Dublin

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Posted by motoman 03/09/2009 @ 13:07

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SR Technics sells Dublin unit to sister firm in Abu Dhabi - Irish Times
SWISS GROUP SR Technics sold part of its Dublin aircraft maintenance business this week to an Abu Dhabi-based sister company, The Irish Times can reveal. It is understood that Abu Dhabi Aircraft Technologies now plans to move the operation to the...
England back proposal with top stadia - Irish Times
The two hopeful nations along with Japan and South Africa travelled to Dublin yesterday to outline their bids to the International Rugby Board. Italy, Japan and South Africa are bidding for both the 2015 and 2019 Rugby World Cup tournaments while...
AIB shareholders accept €3.5bn recapitalisation - Irish Times
Chairman Dermot Gleeson opened AIB's egm in the Bankcentre, Ballsbridge, Dublin, yesterday by acknowledging the "anger and disappointment" among shareholders brought about by the fall in the share price and cancellation of AIB's dividend....
Australia welcomes SANZAR agreement - guardian.co.uk
The three SANZAR member countries were in dispute over the best way forward for the competition but reached agreement at a meeting in Dublin on Thursday. The details of the agreement have been kept secret until they are presented to their respective...
Dublin bank robbed on Tuesday afternoon - San Jose Mercury News
DUBLIN — A Bank of America branch i was robbed Tuesday afternoon by a man who demanded large bills. About 2 pm Tuesday, a man walked into the bank at 4250 Dublin Boulevard, approached the teller and demanded cash in large bills, police said....
Dublin Ford: Standing Tough Against Economic Downturn - Courier Herald
By STEPHANIE MILLER Ford Motor Company has long been known for its work horse trucks and its play pony Mustangs, but Dublin Ford Lincoln Mercury backs the desire to own a tough truck, a luxury sedan or a sporty hot rod with a well-trained service...
New Samuel Beckett Bridge arrives successfully in Dublin - Ireland Online
Transporting the Samuel Beckett Bridge through the East Link Toll Bridge in the city caused major traffic disruption this afternoon. The East Link has now been re-opened and the HGV ban in the city has been re-instated. The new bridge, which cost...
Dublin, Appling Play For Elite Eight - Courier Herald
By LAWRENCE CONNEFF BAXLEY - Whether the Dublin High baseball team completes its quest for redemption in today's Class AA second-round elimination game or not, Kale Watson will have already done his part for the Fighting Irish. The junior right-hander...
Fine Gael takes another leap forward on back of broad appeal - Irish Times
Crucially, Fine Gael has again improved its position as the top party in Dublin, where it is now more than double the Fianna Fáil vote. When asked how they would vote in the local elections, 25 per cent of voters in Dublin opted for Fine Gael....
Riedo foundation launch in Dublin - Irish Times
The parents of murdered Swiss teenager Manuela Riedo are in Dublin to publicise a new foundation for rape and sexual assault victims in Dublin today. Hans-Peter and Arlette Riedo launched the foundation in Switzerland last month in memory of their...

Dublin

County Dublin in Ireland

Dublin (pronounced /ˈdʌblɨn/, /ˈdʊblɨn/, or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, Irish: Baile Átha Cliath, meaning ‘Town of the Hurdled Ford’, pronounced or ) is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. It is located near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. Founded as a Viking settlement, the city has been Ireland's primary city for most of the island's history since medieval times. Today, it is an economic, administrative and cultural centre for the island of Ireland and has one of the fastest growing populations of any European capital city.

The name Dublin is a Hiberno-English derivative of 'Dubh Linn' (Irish, dubh -> black, and linn -> pool). Historically, in the traditional Gaelic script used for the Irish language, 'bh' was written with a dot over the 'b', viz 'Duḃ Linn' or 'Duḃlinn'. Those without a knowledge of Irish omitted the dot and spelled the name variously as 'Develyn' or 'Dublin'.

The common name for the city in Modern Irish is 'Baile Átha Cliath' ('The Settlement of the Ford of the Reed Hurdles'). It was first written as such in 1368 in the Annals of Ulster. 'Áth Cliath' is a place-name referring to a fording point of the Liffey in the vicinity of Heuston Station. 'Baile Átha Cliath' was later applied to an early Christian monastery which is believed to have been situated in the area of Aungier Street currently occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church.

The subsequent Viking settlement was on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey, to the East of Christchurch, in the area known as Wood Quay. The Dubh Linn was a lake used by the Vikings to moor their ships and was connected to the Liffey by the Poddle. The Dubh Linn and Poddle were covered during the early 1700s, and as the city expanded they were largely forgotten about. The Dubh Linn was situated where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle.

The writings of the Greek astronomer and cartographer Ptolemy provide perhaps the earliest reference to human habitation in the area now known as Dublin. In around A.D. 140 he referred to a settlement he called Eblana Civitas. The settlement 'Dubh Linn' dates perhaps as far back as the first century BC and later a monastery was built there, though the town was established in about 841 by the Norse. The modern city retains the Anglicised Irish name of the former and the original Irish name of the latter. After the Norman invasion of Ireland, Dublin became the key centre of military and judicial power, with much of the power centering on Dublin Castle until independence. From the 14th to late 16th centuries, English crown control over Ireland was limited to a section of territory, known as the Pale, which included Dublin at its southern end, and Dundalk at its northern extremity. The Parliament was located in Drogheda for several centuries, but was switched permanently to Dublin after Henry VII conquered the County Kildare in 1504. The sacking of Drogheda, and massacre of her citizens, by Oliver Cromwell, in 1649, resulted in Dublin becoming the dominant port city in Ireland.

Dublin also had local city administration via its Corporation from the Middle Ages. This represented the city's guild-based oligarchy until it was reformed in the 1840s on increasingly democratic lines.

From the 17th century the city expanded rapidly, helped by the Wide Streets Commission. Georgian Dublin was, for a short time, the second city of the British Empire after London and the fifth largest European city. Much of Dublin's most notable architecture dates from this time and is considered a golden era for the city. In 1749, the relocation of the Guinness brewery from Leixlip, to St.James Gate, resulted in a considerable economic impact for the city, which is felt to this day. For much of the time since its foundation, the Guinness Brewery was the largest employer in the city. In 1742 Handel's "Messiah" was performed for the first time in New Musick Hall in Fishamble Street with 26 boys and five men from the combined choirs of St.Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals participating.

The Easter Rising of 1916 took place in several parts of the city, bringing much physical destruction to the city centre. The Anglo-Irish War and Irish Civil War contributed even more destruction, leaving some of its finest buildings in ruins. The Irish Free State government rebuilt the city centre and located the Dáil (parliament) in Leinster House.

The formation of the new state, resulted in changed fortunes for Dublin. It benefitted more from independence than any Irish city, though it took a long time to become obvious. Through The Emergency (World War II), until the 1960s, Dublin remained a capital out of time: the city centre in particular remained at an architectural standstill, even nicknamed the last 19th Century City of Europe. This made the city ideal for historical film production, with many productions including The Blue Max, and My Left Foot capturing the cityscape in this period. This became the foundation of later successes in cinematography and film-making. With increasing prosperity, modern architecture was introduced to the city, though a vigorous campaign started in parallel to restore the Georgian greatness of Dublin's streets, rather than lose the grandeur forever. Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed immensely, with enormous private sector and state development of housing, transport, and business. (See also Development and Preservation in Dublin). Some well-known Dublin street corners are still named for the pub or business which used to occupy the site before closure or redevelopment.

From 1922, following the partition of Ireland, it became the capital of the Irish Free State (1922–1949) and now is the capital of the Republic of Ireland. One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance.

In a 2003 European-wide survey by the BBC, questioning 11,200 residents of 112 urban and rural areas, Dublin was the best capital city in Europe to live in.

A person from either the city or county of Dublin is often referred to as a "Dub".

The city has a world-famous literary history, having produced many prominent literary figures, including Nobel laureates William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Other influential writers and playwrights from Dublin include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. It is arguably most famous, however, as the location of the greatest works of James Joyce. Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and characters typical of residents of the city in the early part of the 20th century. His most celebrated work, Ulysses, is also set in Dublin and full of topical detail. Additional widely celebrated writers from the city include J.M. Synge, Seán O'Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy, and Roddy Doyle. Ireland's biggest libraries and literary museums are found in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and National Library of Ireland.

There are several theatres within the city centre, and various world famous actors have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney and Gabriel Byrne. The best known theatres include the Gaiety, the Abbey, the Olympia and the Gate. The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and is popular for opening its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films. The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard Shaw. The Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avante Guarde works. The largest theatre is the Mahony Hall in The Helix at Dublin City University in Glasnevin.

Dublin is also the focal point for much of Irish Art and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic Monks in A.D. 800 and an example of Insular art, is on display in Trinity College. The Chester Beatty Library houses the famous collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish citizen) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875-1968). The collections date from 2700 B.C. onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. Work by local artists is often put on public display around St. Stephen's Green, the main public park in the city centre. In addition large art galleries are found across the city, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, The City Arts Centre, The Douglas Hyde Gallery, The Project Arts Centre and The Royal Hibernian Academy.

Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland are located in Dublin: Archaeology in Kildare Street, Decorative Arts and History in Collins Barracks and Natural History in Merrion Street.

There is a vibrant nightlife in Dublin and it is reputedly one of the most youthful cities in Europe - with estimates of 50% of inhabitants being younger than 25. Furthermore in 2007, it was voted the friendliest city in Europe. Like the rest of Ireland, there are pubs right across the city centre. The area around St. Stephen's Green - especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street - is a centre for some of the most popular nightclubs and pubs in Dublin.

The internationally best-known area for nightlife is the Temple Bar area just south of the River Liffey. To some extent, the area has become a hot spot for tourists, including stag and hen parties from Britain. It was developed as Dublin's cultural quarter (an idea proposed by local politician Charlie Haughey), and does retain this spirit as a centre for small arts productions, photographic and artists' studios, and in the form of street performers and intimate small music venues.

The LGBT scene in Dublin is centred on a number of superpubs and clubs such as The Dragon and The George on South Great George's Street. The other two bars focused towards the gay scene are The Front Lounge (on Parliament street) and Pantibar (on Capel Street). There are also over 13 gay club nights ranging from Q&A (Queer & Alternative), Spice, Glitz, The Furry Glen (Bear night), Shift, VIQ, Bukkake, Nimhneach (Fetish night), After Dark, Kiss (Lesbian night), L Club (Lesbian night).

Live music is popularly played on streets and at venues throughout Dublin in general and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including U2, The Dubliners, Horslips, The Boomtown Rats, Thin Lizzy, Sinead O'Connor and My Bloody Valentine. The two best known cinemas in the city centre are the Savoy Cinema and the Cineworld Cinema, both north of the Liffey. Alternative and special-interest cinema can be found in the Irish Film Institute in Temple Bar, in the Screen Cinema on d'Olier Street and in the Lighthouse Cinema in Smithfield. Across suburban Dublin are located large modern multiscreen cinemas. Situated on the Liffey at the Eastlink tollbridge, The O2, Dublin (originally called, and still often known as, the Point Theatre) has housed world renowned performers in all fields of music.

The headquarters of almost all of Ireland's sporting organisations are in Dublin, and the most popular sports in Dublin are those that are most popular throughout Ireland: Gaelic football, soccer, rugby union and hurling. Dublin will be the European Capital of Sport in 2010.

The city is host to the 4th largest stadium in Europe, Croke Park, the 82,500 capacity headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association. It traditionally hosts Gaelic football and hurling games during the summer months, as well as international rules football in alternating years. It also hosts concerts, with acts such as U2 and Robbie Williams having played there in recent years. The Dublin board of the Gaelic Athletic Association play their league games at Parnell Park. The nickname for the Dublin Gaelic football team is "The Dubs". Lansdowne Road stadium (previously owned by the Irish Rugby Football Union) was the venue for home games of both the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Republic's national soccer team. Until recently, it had a mixed standing and seating capacity of 49,000. As part of a joint venture between the IRFU, the FAI and the Government, it is being redeveloped and is expected to be replaced with a 50,000 all-seater stadium by 2009. On 29th January 2009, Uefa confirmed Lansdowne Road will host the 2011 Europa League Final (UEFA Cup). During the redevelopment, rugby union and soccer home internationals are played at Croke Park.

Donnybrook Rugby Ground is the traditional home of the Leinster Rugby team though due to it's inferior capacity they now play all Magners League and Heineken Cup games across Dublin 4 in the R.D.S.

Dublin is home to six FAI League of Ireland clubs, Shamrock Rovers, Bohemians , Shelbourne, St Patrick's Athletic, UCD AFC and Sporting Fingal. Dalymount Park in Phibsboro, the traditional Home of Irish Soccer, is now used only for home games of local club Bohemians. Shamrock Rovers will be playing in the new Tallaght Stadium from 2009, Shelbourne play at Tolka Park in Drumcondra, while St Patrick's Athletic play at Richmond Park in Inchicore on the south west edge of the city. The other senior clubs, who play in the First Division, are University College Dublin, based at the UCD Bowl, Belfield, and newly-formed Sporting Fingal, who play at Morton Stadium, Santry.

The National Aquatic Centre in Blanchardstown is the first building to open in the Sports Campus Ireland. There are several race courses in the Dublin area including Shelbourne Park (Greyhound racing) and Leopardstown (Horse racing). The world famous Dublin Horse Show takes place at the RDS, Ballsbridge, which hosted the Show Jumping World Championships in 1982. The national boxing arena is located in The National Stadium on the South Circular Road, though larger fights take place in the Point Depot in the docklands area. There are also Basketball, Handball, Hockey and Athletics stadia — most notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special Olympics.

Rugby League as a sport in Dublin has attained popularity in recent years. The North Dublin Eagles play in Ireland's Carnegie League. Recent popularity has been increased with the Irish Wolfhound's success in the Rugby League World Cup which was held in Australia in 2008.

The Dublin Marathon has been run since 1980, and the Women's Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 and is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world.

Dublin is a popular shopping spot for both Irish people and tourists. Dublin city centre has several shopping districts, including Grafton Street, Henry Street, Stephen's Green Shopping Centre, Jervis Shopping Centre, and the newly refurbished Ilac Shopping Centre (all popular meeting-places for decades). On Grafton Street, the most famous shops include Brown Thomas and its sister shop BT2, being akin to Bloomingdales in New York City, for example. Brown Thomas also contains "mini-stores" such as Hermès, Chanel and Louis Vuitton on its Wicklow Street frontage. This is Dublin's equivalent to a Designer shopping street such as Bond Street in London or 5th Avenue in New York City.

Dublin city is the location of large department stores, such as Clerys on O'Connell Street, Arnotts on Henry Street, Brown Thomas on Grafton Street and Debenhams (formerly Roches Stores) on Henry Street.

A major €750m development for Dublin city centre has been given the green light. The development of the so-called Northern Quarter will see the construction of 47 new shops, 175 apartments and a four-star hotel. Dublin City Council gave Arnotts planning permission for the plans to change the area bounded by Henry Street, O'Connell Street, Abbey Street and Liffey Street. Following appeals to An Bord Pleanála, the scale of the development, which was to have included a sixteen-storey tower, was reduced. The redevelopment will also include 14 new cafes along with a 149-bed hotel. Prince's Street, which runs off O'Connell Street, will become a full urban street and pedestrian thoroughfare. Construction, which began in November 2008, led to the loss of 580 retail jobs. It is hoped that the Northern Quarter will open for business in 2013.

Since the mid 1990s, suburban Dublin has seen the completion of several modern retail centres. These include Dundrum Town Centre, the largest commercial centre in Europe (on the Luas Green Line), Blanchardstown Centre, The Square in Tallaght (on the Luas Red Line), Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Northside Shopping Centre in Coolock, and Pavilions Shopping Centre in Swords.

A north-south division has traditionally existed in Dublin for some time, with the dividing line being the River Liffey. The Northside is traditionally seen by some as working-class (with the exception of a few suburbs) while the Southside is seen as middle and upper middle class (again, with the exception of a few suburbs). One theory explaining this is that since much trade came in by ship on the river Liffey and docked on the North bank, this resulted in dockers and associated labourers making their homes on the Northside while the wealthier merchants and other professionals tended to make their offices and homes on the Southside.

A noted theory on the division dates back some centuries, certainly to the point when the Earl of Kildare built his residence on the then less-regarded Southside. When asked why he was building on the Southside, he replied "Where I go, fashion follows me", and he was promptly followed by most other Irish peers.

Dublin postal districts have odd numbers for districts on the Northside - for example, Phibsboro is in Dublin 7 - and even numbers for the Southside - for example, Sandymount and Ringsend both have postal code D4(Dublin 4). An exception to the rule is Dublin 8, which straddles the river.

Dublin is the primary centre of education in Ireland, with three universities and many other higher education institutions. There are 20 third-level institutes in the city. Dublin will be European Capital of Science in 2012.

The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland dating from the 16th century. Its sole constituent college, Trinity College, was established by Royal Charter in 1592 under Elizabeth I and was closed to Roman Catholics until Catholic Emancipation; the Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending it until 1970. It is situated in the city centre, on College Green, and has 15,000 students.

The National University of Ireland (NUI) has its seat in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated constituent university of University College Dublin (UCD), the largest university in Ireland with over 22,000 students; although it is located in Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, just outside the city boundary.

Dublin City University (DCU) is the most recent university and specialises in business, engineering, and science courses, particularly with relevance to industry. It has around 10,000 students.

The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) is a medical school which is a recognised college of the NUI, it is situated at St. Stephen's Green in the city centre.

The National University of Ireland, Maynooth, another constituent university of the NUI, is in neighbouring Co. Kildare, about 25 km (16 mi) from the city centre.

The Irish public administration and management training centre has its base in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and post graduate awards via the National University of Ireland and in some instances, Queen's University Belfast.

Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) is a modern technical college and is the country's largest non-university third-level institution; it specialises in technical subjects but also offers many arts and humanities courses. It is soon to be relocated to a new campus at Grangegorman. Two suburbs of Dublin, Tallaght and Blanchardstown have Institutes of Technology: Institute of Technology, Tallaght, and Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown. Portobello College has its degrees conferred through the University of Wales.

The National College of Art and Design (NCAD) and Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (DLIADT) support training and research in art, design and media technology.

Dublin Business School (DBS) is Ireland's largest private third level institution with over 9,000 students. The college is located on Aungier Street.

The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also based in Dublin.

The Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, is based on Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin 2. The Institute of European Affairs is also in Dublin.

The City of Dublin is the area administered by Dublin City Council, but the term normally refers to the contiguous urban area which includes the adjacent local authority areas of Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. Together the four areas form the traditional County Dublin. This area is sometimes known as 'Urban Dublin' or the 'Dublin Metropolitan Area'.

The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 505,739 at the census of 2006. At the same census, the County Dublin population was 1,186,159, and that of the Greater Dublin Area 1,661,185. The city's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the CSO that it will reach 2.1 million by 2021. Today, approximately 40% of the population of the Republic of Ireland live within a 100 km (62 mi) radius of the city centre.

Dublin has a long history of emigration that continued into the early 1990s. Since then there has been net immigration and Dublin now has a significant population of immigrants. Foreign nationals in the city are primarily young and single and the greatest numbers come from the European Union, especially the United Kingdom, Poland and Lithuania. There is also a considerable number from outside Europe, particularly China, Nigeria, Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand. 10% of the Republic of Ireland's population is now made up of foreign nationals, and Dublin is home to a greater proportion of new arrivals than other parts of the country - for example, 60% of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin even though less than 40% of the overall population live in the Greater Dublin Area.

Dublin has been at the centre of Ireland's phenomenal economic growth over the last 10-15 years, a period (often of double-digit growth) referred to as the Celtic Tiger years. Living standards in the city have risen dramatically, although the cost of living has also soared. In 2008, Dublin was listed as the fifth-richest city in the world. According to one source, Dublin is now the worlds 16th most expensive city (8th most expensive city in Europe, excluding Russian cities). It was also listed as the third most expensive city in the world in which to live.However, it has the second highest wages for a city in the world, ahead of both New York City and London, though behind Zürich.

Historically, brewing has probably been the industry most often associated with the city: Guinness has been brewed at the St. James's Gate Brewery since 1759. Since the advent of the Celtic Tiger years, however, a large number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies have located in Dublin and the Greater Dublin Area. For example, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, PayPal, Yahoo! and Pfizer (among others) now have European headquarters and/or operational bases in the city and its suburbs. Intel and Hewlett-Packard have large manufacturing plants in Leixlip, County Kildare, 15 km (9 mi) to the west.

Banking, finance and commerce are also important in the city - the IFSC alone handles over €1 trillion a year. Many international firms have established major headquarters in the city (eg. Citibank, Commerzbank). Also located in Dublin is the Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX).

The economic boom years have led to a sharp increase in construction, which is now also a major employer, though, as of 2007, unemployment is on the rise as the housing market has begun to see supply outstrip demand. Redevelopment is taking place in large projects such as Dublin Docklands, Spencer Dock and others, transforming once run-down industrial areas in the city centre. Dublin City Council seems to now have loosened the former restrictions on "high-rise" structures. The tallest building, Liberty Hall, is only 59.4 m (194.9 ft) tall; already under construction in the city is Heuston Gate, a 117 m (384 ft) building (134 m including spire). The 120 m (394 ft) Britain Quay Tower and the 120 m (394 ft) Point Village Watchtower have been approved. Construction has started on the latter. Also the U2 Tower will be the tallest building on the Island of Ireland when it is finished.

In 2005, around 800,000 people were employed in the Greater Dublin Area, of whom around 600,000 were employed in the services sector and 200,000 in the industrial sector. Dublin is one of the constituent cities in the Dublin-Belfast corridor region which has a population of just under 3 million.

Economic growth is expected to slow in the coming years, with the Irish central bank predicting medium-term growth rates of around 3–5%. While this represents a slowdown relative to the early Celtic Tiger years, it is still stronger than growth in most other wealthy countries.

Dublin is also the main hub of the country's road network. The M50 motorway (the busiest road in Ireland), a semi-ring road runs around the south, west and north of the city, connecting the most important national primary routes in the state that fan out from the capital to the regions. As of 2008, a toll of €2 applies on what is called the West-Link, two adjacent concrete bridges that tower high above the River Liffey near the village of Lucan. The West-Link Toll Bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system in August 2008, with a three-tiered charge system based on electronic tags and car pre-registration.

To complete the ring road, an eastern bypass is also proposed for the city of Dublin. The first half of this project is the Dublin Port Tunnel which opened in late 2006 and mainly caters to heavy vehicles. The plan to build the eastern bypass around Dublin has been effectively shelved by the Department of Transport as there are no funds available for the expected €1 billion project. The capital is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs roughly around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs largely along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canals, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal, as well as the North and South Circular Roads.

Dublin is served by an extensive network of nearly 200 bus routes which serve all areas of the city and suburbs. The majority of these are controlled by Dublin Bus ( Bus Átha Cliath ) which was established in 1987 , but a number of smaller companies have begun operating in recent years. Dublin Bus had 3408 staff and 1067 buses providing over half a million journeys per weekday in 2004. Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most services. Certain routes (particularly Xpresso) use a different fare system.

The Dublin Suburban Rail network is a system of five rail lines serving mainly commuters in the Greater Dublin Area, though some trains go even further to commuter towns such as Drogheda and Dundalk. One of these is an electrified line that runs along Dublin Bay and is known as the Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) line. A two-line light rail/tram network called the Luas opened in 2004 and has proved popular in the (limited) areas it serves, although the lack of a link between the two lines is widely criticised. Five new luas lines are planned, the last of which will be opened in 2014, with the two existing lines set to be joined up by 2012.

There are plans to begin building work on the Dublin Metro (subway / underground) system set out in the Irish government's 2005 Transport 21 plan within the next few years. Although not confirmed, it is believed that the metro will be fully segregated from all traffic which will mean it will not disrupt traffic when in operation, unlike an on-street Luas Tram or the DART. The Metro North will bring rail access to areas and institutions currently lacking it, such as the Mater Hospital, Drumcondra (Croke Park, inter-city and suburban rail stop), Dublin City University, Ballymun, Swords and Dublin Airport. The Metro West will serve the large suburbs of Tallaght, Clondalkin and Blanchardstown.

Dublin is at the centre of Ireland's transport system. Dublin Port is the country's busiest sea port and Dublin Airport is the busiest airport on the island.

Dublin is the centre of both media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telephone companies having their headquarters there. Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ) is Ireland's national state broadcaster, and has its main offices and studios in Donnybrook, Dublin. Fair City is the broadcaster's capital-based soap, located in the fictional Dublin suburb of Carraigstown. TV3, Channel 6, City Channel and Setanta Sports are also based in Dublin. Dublin is home to national commercial radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, as well as local stations. The main infrastructure and offices of An Post and telecommunications companies, such as the former state telephone company Eircom, as well as mobile/cellular operators Meteor, Vodafone and O2 are all located in the capital. Dublin is also the headquarters of important national newspapers such as The Irish Times and Irish Independent.

The City is governed by Dublin City Council (formerly called Dublin Corporation), which is presided over by the Lord Mayor of Dublin, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in the Mansion House. Dublin City Council is based in two major buildings. Council meetings take place in the headquarters at Dublin City Hall, the former Royal Exchange taken over for city government use in the 1850s. Many of its administrative staff are based in the Civic Offices on Wood Quay.

The City Council is a unicameral assembly of 52 members, elected every five years from Local Election Areas. The party with the majority of seats (or a coalition of parties who form a majority) decides who sits on what committee, what policies are followed, and who becomes Lord Mayor. Chaired by the Lord Mayor, the Council passes an annual budget for spending on housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, planning, etc. The Dublin City Manager is responsible for the implementation of decisions of the City Council.

The current ruling coalition, after the 2004 local elections, is the Democratic Alliance, made up of Labour, Fine Gael, and the Greens. Fianna Fáil, Sinn Féin, the Progressive Democrats and three non-party councillors act as opposition. The current Lord Mayor is Eibhlin Byrne, who was elected on 30 June 2008.

In 2008, the national government announced plans for local government reform, with the biggest change being plans for an elected Mayor of Dublin with executive powers. The plan also includes local plebiscites, petition rights, participatory budgeting and city meetings.

The national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas, consists of the President of Ireland and two houses, Dáil Éireann (Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (Senate). All three are based in Dublin. The President of Ireland lives in Áras an Uachtaráin, the former residence of the Governor-General of the Irish Free State in the city's largest park, Phoenix Park. Both houses of the Oireachtas meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on the south side. The building has been the home of Irish parliaments since the creation of the Irish Free State on 6 December 1922.

The Government Buildings houses the Department of the Taoiseach, the Council Chamber (used for the weekly Cabinet meetings), the Department of Finance and the Office of the Attorney General. It consists of a main building (completed 1911) with two wings (completed 1921) and was designed by Thomas Manley Dean and Sir Aston Webb as the Royal College of Science. In 1921 the House of Commons of Southern Ireland met here. Given its location next to Leinster House, the Irish Free State government took over the two wings of the building to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology (part of UCD) until 1989. Both it and Leinster House, meant to be a temporary home of parliament, became permanent homes.

The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland are in College Green.

Dublin enjoys a maritime temperate climate characterised by mild winters, cool summers, and a lack of temperature extremes with moderate rainfall. However, contrary to popular belief, Dublin does not experience as high rainfall as the west of Ireland, which receives over twice that of the capital city. Dublin has fewer rainy days, on average, than London. The average maximum January temperature is 8 °C, the average maximum July temperature is 19 °C. The sunniest months, on average, are May and June. The wettest months, on average, is December with 76 mm of rain. The driest month is February, with 50 mm. The total average annual rainfall (and other forms of precipitation) is 732.7 mm, lower than Sydney, New York City and even Dallas.

Due to Dublin's northerly latitude, it experiences long summer days, around 17 hours of daylight between official sunrise and sunset times for the longest day of the year in June and short winter days, as short as 7 and a half hours between official sunrise and sunset times for the shorest day of the year in December. These are lengthened slightly when you take Dawn and Dusk into consideration. In summer, Dawn can come as early as 04:00 before the official sunrise time of 04:56 on the longest day of the year. Dusk is lengthened also, sometimes up to 23:00 after the sun has set just before 22:00 on the longest day of the year. This is due to the fact that the sun always sets in the west and for Ireland, this is the Atlantic Ocean. Generally, areas which lie at the edge of time zones on coastal positions have a longer dawn and dusk than those at the centre and which share land borders.

Like the rest of Ireland it is relatively safe from common natural disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes and tsunamis.

Strong winds from Atlantic storm systems ("windstorms") can affect Dublin, though usually less severe than other parts of Ireland. Severe winds are most likely during mid-winter, but can occur anytime, especially between October and February. During one of the stormiest periods of recent times, a gust of 151 km/h (94 mph) was recorded at Casement Aerodrome on 24 December 1997.

The city is not noted for its temperature extremes due to its mild climate. Typically, the coldest months are December, January and February. Temperatures in summer in recent years have been rising to substantially above average figures, e.g. 31 °C in July 2006, over 12 °C higher than the average maximum. Recent heat waves include the European heat wave of 2003 and European heat wave of 2006.

The main precipitation in winter is rain. The city can experience some snow showers during the months from October to May, but lying snow is uncommon (on average, only 4.5 days). Hail occurs more often than snow (on average, around 9.5 days), and is most likely during the winter and spring months. Another rare type of weather is thunder and lightning, most common in late summer - though still only averages 4.1 days per year.

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University College Dublin

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University College Dublin (UCD) (Irish: An Coláiste Ollscoile, Baile Átha Cliath) - formally known as University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin (Irish: An Coláiste Ollscoile, Baile Átha Cliath - Ollscoil na hÉireann, Baile Átha Cliath) is Ireland's largest university, with over 1,300 faculty and 17,000 students. It is located in Dublin, capital of Ireland.

Descended from the body founded in 1854 as the Catholic University of Ireland with John Henry Newman as the first rector, re-formed in 1880 and chartered in its own right in 1908, today the university is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland. The Universities Act, 1997 renamed the university as National University of Ireland, Dublin, and a Ministerial Order of 1998 renamed the university as University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin.

Originally located in Dublin city centre, most of the university's faculties have since been relocated to a 148 hectares (365 acre) park campus at Belfield, four kilometres to the south of the centre of Dublin city.

The university can trace its history to the institution founded in 1854 as the Catholic University of Ireland, was established as UCD in 1880 under the auspices of the Royal University, and received its charter in 1908.

In the years following the Catholic Emancipation in Ireland a movement led by Paul Cullen attempted to make higher-level education accessible to Irish Catholics taught by fellow-Catholics for the first time. The Anglican Trinity College Dublin still imposed a religious test, though Catholics had studied there since the 1780s. As a result of these efforts a new Catholic University of Ireland was opened in 1854 and John Henry Newman was appointed as its first rector. Initially only seventeen students enrolled, the first of these being the grandson of Daniel O’Connell.

As a private university the Catholic University was never given a royal charter, and so was unable to award recognized degrees and suffered from chronic financial difficulties. Newman left the university in 1857 and it subsequently went into a serious decline. This trend was reversed in 1880 with the establishment of the Royal University of Ireland. The Royal Universities charter entitled all Irish students to sit the Universities examinations and receive its degrees. Although in many respects the Catholic University can be viewed as a failure, the future University College inherited substantial assets from it including a successful medical school (Cecilia Street) and two beautiful buildings, Newman House on St Stephen's Green and the adjoining University Church.

In order to avail of the benefits of the Royal University of Ireland arrangement, the Catholic University was re-formed as University College, Dublin. The college rapidly attracted many of the best students and academics in Ireland including Gerard Manley Hopkins and James Joyce and quickly began to outperform the other three colleges in the Royal University system - in the fifteen years before the establishment of the National University the number of first class distinctions in Arts awarded by the Royal University to University College was 702 compared with a total of 486 awarded to the combined Queen's Colleges of Belfast, Galway and Cork. Many of the college’s staff and students during this period would later contribute substantially to the formation and development of the future Irish state, the most famous being Francis Skeffington, Pádraig Pearse, Hugh Kennedy, Eamon de Valera, Eoin MacNeill, Kevin O’Higgins, Tom Kettle, James Ryan, Douglas Hyde and John A. Costello.

In 1908, the Royal University was dissolved and a new National University of Ireland founded to replace it. This new University was brought into existence with three constituent University Colleges - Dublin, Galway and Cork. By this time the college campus consisted of a number of locations in and around St Stephens Green in Dublins city centre, the main sites being Earlsfort Terrace, Cecilia Street, College of Science Merrion Street, and Newman House on St Stephen's Green.

In 1913 in response to the formation of the Ulster Volunteer Force (viewed as a threat to the Home Rule movement) Eoin MacNeill, professor of early Irish history, called for the formation of an Irish nationalist force to counteract it. The Irish Volunteers were formed later that year and MacNeill was elected its Chief-of-staff. At the outbreak of the First World War in view of the Home Rule Act 1914 the majority of the volunteers opted to support the British war effort, including many UCD staff and students. Many of those who opposed this move later participated in the Easter Rising.

In this way UCD was a reflection of the Irish nationalist community in general, with several staff and students participating in the rising, such as Patrick Pearse, Thomas MacDonagh, Michael Hayes and James Ryan, and a smaller number, including Tom Kettle and Willie Redmond, fighting for the British in World War I during the same period.

Many UCD staff, students and alumni fought in the Irish War of Independence that followed the rising. Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty four UCD graduates joined the government of the new Irish Free State. It is notable that Dáil Éireann (Irish Parliament) was located in UCD's Earlsfort Terrace campus from 1919 to 1922, when they moved to their current location in Leinster House.

The university's graduates have since had a large impact on Irish political life - four of the eight Presidents of Ireland and six of the eleven Irish Taoisigh have been either former staff or graduates. Of the fifteen current members of the Irish cabinet, nine are former UCD students.

By the early 1940s the College had become the largest third level institution in the state. In an effort to cope with the increased numbers unsuccessful attempts were made to expand the existing city centre campus. It was finally decided that the best solution would be to move the College to a much larger greenfield site outside of the city centre and create a modern campus university. This move started in the early 1960s when the faculty of science moved to the new 1.4 km² (365 acre) park campus at Belfield in a suburb on the south side of Dublin. The Belfield campus has since developed into a complex of modern buildings and inherited Georgian town houses, accommodating most of the colleges of the University as well as its student residences and numerous leisure and sporting facilities. One of UCD's previous locations, the Royal College of Science in Merrion Street is now the location of the renovated Irish Government Buildings, where the office of the Taoiseach (prime minister) is located. University College Dublin also had a site in Glasnevin for much of the last century, the Albert Agricultural College, the southern part of is now where Dublin City University is, the northern part is where Ballymun town is located.

Under the Universities Act, 1997, University College Dublin was established as a constituent university within the National University of Ireland framework.

In April 2006, the University announced an ambitious building and redevelopment plan of its Belfield campus. The new developments include the redevelopment and expansion of the Newman Building, the James Joyce Library, the Science Complex (which will be transformed at a cost of €300 million) and an extension to the Student Centre (including a new swimming pool, debating chamber and theatre). In addition a new Gateway centre will be built at the north end and main entrance to the Belfield campus that will include a welcome centre, an art house cinema, an exhibition centre, hotel and conference facilities, office space for campus companies, some retail space and new student residences (with space for an extra 3,000 students). The whole plan is currently budgeted at a cost of over €800 million.

In May 2006 it was announced that Universitas 21 accepted the university as a member.

The University consists of five colleges, their associated schools (35 in total) and eighteen research institutes and centres. Each college also has its own Graduate School, for postgraduates. Among the most prominent is the triple accredited Smurfit School of Business and the noted School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering.

At the beginning of the 2005/2006 academic year, UCD introduced the Horizons curriculum, which completely semesterised and modularised all undergraduate programmes for incoming first years. Previously, new students chose from a specific set of subjects in their individual programmes. Under the Horizons curriculum, new undergraduate students have greater choice in what exactly they study in their programme. Under the new curriculum, students choose ten modules from their specific subject area and two other modules, which can be chosen from any other programme across the entire University (this applies in the majority of programmes, however some exceptions, as in Arts Omnibus and Business & Law, can apply). For example, a student studying Stage 1 Commerce as his primary degree programme can also choose one module (or two) from the Stage 1 Law programme (subject to space availability, timetable constraints and so on).

The university is consistently ranked as one of the two best universities in the Republic of Ireland, along with Trinity College Dublin, on worldwide metrics.

Among its most accomplished alumni and faculty are four of the eight former presidents of Ireland and five of the ten former taoisigh (Irish prime ministers). Examples of other well known UCD alumni include writers (e.g. James Joyce, Flann O'Brien, Joseph Skelly and Roddy Doyle), actors (e.g. Dermot Morgan, Gabriel Byrne and Brendan Gleeson), film directors (e.g. Neil Jordan and Jim Sheridan), businessmen (e.g. Tony O'Reilly and Denis O'Brien), sportspeople (e.g. Brian O'Driscoll and Michelle Smith) and politicians (e.g. V V Giri and Eoin MacNeill).

The University is a leading research centre within Ireland with a research income of €114.7 million during 2007/8. UCDs research community of approximately one thousand faculty members, one thousand post doctoral researchers and two thousand PhD students work in the various schools and research institutes of the University.

The most prominent university-related company is the IE Domain Registry; many of the university's academics continue to sit on the board of directors. The university originally gained control of the .ie domain in the late 1980s.

The students' union, UCDSU in the college has been an active part of campaigns run by the National Union, USI, and has played a highly significant role in the life of the college since its foundation in 1974.

The Union has also taken significant stances on issues of human rights that have hit the headlines in Ireland and around the world, particularly in becoming the first institution in the world to implement a ban of Coca-Cola products in Student Union controlled shops on the basis of alleged human and trade union rights abuses in Colombia.

All full and part time undergraduate and postgraduate students of UCD are members of the Students' Union, whether they want to be or not, and are charged a flat fee for this involuntary membership, which all students must pay, regardless of their financial circumstances. Even when a student is deemed by the government to be on a low enough income to not pay the college "registration fee", they must still pay the Student Union fee, which increases every year, if a student refuses to pay this, they are not permitted to proceed to the next year.

The Union's main Governing Body is the Union Council which meets every two weeks during term. Council membership consists of 180+ seats for Class Representatives, ten directly elected officers of the Union Executive and five Executive officers elected by Union Council at its first meeting each year. Five officers of the Union Executive are sabbatical officers and are involved in the day to day running of the union. Their term commences on the 1st of July in the year of their election and lasts for twelve months. Sabbatical elections take place in late February of each year. Sabbatical officers are usually students who are in the second year of their degree who have decided to take a year out. To date, students from Arts, Social Science and Law have predominated in holding sabbatical positions.

There are currently over fifty student societies in the university. They cater for many interests ranging from large-scale party societies such as Arts Soc, Commerce and Economics Society ,Qsoc,, and B&L,. There are many religious groups such as the Christian Union and the Islamic Society, a television station Campus Television Network, academic-oriented societies like the Classical Society, Filmsoc and everything in between, including such great charities as St. Vincent de Paul, UCDSVP. All Irish political parties are represented on campus including Young Fine Gael, Ogra Fianna Fáil, The Socialist Party, The Socialist Workers Party, Sinn Féin, The Green Party, The Progressive Democrats and UCD Labour Youth. The college has two debating unions. The largest and oldest student society is the Literary and Historical Society, which is currently in its 154rd session. The UCD Law Society is the second debating society, aside from debating it also acts as a class, academic and professional development society. The UCD Medical Society is now entering it's 99th Session is another class and professional development society. Away from politics and debating the UCD Dramsoc is the university drama society, it is noted for an active membership and a number of notable alumni. The university also has a successful sinfonia called University College Dublin Symphony Orchestra.

UCD has very strong sporting traditions and a very successful competitive record in a great range of sports. The most successful clubs during 2005/2006 were the Senior Hurling team (winners of the Dublin County Championship), the Senior Hockey team (winners of the Leinster Senior Cup), the Senior Basketball team (University Championship winners), the Ladies Volleyball team (which won the University Championships and the English Student Cup), the Under-20 Rugby team (which won a league and cup double), the table tennis team (which won the Irish Universities Championships for the 7th year in a row), the Soccer teams (winning a variety of cups and leagues), the Senior Men's Cricket Team (Varsity Plate Winners) and the Ultimate Frisbee Open Team (winners of Div 2 UK Nationals).

The most successful clubs in 2006/2007 were the Table Tennis Club (Irish Universities Champions for the 8th year in a row, Leinster Cup Champions & SuperLeague Champions, qualifying for the ETTU European Cup), the Fencing Club (Intervarsity winners 5th year in a row, Colours winners 10th year in a row, Darius Vasseghi Team Foil Cup winners, Trinity Team Cup Winners) and the Cricket Club (joint inter-varsity winners).

The Belfield campus is home to some of the best sports facilities in Ireland. These include the national hockey stadium (which has previously hosted the Women's Hockey World Cup Finals and the Men's Hockey European Championship Finals), a full size athletics track, two other stadia (one for rugby and one for soccer), one of the largest fitness centres in the country, squash courts, tennis courts, an indoor rifle range, over twenty sports pitches (for rugby, soccer and gaelic games), an indoor climbing wall and two large sports halls. It is hoped that a swimming pool will be added before 2010. There are currently over fifty sports clubs in UCD. These cater for archery to windsurfing and just about everything in between. Probably the three largest and most successful clubs are the soccer club (currently the only university team to compete in the top division of the national league in Western Europe), the rugby club (currently playing in the AIB League Division 1) and the Gaelic Sports club.

The University hosted the IFIUS World Interuniversity Games in October 2006.

The university has two student papers, the broadsheet The University Observer and the tabloid College Tribune. Both papers are usually published on a fortnightly basis throughout the academic year.

The University Observer won the Newspaper of the Year award at the National Student Media Awards in April 2006, an accolade it has achieved many times. Founded in 1994, its first editors were Pat Leahy and comedian Dara Ó Briain. Many figures in Irish journalism have held the position of editor including The Irish Times deputy news editor Roddy O'Sullivan, The Sunday Business Post political correspondent Pat Leahy, AFP business reporter Enda Curran, Sunday Independent journalist Daniel McConnell, RTÉ News reporter Samantha Libreri and TV researcher Alan Torney. The efforts of its staff were noted by the prestigious Guardian Student Media Awards with a nomination for "Best Newspaper", the first Irish student publication to receive such recognition. In 2001, in addition to several Irish National Student Media Awards, the University Observer under McConnell and Curran took the runner up prize for "Best Publication" at the Guardian Student Media Awards in London. To date, The University Observer has won no fewer than 29 Irish Student Media Awards.

The main sections within the paper are: campus, national and international news, comment, opinion and sport. In addition, each edition includes a pullout arts and culture supplement called O-Two, with music interviews, travel, fashion and colour pieces. The University Observer is funded by the UCD Students' Union, but its content remains editorially independent, barring one 'Union Page' per issue.

The The College Tribune was founded in 1988, with the assistance of noted political commentator Vincent Browne, then an evening student in the college, who noted the lack of an independent media outlet for students and the college in general. Financially, it is supported by commercial advertising in the paper and is completely independent of college and union authorities. Former editors include Conor Lally, Crime Correspondent of the Irish Times, The Sunday Times journalist Richard Oakley, Sunday Tribune reporter Eoghan Rice, Paul Lynch, also of the Sunday Tribune, Irish Independent soccer correspondent Daniel McDonnell, and brothers Gary and Fergus O'Shea, both now in the Irish Sun, who were editors in 1996-97 and 2001-02 respectively.

Other past contributors include Dave Kelly, now rugby correspondent with the Irish Independent and Katherine Smyth now an Associate Producer with BBC Current Affairs. The College Tribune was tied to the national Sunday Tribune through its connections with Vincent Browne, but such links ended in 1999. The Tribune has also been distinguished on several occasions at national student media awards, particularly in sportswriting, where it has a strong tradition. The paper won the Student Newspaper of the Year at the USI/Irish Independent media awards in 1996. The then editor, Conor Lally, won Student Journalist of the Year in 1996. Tribune stalwart Peter Lahiff was a recipient of a Guardian Award for Diversity in 2003, the only Irish-based recipient of any Guardian award to date.

College Tribune sections include news, features, opinion, music, film, sport and colour writing, and it is famous for the launch of the satirical page The Evil Gerald, a 'paper within a paper'. The Gerald was succeeded by The Turbine in 2003, and they have featured such satirical stories as the Provisional IRA dropping its pursuit of a United Ireland in favour of occupation of the Isle of Man, and Osama Bin Laden stealing the Magic Door from Bosco which allowed him access to anywhere in the world.

UCD also has a student radio station, Belfield FM, broadcasting at selected times throughout the academic year across the campus on 101.3 FM and online at the station's website. The station is funded by the students' union and has nurtured current RTE presenters Ryan Tubridy and Rick O'Shea.

At the beginning of the academic year 2005-2006, the creation of a student television station, titled Campus Television Network (CTN) was announced. The station began creating programmes in November 2006 and distributing them online, at its old website, and across the campus in the student bars and student centre. CTN does not actually broadcast any shows themselves, either through the college network or via traditional analogue or satellite methods, rather it allows downloads and viewing of programmes on their website and distributes DVDs to on campus venues. It currently produces a variety of shows from their entertainments show 'Ent...This!' to their fashion shows 'Nu Look' and 'Slick'. CTN can be viewed on its new website at www.ctn.ie.

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University of Dublin

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The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin (since the 19th century), located in Dublin, Ireland, was effectively founded when in 1592, Queen Elizabeth I issued a charter for Trinity College, Dublin as "the mother of a university" - this date making it Ireland's oldest operating university. This is one of the seven ancient universities in the English speaking world and the only one outside the present United Kingdom.

Unlike the universities of Oxford and of Cambridge, after which the University of Dublin was modelled and both of which comprise several constituent colleges, there is just one Dublin college: Trinity College. Thus the designations "Trinity College Dublin" and "University of Dublin" are usually synonymous for practical purposes.

Trinity College Dublin is consistently ranked top in Ireland in certain global surveys - for example, the Times Higher Education Supplement placed the university 49th in the world (no other university from the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland appeared within the top 100).

The University of Dublin is a member of Irish Universities Association and the Coimbra Group, a network of leading European universities.

The University of Dublin may have been modelled on University of Oxford and University of Cambridge in the form of a collegiate university, though the establishing Letters Patent are not clear on this, Trinity College being named by the Queen as the mater universitas ("mother of the university"). As no other college was ever established, Trinity is the sole constituent college of the university and so Trinity College and the University of Dublin are for most practical purposes synonymous.

Queen Victoria issued Letters Patent in 1857 giving legal foundation to the Senate, and other authorities specific to the University - but the High Court held in 1888 that these dealt with "not the incorporation of the University of Dublin but of its Senate merely", the judge noting pointedly, referring to the founding of University College Dublin, that "The advisers of Queen Victoria knew how to incorporate a University when they meant to do so." In a remarkable High Court case of 1898, the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of Trinity were the claimants and the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin were among the defendants, and the court held that Trinity College and the University of Dublin "are one body".

However, the actual Statutes of the University and the College grant the University separate corporate legal rights to own property and borrow money and employ staff.

The "Board" in the above case however is the governing authority of Trinity College, so it would seem the University has also some degree of subsidiarity to the Board of the College, but this is countered by the role of visitors below.

At the First Public Commencements of the Academic Year the Senior Master Non-Regent is elected on the proposition of the Chancellor and the Provost. The Senior and Junior Proctors and the Registrar also make the Declaration which is appropriate to their respective offices.

In attendance also is usually the Registrar (who is responsible for legal and administrative matters) and The Junior and Senior Proctors (who present undergraduate and postgraduate candidates for degree commencement ceremonies). There is also a mace holder, the Chief Steward (responsible for College Security) or his deputy, who proceeds the Caput in a procession. Attendees stand while the procession progresses to the head of the room. These ceremonies are usually conducted in the Public Theatre/Examination Hall in the front square of Trinity College. Business is conducted in Latin and the Chief Steward verbally asks for each candidate to be put under scrutiny by saying "ad scrutinum" and the Doctors and Masters of the Senate in turn as distinct groups are then asked and consent to the degree being awarded to the candidate.

Under statutes the University Senate also elects two members to the University Council, chaired by the Provost and having the Senior Lecturer of the College as secretary, which governs academic matters.The current Provost of Trinity, John Hegarty, formerly Dean of Research, was elected in 2001. The franchise for the Provost election is the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of Trinity College. The University Council is in effect part of the College and not of the Senate and the Senate also elect members to the Library Committee which oversees Trinity College Library.

Traditionally, sports clubs also use the moniker "University" rather than "College". Some of the legal definitions and differences between college and University were discussed in the reform of the University and College in The Charters and Letters Patent Ammendment Bill which later became law but many of the College contributions to this were unclear or not comprehensive, possibly because it concerned an internal dispute within College as to outside interference and also as misconduct by College Authorities in overseeing voting which led to a visitors enquiry which in turn found problems with the voting procedures and ordered a repeat ballot.

The Visitors are also dealt with in Statutes and consist of the Chancellor of the University and one other person (usually a member of the Judiciary) and are a final appeal should anyone contest a decision of the Board or a procedure within College which has been appealed through Departmental School, Faculty, Council, and Board levels and is still contested. The visitors can therefore overturn a decision of the Board. Given the Chancellor of the University is one of two visitors and has the overall authority in difference of opinion between both visitors,it would seem the Board of the College has also some degree of subsidiarity to the University.

Other contributions on Trinity College can be found in submissions to the Oireachtas on Seanad reform since the University elect members to the national Senate of the Irish Parliament, Seanad Eireann (as distinct from the University senate) and in particular the verbal submission of the Provost.

In each academic year, the Senate holds not less than four Stated Meetings for the Conferring of Degrees; of these Meetings, which, according to ancient usage, are known in the University as "Public Commencements", two shall be held in Michaelmas Term, and two in Trinity Term.

The Senate also holds a Stated Meeting in Hilary Term for the purpose of transacting business of the Senate other than the conferring of degrees.

The University of Dublin is one of the seven ancient universities in the English speaking world and the top-ranked university in Ireland (in some international surveys). It is viewed as one of the world's leading universities and prides itself on its numerous historic achievements, including the development of the ISBN system, introducing clinical teaching into medical education and being the first university in Europe to award degrees in modern languages.

The idea of an Irish university was first proposed in the Middle Ages, and a university at Dublin was authorized by Pope Clement V in 1311. A Chancellor and staff were subsequently appointed and the university's students were granted royal protection, but this Catholic university came to an end with the English Reformation of the 1530s.

In 1592, a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College Dublin, which was then and remained the only college of a new University of Dublin. The Corporation of Dublin granted the university the lands of All Hallows monastery, one mile to the south east of the city walls. Two years later a few Fellows and students began to work in the new College, which then consisted of one small square. During the next fifty years, the community increased. Endowments, including great landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, books which formed the beginning of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed.

The eighteenth century was for the most part a peaceful era in Ireland, and the university shared its calm, though at the beginning of the period a few Jacobites and at its end a very small group of political radicals seriously perturbed the College authorities. During this century it was the university of the Protestant ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, viewed it benevolently and made generous grants for building. The first building of the new age was the Library, begun in 1712; then followed the Printing House and the Dining Hall; and during the second half of the century Parliament Square slowly emerged. The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained.

The nineteenth century was marked by important developments in the professional schools. The Law School was reorganised after the middle of the century. Medical teaching had been given in the College since 1711, but it was only after the establishment of the school on a sound basis by legislation in 1800 and under the inspiration of James Macartney, the brilliant and quarrelsome anatomist, that it was in a position to play its full part, with such teachers as Graves and Stokes, in the great age of Dublin medicine. The Engineering School was established in 1842 and was one of the first of its kind in the British Isles.

Queen Victoria issued letters patent in 1857 giving legal foundation to the Senate and other university authorities.

The School of Commerce was established in 1925, and the School of Social Studies in 1934. In 1962 the School of Commerce and the School of Social Studies amalgamated to form the School of Business and Social Studies. The School of Pharmacy was established in 1977.

In 1969 the several schools and departments were grouped into Faculties as follows: Arts (Humanities and Letters); Business, Economic and Social Studies; Engineering and Systems Sciences; Health Sciences (since October 1977 all undergraduate teaching in dental science in the Dublin area has been located in Trinity College); Science.

In 2000 the College embarked on a "reform" process with the intention of "restructuring" the six faculties into three. After five years of debate the restructuring had attained five Faculties and two "super schools" or "Vice Deaneries". The governing Authority had also eliminated a debt of about three million Euro. A new Governing Authority were then elected and another "restructuring" plan presented to them. This resulted in three faculties but had increased the debt to over five million.

In 1977 the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine was transferred to University College Dublin in an arrangement in which UCD also gained the sole Agriculture Faculty reference needed but Trinity College establish a dental Hospital.

The University of Dublin is today in the very centre of Dublin, as the city has moved eastwards. Its campus contains many buildings of architectural merit, especially from the 18th and 19th centuries. These include the Chapel and Examination Hall designed by Sir William Chambers and the Museum Building designed by the Irish architects Thomas Newenham Deane and Benjamin Woodward.

During its early life, the University of Dublin was a university exclusively for the Protestant Ascendancy class of Dublin - Elizabeth actually expressed the hope that it would help shape a more developed loyal ruling class. The 1637 statutes required that students entering college take an oath of allegiance to the protestant crown, the oath of supremacy, and a declaration against transubstantiation (a basic tenet of the Roman Catholic faith). Following the first steps of Catholic Emancipation, Roman Catholics were first admitted in 1793 (prior to Cambridge and Oxford). In 1873 all religious tests were abolished, except for the Divinity School. However, it was not until 1970 that the Roman Catholic Church, through the Archbishop of Dublin John Charles McQuaid, lifted its policy of excommunication for Roman Catholics who enrolled without special dispensation, at the same time as the university authorities allowed a Roman Catholic chaplain to be based in the university. Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to Oriel College, University of Oxford and St John's College, University of Cambridge.

Women were admitted to the University of Dublin as full members for the first time in 1904, thus making it the first ancient university in Ireland or Britain to do so. The first female professor was appointed in 1934.

Graduates of liberal degrees, i.e. non-professional such as Humanities or Science, receive an honours Bachelor of Arts degree after four years, but may receive an ordinary B.A. after three years' study. Bachelors of at least three years' standing may proceed to the degree of Master of Arts.

From 1975 onwards, University of Dublin degrees were also awarded to graduates at the colleges of the Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT); this practice continued until 1998 when DIT gained the ability to award degrees in its own right.

For more details see Dublin University (constituency).

The University has been represented since 1613 when James I granted it the right to elect two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the Irish House of Commons. When the Kingdoms of Ireland and Great Britain were joined with the Act of Union, which came into force in 1801, the University sent one MP to the British House of Commons at Westminster until 1832, when it was given another. It continued to elect two until the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922. The Government of Ireland Act 1920 provided for a House of Commons of Southern Ireland, for which the University was to elect four MPs as in Westminster, where University representatives were MPs and not Lords, University of Dublin seats were in the Dáil and not the Seanad. These were the only MPs to attend the opening of the House in 1921 since Sinn Féin candidates in the twenty-six counties were returned unopposed and took the other 128 of the 132 seats. Sinn Féin recognised their own Parliament determined by the Irish people as distinct to any continuation of British legislative rule under the British Government of Ireland Act. From 1923 to 1936, the University elected three TDs to sit in Dáil Éireann. Since the new Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the University has elected three Senators to Seanad Éireann.

The current representatives of the University are Ivana Bacik, Shane Ross and David Norris. Notable representatives have included Edward Gibson, W. E. H. Lecky, Edward Carson, Noel Browne, Conor Cruise O'Brien and Mary Robinson.

The franchise was originally restricted to the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of Trinity College. This was expanded in 1832 to include those who had received an M.A. and in 1918 all those who had received a degree from the University.

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Source : Wikipedia