implementing information systems by no means has to be computer technology. A notebook in which one lists certain items of interest is, according to that definition, an information system. Likewise, there are computer applications that do not comply with this definition of information systems. Embedded systems are an example. A computer application that is integrated into clothing or even the human body does not generally deal with linguistic expressions. One could, however, try to generalize Langefors' definition so as to cover more recent developments.

Intellectual property (IP) is a disputed umbrella term for various legal entitlements which attach to certain names, written and recorded media, and inventions. The holders of these legal entitlements are generally entitled to exercise various exclusive rights in relation to the subject matter of the IP. The term intellectual property links the idea that this subject matter is the product of the mind or the intellect together with the political and economical notion of property. The close linking of these two ideas is a matter of some controversy. It is criticised as "a fad" by Mark Lemley of Stanford Law School and by Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation as an "overgeneralization" and "at best a catch-all to lump together disparate laws".

Intellectual property laws and enforcement vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. There are inter-governmental efforts to harmonise them through international treaties such as the 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), while other treaties may facilitate registration in more than one jurisdiction at a time. Enforcement of copyright, disagreements over medical and software patents, and the dispute regarding the nature of "intellectual property" as a cohesive notion have so far prevented the emergence of a cohesive international system.

Knowledge management comprises a range of practices used by organizations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness, and learning across the organizations.

Knowledge Management programs are typically tied to organizational objectives and are intended to lead to the achievement of specific outcomes, such as shared intelligence, improved performance, competitive advantage, or higher levels of innovation.

Knowledge transfer (one aspect of Knowledge Management) has always existed in one form or another. Examples include: on-the-job peer discussions, formal apprenticeship, corporate libraries, professional training, and mentoring programs. However, since the late twentieth century, additional technology has been applied to this task.

Knowledge engineering is also related to mathematical logic, as well as strongly involved in cognitive science and socio-cognitive engineering where the knowledge is produced by socio-cognitive aggregates (mainly humans) and is structured according to our understanding of how human reasoning and logic works. Knowledge engineering (KE), often studied in conjunction with knowledge management, refers to the building, maintaining and development of knowledge-based systems. It has a great deal in common with software engineering, and is related to many computer science domains such as artificial intelligence, databases, data mining, expert systems, decision support systems and geographic information systems.

Personal information management (PIM) as a field of study covers many of the same areas as information science but approaches the study of information from the perspective of the whole person. How is information in various forms (paper documents, wikis, blogs, email, etc.) used by people in support of their efforts to understand and effect useful change in their world? How can tools of information management help?

Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a form that can be understood, interpreted and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and integrate information more easily. It derives from W3C director Tim Berners-Lee's vision of the Web as a universal medium for data, information, and knowledge exchange.

At its core, the Semantic Web comprises a philosophy, a set of design principles, collaborative working groups, and a variety of enabling technologies. Some elements of the Semantic Web are expressed as prospective future possibilities that have yet to be implemented or realized. Other elements of the Semantic Web are expressed in formal specifications. Some of these include Resource Description Framework (RDF), a variety of data interchange formats (e.g RDF/XML, N3, Turtle, and notations such as RDF Schema (RDFS) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL). All of which are intended to formally describe concepts, terms, and relationships within a given problem domain.

Usability engineering is a subset of human factors that is specific to computer science and is concerned with the question of how to design software that is easy to use. It is closely related to the field of human-computer interaction and industrial design. The term "usability engineering" (UE) (in contrast to other names of the discipline, like interaction design or user experience design) tends to describe a pragmatic approach to user interface design which emphasizes empirical methods and operational definitions of user requirements for tools. Extending as far as International Organisation for Standardisation-approved definitions usability is considered a context-dependent agreement of the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specific users should be able to perform tasks. Advocates of this approach engage in task analysis, then prototype interface designs and conduct usability tests. On the basis of such tests, the technology is (ideally) re-designed or (occasionally) the operational targets for user performance are revised.

User-centered design is a design philosophy and a process in which the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of an interface or document are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. User-centered design can be characterized as a multi-stage problem solving process that not only requires designers to analyze and foresee how users are likely to use an interface, but to test the validity of their assumptions with regards to user behaviour in real world tests with actual users. Such testing is necessary as it is often very difficult for the designers of an interface to understand intuitively what a first-time user of their design experiences, and what each user's learning curve may look like.

The chief difference from other interface design philosophies is that user-centered design tries to optimize the user interface around how people can, want, or need to work, rather than forcing the users to change how they work to accommodate the system or function.

XML is a W3C(abbreviated WWW or W3)-recommended general-purpose markup language that supports a wide variety of applications. XML languages or 'dialects' may be designed by anyone and may be processed by conforming software. XML is also designed to be reasonably human-legible, and to this end, terseness was not considered essential in its structure. XML is a simplified subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different information systems, particularly systems connected via the Internet. Formally defined languages based on XML (such as RSS, MathML, GraphML, XHTML, Scalable Vector Graphics, MusicXML and thousands of other examples) allow diverse software to reliably understand information formatted and passed in these languages.

Many universities have entire colleges, departments or schools or devoted to the study of information science, while numerous information science scholars can be found in disciplines such as communication, computer science, law, library science, and sociology. Several institutions have formed an I-School Caucus (see List of I-Schools), but there are numerous others with comprehensive information foci.

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Source : Wikipedia