Endangered Species

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Posted by kaori 02/27/2009 @ 22:01

Tags : endangered species, biodiversity, life sciences, sciences

News headlines
Judge tells feds to do better for Columbia salmon - Seattle Times
A judge is telling federal agencies they need to do more to help Columbia Basin salmon survive, or he will find the latest restoration plan in violation of the Endangered Species Act. By The Associated Press PORTLAND — A judge is telling federal...
To Protect Endangered Species: - Liberian Daily Observer
MONROVIA,Conservation International (CI) on Friday, May 15, 2009 launched a bush meat survey at Gobachop Market. Members of the Gobachop Market Bush Meat Sellers Association put hold to their normal business schedule to attend the program....
Endangered Species Day Educates for Protection - Environment News Service
WASHINGTON, DC, May 15, 2009 (ENS) - America celebrates Endangered Species Day today and all this weekend at parks, zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, museums, libraries and schools. Businesses, conservation organizations, religious organizations and...
Zoo World celebrates raises awareness of endangered animals (See ... - The News Herald
In almost every case, mankind is causing the extinction of these rare beasts either through poaching or by destroying their habitat for condos and homes, organizers said. "If we don't care about our endangered species right now, eventually,...
Federal officials reject coaster brook trout as endangered - MLive.com
(AP) -- Federal officials have decided against placing the coaster brook trout on the endangered species list, even though the fish has become increasingly rare after long flourishing in the upper Great Lakes. The US Fish and Wildlife Service on Monday...
Fish Story: Man Sued in SF Court For Allegedly Smuggling ... - SF Weekly
By Joe Eskenazi in Environment, Law & Order Is that an Asian Arowana in your pants or are you just happy to see us? That's not how court proceedings commenced in the case of United States vs. Bin Lin Huang -- but it could have....
Updated red-list: 192 birds are Critically-Endangered - Mongabay.com
New discovered Gorgeted Puffleg is already Critically Endangered. Photo by: Alex Cortes. Hawaii's Palila Loxioides bailleui jumps from Endangered to Critically Endangered. This species is the thirteenth Critically Endangered species in Hawaii....
Birds in the News 172 - ScienceBlogs
A California condor that was among the first six members of the endangered species released to the wild in 2003 at Pinnacles National Monument has died at the Los Angeles Zoo of complications from lead poisoning. Pinnacles wildlife biologist Jim...
Species Act Won't Be Used to Force Lower Emissions - Washington Post
By David A. Fahrenthold The federal bureaucracy that safeguards endangered species isn't equipped to tackle climate change, Interior Department officials said yesterday -- declining to protect Alaskan polar bears by cracking down on polluters in the...

Endangered species

The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that is critically endangered; three subspecies of tiger are already extinct.[1]

An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, or threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters. An endangered species is usually a taxonomic species, but may be another evolutionary significant unit. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has calculated the percentage of endangered species as 40 percent of all organisms based on the sample of species that have been evaluated through 2006. (Note: the IUCN groups all threatened species for their summary purposes.) Many nations have laws offering protection to conservation reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Only a few of the many species at risk of extinction actually make it to the lists and obtain legal protection. Many more species become extinct, or potentially will become extinct, without gaining public notice.

The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that endangered species not living. Many factors are taken into account when assessing the conservation status of a species; not simply the number remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, known threats, and so on. The IUCN Red List is the best known conservation status listing.

Internationally, 191 countries have signed an accord agreeing to create Biodiversity Action Plans to protect endangered and other threatened species. In the United States this plan is usually called a species Recovery Plan.

The more general term used by the IUCN for species at risk of extinction is threatened species, which also includes the less-at-risk category of vulnerable species together with endangered and critically endangered.

Under the Endangered Species Act in the United States, "endangered" is the more protected of the two categories. The Salt Creek tiger beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana) is an example of an endangered subspecies protected under the ESA.

In the United States alone, the “number of known species threatened with extinction is ten times higher than the number protected under the Endangered Species Act” (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 414). The US Fish and Wildlife Service as well as the National Marine Fisheries Service are held responsible for classifying and protecting endangered species, yet, adding a particular species to the list is a long, controversial process and in reality it represents only a fraction of imperiled plant and animal life (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 414).

Some endangered species laws are controversial. Typical areas of controversy include: criteria for placing a species on the endangered species list, and criteria for removing a species from the list once its population has recovered; whether restrictions on land development constitute a "taking" of land by the government; the related question of whether private landowners should be compensated for the loss of uses of their lands; and obtaining reasonable exceptions to protection laws.

Being listed as an endangered species can have negative effect since it could make a species more desirable for collectors and poachers. This effect is potentially reducible, such as in China where commercially farmed turtles may be reducing some of the pressure to poach endangered species.

Another problem with listing species is its effect of inciting the use of the "shoot, shovel, and shut-up" method of clearing endangered species from an area of land. Some landowners currently may perceive a diminution in value for their land after finding an endangered animal on it. They have allegedly opted to silently kill and bury the animals or destroy habitat, thus removing the problem from their land, but at the same time further reducing the population of an endangered species. The effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act, which coined the term "endangered species", has been questioned by business advocacy groups and their publications, but is nevertheless widely recognized as an effective recovery tool by wildlife scientists who work with the species. Nineteen species have been delisted and recovered and 93% of listed species in the northeastern United States have a recovering or stable population.

Currently, 1,556 known species in the world have been identified as endangered, or near extinction, and are under protection by government law (Glenn, 2006, Webpage). This approximation, however, does not take into consideration the number of species threatened with endangerment that are not included under the protection of such laws as the Endangered Species Act. According to NatureServe’s global conservation status, approximately thirteen percent of vertebrates (excluding marine fish), seventeen percent of vascular plants, and six to eighteen percent of fungi are considered imperiled (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 415-416). Thus, in total, between seven and eighteen percent of the United States’ known animals, fungi, and plants are near extinction (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 416). This total is substantially more than the number of species protected under the Endangered Species Act in the United States, which means numerous species are inching closer and closer toward extinction.

Even in the search to learn more about these species, many ecologists do not take into consideration the impact they leave on the environment and its inhabitants. It is apparent that the “quest for ecological knowledge, which is so critical for informing efforts to understand and conserve Earth’s biodiversity along with valued ecosystem goods and services, frequently raises complex ethical questions”, and there is no clear way to identify and resolve these issues. Environmentalists tend to focus on the whole ecological sphere instead of the welfare of individual animals. Focusing on such a broad view tends to diminish the value of each individual creature. “Biodiversity conservation is currently a principle goal for resource management of 11.5% of the world’s surface area.” Large portions of life occur outside these protected areas and must be taken into consideration if the conservation of endangered species is going to be effective.

In order to conserve the biodiversity of the planet, one must take into consideration the reasons why so many species are becoming endangered. “Habitat loss is the most widespread cause of species endangerment in the U.S., affecting 85% of imperiled species” (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 416). When an animal’s ecosystem is not maintained, they lose their home and are either forced to adapt to new surroundings or perish. Pollution is another factor that causes many species to become endangered, especially a large proportion of aquatic life. Also, overexploitation, disease (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 416), and climate change (Kotiaho et al., 2005, p. 1963) have led to the endangerment of several species.

However, the most important factor leading to the endangerment of the majority of wildlife in the world is the human impact on the species and their environment. “As human use of resources, energy, and space intensified over the past few centuries, the diversity of life has been substantially diminished in most parts of the world” (Ishwaran & Erdelen, 2006, p.179). Basically, as the human impact on the environment increases, the diversity of life decreases. Humans are constantly using the resources and space of other species for themselves, negatively impacting the survival rate of many creatures.

Humans have also set standards for which species they think should be saved and which species they find unimportant. For example, the coqui frog in Hawaii is so common that its “nocturnal singing” reduces the value of homes and prevents hotels from using rooms near forests. Hawaiians have proposed eliminating the frog, and several wildlife managers want to release a pathogen to kill the frogs (Minteer & Collins, 2005, p. 333). This example of the coqui frog demonstrates how humans have no consideration for the life of another species, and are more concerned about their own contentment and personal gain. The frog decreased the value of homes and lost business for several hotels, so the Hawaiians figured it was acceptable to get rid of the group of coqui frog living near them, without taking into consideration the environmental impact of destroying the species.

Another example where the human impact affected the welfare of a species was in the instance of non-native mute swans establishing themselves at Arrowhead Lake in Vermont. When the population of swans grew to eight birds, the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department decided to kill take action. Two swans were eventually killed, angering animal welfare organizations and people living near the lake (Minteer & Collins, 2005, p. 333). The case of the Arrowhead Lake swans demonstrates what one considers the natural environment based on human assumptions. Simply because the swans were not normally living there does not mean it is not part of their natural habitat, and there is certainly no reason for them to be destroyed because of human dissatisfaction. Yet another example of the human impact in the lives of endangered species is that of the Preble’s meadow jumping mouse.

Research has shown that the mouse is not taxonomically different from the Bear Lodge meadow jumping mouse and the US Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed removing the Preble’s mouse from the endangered species list based on this information (Minteer & Collins, 2005, p. 333). This example brings into consideration the role of science in determining the maintenance of a species. It brings into questions whether scientific evidence should be the only resource used to support conservation of biodiversity. A final example of the human impact on existing species is the issue of toe clipping in ecological research. While ecologists are doing research on different species to advance their knowledge of methods of conservation, they must take into consideration the impact they have on the wildlife they are studying.

Toe clipping “has been reported to result in a number of adverse effects on the animals, including inflammation and infection of the feet and limbs” (Minteer & Collins, 2005, p. 334). This example demonstrates how humans must take into consideration the wellbeing of the animal even before they perform research to help conserve the species. The human impact on species and their environments has many negative effects. It is important for humans to help maintain all species in the world and not deter their development.

Another example, supporting the conservation of endangered species as providers of products for human wellbeing, is the scrub mint. It has been found that the scrub mint contains an antifungal agent and a natural insecticide (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 418). Also, the deterioration of the bald eagle and the peregrine falcon “alerted people to the potential health hazards associated with the widespread spraying of DDT and other persistent pesticides” (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 418).

This serves as an example of how certain fish can serve as identifiers of environmental health and protect human life as well as other species. Finally, an example of species providing for scientific discoveries is the instance of the Pacific yew which “became the source of taxol, one of the most potent anticancer compounds ever discovered” (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 418-419). Endangered species could prove useful to human development, maintenance of biodiversity and preservation of ecosystems.

It is the goal of conservationists to create and expand upon ways to preserve endangered species and maintain biodiversity. Everyone should be a conservationist in some way. There are several ways in which one can aid in preserving the world’s species who are nearing extinction. One such way is obtaining more information on different groups of species, especially invertebrates, fungi, and marine organisms, where sufficient data is lacking.

For example, to understand the causes of population declines and extinction an experiment was conducted on the butterfly population in Finland. In this analysis, the butterflies’ endangered list classification, distribution, density, larval specificity, dispersal ability, adult habitat breadth, flight period and body size were all recorded and examined to determine the threatened state of each species. It was found that the butterflies’ distribution has declined by fifty-one and a half percent, and they have a severely restricted habitat. One example of specific butterflies who have a declining distribution rate are the Frigga’s Fritillary and Grizzled Skipper, who have been affected by habitat loss due to extensive draining of the bogs where they live (Kotiaho et al., 2005, p. 1963-1967). This experiment proves that when we know the causes of endangerment, we can successfully create solutions for the management of biodiversity.

Another way to help preserve endangered species is to create a new professional society dedicated to ecological ethics. This could help ecologists make ethical decisions in their research and management of biodiversity. Also, creating more awareness on environmental ethics can help encourage species preservation. “Courses in ethics for students, and training programs for ecologists and biodiversity managers” all could create environmental awareness and prevent violations of ethics in research and management (Minteer & Collins, 2005, p. 336). One final way in which one can conserve endangered species is through federal agency investments and protection enacted by the federal government. “Ecologists have proposed biological corridors, biosphere reserves, ecosystem management, and ecoregional planning as approaches to integrate biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic development at increasingly larger spatial scales” (Ishwaran & Erdelen, 2006, p.179).

One example of a federal mandated conservation zone is the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, the largest marine protected area in the world. The monument is essential to the preservation of underwater communities and overfished regions. Only researchers working in the area are permitted to fish, no corals may be removed, and the Department of Homeland Security will enforce restrictions on vessels passing through the waters via satellite imaging. The monument will serve as a home to an estimated seven thousand species, most of which cannot be found anywhere else in the world (Raloff, 2006, p. 92). This environmental monument demonstrates the fact that it is possible to create a safe environment for endangered species, as well as maintaining some of the world’s largest ecosystems.

Captive breeding is the process of breeding rare or endangered species in human controlled environments with restricted settings, such as wildlife preserves, zoos and other conservation facilities.

This technique has been used with great success for many species for some time, with probably the oldest known such instances of captive breeding being attributed to menageries of European and Asian rulers, a case in point being the Pere David's Deer. However, captive breeding techniques are usually difficult to implement for highly mobile species like some migratory birds (eg. cranes) and fishes (eg. Hilsa). Additionally, if the captive breeding population is too small, inbreeding may occur due to a reduced gene pool; this may lead to the population lacking immunity to diseases.

American bison skull heap. There were as few as 750 bison in 1890 from economic-driven overhunting.

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Endangered Species (Y&T album)

Endangered Species is the twelfth album by the band Y&T, and the second of two 'comeback' albums on the Music for Nations record label. (The first being 1995's Musically Incorrect).

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Endangered Species (H.A.W.K. album)

Endangered Species is the 5th solo album from Big Hawk, released posthumously. It features Slim Thug, Paul Wall, Lil' O, Big Pokey, Jimmy D & many more.

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Endangered Species (The Hardy Boys)

Endangered Species is a Hardy Boys novel, and the first of three books in the Operation:Phoenix series.

The Hardys head with their father to Africa, in search of a U.S customs agent who has disappeared suddenly. They soon realize they'll have to face poachers hunting endangered animals, smugglers escaping from the continent, and the death of their beloved father. The Hardys face their toughest investigation yet.

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Endangered Species (Flaw album)

Endangered Species cover

Endangered Species is the second album by Flaw. It was released on May 4, 2004.

As explained by vocalist Chris Volz, the fairly lengthy delay between the release of Through the Eyes and Endangered Species was the result of 18 months of touring and, sequentially, the band's desire to not hastily release an album without being happy with its contents.

After the breakup of the band, pre-production demos for most of the songs on the album, plus 7 unreleased tracks, were made available on the internet. They were quickly taken offline after Universal had words with the webmaster of the site that had illegally distributed the tracks (although the webmaster was allowed by the band to put the tracks online, he did not have the legal rights to do so).

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Endangered Species (eX-Girl album)

Endangered Species cover

Endangered Species is the fifth studio album by Japanese girl band eX-Girl. Unlike previous albums it was first released outside Japan, on Jello Biafra's Alternative Tentacles label (catalog number Virus 313). The line-up is credited as Kirilola (previously known as Kirilo), Chapple and Zorek, but some tracks feature previous band members Fuzuki (drums) and Keikos (guitar). Keikos later returned to the band after Zorek departed. As usual, the album was produced by the band's mentor and collaborator, Hoppy Kamiyama.

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Source : Wikipedia