Faye Dunaway

3.3951822916349 (1536)
Posted by pompos 04/09/2009 @ 13:11

Tags : faye dunaway, actors and actresses, entertainment

News headlines
Blu-ray Review: Three Days of the Condor - RopeofSilicon.com
His attempt to hide quickly finds him kidnapping Kathy (Faye Dunaway), a woman in the wrong place at the wrong time, but as far as Joe is concerned she certainly isn't the wrong woman. With a contract killer (Max von Sydow) looking to kill him,...
Hilary reimagines Bonnie - Metro Canada - Toronto
In the version in '67, with Faye Dunaway and Warren Beatty, they were already adults, but Bonnie and Clyde were actually teenagers. So they were very ahead of their time. They were rebels, you know?” Fox, The Wall Street Journal, HarperCollins — Rupert...
75 years on, La. town fetes Bonnie and Clyde mystique - KDBC
Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway played the duo in a 1967 blockbuster movie. A movie starring Hillary Duff, a $15 million independent production titled "The Story of Bonnie and Clyde," begins shooting in July. John Neal Phillips is a Dallas professor...
Russell Scott: What an Ass - Orlando Sentinel
The act has real gems, especially in an acting "class" based on great Faye Dunaway moments from such works as Chinatown, Mommie Dearest, and a surprise inclusion rating a prize for the show-off who can identify the film. Even so, the whole amounts to a...
Action Blu-Ray Round Up, May 19, 2009: 'Changing Lanes,' 'The ... - HollywoodChicago.com
In his frantic hunt for answers and in a desperate run for his life, Turner abducts photographer Kathy Hale (Faye Dunaway) eventually seducing her into helping him. Every twist leads Condor to the end of his nerves…and will take you to the edge of your...
Hilary Duff, Val Kilmer, Faye Dunaway Get Provincial - Artistdirect.com
Hilary Duff, Val Kilmer, Faye Dunaway, and Kris Kristofferson will all star in Provinces of Night. The film is based on a Southern Gothic novel authored by William Gay. It focuses on a rural Tennessee family and is currently shooting in Wilmington,...
Review: Don't criticize Cruise for 'Valkyrie'; 'True Blood' tasty ... - San Jose Mercury News
"3 Days of the Condor" on Blu-ray: Taut 1975 Sydney Pollack suspense thriller with CIA analyst Robert Redford on the run after everyone else in his office is murdered; with Faye Dunaway. "The Town That Was": Documentary about the 11 remaining residents...
DVD Review: 3 Days of the Condor [Blu-ray] - The Trades
Seeking refuge, he kidnaps the comely Kathy (Faye Dunaway), hiding out in her home and occasionally tying her up in the bathroom. This latter plot development is perhaps the most problematic, as there is certainly effort to toss some idiosyncrasies by...
Film: It's Faye Dunaway vs. Elvis-loving zombie in 'Flick' - Scripps News
By JOHN BEIFUSS, Scripps Howard News Service Hundreds of movies currently are making the rounds of domestic and international film festivals, but it's safe to say only one of them showcases Faye Dunaway in the role of a one-armed police detective from...
Valkyrie,' Terminator 2,' Bug's Life' among latest Blu-ray titles - Modesto Bee
After reporting the killings to the CIA, Turner begins to realize that there might be someone within the organization who wants him out of the way. Photographer Kathy Hale (Faye Dunaway) seems to be the only person he can trust. Or can he?...

Faye Dunaway

Faye Dunaway by David Shankbone.jpg

Dorothy Faye Dunaway (born January 14, 1941), known as Faye Dunaway, is an Academy Award-winning American actress. She has starred in a variety of films, from blockbusters such as The Towering Inferno and the camp classic Mommie Dearest, to the most critically acclaimed including Bonnie and Clyde, Chinatown, and Network. She received Academy Award nominations for Best Actress for her performances in Bonnie and Clyde and Chinatown, before winning the category with her 1976 performance in Network.

Dunaway was born in Bascom, Florida, the daughter of Grace April (née Smith), a homemaker, and John MacDowell Dunaway, Jr., a career army officer. She attended the University of Florida, Florida State University, and Boston University, but graduated from the University of Florida in theater. In 1962, Dunaway joined the American National Theater and Academy.

Dunaway appeared on Broadway in 1962 as the daughter of Thomas More in A Man for All Seasons. Her first screen role was in 1967 in The Happening. In 1967, she was in Hurry Sundown, but that same year, she gained the leading female role in Bonnie and Clyde opposite Warren Beatty, which earned her an Oscar nomination. She also starred in 1968 with Steve McQueen in the caper film The Thomas Crown Affair (and had a small role in the 1999 remake with Pierce Brosnan).

It was in the 1970s that she began to stretch her acting abilities in such films as Three Days of the Condor, Little Big Man, Chinatown, The Three/Four Musketeers, Eyes of Laura Mars, and Network, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress as the scheming TV executive Diana Christensen.

In the 1980s, although her performances did not waver, the parts grew less compelling. Dunaway would later blame Mommie Dearest (1981) for ruining her career as a leading lady. Some critics panned the movie, although the film grossed $19 million in its first release and was one of the top 30 grossing films of the year. The film was immediately embraced as a cult classic. "I was too good at Crawford," she was often quoted as saying. She played an alcoholic in Barfly (opposite Mickey Rourke). In a later movie, Don Juan DeMarco (1995), Dunaway co-starred with Johnny Depp and Marlon Brando.

Dunaway also starred in the 1986 made-for-television movie. Beverly Hills Madam opposite Melody Anderson, Donna Dixon, Terry Farrell and Robin Givens.

Dunaway won an Emmy for a 1994 role as a murderer in "It's All in the Game," an episode of the long-running mystery series Columbo.

She is a three-time Oscar nominee for Bonnie and Clyde, Chinatown, and Network, winning for the latter. She has won three Golden Globes, including for the television films Ellis Island (1984) and Gia (1998), and has been nominated for a Golden Globe ten times.

In 1996, she toured nationally with the stage play Master Class. The story about opera singer Maria Callas was very powerful and well received. Dunaway bought the rights to the Terrence McNally play, for possible film development.

In 2006, Dunaway played a character named Lois O'Neill in the sixth season of the popular crime drama CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. She served as a judge on the 2005 reality show The Starlet, which sought, American Idol-style, to find the next young actress with the potential to become a major star. In the spring of 2007, the direct-to-DVD movie release of Rain, based on the novel by V. C. Andrews and starring Dunaway, was released. In 2009 Dunaway stars in film The Bait by Polish film director and producer Dariusz Zawislak. The Bait is a contemporary version of a drama Balladyna by Polish 19th - century poet Juliusz Slowacki.

Dunaway has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard, which was awarded on October 2, 1996.

Dunaway has been romantically linked to a series of men ranging from the comedian Lenny Bruce to the actor Marcello Mastroianni. She has been married twice, from 1974 to 1979 to Peter Wolf, the lead singer of the rock group The J. Geils Band, and from 1984 to 1987 to Terry O'Neill, a British photographer. She and O'Neill have one child, Liam O'Neill (born 1980). In 2003, despite Dunaway's earlier claims that she had given birth to Liam, Terry revealed that Liam was adopted.

Dunaway is an adult convert to Roman Catholicism.

To the top



Supergirl (film)

Supergirlposter.jpg

Supergirl is a 1984 superhero film. It stars Helen Slater in her first motion picture role in the title role of the DC Comics superheroine Supergirl. Faye Dunaway (who received top billing) played the primary villain, Selena. The movie was a spin-off from the popular Superman film series which lasted from 1978 to 1987 starring Christopher Reeve. The movie also featured Marc McClure reprising his role as Jimmy Olsen.

The movie performed poorly at the box office and failed to impress critics and audiences. Helen Slater, however, was nominated for a Saturn Award for her strong performance by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films. The film does contain some expansions on the Superman movie mythology, such as taking the viewer into the Phantom Zone itself (in the first two Superman films, it was merely represented by a spinning black pane of glass). The story uses sorcery (a noted Superman weakness, but less commonly utilized than kryptonite) as a counter attack on Supergirl to great effect.

Released on video over the years by different companies, the film's first DVD release was on independent home video company Anchor Bay Entertainment in 2000 under license from StudioCanal. Warner Bros. recently acquired the rights to the film and reissued it on DVD late in 2006 to coincide with the reissues on DVD of the other Superman films. However, even though it is technically part of the same series of films as the ones produced between 1978 and 1987 with Christopher Reeve, it is not included in any of Warners' Superman-related 2006 box set DVD collections.

Kara Zor-El (Helen Slater) lives in an isolated community, a Kryptonian city called Argo City, in a pocket of trans-dimensional space. Zaltar (Peter O'Toole) allows Kara to see a unique item known as the Omegahedron, which he has borrowed without the knowledge of the city government, and which can infuse an artificial structure with life. She uses it under the tutelage of Zaltar to make a dragonfly-like creature; this creature breaches a window of the community and in the decompression that follows, the Omegahedron (which also powers the city) is sucked out into space. Kara follows it to Earth in an effort to recover it and save the city, which will die without it.

On Earth, the Omegahedron is recovered by Selena (Faye Dunaway), a would-be witch, who quickly realizes that it can be used to allow her to perform real magical spells. On the radio, Selena hears that Superman has just left on a peace-seeking mission to a galaxy several light years away. Kara, now dressed as Supergirl, arrives on Earth and discovers her powers. Following the path of the Omegahedron, she takes the name Linda Lee, identifies herself as the cousin of Clark Kent, and enrolls at an all-girls school. Supergirl and Selena are both enamored by Ethan, who works as a groundskeeper at the school. After Selena misuses the Omegahedron to make herself a "princess of Earth", she drugs Ethan with a potion to make him love her and serve as her consort. Supergirl rescues Ethan and breaks him of Selena's spell.

Supergirl and Selena repeatedly battle in various ways, until Selena uses her powers to put Supergirl in an "eternal void" known as the Phantom Zone. Here, stripped of her powers, she wanders the bleak landscape and nearly drowns in an oily bog. Yet she finds help in Zaltar, who has gone into self-imposed exile for losing the Omegahedron. Zaltar sacrifices his life to allow Supergirl to escape. Back on Earth, she regains her powers and defeats Selena. Ethan admits his love for Kara, but knows it is possible he may never see her again and understands she must save Argo City. The final scene shows Kara returning to a darkened Argo City, which promptly lights up again.

Helen Slater's natural hair color is dark; she dyed her hair blonde to match the comic book character.

Christopher Reeve was slated to have a cameo as Superman, but bowed out early on. Director Jeannot Szwarc said in the Superman documentary "You Will Believe..." that his involvement in this film would have given the feature higher credibility and he admitted he wished Reeve had made a contribution to the film's production. Szwarc also said that the film that was made was not the best of his intentions as he thought a lot of the magic was lost once Reeve declined. A publicity photo of him outfitted in Superman's uniform, however, did appear as a poster in Lucy's and Linda's shared dorm room.

Marc McClure makes his fourth of five appearances in the Superman film series.

Demi Moore auditioned for, and was cast as character Lucy Lane, but soon bowed out to make the film Blame It on Rio. Maureen Teefy was signed instead.

Upon gaining the rights for the film Superman, Alexander Salkind and his son, Ilya Salkind, also purchased the rights to the character of Supergirl, should any sequel or spin-off occur.

The original casting choices for the movie were Brooke Shields as Kara/Supergirl, Ilya Salkinds top choice, ultimately rejected by Alexander Salkind and Jeannot Szwarc who felt they wanted an actress akin to the female equivalent of Christopher Reeve. Ilya Salkind later admitted in an interview to promote the DVD release he felt that Shields was a better choice. Also Dudley Moore was offered $4million to play Zaltar, he turned the offer down but would work with the same producers and director the following year on Santa Claus The Movie. At Moore's suggestion Peter Cook was cast in the movie as Nigel. As noted Dolly Parton was a contender for the role of Selina, but DC Comics intervened, and Goldie Hawn and Jane Fonda turned the role down before Faye Dunaway accepted. John Travolta was approached to play Ethan, as was former Spider-Man actor Nicholas Hammond.

Although the Salkind duo financed the film completely on their own budget, Warner Bros. still lent a big hand in the process, as it originally owned the distribution rights to the film, and as its parent company of Warner Communications was now the whole owner of DC Comics, it shared in ownership of the copyright. The entire film was shot, edited and overlooked by Warner Bros. However, two weeks or so before the film's original summer 1984 premiere date, Warner Bros. dropped the film due to the disappointing performance of Superman III, both critically and financially.

Supergirl was then shelved for a few months, without distribution, until fledgling company TriStar Pictures picked it up for holiday release in November. The company decided to edit the picture, cutting it from 124 minutes to 105 minutes. The drastic changes were not only damaging to the film's original intention, but also hampered the performances of stars Faye Dunaway and Helen Slater.

Upon its release, critical reviews were mixed and the film disappointed its anticipation and flopped. Although it was still the #1 movie of the box office during its first weekend, the film ultimately only grossed $14 million in North America from a $35 million budget.

In 2002, Anchor Bay re-issued the 138 minute "director's cut" separately as well, which was only previously available through the 2-disc "Limited Edition" set.

Although the introduction to Anchor Bay's out-of-print "director's cut" DVD claims the longer version is the only cut to represent the vision of director Jeannot Szwarc, it has also been said the cut was prepared for television syndication as overseen by producer Ilya Salkind and not director Szwarc.

Aside from the stiff editing in the film's original U.S. version, scenes that were left unseen for many years involved moments of importance. To begin, the Argo City opening was longer, and contained certain lines of dialogue that supported elements that would be seen later in the story. The cut dialog also developed the characters and their background. In addition, the pacing was slower, digesting the action before introducing the next chapter of the film.

Another important scene not included in the final cut is known as the "Flying Ballet". As Supergirl lands on Earth, she is surprised to find herself capable of almost anything, especially flying. She can use super-strength to crack rocks into dust, and use heat vision to help flowers grow. This scene establishes that she is very much like her cousin, and that she possesses his same powers. The absence of this scene in the U.S. theatrical version created confusion in later scenes, as viewers simply saw Supergirl shoot out of the lake, and fly all around the world.

Scenes concerning Selena, Bianca, and Nigel were also trimmed. In the U.S. version, Selena's introduction was merely a few lines long when the Omegahedron lands on Earth, and Selena takes it for use of magic. The full introduction establishes Selena as an impatient witch, who is sick of being under her mentor and lover, Nigel, who is himself, a warlock. Later scenes not seen before the 2000 DVD release from Anchor Bay Entertainment, include Selena using the Omegahedron for the first time, and realizing that she has no control of herself when under its influence. Selena later throws a party for all her followers, and deleted material shows Nigel insulting Selena after being dismissed. Nigel then gets cozy with another party member, whom Selena pulls a vicious magical prank on.

These scenes and moments listed above show the characters' states of mind and their determinations, and dialog that later helped the movie make much more sense. Other scenes/moments, involve Linda Lee making a temporary home in the city of Midvale, Illinois, an extended version of the tractor sequence, in which the possessed machine runs amok on the Midvale streets, killing a civilian. Another cut scene was a clarification that proved Supergirl possessed her cousin's known vulnerabilities and limitations as well as his known superhuman powers: she cannot see where the Omegahedron is hidden because Selena keeps it in a container made out of lead. The Phantom Zone scenes are also longer, showing Kara's dramatic strength as she is willing to fight to the death in order to stop the evil witch Selena. Eventually, these scenes were restored to American audiences in 2000 when Anchor Bay Entertainment released the film under their label.

Much of the deleted material appeared in DC Comics's one-shot comic book adaptation of the film, primarily the scenes that fleshed out Selena's character.

To the top



Network (film)

Howard Beale (Peter Finch) delivering his "mad as hell" speech

Network is a 1976 satirical film about a fictional television network, Union Broadcasting System (UBS), and its struggle with poor ratings. It was written by Paddy Chayefsky and directed by Sidney Lumet, and stars Faye Dunaway, William Holden, Peter Finch and Robert Duvall and features Wesley Addy, Ned Beatty and Beatrice Straight. The film won four Academy Awards, including Best Actor, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actress and Best Writing, Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen.

Network has continued to receive recognition, decades after its initial release. In 2000, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". In 2002, it was inducted into the Producers Guild of America Hall of Fame as a film that has "set an enduring standard for American entertainment." In 2006, Chayefsky's script was voted one of the top ten movie scripts of all-time by the Writers Guild of America, East. In 2007, the film was 64th among the Top 100 Greatest American Films as chosen by the American Film Institute, a ranking slightly higher than the one AFI gave it ten years earlier.

The story opens with long-time "UBS Evening News" anchor Howard Beale (Peter Finch) being fired because of the show's low ratings. He has two more weeks on the air, but the following night, Beale announces on live television that he will commit suicide by shooting himself in the head during an upcoming live broadcast.

UBS immediately fires him after this incident, but they let him back on the air, ostensibly for a dignified farewell, with persuasion from Beale's best friend and president of the News division, Max Schumacher (William Holden), the network's old guard news editor. Beale promises that he will apologize for his outburst, but instead rants about how life is "bullshit," which he utters repeatedly. While there are serious repercussions, the program's ratings soar and, much to Schumacher's dismay, the upper echelons of UBS decide to exploit Beale's antics rather than pulling him off the air.

In one impassioned diatribe, Beale galvanizes the nation with his rant, "I'm as mad as hell, and I'm not going to take this anymore!" and persuades Americans to shout out their windows during a spectacular lightning storm. Soon Beale is hosting a new program called The Howard Beale Show, top-billed as a "mad prophet of the airways." Ultimately, the show becomes the highest rated (Duvall's character calls it "a big, fat-assed, big-titted hit!") program on television, and Beale finds new celebrity preaching his angry message in front of a live audience that, on cue, repeats the Beale's marketed catchphrase en masse. His new set is lit by blue spotlights and an enormous stained-glass window, supplemented with segments featuring astrology, gossip, opinion polls, and yellow journalism.

Parallel to the story of Beale is the tale of the rise within UBS of Diana Christensen (Faye Dunaway). Beginning as a producer of entertainment programming, Diana's desire to produce a hit show for the network results in her cutting a deal with a group of left-wing terrorists (a parody of the Symbionese Liberation Army) robbing banks, to use as the cold-opening for a new series based on terrorists for the network that she wishes developed for the upcoming fall season. When Beale's nervous breakdown-fueled rants suddenly start to bring in high ratings, Christensen convinces her boss (played by Robert Duvall) to merge the news and entertainment division, so that she can produce Beale's news program.

This brings Christensen into contact with Max Schumacher, leading to a love-hate relationship due to their mutual attraction to each other in spite of Schumacher's disdain for her exploitation of his best friend. The two ultimately begin an affair, which leads to Schumacher leaving his wife of over twenty five years for Christensen. But Christensen's fanatical devotion to her job and emotional emptiness ultimately drives Max back to his wife by the end of the film, as Max warns his former lover that she will self-destruct at the pace she was running with her career.

Meanwhile, Beale ultimately ends up going too far with his tirades, when he discovers that the conglomerate that owns UBS will be bought out by an even larger Saudi Arabian conglomerate. Beale launches an on-screen tirade against the two corporations, encouraging the audience to telegram the White House with the message, "I'm mad as hell and I'm not going to take this any more" in the hopes of stopping the merger. This throws the network into a state of panic, due to the company's various debts making the merger necessary in order for it to survive.

Beale is then taken to meet with Arthur Jensen (Ned Beatty), chairman of the company which owns UBS, who explicates his own "corporate cosmology" to the now nearly delusional Beale. Revealing himself to be quite as mad as Beale, Jensen delivers a one-on-one tutorial - almost a sermon in a darkened room that suggests to the delusional Beale that Jensen may be a higher power - beginning by declaring to Beale, "You have meddled in the primal forces of nature" before describing the interrelatedness of the participants in the international economy, and the illusory nature of nationality distinctions. Jensen ultimately persuades Beale to abandon his populist messages. However, audiences find his new views on the dehumanization of society to be depressing, and ratings begin to slide.

Although Beale's ratings decline, the chairman will not allow executives to fire Beale as he spreads the new gospel. Obsessed as ever with UBS' ratings, Christensen arranges for Beale's on-air murder by the same group of urban terrorists who she discovered earlier and who now have their own UBS show, The Mao Tse-Tung Hour, a dynamite addition to the new fall line-up. This mirrors a drunken and sardonic conversation between Beale and Schumacher at the start of the film, that they should have a show featuring suicides and assassinations.

The movie ends with Beale being shot to death on live television. As the narrator states that Beale was the first man ever murdered because of bad ratings, an array of televisions play newscasts reporting the incident matter-of-factly, intermixed with the noise of commercials.

The script was written by Paddy Chayefsky, and the producer was Howard Gottfried. The two had just come off a lawsuit against United Artists, challenging the studio's right to lease their previous film, The Hospital, to ABC in a package with a less successful film. Despite recently settling this lawsuit, Chayefsky and Gottfried agreed to allow UA to finance the film. But after reading the script, UA found the subject matter too controversial and backed out.

Undeterred, Chayefsky and Gottfried shopped the script around to other studios, and eventually found an interested party in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Soon afterwards UA reversed itself and looked to co-finance the film with MGM, who for the past several years had distributed through UA in the US. MGM agreed to let UA back on board, and gave them the international distribution rights, with MGM controlling North American rights.

The film premiered in New York City on November 27, 1976, with a wide release following shortly afterward.

Network won three of the four acting awards, tying the record of 1951's A Streetcar Named Desire. Along with Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Reds, and Coming Home, Network is the last film as of 2009 to have received acting nominations in all four categories.

Finch died before the Academy Awards ceremony was held and, until Heath Ledger won an Oscar for his role in 2008's The Dark Knight, was the only performer ever to receive his award posthumously. The award itself was collected by his widow, Eletha Finch. Straight's performance as the wife of Holden's character occupied only five minutes and 40 seconds of screen time, making it the shortest performance to win an Oscar, as of 2008.

In 1980, UA's then-parent, Transamerica Corporation, put the studio up for sale following the disastrous release of Heaven's Gate, which was a major financial flop and public relations nightmare. Transamerica had become very nervous about the film industry as a result. The next year MGM purchased UA, and consequently gained UA's international rights to Network.

Then, in 1986, media mogul Ted Turner purchased MGM/UA. Without any financial backers, Turner soon fell into debt and sold back most of MGM, but kept the library for his own company, Turner Entertainment - this included the US rights to Network, but international rights remained with MGM, who retained the UA library (or, at least UA's own releases from 1952 onward, plus a few pre-1952 features, as other libraries which had been acquired by UA - such as the pre-1950 Warner Bros. library - were retained by Turner). Turner soon made a deal with MGM's video division for home distribution of most of Turner's library, allowing MGM to retain US video rights to Network for 13 more years.

In 1996, Turner merged with Time Warner. Consequently, WB assumed TV and theatrical distribution rights to the Turner library, with video rights being added in 1999.

Today, WB/Turner owns the US rights to Network, while international rights are with MGM - which was, in 2005, bought by a consortium led by Sony and Comcast. MGM has also assigned international video distribution rights to 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment.

To the top



Joan Crawford

Joan Crawford in 1927

Joan Crawford (March 23, 1905 – May 10, 1977) was an American actress of film, television and theatre. Starting as a dancer in traveling theatrical companies before debuting on Broadway, Crawford was signed to a motion picture contract by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1925. Initially frustrated by the size and quality of her parts, Crawford began a campaign of self-publicity and became nationally known as a flapper by the end of the 1920s. In the 1930s, Crawford's fame rivaled MGM colleagues Norma Shearer and Greta Garbo. Crawford often played hardworking young women who find romance and financial success. These "rags-to-riches" stories were well-received by Depression-era audiences and were popular with women. Crawford became one of Hollywood's most prominent movie stars and one of the highest paid women in the United States, but her films began losing money and by the end of the 1930s she was labeled "box office poison".

After an absence of nearly two years from the screen, Crawford staged a comeback by starring in Mildred Pierce (1945), for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. In 1955, she became involved with the Pepsi-Cola Company, through her marriage to company president Alfred Steele. After his death in 1959, Crawford was elected to fill his vacancy on the board of directors but was forcibly retired in 1973. She continued acting in film and television regularly through the 1960s, when her performances became fewer; after the release of the horror film Trog in 1970, Crawford retired from the screen. Following a public appearance in 1974, after which unflattering photographs were published, Crawford withdrew from public life. She became more and more reclusive until her death in 1977.

Crawford married four times. Her first three marriages ended in divorce; the last ended with the death of husband Al Steele. She adopted five children, one of whom was reclaimed by his birth mother. Crawford's relationships with her two older children, Christina and Christopher, were acrimonious. Crawford disinherited the two and, after Crawford's death, Christina wrote a "tell-all" memoir called Mommie Dearest in which she alleged a lifelong pattern of physical and emotional abuse perpetrated by Crawford.

Crawford was born Lucille Fay LeSueur in San Antonio, Texas, the third child of Tennessee-born Thomas E. LeSueur (1868–1938) and Anna Bell Johnson (1884–1958). Her older siblings were Daisy LeSueur, who died very young, and Hal LeSueur. Although Crawford was of mostly English descent, her surname originated from her great-great-great-great grandparents, David LeSueur and Elizabeth Chastain, French Huguenots who immigrated from London in the early 1700s to Virginia.

Thomas LeSueur abandoned the family a few months before Crawford's birth. He appeared in Abilene, Texas, in 1930 as a 62-year-old construction laborer on the George R. Davis House, built in Prairie School architecture.

Crawford's mother subsequently married Henry J. Cassin. The family lived in Lawton, Oklahoma, where Cassin ran a movie theater. Crawford was unaware that Cassin was not her birth father until her brother Hal told her. The 1910 federal census for Comanche County, Oklahoma, enumerated on April 20, showed Henry and Anna living at 910 "D" Street in Lawton. Crawford was listed as five years old, thus showing 1905 as her likely year of birth. However, the state of Texas did not require the filing of birth certificates until 1908, allowing Crawford to claim she was born in 1908.

Crawford preferred the nickname "Billie" as a child and she loved watching vaudeville acts perform on the stage of her stepfather's theater. Her ambition was to be a dancer. However, in an attempt to escape piano lessons to run and play with friends, she leapt from the front porch of her home and cut her foot deeply on a broken milk bottle. Crawford had three operations and was unable to attend elementary school for a year and a half. She eventually fully recovered and returned to dancing.

Around 1916, Crawford's family moved to Kansas City, Missouri. Cassin was first listed in the City Directory in 1917, living at 403 East Ninth Street. While still in elementary school, Crawford was placed in St. Agnes Academy, a Catholic school in Kansas City. Later, after her mother and stepfather broke up, she stayed on at St. Agnes as a work student. She then went to Rockingham Academy as a work student. While attending Rockingham she began dating and had her first serious relationship, with a trumpet player named Ray Sterling. It was Sterling who inspired her to begin challenging herself academically, and in 1922, Crawford registered at Stephens College in Columbia, Missouri. She gave her year of birth as 1906. Crawford attended Stephens for less than a year, as she recognized that she was not academically prepared for college.

Under the name Lucille LeSueur, Crawford began dancing in the choruses of traveling revues and was spotted dancing in Detroit by producer Jacob J. Shubert. Shubert put her in the chorus line for his 1924 show Innocent Eyes at the Winter Gardens on Broadway in New York City. While appearing in Innocent Eyes Crawford met a saxophone player named James Welton. The two were allegedly married in 1924 and the couple lived together for several months, although this supposed marriage was never mentioned in later life by Crawford. She wanted additional work and approached Loews Theaters publicist Nils Granlund. Granlund secured a position for her with producer Harry Richmond's act and arranged for her to do a screen test which he sent to producer Harry Rapf in Hollywood. Stories have persisted that Crawford further supplemented her income by appearing in one or more stag, or soft-core pornographic, films, although this has been disputed. Rapf notified Granlund on December 24, 1924 that Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer had offered Crawford a contract at $75 a week. Granlund immediately wired LeSueur – who had returned to her mother's home in Kansas City – with the news and $400 for travel expenses. The night after Christmas she left Kansas City and arrived in Culver City, California.

As Lucille LeSueur, her first film was Pretty Ladies in 1925, which starred ZaSu Pitts. Also in 1925 she appeared in a small role in The Only Thing and in Old Clothes opposite Jackie Coogan. MGM publicity head Pete Smith recognized her ability but felt that her name sounded fake; it also, he told studio head Louis B. Mayer, sounded like "Le Sewer". Smith organized a contest in conjunction with a fan magazine named Movie Weekly to allow readers to select her new name. Initially the name "Joan Arden" was selected but, when another actress was found to have prior claim to that name, the alternate name "Crawford" became the choice. Crawford initially wanted her new first name to be pronounced "Jo-anne". She hated the name Crawford, saying it sounded like "crawfish". Her friend, actor William Haines, quipped, "They might have called you 'Cranberry' and served you every Thanksgiving with the turkey!" Crawford continued to dislike the name throughout her life but, she said, "liked the security that went with it".

On June 3, 1929, Crawford married Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. at Saint Malachy's Roman Catholic Church in New York City. Fairbanks was the son of Douglas Fairbanks and the step-son of Mary Pickford, who were considered Hollywood royalty. Fairbanks Sr. and Pickford were opposed to the marriage and did not invite the couple to their home, Pickfair, for eight months after the marriage. The relationship between Crawford and Fairbanks, Sr. eventually warmed; she called him "Uncle Doug" and he called her "Billie". Following that first invitation, Crawford and Fairbanks, Jr. became more frequent guests, which was hard on Crawford. While the Fairbanks men played golf together, Crawford was left with Pickford or left alone.

Crawford starred opposite of Clark Gable in Possessed (1931). They began an affair during the production, resulting in an ultimatum from studio chief Louis B. Mayer to Gable that the affair end. Gable complied, although for many years their affair resumed sporadically and secretly. Upon release, Possessed was an enormous hit.

The studio then cast her in Grand Hotel, which starred the most famous actors of the 1930s and was MGM's most prestigious movie of 1932. Crawford later achieved continued success with Letty Lynton (1932). Soon after its release, a plagiarism suit forced MGM to withdraw it. It has never been shown on television or made available on home video, and is therefore considered the "lost" Crawford film. The film is mostly remembered because of the "Letty Lynton dress," designed by Adrian: a white cotton organdy gown with large ruffled sleeves, puffed at the shoulder. It was with this gown that Crawford's broad shoulders began to be accentuated by costume. Macy's copied the dress in 1932, and it sold over 500,000 replicas nationwide.

In May 1933, Crawford divorced Fairbanks. Crawford cited "grievous mental cruelty"; "a jealous and suspicious attitude" toward her friends and "loud arguments about the most trivial subjects" lasting "far into the night".

Following Possessed, Crawford starred opposite Gable in the hit Dancing Lady (1933), in which she received top billing. Crawford's next movies, Sadie McKee, Chained and Forsaking All Others (all 1934), were among the top money makers of the mid-1930s.

In 1935, Crawford married her second husband, stage and film actor Franchot Tone. Tone, a stage actor from New York who planned to use his film salary to finance his theatre group, and Crawford appeared together in Today We Live (1933) and were immediately drawn to each other, although Crawford was hesitant about entering into another romance so soon after her split from Fairbanks. The couple built a small theatre at Crawford's Brentwood home and put on productions of classic plays for select groups of friends. Before and during their marriage, Crawford worked to promote Tone's Hollywood career but Tone was ultimately not interested in being a movie star and Crawford eventually wearied of the effort. Tone began drinking and physically abusing Crawford and she filed for divorce, which was granted in 1939. Crawford and Tone eventually reconciled their friendship and Tone even proposed they remarry in 1964. When Tone died in 1968, Crawford arranged for him to be cremated and his ashes scattered at Muskoka Lakes, Canada.

The Motion Picture Herald placed Crawford on its list of the top-ten moneymaking stars from 1932, the first year of the poll, through 1936 and Life magazine proclaimed her "First Queen of the Movies" in 1937. Later in 1937 she dropped out of the top ten for the first time, and in 1938 the Independent Film Journal named her and several other stars as "box office poison" based on their supposed lack of popular appeal. However, Crawford made a small comeback with her role as home-wrecker Crystal Allen in director George Cukor's comedy The Women in 1939. She also broke from formula by taking the unglamorous role of Julie in Strange Cargo (1940), her eighth and final film with Clark Gable. Crawford then starred as a facially disfigured blackmailer in A Woman's Face (1941). While the film was only a moderate box office success, her performance was hailed by many critics.

Crawford adopted her first child, a daughter, in 1940. Because she was single, California law prevented her from adopting within the state so she arranged the adoption through an agency in Las Vegas. The child was temporarily called Joan until Crawford changed her name to Christina. She married actor Phillip Terry on July 21, 1942 after a six-month courtship. Together the couple adopted a son whom they named Christopher, but his birth mother reclaimed the child. They adopted another boy, whom they named Phillip Terry, Jr. After the marriage ended in 1946, Crawford changed the child's name to Christopher Crawford.

After 18 years, Crawford's contract was terminated by mutual consent on June 29, 1943. In lieu of one more movie owed under her contract, MGM bought out her contract for $100,000. The same day, the studio cleared out her bungalow.

Crawford wanted to play the title role in Mildred Pierce (1945), but Davis was the studio's first choice. However, Davis did not want to play the mother of a seventeen year old daughter and she turned the role down. Director Michael Curtiz did not want Crawford and told Jack Warner, "She comes over here with her high-hat airs and her goddamn shoulder pads...why should I waste my time directing a has-been?" Curtiz demanded Crawford prove her suitability by taking a screen test. After the test, Curtiz agreed to Crawford's casting. Crawford starred opposite Jack Carson, Zachary Scott, Eve Arden, Ann Blyth and Butterfly McQueen. Mildred Pierce was a commercial success. It epitomized the lush visual style and the hard-boiled film noir sensibility that defined Warner Bros. movies of the later 1940s. Crawford earned the Academy Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role.

From 1945 to 1952, Crawford reigned as a top star and respected actress, appearing in such roles as Helen Wright in Humoresque (1946), Louise Howell Graham in Possessed (1947, for which she was nominated for a second Oscar for Best Actress) and the title role in Daisy Kenyon (also 1947). Crawford's other movie roles of the era include Lane Bellamy in Flamingo Road (1949), a dual role in the film noir The Damned Don't Cry (1950) and her performance in the title role of Harriet Craig (1950) at Columbia Pictures. After filming This Woman Is Dangerous (1952), Crawford asked to be released from her Warner Bros. contract. As she had done before, Crawford triumphed as Myra Hudson in Sudden Fear (1952) at RKO, which was the movie that introduced her co-star, Jack Palance, to the screen and earned Crawford a third and final Oscar nomination for Best Actress.

Crawford adopted two more children in 1947, whom she named Cindy and Cathy. She referred to them as twins but the children were not related by blood.

Crawford worked in the radio series The Screen Guild Theater on January 8, 1939; Good News; Baby, broadcast March 2, 1940 on Arch Oboler's Lights Out; The Word on Everyman's Theater (1941); Chained on the Lux Radio Theater and Norman Corwin's Document A/777 (1948). She appeared in episodes of anthology TV shows in the 1950s and, in 1959, made a pilot for her series, The Joan Crawford Show, but the show was never picked up by a network.

Crawford married her final husband, Alfred Steele, at the Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas on May 10. 1955. Crawford and Steele met at a party in 1950 when Steele was an executive with Coca-Cola. They renewed their acquaintance at a New Year's Eve party in 1954. Steele by that time had become the president of Pepsi Cola. Crawford traveled extensively on behalf of Pepsi following the marriage. She estimated that she traveled over 100,000 miles for the company. Steele died of a heart attack in April 1959. Crawford was initially advised that her services were no longer required. After she told the story to Louella Parsons, Pepsi reversed its position and Crawford was elected to fill the vacant seat on the board of directors. Crawford, left near-penniless following Steele's death, accepted a supporting role in the film The Best of Everything (1959). It was her first non-starring role in her later career.

After her triumph in RKO's Sudden Fear, Crawford appeared in films ranging from the cult western film Johnny Guitar (1954) to the drama Autumn Leaves (1956), opposite a young Cliff Robertson. By the early 1960s, however, Crawford's status in motion pictures had diminished.

Crawford starred as Blanche Hudson, a physically disabled woman and former A-list movie star in conflict with her psychotic sister in the highly successful thriller What Ever Happened To Baby Jane? (1962). Despite the actresses' earlier tensions, Crawford suggested Bette Davis for the role of Jane. The two stars maintained publicly that there was no feud between them. However, Crawford accused Davis of kicking her during the filming of a scene in which Jane attacks Blanche, and reportedly retaliated by wearing weights under her clothes in a scene in which Davis had to carry her. The film became a huge success, recouping its losses in 11 days of nationwide release and temporarily reviving Crawford's career. Davis was nominated for an Academy Award for her performance as Jane Hudson. Crawford secretly contacted all the other Oscar nominees to tell them if they were unable to attend the ceremony, she would be happy to accept the Oscar on their behalf. Both Davis and Crawford were backstage when the absent Anne Bancroft was announced as the winner and Crawford accepted the award on her behalf. Davis claimed for the rest of her life that Crawford campaigned against her, a charge Crawford denied. That same year, Crawford starred as Lucy Harbin in William Castle's horror mystery Strait-Jacket (1964).

Upon her release from the hospital Crawford played the role of Amy Nelson in I Saw What You Did (1965), another William Castle vehicle. She starred as Monica Rivers in Herman Cohen's horror thriller film Berserk! (1968). After the film's release, Crawford guest-starred as herself on The Lucy Show. The episode, "Lucy and the Lost Star", first aired on February 26, 1968. Although Crawford struggled during rehearsals and drank heavily on-set, leading Ball to suggest replacing her with Gloria Swanson, she was letter-perfect the day of the show and received two standing ovations from the studio audience.

In October 1968, Crawford's 29-year-old daughter, Christina (who was then acting in New York on the soap opera The Secret Storm), needed immediate medical attention for a ruptured ovarian tumor. Until Christina was well enough to return, Crawford offered to play her role, to which producer Gloria Monty readily agreed. Although Crawford did well in rehearsal, she lost her composure while taping and the director and producer were left to struggle to piece together the necessary footage.

Crawford's appearance in the 1969 TV film Night Gallery (which served as pilot to the series that followed), marked one of Steven Spielberg's earliest directing jobs. She starred on the big screen one final time, playing Dr. Brockton in Herman Cohen's science fiction horror film Trog (1970), rounding out a career spanning 45 years and over 80 motion pictures. Crawford made four more TV appearances, as Stephanie White in an episode of The Virginian (1970), entitled "The Nightmare"; as a board member in an episode of The Name of the Game (1971), entitled "Los Angeles"; as Allison Hayes in the made-for-TV movie Beyond the Water's Edge (1972); and as Joan Fairchild (her final screen performance) on an episode of the television series, The Sixth Sense, entitled, "Dear Joan: We're Going To Scare You To Death" (1972).

In 1970, Crawford was presented with the Cecil B. DeMille Award by John Wayne at the Golden Globes, which was telecast from the Coconut Grove at The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. She also spoke at her alma mater, Stephens College, from which she never graduated.

Crawford published her autobiography, A Portrait of Joan, – written with Jane Kesner Ardmore – in 1962 through Doubleday. Crawford's next book, My Way of Life, was published in 1971 by Simon and Schuster. Those expecting a racy tell-all were disappointed, although Crawford's meticulous ways were revealed in her advice on grooming, wardrobe, exercise, and even food storage.

In September 1973, Crawford moved from apartment 22-G to the smaller apartment 22-H in the Imperial House. Her last public appearance was September 23, 1974, at a party honoring her old friend Rosalind Russell at New York's Rainbow Room. Russell was battling breast cancer at the time and died two years later in 1976. When Crawford saw the unflattering photos of both stars that appeared in the papers the next day, she said, "If that's how I look, then they won't see me anymore." Crawford cancelled all public appearances, began declining interviews and left her apartment less and less. In 1975, with a renewed embrace of her Christian Science faith, she gave up drinking.

A memorial service was held for Crawford at All Souls' Unitarian Church on Lexington Avenue in New York on May 16, 1977, and was attended by, among others, her old Hollywood friend Myrna Loy. Another memorial service, organized by George Cukor, was held on June 24 in the Samuel Goldwyn Theater at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in Beverly Hills, California. Crawford was cremated and her ashes placed in a crypt with her last husband, Alfred Steele, in Ferncliff Cemetery, Hartsdale, New York.

Crawford's hand and footprints are immortalized in the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese Theater on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood. She also has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1750 Vine Street. In 1999, Playboy listed Crawford as one of the "100 Sexiest Women of the 20th century," ranking her #84.

In November 1978, a year and a half after Crawford's death, Christina published an exposé entitled Mommie Dearest which contained allegations that Crawford was emotionally and physically abusive to her and her brother Christopher. Many of Crawford's friends and co-workers, including Van Johnson, Ann Blyth, Marlene Dietrich and others denounced the book, categorically denying any abuse. Crawford's rival Bette Davis, however, strongly supported the book, saying that Christina could not have made it up (Davis would ironically become the target of her own daughter, B. D. Hyman's, tell-all book in 1985, My Mother's Keeper). The book became a bestseller and was later made into the 1981 film Mommie Dearest, starring Faye Dunaway as Crawford.

To the top



The Yellow Bird

The Yellow Bird is a 2001 film written by Faye Dunaway and Tennessee Williams, and directed by Faye Dunaway.

To the top



Three Days of the Condor

Three Days of the Condor poster.JPG

Three Days of the Condor is a 1975 American thriller film produced by Stanley Schneider and directed by Sydney Pollack. The screenplay, by Lorenzo Semple Jr. and David Rayfiel, was adapted from the novel Six Days of the Condor by James Grady.

The movie is a suspense drama set in contemporary New York City, and is considered an exposition of the moral ambiguity of the actions of the United States government following the Vietnam War and Watergate. It stars Robert Redford as an employee of the Central Intelligence Agency who inadvertently becomes involved in a deadly power struggle within the agency.

The film was nominated for the 1976 Academy Award for Film Editing. Semple and Rayfiel received an Edgar Award from the Mystery Writers of America for Best Motion Picture Screenplay.

Joe Turner (Robert Redford) is a CIA employee who works in a clandestine office in New York City. He is not a field agent, and indeed bristles at Agency discipline; among other things, he wonders why he can't tell people what he does for a living and notes "I trust some people . . . that's a problem." His job is in the OSINT field: he has to read books, newspapers, and magazines from around the world, looking for hidden meanings and new ideas. As part of his duties, Turner files a report to CIA headquarters on a low-quality thriller novel his office has been reading, pointing out strange plot elements therein, and the unusual assortment of languages in which the book has been translated (Arabic but not French, Spanish but not Russian, and Dutch).

The movie begins on the day in which Turner expects a response to his report. While he is out getting lunch, a group of armed men, led by an Alsatian assassin later identified as Joubert (Max von Sydow), executes the six people in the office. Turner returns, realizes he is in grave danger, and calls an emergency telephone number. He later goes to the home of a co-worker who stayed home sick from work and finds him dead as well.

On giving his code name, "Condor," he is put in contact with Higgins (Cliff Robertson), Deputy Director, CIA New York City. Higgins, who is at this point not involved in the conspiracy and is legitimately concerned, directs Turner to keep quiet. Turner's section chief Wicks states he will bring Turner in.

Wicks brings an old friend of Turner's (Sam) along to help put him at ease. But Wicks is part of the conspiracy and tries to kill Turner. Turner shoots Wicks who, just before collapsing, shoots Sam; Turner escapes with his life. Realizing that he cannot trust anyone within the CIA, Turner calls in again and begins to play a cat-and-mouse game with Higgins.

Turner now sets off to solve the mystery of the killings on his own. Needing a place to hide, he forces a woman he saw in a ski shop, Kathy Hale (Faye Dunaway), to take him to her apartment. He holds her prisoner while he attempts to figure out what's going on. He ties her up in her bathroom and takes her truck to go to his friend's apartment. When he gets there and makes contact with Sam's wife, she is cooking and readying for a dinner party; she tells Turner that she got a call earlier in the day - from someone unknown - that Sam would be working late. Apparently, she doesn't know what happened to her husband but told Turner that someone's been calling and hanging up. It's at this time Turner has her immediately discontinue cooking dinner and go to Bill and Eileen's apartment upstairs. At this time Joubert, arriving by elevator to the floor where Sam's apartment is, sees Turner getting Sam's wife onto the elevator.

Joubert, a tall and imposing figure, enters the next elevator with Turner and has dialogue with him. When Joubert exits the elevator on the first floor, Turner knows that Joubert is probably waiting for him outside. Turner solicits the help of some teenagers who are hanging around the first-floor lobby to use a coat-hanger to open up his car in which he says he locked the keys. Naturally, it's a ploy to surround himself with innocent people to allow him to escape. Joubert, nearby, has a sniper rifle with a scope and sees that he cannot get a shot at Turner because of all the teenagers with him. He sees Turner get into Hale's truck and uses the scope of his rifle to see the license plate number. It's obvious, at this point, that Joubert will trace the owner of the truck through motor vehicle records.

Eventually, Hale is convinced to trust Turner; the gun is put away, and they make love (the scene was controversial for its sexually explicit content at the time). The next morning, Hale is getting a shower and Turner is in the kitchen, still trying to figure out what has happened. The doorbell rings and it's a postal letter carrier who says he has an insured package for Hale. Turner says she's not there and the postman says he could sign for it. Turner opens the door and when the postman is getting Turner to sign the receipt, the pen doesn't work. The postman says it's the only one he has, so Turner turns to get a pen but first notices the postman's footwear - dirty boots, not standard issue shoes. Turner grabs a hot pot of coffee from the stove, turns and throws it in the postman's face, just as the postman pulls a silenced automatic gun. The rounds miss Turner and a fight ensues. Kathy emerges from the shower, terrified to find the two men fighting, and hits the assassin once before being knocked to the ground. Turner disarms the postman and after physical exchanges, reaches his .45 pistol and shoots the postman. Turner doesn't find any identification on the body but does find a hotel room key and a piece of paper with a phone number on it: "Five Continents Imports." He calls the number and eventually finds it gets him to the CIA HQ - Wicks' office.

After going to a locksmith to help him identify where and who the key belongs to (lock manufacturers code engraved on the edge of the key), he locates the Holiday Inn and room where Joubert is located. Turner then contacts Higgins at New York Center and tells him about the postman with the automatic gun and Joubert. He then solicits Hale's help to go to the CIA office at the World Trade Center and pose as a job applicant, where she pretends to take a wrong turn into a restricted area and identifies Higgins by 'mistakenly' walking into his office. She then waits by the lobby elevators until Higgins emerges; she trails him to a lunch café, and sets him up to be abducted by Turner. Turner questions Higgins at gunpoint in the back of Kathy's truck, but Higgins has little valuable information for him.

Using a stolen telephone system repair kit, Turner makes a crank call to Joubert's hotel room, prompting Joubert to call his employer, Middle East Operations Director Leonard Atwood. Turner traces the call to Atwood, and calls Higgins to find out who Atwood is. The stunned Higgins can't reply, since the same Atwood that Turner is implicating in this conspiracy is sitting in the very same room as Higgins.

Higgins later discovers (while checking the files on Wicks) that the postman who attacked Turner in Hale's apartment was a former US Marine Corps Gunnery Sergeant and CIA operative who collaborated with both Wicks and Joubert on a previous operation called "Lucifer 2." Knowing that Wicks has also been silenced by this point (Joubert sneaked into his hospital room and unplugged his life support equipment), Higgins puts the pieces of the conspiracy together and informs his superior, who implies that the matter should be closed using outside help, if necessary.

Turner tracks down the renegade CIA director to his Maryland home and questions him at gunpoint and learns that his "section" was hit because it discovered a renegade plan to take over middle east oilfields. Joubert surprises them both, and unexpectedly kills Atwood. The contract has now changed; even though Atwood had hired Joubert to terminate Turner, Atwood's superiors hired Joubert to terminate Atwood. Turner is dumbfounded, realizing that Joubert and he are on the same side (for the moment). Joubert cautions Turner that he is no longer safe in New York, and advises him to relocate--possibly to Europe. Turner declines, saying he would always feel homesick for the United States. When Turner asks Joubert why he kills for a living, Joubert says he never asks Why, only thinking of Where, When, and always How Much, contradicting Turner's assumption that such a life would be unbearable by implying that it's peaceful and that there are no sides to follow but rather "...the belief is in your own precision." Before they part, Joubert warns Turner that he is still a target and tells him how he will likely be set up for his own assassination. He then returns Turner his gun to use when that day comes.

Turner goes back to New York and meets Higgins on a busy street. When Higgins offers him a ride, Turner recognizes Joubert's warning and turns him down. When Turner quizzes Higgins about Atwood's plans, Higgins defends the oil-fields plan, claiming that there will be a day in which oil shortages will cause a major economic crisis for the country. And when that day comes, Americans will want the government to use any means necessary to obtain the oil. Turner says he has told the press "a story" (they are standing outside The New York Times office), but Higgins questions Turner's assurances that the story will be printed. After a brief dialogue, an anxious Turner glances at Higgins and the New York Times office, then hastily walks away. The final shot is a freeze frame of Turner passing behind a Salvation Army band singing Christmas carols while looking over his shoulder back at Higgins.

The Simpsons had an episode called "Three Gays of the Condo", although the plot of that episode was unrelated to Three Days of the Condor. Similarly, the sitcom Frasier had an episode titled "Three Days Of The Condo".

To the top



Little Big Man

Little Big Man 1970 film poster.jpg

Little Big Man is a 1970 American Western film directed by Arthur Penn and based on the 1964 novel by Thomas Berger. It is a picaresque comedy and drama about a Caucasian boy raised by the Cheyenne nation during the 19th century. A major part of the film involves contrasting the lives of American pioneers and Native Americans.

The movie stars Dustin Hoffman, Chief Dan George, Faye Dunaway, Martin Balsam, Jeff Corey and Richard Mulligan. It is considered a Revisionist Western, with Native Americans receiving a sympathetic treatment uncommon for Western films in previous decades. Many of the United States Cavalry soldiers are depicted as villains.

A dying centenarian, 121-year-old Jack Crabb (Dustin Hoffman), recalls several facets of his life to a curious historian (William Hickey). His long and episodic story includes being a member of the Cheyenne tribe, a gunslinger, a sidekick to Wild Bill Hickok (Jeff Corey), and a scout for General George Armstrong Custer (Richard Mulligan). The central theme is his adoption by the Cheyenne, enabling him to view both the Caucasian and Native American cultures of the 19th century.

Jack and his older sister Caroline (Carole Androsky) survive the massacre of their parents' wagon train at the hands of the Pawnee. Found by a Cheyenne warrior, Jack and his sister are taken back to a Cheyenne village. Caroline runs away, but Jack remains and is raised by the Cheyenne leader, Old Lodge Skins (Chief Dan George). It proves to be an idyllic life, though Jack unwittingly makes an enemy of Younger Bear (Cal Bellini). Jack is given the name "Little Big Man" because he's short but very brave. Jack is captured by the U.S. Cavalry and quickly put into the care of Reverend Pendrake (Thayer David) and his wife Louise (Faye Dunaway). She is attracted to young Jack, but he cannot accept the dichotomy between Louise's pious attitude and her sexual appetite and promptly leaves her home.

Jack decides to become the apprentice of the snake-oil salesman Merriweather (Martin Balsam). They are tarred and feathered for selling fraudulent products. He reunites with his sister Caroline. She attempts to mold her brother into a gunslinger named the Soda Pop Kid (so called because of his chosen beverage). Jack runs into Wild Bill Hickok (Jeff Corey), who takes a liking to the young man. When Hickok is forced to kill a man in self defense, Jack loses his taste for gunslinging and Caroline deserts him.

Jack decides to open a general store and marries a Swedish woman named Olga (Kelly Jean Peters). Jack's business partner turns out to be a thief and he's forced to close the store. General Custer happens to ride upon the scene and suggests the couple restart their lives out west. Jack agrees, however, their stagecoach is ambushed by the Cheyennes and Olga is abducted. Searching for Olga in vain, he is reunited with Old Lodge Skins, who is overjoyed Jack has returned to the tribe. Younger Bear has become a contrary (a warrior who does everything in reverse) and, having been humiliated by Jack years before, is still clearly bitter. After a short stay with the tribe, Jack continues his search for Olga.

He eventually becomes a "muleskinner" within Custer's 7th Cavalry, hoping to obtain information on the location of Olga. He participates in a battle against the Cheyenne. When they begin killing women and children, he becomes enraged and turns on the U.S. Soldiers. In the nearby woods, Jack discovers the Cheyenne woman Sunshine (Aimée Eccles) in the process of giving birth. He saves Sunshine from the marauding soldiers and returns to Old Lodge Skins' tribe. Sunshine becomes his wife and they have a child together. Jack once again encounters Younger Bear, who has undergone another life change. No longer a contrary, Younger Bear is now shockingly married to Olga. Olga does not immediately recognize Jack, and he makes no attempt to remind her of their previous relationship.

One day during the winter season, Custer and the 7th Cavalry make a surprise attack on the Cheyenne camp. A now-blind and elderly Old Lodge Skins is saved by Jack, but Sunshine and their child are killed. Jack tries to infiltrate Custer's camp to exact revenge, but at the crucial moment loses his nerve when alone with Custer, who mocks him for it. Disheartened, Jack becomes the town drunk in Deadwood, South Dakota. While in a drunken stupor, Wild Bill Hickok recognizes him and gives him money to clean up. When Jack returns to the bar, Hickok is shot and killed. Before his death, Hickok tells Jack a dying wish involving a widow he was having an affair with. Jack goes to see the widow, a prostitute who turns out to be Louise Pendrake. Jack gives her the money she needs to start a new life.

Jack soon becomes a trapper and hermit. His mind becomes unhinged after coming across an empty trap with a severed animal limb. Poised at the edge of a cliff, he prepares to commit suicide. Jack suddenly hears the faint chords of Garryowen echoing through the valley and spots Custer and his troops marching nearby. Jack decides to exact revenge. Custer accepts him as a scout, believing anything he says will be a lie, thus serving as a reverse barometer. Jack leads the troops into a trap at the Little Bighorn. Before the attack, Jack truthfully tells Custer of the overwhelming force of Native Americans hidden within the valley. Custer does not believe him and leads the 7th Cavalry to its doom. During the frantic battle, Custer begins a series of insane ravings. Ignoring the closing circle of warriors, Custer decides to kill Jack and points his pistol at him. Before he can pull the trigger, Custer is killed by Younger Bear, who removes the unconscious, wounded Jack from the battle by carrying him to Old Lodge Skins' tepee.

With Custer and his regiment annihilated, Jack accompanies Old Lodge Skins to a nearby hill where the weary leader decides to end his life. He gives his speech to the Great Spirit, saying he is ready to die. Instead, it begins to rain. Old Lodge Skins sighs and says, "Sometimes the magic works, and sometimes it doesn't." They return to his tepee to have dinner.

Jack's narrative abruptly ends and he tells the historian to leave the room. The film concludes with an extended shot of the elderly Jack sadly staring into space.

The movie's portrayal of the Battle of Washita River as a Custer-led massacre of women and children (which Penn compares to the holocaust) is not specifically accurate as the camp was fully occupied by tribal warriors. The film, however, is consistent with some historical records of other encounters between Indians and the U.S. Cavalry; the Cavalry's common tactic was to wait until the braves had left the camp to hunt or to lure the braves away with assurances of good hunting, and then to attack the unprotected village. The two massacre scenes are historically reversed, the Sand Creek Massacre occurring first in 1864, where Colorado militia troops (not including Custer) attacked a peaceful contingent of Native Americans, killing more than 150 women, children and elderly men (this was depicted in another 1970 Revisionist Western, Soldier Blue). The Custer-led raid on the Washita occurred in 1868.

Wild Bill Hickok was in fact killed on August 2, 1876, one month after the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

The film's depiction of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer as a lunatic at the Battle of the Little Bighorn was intended as a comedic satire, though many of his quirks and vanities were inspired by contemporary observations. Custer's fatal tactics at Little Bighorn were far more complex than portrayed in the film. His actions before and during the battle remain intensely controversial to this day.

The character of Jack Crabb is partially based on Curley, one of Custer's Native American scouts from the Crow tribe. It is believed Curley rode with Custer's 7th Cavalry into the final battle until they were attacked, at which point he was relieved of duty, retreating to a nearby bluff and witnessing much of the action. Many conflicting stories of the era embellished Curley's participation, stating in several cases that he disguised himself with a Cheyenne blanket to escape the immediate field of battle. He was interviewed many times, with some writers claiming him to be the only surviving witness from the U.S. side of Custer's Last Stand. Curley gave several variations of his participation in the battle, and the accuracy of his later recollections has been questioned.

The historical Little Big Man was a Native American bearing no resemblance to the Jack Crabb character. Little Big Man is known for his involvement in the capture and possible assassination of Crazy Horse at Fort Robinson in 1877.

For his portrayal of Old Lodge Skins, Chief Dan George was nominated for an Academy Award as Best Actor in a Supporting Role. He won multiple honors for his performance including the Producers Guild of America Award, the National Society of Film Critics Award and the New York Film Critics Circle Award. He was also nominated for a Golden Globe as Best Supporting Actor.

Hoffman won third place for his performance with the Producers Guild of America and was nominated as Best Actor by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. The screenplay by Calder Willingham was nominated for the Writers Guild of America Award as Best Drama Adapted from Another Medium.

Hoffman holds the record for portraying the greatest age span of a single character, playing Jack Crabb from the age of 17 to 121, a difference of 104 years. To obtain the voice of a 121 year-old man, Dustin Hoffman sat in his dressing room and screamed at the top of his lungs for an hour. The 121 year-old makeup was created by Dick Smith from foam latex and included revolutionary old-age eyelids that could actually blink along with the actor's. Due to editing, and much to Smith's chagrin, no blinks were visible in the finished film. Of the makeup, Hoffman was quoted as saying, "I defy you to put on that makeup and not feel old." The role of Chief Old Lodge Skins was initially offered to Marlon Brando, Paul Scofield and Laurence Olivier, all of whom turned it down. The Little Bighorn battle scenes were filmed on location in Montana near the actual battle site.

To the top



Source : Wikipedia