Don Cherry

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Posted by bender 03/15/2009 @ 20:07

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CBC-TV production of Don Cherry biopic to start shooting next week ... - The Canadian Press
TORONTO — Don Cherry is getting his own biopic. The outspoken sports commentator, a mainstay of CBC's "Hockey Night in Canada," will be the focus of a made-for-TV movie expected to air on the public broadcaster next year. A publicist for the film says...
CODONA: The CODONA Trilogy - All About Jazz
Mixed up with the concept of "new age," it makes you think more about hemp clothing, crystal therapy and holistic healing than the sort of basic elemental sounds trumpeter Don Cherry pioneered in tandem with drummer Ed Blackwell on the classic Mu...
OCTOPUS GARDEN NBC's Mike Milbury sounds a lot like Don Cherry - Detroit Free Press
Free Press sports writer George Sipple will live-blog Game 3 and Game 4 of the Wings-Ducks series at freep.com/sports. Be sure to stop by late Tuesday and Thursday to join in the discussion. Don Cherry isn't the only hockey analyst who isn't afraid to...
Eulogy: Remembering the 2008-09 Boston Bruins - Yahoo! Sports
... hatred for the Bruins and dance on their grave; because in my lifetime, Boston as an opposition, have provided the Habs with an abundant list of cherished memories thicker than Don Cherry's collar and longer than Harry Sinden's ghost call rants....
Consequences of Pelosi Accusations - FOXNews
BOND: I think this cherry picking has gone on too far. It — we have been told frequently that they got about half of the active and usable and human intelligence that they had on Al Qaeda from using these enhanced interrogation techniques....
Caps Hockey - DC's Newest Bandwagon - We Love DC
From his exuberant celebrations (Don Cherry be damned) to his wide, gap-toothed smile, to his on- and off-ice passion, he is Mr. Caps Hockey. Does he still have more to learn? Honestly, yes. But he's young, he's talented, and he's willing....
Cherry decries lack of Canadian MVP finalists - Eagle Tribune
Don Cherry has a reputation and he has his beliefs. And at 75 years old, you would be hard-pressed to change his mind. The NHL announced the three finalists for the Hart Trophy, the league's MVP, and all three are Russian-born players....
A Wing and a prayer - Chicago Sun-Times
By Bubba's Mom on May 15, 2009 7:19 AM Mulligan and that redheaded guy are talking to Don Cherry right now on the Score, and Mully says there's no way the Hawks can beat the Red Wings. I won't make a prediction, except to say there won't be a sweep....
Weather Cooling Off Cherry Expectations - KNDO/KNDU
It's survival of the fittest in cherry orchards. Mark Barrett says many of his Bing cherries didn't make it through the cool spring, but those that did look good. "Each cherry should be a little bit larger if we don't have as huge a crop as was...
Relative unknown plays Cherry in biopic shooting in Manitoba - Winnipeg Free Press
Outspoken broadcaster Cherry is expected to visit the set of Keep Your Head Up, Kid. (CANADIAN PRESS) A relative unknown has been cast as hockey icon Don Cherry in a TV miniseries which begins shooting in Manitoba next week. Jared Keeso, a 20-something...

Don Cherry (jazz)

Don (Donald Eugene) Cherry (November 18, 1936 – October 19, 1995) was an innovative African-American jazz trumpeter whose career began with a long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman, and who would go on to live and work with a wide variety of musicians in many parts of the world.

Cherry was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and raised in Los Angeles, California. After learning various brass instruments in high school, by the early 1950s he was playing with jazz musicians in Los Angeles, sometimes acting as pianist in Art Farmer's group. He also toured with saxophonist James Clay.

Cherry also co-led the Avant-Garde session which saw John Coltrane replacing Coleman in the Quartet. He also recorded and toured with Sonny Rollins, co-led the New York Contemporary Five in Manhattan with Archie Shepp, recorded and toured with Albert Ayler and with bandleader and composer George Russell. His first recording as a leader was Complete Communion for Blue Note Records in 1965. The band included Coleman's drummer Ed Blackwell as well as saxophonist Gato Barbieri, whom he had met while touring Europe with Ayler.

After leaving Coleman, Don Cherry eschewed the trend towards funk/fusion and continued to play a sparse jazz often in small groups and duets (many with ex-Coleman drummer Ed Blackwell) during a long sojourn in Scandinavia and other locations.

He would later appear on Coleman's 1971 LP Science Fiction, and from 1976 to 1987 would reunite with Coleman alumni Dewey Redman, Charlie Haden, and Blackwell in the band Old And New Dreams , where his "subtlety of rhythmic expansion and contraction" was noted. That band recording a total of four albums, two for ECM and two for Black Saint.

During the 1980s, he also recorded again with the original Ornette Coleman Quartet on In All Languages, as well as recording El Corazon, a duet album with Ed Blackwell.

In addition to bebop, Cherry incorporated influences of Middle Eastern, traditional African, and Indian music into his playing and from 1978 to 1982, he recorded three albums for ECM with "world jazz" group Codona, consisting of Cherry, percussionist Nana Vasconcelos and sitar and tabla player Collin Walcott.

Other playing opportunities in his career came with Carla Bley's Escalator Over The Hill project or recordings with Lou Reed, Ian Dury, Rip Rig & Panic and Sun Ra.

Don Cherry was only 58 when he died in Málaga, Spain in 1995 due to liver failure caused by hepatitis.

His stepdaughters Neneh Cherry and Titiyo and his sons David Cherry and Eagle-Eye Cherry are also musicians.

Don Cherry was closely associated with the Pocket trumpet, a smaller version of the regular trumpet. Closer to a cornet, the pocket trumpet helped Cherry produce his distinct sound as well as allowing him to "smear" notes due to its idiosyncratic slotting. He often spoke about changing horns and mouthpiece sizes to constantly keep him in unfamiliar territory when playing and aiding in the avoidance of cliches.

After returning from a musical/cultural journey through Africa, Don Cherry often played a stringed instrument with a gourd body called a dousen'goune. Don also collected a variety of other African instruments on his journey, which he mastered and often played in performances & recording.

He also performed as a percussionist and pianist, often playing the pocket trumpet with one hand while playing the piano with the left.

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Don Cherry (ice hockey)

Cherry Maclean.jpg

Donald Stewart "Grapes" Cherry, (born February 5, 1934) is a Canadian hockey commentator for CBC Television. Cherry co-hosts the "Coach's Corner" intermission segment (with Ron MacLean) on the long running Canadian sports program Hockey Night in Canada, and in addition recently joined ESPN in the United States as a commentator during the latter stages of the Stanley Cup playoffs. He is known for his outspoken manner, flamboyant dress, and staunch patriotism.

Prior to his broadcast career, Cherry was a National Hockey League player and coach. He played one game with the Boston Bruins, and later coached them during the days of Bobby Orr. He is also well-known as an author, syndicated radio commentator for The Fan Radio Network, creator of the Rock'em Sock'em Hockey video series, and celebrity endorser. Cherry was voted as the seventh greatest Canadian on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's television special, The Greatest Canadian.

Don Cherry was born in Kingston, Ontario, Canada to Delmar (Del) and Maude Cherry. His paternal grandfather, John T. (Jack) Cherry, was an original member of the North West Mounted Police, which later became the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and was dispatched in 1874 by Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald to arrest American whiskey traders in the Prairies. Afterwards, he captained a ship in the Great Lakes. He died in the spring of 1920 of a stroke. Cherry's maternal grandfather, Richard Palamountain, was born in Gloucester, England and raised in an orphanage from age seven until he was shipped to Canada for work as one of the Home Children. He worked at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) in Kingston until 1916, when he enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) to fight in World War I. He fought in the Battle of Vimy Ridge, and returned to the RMC after the war. He died in 1934. Del Cherry was an amateur athlete and worked as an electrician with the Canadian Steamship Lines. On the March 15, 2008 edition of Coach's Corner Don wore the green and gold colours of County Kerry, Ireland. In his segment following the game, he claimed ancestry from that region. Cherry's younger brother, Dick Cherry played hockey at various levels, including one season in the National Hockey League (NHL).

Don Cherry played junior hockey with the Barrie Flyers and the Windsor Spitfires in the Ontario Hockey Association. Cherry won the Memorial Cup as a defenceman with Barrie in 1953. He dropped out of high school, and in 1954 he signed with the American Hockey League's (AHL) Hershey Bears. In his first year with the Bears, he met his future wife Rosemarie (Rose) Cherry née Madelyn Martini (born 1935 in Hershey, Pennsylvania). Rose was hugely influential in Don's life — because of Don's amateur hockey lifestyle, they moved 53 times; they rarely had decent housing or furnishings, and Don was often away playing during major events, such as the birth of their daughter and first child, Cindy Cherry. Six years after Cindy's birth, Rose gave birth to son Tim Cherry. When Tim needed a kidney transplant at age 13, Cindy donated hers. The two currently live across the street from each other, around the corner from their father. Rose died of cancer in 1997, and in honour of her perseverence, Don created Rose Cherry's Home for Kids.

Cherry had a long playing career in professional minor hockey, and in 1955 played his only NHL game when the Boston Bruins called him up during the playoffs. According to Cherry, a baseball injury suffered in the off season kept him from making the NHL. He retired as a player in 1970. Cherry won the Calder Cup championship (AHL) four times — 1960 with the Springfield Indians, and 1965, 1966, 1968 with Rochester Americans. He also won the Lester Patrick Cup the Western Hockey League Championship with Vancouver Canucks in 1969.

After the end of his playing career, Cherry struggled for a time as a Cadillac salesman and a construction worker. He worked as a painter earning $2 per hour. In the middle of the 1971-72 season, Cherry became the coach of the American Hockey League's Rochester Americans. In his third season behind the bench, Cherry was voted the AHL's "Coach of the Year." After his three-year stint in Rochester, he was promoted to the NHL as head coach of the Boston Bruins, a team which was coming off a successful run of two Stanley Cups and three first-place finishes, but would see the departure of superstars Bobby Orr and Phil Esposito.

Cherry quickly developed a reputation for being an eccentric, flamboyant coach who strongly encouraged physical play among his players. It has been alleged he modeled the Bruins' playing style after that of his dog, Blue, a feisty bull terrier. This approach worked as the Bruins, known as the "lunch-pail gang", were one of the NHL's best teams during the latter half of the 1970s, capturing the division title three times from 1977-79. The Bruins were able to defeat the rough Philadelphia Flyers twice in the playoffs under Cherry's tenure. The Bruins made the Stanley Cup finals twice, both times losing to their arch-rivals, the Montreal Canadiens, in both 1977 and 1978. Cherry won the Jack Adams Award as NHL coach of the year in 1976. In the 1977-78 season, Don Cherry coached the Bruins team to an NHL record of 11 players with 20 goals on a single team.

Cherry, who had an uneasy relationship with Bruins General Manager Harry Sinden, was fired by the Bruins after a critical coaching mistake during a 1979 semi-final playoff series against the Canadiens. Up by a goal with less than two minutes left in the seventh game, the Bruins were penalized for having too many men on the ice. The Canadiens' Guy Lafleur scored the tying goal on the subsequent powerplay and ultimately won the game in overtime. Montreal went on to defeat the New York Rangers for their fourth straight Cup title.

Cherry went on to coach the Colorado Rockies the following season. Under his tenure, the Rockies adopted the motto "Come to the fights and watch a Rockies game break out!" This could be seen on billboards all over Denver in the 1979-80 season. Cherry's hiring as head coach immediately rejuvenated the ailing franchise's fortunes.

However, as he later admitted, his outspokenness and feuding with Rockies general manager Ray Miron did not endear Cherry to management. While Cherry did much to motivate the players, goaltending was still the team's weakness as Miron refused to replace Hardy Astrom, whom Cherry dubbed the "The Swedish Sieve". Cherry recalled one game where his players had got ten shots on goal without scoring, but Astrom then conceded a goal from the opponent's first shot and so was yanked from net. Of course, Cherry didn't help things when, after watching defenseman Mike McEwen ignore him and refuse to come off during a game, he reached over the boards and manhandled the McEwen to the bench. His NHL career and the Rockies ended on a positive note when they defeated the Pittsburgh Penguins 5-0 in the final game of the season held at home. Years later, while commentating during the 2001 Stanley Cup final between the Colorado Avalanche and New Jersey Devils, Cherry recalled the experience of the Rockies' last game where he was wearing cowboy boots and after it ended, the Rockies players formed two lines so he could depart the ice between them while acknowledging the cheers of the crowd.

Internationally, Cherry was an assistant coach for Team Canada at the 1976 Canada Cup and was head coach for Canada's team at the 1981 International Ice Hockey Federation World Hockey Championship in Stockholm, Sweden.

Cherry was the part-owner and the former coach of the Ontario Hockey League's Mississauga IceDogs. As owner and general manager, he gained notoriety by refusing to take part in the CHL import draft, and only play North American born players. The IceDogs' first three seasons were difficult ones with the team winning a total of 16 games combined. Cherry took over coaching duties in the fourth season. During Cherry's one season as head coach of the Mississauga IceDogs, the team managed 11 victories (only a slight improvement) and failed to make the playoffs for the fourth straight year. Cherry drew some criticism for his decision to suddenly allow European born players onto the IceDogs line-up during the one season he coached the team.

After his Rockies failed to qualify for the 1980 Stanley Cup playoffs, Cherry was hired as a studio analyst for CBC's playoff coverage that spring, working alongside host Dave Hodge. CBC hired him full-time in 1981 as a colour commentator, but he didn't last long in that role due to his tendency to openly cheer for one of the teams (especially the Boston Bruins or Toronto Maple Leafs). Instead, they created "Coach's Corner", a segment that appeared in the first intermission on Hockey Night in Canada, with Dave Hodge. In 1987, Hodge was replaced by Ron MacLean, with whom Cherry has been teamed ever since. For several years he also hosted his own half-hour interview show, Don Cherry's Grapeline, which began on Hamilton's CHCH-TV in the 1980s before moving to TSN. His loud, outspoken nature became notorious, and his shows are described as "game analysis, cultural commentary and playful parrying with host Ron MacLean." Cherry also hosted a syndicated weekly television show called Don Cherry's This Week in Hockey during the 1987-88 NHL season. It featured highlights from the previous week's NHL games. The highlight of each show was when Cherry awarded a Black and Decker cordless drill to the player who levied the "hit of the week" (called the "Drill of the Week" in order to tie into the cordless drill giveaway).

Cherry's commentary is usually peppered with catch phrases like "All you kids out there...," unrestrained affection for his favourite players (including Steve Yzerman, and "Dougie," Kingston native Doug Gilmour, whom Cherry kissed on-air in a famous TV gag), and overall political incorrectness. Another trademark is his bull terrier Blue, originally a gift from the Bruins players. Some of the advice he gives is unchanging from year to year.

He also spends time extolling true grit, such as when, in the 1999 playoff campaign, after sustaining a bone-shattering slapshot from Al MacInnis, a Phoenix winger crawled off the ice so that another could take his place. Usually at the end of the NHL season, his send off words in recent years have been about NHL prospects entering the NHL draft. His position is that unless a player is guaranteed to be selected in the first or second rounds, they should not physically attend the draft. The reason for this is that some players would be too disappointed if they are drafted later than expected, or worse, not at all.

Cherry returned to the news in May 2004 amid rumours that CBC would terminate his contract for Hockey Night in Canada. However, he re-signed with the network in July.

Branching out from his Hockey Night in Canada duties, Cherry began to release a series of videos called Don Cherry's Rock'Em Sock'em Hockey in 1989. The 15th anniversary video was released in 2003, with a 'Best Of' released in 2005. Cherry returned to the "Coach's Corner" for the 2005-2006 NHL season - without the seven-second delay. For the 2007 Stanley Cup Finals, NBC decided to feature Don Cherry in its intermission coverage, a rare appearance on American television. He was partnered with Bill Clement and Brett Hull and it did not conflict with his usual role on CBC as he appeared on NBC during the second intermission.

In May 2008, ESPN announced that Cherry was joining Barry Melrose as a commentator for the remainder of the 2008 NHL Playoffs. He provided pre-game analysis for the conference finals, pre- and post-game analysis for the Stanley Cup finals, and appeared on ESPNews and ESPN Radio. ESPN also announced that he would donate his fees to the Humane Society.

Over his career on television, Cherry has generated significant controversy about both hockey and politics. In 1992, he referred to Finnish born Winnipeg Jets Assistant Coach Alpo Suhonen as "some kind of dog food", which triggered a threat of a law suit from Jets owner Barry Shenkarow. In January 2004, on the subject of visors, Cherry said on Coach's Corner: "Most of the guys that wear them are Europeans and French guys." This statement triggered an investigation by the federal Official Languages Commissioner, and protests by French-Canadians. CBC consequently imposed a seven-second delay on Hockey Night in Canada. He was somewhat vindicated when a study was published that showed the majority of visor users in the NHL were indeed French-Canadians and Europeans.

In October, 2004, the CBC program The Greatest Canadian revealed that its 'top ten' viewer-selected great Canadians included Cherry. Cherry remarked that he would have been inclined to vote for Sir John A. Macdonald (if he had lived in the same time period), who had also been a Kingston resident. He finished seventh in the final tally.

As part of his fame, Cherry has also branched out into some acting roles. He was cast as Jake Nelson in the television series Power Play. Nelson was the coach of the Philadelphia team playing against the Hamilton Steelheads in the playoffs during the first season. Also, he and Ron MacLean provided voices for themselves in the animated television series Zeroman, which starred Leslie Nielsen. He also appeared on an episode of Goosebumps called "Don't Go To Sleep" where he plays a hockey coach. His voice was also used in Disney's animated feature The Wild, as a penguin curling broadcaster. He also appeared alongside the Trailer Park Boys in The Tragically Hip's video "The Darkest One".

In 2008, he also appeared on an episode of "Holmes On Homes", the widely-popular home improvement show. While not appearing scripted, Cherry apparently lived in the neighbourhood and he is shown speaking with Mike Holmes about the construction business and the ongoing project at his brother-in-laws house.

In 1985, the first of a chain of franchised sports bars/restaurants bearing Don Cherry's name was opened in Hamilton. Cherry started as a partner in the operation and has more recently licensed his name to the chain without holding a significant ownership stake in the company. "Don Cherry's Sports Grill" has locations in Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador and Alberta.

Don Cherry has lent his considerable persona to selected charitable causes, most significantly, organ donation awareness.

In 1997, Cherry's wife, Rose (whose name motivated Cherry to always wear a rose on his lapel) died of cancer. Cherry contributed in developing Rose Cherry's Home for Kids which has since been renamed to The Darling Home for Kids. in Milton, Ontario. The Hershey Centre in Mississauga, Ontario is located on "Rose Cherry Place," a street named for his late wife. Don Cherry also formerly owned the arena's main tenants, the Mississauga IceDogs.

Cherry is good friends with long-serving Mississauga mayor Hazel McCallion. During her 87th birthday, he joked that that while 98% of the city voted for her, he was looking for the remaining 2% that didn't.

Don Cherry in recent years has become one of the biggest public personalities to endorse Cold FX cold medication. In the first year Don Cherry worked for the company, $1 from every bottle sold of COLD-FX was donated to Rose Cherry's Home for Kids.

He has also done television and radio advertisements for the sandwich store chain Quizno's, in which he appeared with sportscaster Jody Vance, where he frequently utters the slogans "You get more meat, " "Toasted tastes better" and "You're gonna love it".

In 1993, Don Cherry lent his voice to the charity song "Rock 'Em Sock 'Em Techno" for Canadian Techno group BKS. On November 14, 2005, Don Cherry was granted honorary membership of the Police Association of Ontario. Once an aspiring police officer, Cherry has been a longtime supporter of the police services. In his own words, "This is the best thing I've ever had." In June 2007, Cherry was made a Dominion Command Honorary Life Member of the Royal Canadian Legion in recognition of "his longstanding and unswerving support of ... Canadians in uniform". Others honoured include William Lyon Mackenzie King, John Diefenbaker, Lester B. Pearson and Vincent Massey. In February 2008, Cherry was awarded the Canadian Forces Medallion for Distinguished Service for 'unwavering support to men and women of the Canadian Forces, honouring fallen soldiers on his CBC broadcast during 'Coach's Corner' a segment of Hockey Night in Canada'.

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Don Cherry's Rock'Em Sock'em Hockey

Don Cherry's Rock'em Sock'em Hockey is a series of videos staring noted hockey comentator Don Cherry. Each video features a compilation of NHL plays, goals, saves, bloopers, hits and fights. As well as highlights from Coach's Corner, and a recap of the year's Stanley Cup Playoffs. The venture is a family affair for Cherry. His son Tim, who runs Tim Cherry Enterprises, is the driving force behind the successful series..

The first Rock'em Sock'em Hockey video was released in 1989 and quickly became a huge success in the marketplace and has subsequently become the best selling sports video franchise in Canadian history. To date the franchise has sold over two million units and continues to be one of the highest selling sports videos during the holiday season.

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Free jazz

Free jazz is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 1960s.

Though the music produced by free jazz pioneers varied widely, the common feature was a dissatisfaction with the limitations of bebop, hard bop, and modal jazz, which had developed in the 1940s and '50s. Each in his or her own way, free jazz musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down the conventions of jazz, often by discarding hitherto invariable features of jazz, such as fixed chord changes or tempos. While usually considered experimental and avant-garde, free jazz has also oppositely been conceived as an attempt to return jazz to its "primitive," often religious roots, and emphasis on collective improvisation.

Free jazz is most strongly associated with the '50s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the later works of saxophonist John Coltrane. Other important pioneers included Eric Dolphy, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, Bill Dixon, and Sun Ra.

Although today "free jazz" is the generally-used term, many other terms were used to describe the loosely-defined movement, including "avant-garde", "energy music" and "The New Thing" . Free jazz players were often said to be playing "outside" or "out" (as opposed to "inside", that is, conventionally).

There is no universally accepted definition of free jazz, and any proposed definition is complicated by many musicians in other styles drawing on free jazz, or free jazz sometimes blending with other genres. Many musicians also tend to reject efforts at classification, regarding them as useless or unduly limiting.

Typically this kind of music is played by small groups of musicians, but some albums like John Coltrane's 1965 album Ascension, use larger groups (said album has 11). Many critics, particularly at the music's inception, suspected that the abandonment of familiar elements of jazz pointed to a lack of technique on the part of the musicians. Many free jazz musicians, notably Pharoah Sanders and John Coltrane, use harsh overblowing techniques or otherwise elicit unconventional sounds from their instruments. Today such views are more marginal, and the music has built up a tradition and a body of accompanying critical writing. It remains less commercially popular than most other forms of jazz.

Beyond this, free jazz is most easily characterized in contrast with what we refer to here as "other forms of jazz", an umbrella which covers ragtime, dixieland, swing, bebop, cool jazz, jazz fusion, and other styles.

Other forms of jazz use clear regular meters and strongly-pulsed rhythms, usually in 4/4 or (less often) 3/4. Free jazz normally retains a general pulsation and often swings but without regular meter, and often with frequent accelerando and ritardando, giving an impression of the rhythm moving in waves. Often players in an ensemble adopt different tempi. Despite all of this, it is still very often possible to tap one's foot to a free jazz performance; rhythm is more freely variable but has not disappeared entirely.

Finally, some forms use composed melodies as the basis for group performance and improvisation. Free jazz practitioners sometimes use such material, and sometimes do not. In some music which is called "free jazz", other compositional structures are employed, some of them very detailed and complex; the music of Anthony Braxton furnishes many examples. It would perhaps be best to call this modern or avant-garde jazz, reserving the term "free jazz" for music with few or no pre-composed elements.

The earliest documented example of free-form improvisation is a pair of 1949 recordings for Capitol by a group led by Lennie Tristano, "Intuition" and "Digression." These do not, however, seem to have had a direct influence on the later free jazz movement.

The mid-1950s recordings of Ornette Coleman for Contemporary (Something Else! and Tomorrow Is the Question) and the first two albums by Cecil Taylor (Jazz Advance and Looking Ahead) mark the beginnings of free jazz, though they still retain a hold on bebop and hard bop languages. The movement received its biggest impetus (and its name), however, when Coleman moved from the West Coast to New York and was signed to Atlantic Records: albums such as The Shape of Jazz to Come and Change of the Century marked a radical step beyond his more conventional early work, and when he released a 1960 recording titled Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation, the name stuck to the movement as a whole.

Much of Sun Ra's music could be classified as free jazz, especially his work from the 1960s, although Sun Ra said repeatedly that his music was written and boasted that what he wrote sounded more free than what "the freedom boys" played.

Some of bassist Charles Mingus' work was also important in establishing free jazz. Of particular note are his early Atlantic albums, such as The Clown, Tijuana Moods, and most notably Pithecanthropus Erectus, the title song of which contained one section that was freely improvised in a style unrelated to the song's melody or chordal structure.

Since the mid-1950s, saxophonist Jackie McLean had been exploring a concept he called "The Big Room", where the often strict rules of bebop could be loosened or abandoned at will. Similarly, Cecil Taylor, the most prominent free jazz pianist, began stretching the bop boundaries as early as 1956.

The Jimmy Giuffre Trio (with Paul Bley and Steve Swallow) received little attention during their original incarnation from 1960-62, but afterwards were regarded as one of the most innovative free jazz ensembles.

Eric Dolphy's work with Charles Mingus, John Coltrane, and Chico Hamilton, along with his solo work, helped to set the stage for free jazz in the music community.

In Europe, free jazz first flowered through the experiments of expatriate Jamaican alto saxophonist Joe Harriott. Beginning in the late 1950s, he worked on his own distinctive concept of what he termed free form. These explorations were parallel to Coleman's in many respects but Harriott's work was barely known outside of England.

Free jazz has primarily been an instrumental genre. However, Jeanne Lee was a notable free jazz vocalist; others such as Sheila Jordan, Linda Sharrock, and Patty Waters also made notable contributions to the genre.

Much of the multi-instrumentalist Anthony Braxton's music could be classified as free jazz. His Ghost Trance Music, which introduces a steady pulse to his music, also allows the simultaneous performance of any piece by the performers. Braxton has recorded with many of the free jazz musicians, including Ornette Coleman and European free improvisers such as Derek Bailey, Evan Parker, and the Globe Unity Orchestra.

The 1960s free jazz ethos was continued in the New York 1970s "loft jazz" scene (in locations such as Sam Rivers' Studio RivBea), and the 1980s "downtown" scene associated with places such as the Knitting Factory. A younger generation of players including David S. Ware, Matthew Shipp, William Parker and Joe Morris continued to play free jazz inspired by the ground-breaking work of the 1960s New Thing. Like other styles of jazz, free jazz also adopted elements of contemporary rock, funk and pop music: Ornette Coleman was a leader in this vein, embracing electric music with his 1970s band Prime Time, and a number of other players including James Blood Ulmer, Sonny Sharrock, and Ronald Shannon Jackson forged styles combining elements of free jazz and fusion.

The 1981 documentary film Imagine the Sound explores free jazz through interviews with and performances by Archie Shepp, Paul Bley, Cecil Taylor and Bill Dixon.

In Europe, beginning in the mid-1960s, players such as guitarist Derek Bailey, saxophonists Peter Brötzmann and Evan Parker and drummer John Stevens developed an idiom that came to be called "free improvisation." It drew sustenance from free jazz while moving much further from jazz tradition (often drawing equally on contemporary composers such as Anton Webern and John Cage for inspiration).

Many musicians are keeping the free jazz style alive in the present day, continuing its development as a jazz idiom. Two major scenes in the United States are based in New York and Chicago. In New York, players include William Parker, Vijay Iyer, Matana Roberts, Chad Taylor, John Zorn, Assif Tsahar, and Tom Abbs. In Chicago, notable performers are Fred Anderson, David Boykin, Nicole Mitchell, Ernest Dawkins, Karl E. H. Seigfried, Aaron Getsug, and Hamid Drake.

The emergence of free jazz, like previous developments in jazz, was largely tied to the African-American experience. This idea can be seen in the approaches of the musicians themselves, as in Ornette Coleman's This Is Our Music (1960). Both these developments, bebop in 1940 and free jazz in 1960, reveal directions that were more intellectual, less danceable, and less marketable to white audiences. Musicians like Shepp, the Art Ensemble of Chicago (the flagship group of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians or AACM), and Sun Ra made Black identity an integral part of their public personae as musicians, more visibly than previous generations of jazz musicians. This is not to say that the music was racially segregated; white bassist Charlie Haden was a member of Ornette Coleman's influential quartet, and free jazz's principles were quickly assimilated into musical developments in all corners of global society.

Many free jazz musicians regard the music as signifying in a broadly religious way, or to have gnostic or mystical connotations, as an aide to meditation or self-reflection, as evidenced by Coltrane's Om album, or Charles Gayle's Repent. Other may emphasize nihilism, determinism and fatalism, as exemplified in the Brötzmann-designed Last Exit album cover showing a smashed, pulverized crow. As traditional mysticism denigrates the significance of transitory reality and the material world, highlighting the meaningless of time and the essentiality of living in the moment, the two outlooks are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Some African-American free jazz artists could also be seen as gnostic, by way of the blues tradition, highlighting the arbitrariness, senselessness and pain of life and phenomenal consciousness, with a subtext of transcendence by way of a higher power. See, for example, Archie Shepp's "Rufus (Swung, his face at last to the wind, then his neck snapped)" which dramatizes the lynching of an African-American slave.

Outside of North America, free jazz scenes have become established in Europe and Japan. Alongside the aforementioned Joe Harriott, saxophonists Peter Brötzmann, Evan Parker, trombonist Conny Bauer, guitarist Derek Bailey and drummer Han Bennink were among the most well-known early European free jazz performers. European free jazz can generally be seen as approaching free improvisation, with an ever more distant relationship to jazz tradition. That being said, specifically Brötzmann has had a significant impact on the free jazz players of the U.S. Also behind iron curtain was relatively active free jazz scene which producted great musicians like Tomasz Stanko, Zbigniew Seifert, Vladimir Chekasin, Vyacheslav Ganelin and Vladimir Tarasov. Japanese guitarist Masayuki Takayanagi and saxophonist Kaoru Abe, among others, took free jazz in another direction, approaching the energy levels of noise. Some international jazz musicians have come to North America and become immersed in free jazz, most notably Ivo Perelman from Brazil and Gato Barbieri of Argentina (this influence is evident in Barbieri's early work, but fades in his later, more commercially oriented efforts). American musicians like Don Cherry, John Coltrane, Milford Graves, and Pharoah Sanders integrated elements of the music of Africa, India, and the Middle East for a sort of World music-influenced free jazz.

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Source : Wikipedia