Floyd Landis

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Posted by bender 03/22/2009 @ 19:13

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Floyd Landis is back in the saddle again - Minneapolis Star Tribune
Floyd Landis was invited by his friend and team sponsor, Dr. Brent Kay, to join Team OUCH. He jumped on board and prepared for the season with six months of hard training, biking between 400 and 600 miles per week. Competing again after a two-year...
Landis factor swells crowd at Les Mardis Cyclistes - The Gazette (Montreal)
Former Tour de France champion Floyd Landis, who is competing in the Les Mardis Cyclistes de Lachine, June 16, 2009. MONTREAL - Les Mardis Cyclistes de Lachine found the ultimate carrot to put in front of its racers last night, as disgraced American...
Landis is back in the fast lane - Philadelphia Inquirer
By Jorge Castillo Besides Lance Armstrong, there is one name in cycling that resonates these days in mainstream America: Floyd Landis. The Lancaster native continues his comeback to the sport tomorrow after a two-year ban as he will be one of 169...
Pro cyclist Landis attempting comeback from doping scandal, hip ... - FOX 21 Online
By Beth Jett, FOX 21 News World-class professional cyclist Floyd Landis is in Minnesota this month, competing in the Nature Valley Grand Prix. Landis is attempting a comeback from two setbacks - hip surgery, and a recently lifted two-year ban from the...
Landis case twist: hacking lab computer - San Diego Union Tribune
By Mark Zeigler, Union-Tribune Staff Writer Cyclist Floyd Landis had a post-race urine sample at the Tour de France return positive for synthetic testosterone in July 2006. An American arbitration panel found him guilty of doping in September 2007,...
Speed is what you get - The Reporter
Haase said Thomson Remo and Taylor Phinney could be a possibility and even Floyd Landis, if his team OUCH Pro Cycling assigns him to Fond du Lac. Landis was the 2006 Tour de France winner, but was involved in a doping scandal. "We're hoping there are a...
11th Nature Valley Grand Prix - Stage 6 Men - Daily Peloton
All day, the riders from Colavita-Sutter Home and Amore & Vita/Life Time Fitness worked the break, but it was OUCH's Tim Johnson and then Floyd Landis who lighted up the day. Johnson, who has been on four winning teams in the Nature Valley Grand Prix...
World-class cyclists comprise field of legends in Men's Pro 1,2 - The Union of Grass Valley
Another team expected to send a contingent of cyclists is the Ouch Pro Cycling Team, although its top rider, Floyd Landis, has not been a confirmed entry. Landis, who won the 2006 Tour de France only to be stripped of the title after testing positive...
Sutherland, Armstrong take Nature Valley - VeloNews
NVGP 2009 - Stage 6: Floyd Landis took an early flyer to make Bissell chase. The first big shot of the race was taken by Floyd Landis (Ouch), who made a solo move about five laps into the race, much to the delight of the crowd....
Sports Buzz: Menchev holds lead in Giro - Kansas City Star
OUCH is led by Floyd Landis, who won the 2006 Tour of France but saw his title stripped a year later after a long battle over a failed doping test. Landis joined OUCH after serving a two-year suspension. The third edition of the Tour of Missouri will...

Floyd Landis

Floyd Landis stage 18 Tdf 2006.jpg

1 Team names given are those prevailing at time of rider beginning association with that team.

Floyd Landis (born October 14, 1975) is an American cyclist, from California. He is an all-around rider, with special skills in climbing and time-trialing, and is extremely good on the descent. Landis turned professional in 1999 with the Mercury Cycling Team. He joined the US Postal Service team in 2002, and moved to the Phonak Hearing Systems team in 2005.

In 2006, Landis won the first edition of the Tour of California, before going on to finish first in the 2006 Tour de France. He was stripped of his Tour de France victory and fired from the Phonak team after a drug-control test suggested the presence of a skewed testosterone/epitestosterone ratio during Stage 17.

Landis maintained his innocence, and he mounted a vigorous defense. Although Landis' legal team documented inconsistencies in the handling and evaluation of his urine samples, the disqualification was upheld.

He was suspended from professional competition, through 30 January 2009, following an arbitration panel's 2 to 1 ruling on 20 September 2007. Landis appealed the result of the arbitration hearing to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, which subsequently upheld the panel's ruling.

During the 2008 season, Landis worked as an advisor for Rock Racing. After completion of the suspension, Landis joined OUCH Pro Cycling Team, with his first scheduled race being the 2009 Tour of California.

Floyd Landis is the second child and oldest son of Paul and Arlene Landis. His childhood home is located in the unincorporated village of Farmersville in West Earl Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

Landis used his first bike to ride while out fishing with a friend but quickly learned to enjoy riding for its own sake. At one point, he became determined to ride in a local race. Landis showed up wearing sweatpants because his religion forbade wearing shorts; he won anyway. More wins followed as Landis continued to enjoy the sport. Disturbed at his son's participation in what he considered a "useless" endeavor, Landis' father tried to discourage him from racing his bike by giving him extra chores. This left him no time to train during the day, so he would sneak out of the house at night to train, sometimes at 1 or 2 a.m. and often in the freezing cold. Landis' father, a devout Mennonite, received a tip that his son had been going out at night. He did not appreciate his son's passion for cycling and thought that he might be getting into drugs or alcohol. He often followed Landis at a distance to make sure he was not getting into trouble. Today, Landis' father has become a hearty supporter of his son and regards himself as one of Floyd's biggest fans.

Landis won the first mountain bike race he entered. In 1993, he was crowned junior national champion. He told friends he would win the Tour de France one day. At age 20, Landis moved to Southern California to train full time as a mountain biker. He soon established a reputation for toughness, once finishing a race riding on only his rims. However, his training regimen resembled that of a road biker, and in 1999 he switched to road cycling.

Landis performed well enough on the road that Lance Armstrong recruited him to U.S. Postal and chose Landis to ride alongside him in three straight Tours de France (all of which Armstrong won) from 2002 to 2004. Landis often pushed the pace in the mountains to break the pack before Armstrong made his final move. In the 2004 tour, Landis led Armstrong and a few of Armstrong's main rivals over the final climb of stage 17, putting on such an impressive display of strength that comedian and avid bike-racing fan Robin Williams dubbed him the "Mofo of the Mountains." Landis' performance led some observers to peg him as a possible team leader and future winner of the maillot jaune. Landis left US Postal later that year after receiving a better contract offer from the Phonak squad.

In the 2005 Tour de France, Landis finished ninth overall in the General Classification, his highest finish in the tour at that time.

Landis started the 2006 season strongly, with overall wins in the Amgen Tour of California, and then in the prestigious Paris-Nice, both week-long stage races. Winning Paris-Nice gave Landis 52 points in the UCI ProTour individual competition, starting him off in first place for 2006. Landis continued his display of strength with another overall win in the Ford Tour de Georgia, which took place from April 18 to April 23. In addition to winning the Tour de Georgia time trial, Landis managed to retain every second of his lead through the mountains with a close second place finish to Tom Danielson on Brasstown Bald, the most difficult climbing stage of the tour.

In the lead-up to the 2006 Tour de France, Landis was widely mentioned as a dark horse contender. The widespread assumption was that the winner would be either Ivan Basso or Jan Ullrich, who finished second and third respectively in the 2005 tour. In the days immediately before the race, the Operación Puerto doping case forced Basso and Ullrich to withdraw, leaving Landis prominent among a field of possible favorites.

Landis' Tour did not get off to an encouraging start. When his turn came to leave the start house in the Prologue time trial, he was not even there, having suffered a cut tire on his rear disc wheel. He finished ninth in the stage, just 9 seconds behind winner Thor Hushovd. His bad luck in the time trial continued during Stage 7, a 52 kilometer individual time trial to Rennes, when a handlebar malfunction forced him to switch bikes midway through the race. Nevertheless, Landis managed to finish in second place, one minute behind T-Mobile's Serhiy Honchar of Ukraine. Landis gained an important time advantage over other top contenders for the overall victory as the racers headed into its first mountain stages.

In the second mountain stage, he was among the few that could keep up with the fierce pace set by the riders of the Rabobank team. Landis finished the stage sharing third place with Denis Menchov and Levi Leipheimer. He retained the overall lead until Stage 13, when he and his team let a breakaway group get a half-hour lead in the stage. Among the group was his former teammate Óscar Pereiro, who took the overall lead by 89 seconds. The assumption was that Pereiro, who had lost half an hour in the three previous mountain stages, would not be a serious contender in the Alps, and that it would be easy to win the jersey back. Indeed, in Stage 15, on the slopes of the infamous l'Alpe d'Huez, Landis outrode Pereiro by almost two minutes, regaining the jersey and a 10-second overall lead in the process.

The next day was a different story. Landis "hit the wall" on the final ascent up La Toussuire, losing ten minutes. He fell from first to eleventh place in the general classification, and Pereiro took the overall lead and was eight minutes ahead of him. Landis reportedly had a lapse in concentration and failed to eat enough during the ride in this stage. With only two more stages where the general classification could reasonably be contested remaining in the Tour, one more mountain stage and one time trial, it was assumed his disastrous performance would mark the end of his chance to win the Tour. Many assumed that he might not even achieve a place on the podium. Among the exceptions to this pattern of thinking was five time tour winner Eddy Merckx. Merckx bet 100 euros against 75 to 1 odds that Landis would still win the Tour. His son, Axel Merckx, was on Landis's Phonak team for the 2006 Tour.

On the following day's Stage 17, Landis stunned the cycling world with a 120 km solo breakaway attack that has been called "one of the most epic days of cycling ever seen". The performance earned Landis comparisons to the famed rides of Eddy Merckx. At one point on the course, he was 9 minutes 4 seconds clear of Pereiro. Landis ultimately won the stage by nearly six minutes over Team CSC's Carlos Sastre and took more than seven minutes out of Pereiro's lead. At the end of the day, Landis sat in third place overall, 18 seconds behind Sastre and just 30 seconds behind the Tour leader. The next stage was a 57 km individual time trial, and Landis' strength in time trialing put him well within striking distance of regaining the tour lead. Landis finished third in the time trial of Stage 19, 89 seconds ahead of Pereiro and 3 minutes 31 seconds ahead of Sastre, to reclaim the yellow jersey with a lead of 59 seconds. Landis retained the lead through Stage 20, the procession into Paris, becoming the first placed finisher of the 2006 Tour de France by 57 seconds.

Following a drug test which was positive for the performance enhancing drug (testosterone) on Stage 17, he was eventually stripped of the 2006 Tour title, which reverted to Oscar Pereiro.

The powerful performance of Landis up to Stage 16 of the Tour de France and his comeback in Stage 17 is particularly notable given his hip ailment, osteonecrosis, which was revealed in an article in The New York Times during the 2006 Tour de France. This deterioration in the ball joint of his right hip stemmed from diminished blood supply and constricted blood vessels caused by scar tissue. The original injury that led to the formation of the scar tissue was a femoral neck fracture sustained in a bicycle crash during a training ride near his Southern California home in October 2002. Landis kept the ailment secret from his teammates, rivals, and the media until an announcement made while the 2006 Tour was underway. This same ailment also affected former multi-sport athlete Bo Jackson and American football player Brett Favre.

During the Tour, Landis was medically approved to take cortisone for this injury, a medication otherwise prohibited in professional cycling for its known potential for abuse. Landis himself called his win "a triumph of persistence" despite the pain. Landis underwent successful hip resurfacing surgery on September 27, 2006.

On July 27, 2006 the Phonak Cycling Team announced Floyd Landis had a urine test come back positive, having an unusually high ratio of the hormone testosterone to the hormone epitestosterone (T/E ratio) after the epic performance in Stage 17. Landis denied having doped and placed faith in a test using his backup sample. Phonak stated that he would be dismissed should the backup sample also test positive. It did, and Landis was suspended from professional cycling and dismissed from his team. Landis's personal physician later disclosed that the test had found a T/E ratio of 11:1 in Landis, far above the maximum allowable ratio of 4:1.

The test on Landis's Stage 17 A sample had been performed by the French government's anti-doping clinical laboratory, the National Laboratory for Doping Detection (LNDD). LNDD is a division of the Ministry of Youth, Sport, and Social Life and is accredited by WADA, the World Anti-Doping Agency.

Landis was eventually found guilty of doping and was disqualified. The second place rider, Óscar Pereiro, became the race's official winner. The decision of whether to strip Landis of his title was made by the International Cycling Union (UCI). Under UCI rules, the determination of whether or not a cyclist violated any rules must be made by the cyclist's national federation, in this case USA Cycling, which transferred the case to the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA).

Landis was also banned from the sport for two years, dated retroactively to January 2007. Even before the USADA's ruling on this matter, the controversy resulted in the disbandment of Landis's former team, Phonak.

On September 20, 2007 Landis was found guilty of doping by a 2-1 vote of the hearing committee, with Patrice Brunet and Richard McLaren in the majority, and Christopher Campbell dissenting. Landis appealed the decision of the committee to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. . The hearing ran from March 19 to March 24, 2008 in New York. The decision was announced on June 30th 2008 with the result that the conviction and ban were upheld. In September 2008 Landis moved in U.S. federal court to vacate the CAS arbitration award, contending that the procurement of the award was tainted by partiality and conflicts of interest. Additionally, Landis contested the $100,000 US "costs" award, characterizing it as a disguised punitive award.

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Floyd Landis doping case

The Floyd Landis doping case is a doping scandal that featured Floyd Landis, the alleged winner of the 2006 Tour de France. After a meltdown in Stage 16, where he had lost eight minutes, Landis spectacularly came back in Stage 17. However, a urine sample taken from Landis immediately after his Stage 17 win has twice tested positive for banned synthetic testosterone as well as a ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone nearly three times the limit allowed by World Anti-Doping Agency rules. The International Cycling Union has formally stripped him of his 2006 Tour de France title. Second place finisher Óscar Pereiro has been officially declared the winner. The only previous Tour de France winners to be disqualified were 1904 Tour de France winner Maurice Garin.

Landis was wearing the maillot jaune prior to Stage 16, but then lost eight minutes and seemed finished. However, Landis spectacularly came back in Stage 17, winning the stage and cutting his deficit to leader Óscar Pereiro to half a minute. Overtaking him after the Stage 19 time trial, Landis was celebrated as the winner of the 2006 Tour de France.

On July 27, 2006 the Phonak Cycling Team announced Floyd Landis had a urine test come back positive, having an unusually high ratio of the hormone testosterone to the hormone epitestosterone (T/E ratio) after the epic performance in Stage 17. Landis denied having doped and placed faith in a test using his backup sample. Phonak stated that he would be dismissed should the backup sample also test positive. It did, and Landis was suspended from professional cycling and dismissed from his team. Landis's personal physician later disclosed that the test had found a T/E ratio of 11:1 in Landis, far above the maximum allowable ratio of 4:1. The test on Landis's Stage 17 A sample had been performed by the French government's anti-doping clinical laboratory, the National Laboratory for Doping Detection (LNDD). LNDD is a division of the Ministry of Youth, Sport, and Social Life and is accredited by WADA, the World Anti-Doping Agency. The B sample confirmed the A sample, and also tested positive for an unnatural source of testosterone.

On May 14, 2007 an arbitration hearing began between the USADA and Landis regarding the doping allegations. On September 20, 2007, the arbitrators found Landis guilty of doping.

Landis later backtracked from some of the assertions, saying, "The whisky idea was not mine and the dehydration was a theory from the lawyers I hired in Spain to represent me".

On September 8, 2006, Landis's attorney announced that he would formally request that the case be dropped on the grounds that LNDD's 370 page report revealed inconsistencies in the way the samples were handled.

On August 1, 2006, media reports said that synthetic testosterone had been detected in the A sample, using the carbon isotope ratio test, CIR, conducted at LNDD. The presence of synthetic testosterone means that some of the testosterone in Landis’s body came from an external source and was not naturally produced by his own system. These results conflict with Landis's public assertion that it was a natural occurrence.

The CIR test is used to distinguish between testosterone produced naturally by the athlete's body and synthetic testosterone introduced from an outside source. The test is performed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS). According to Gary I. Wadler, M.D., a member of the World Anti-Doping Agency, the carbon isotope ratio test needs to be done only once, on either an A or on a B sample, particularly if the athlete’s T/E ratio is high as in Landis's case.

It has been suggested that Landis may have been using testosterone over the long term but either masking it or diluting it to avoid detection. The positive test result would therefore have been from a mistake with the alleged doping program on one day.

Landis gave a total of eight samples during the 2006 Tour de France. As part of its prosecution, USADA had remaining "B" portions of the other samples tested by the French laboratory. Four of those samples also showed the presence of synthetic testosterone.

On September 11, 2006, Landis asked a U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) review board to dismiss the doping charges against him. Landis's request was made on the basis that the A and B urine samples from stage 17 of the Tour de France do not meet the established World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) criteria for a positive doping offense. Landis's lawyer said in a statement: "The single testosterone/epitestosterone analysis in this case is replete with fundamental, gross errors." The lawyer also claims that the positive finding on the B sample came from a sample number not assigned to Landis.

The review board notified Landis on September 18 of its recommendation that USADA proceed with the disciplinary process. Howard Jacobs, attorney for Landis, requested an open hearing by the American Arbitration Association to contest potential sanctions against the athlete.

On September 20, 2007, Landis' doping accusation was upheld by an arbitration panel deciding between him and USADA and will be banned for two years. In response to this, International Cycling Union has formally stripped him of his 2006 Tour de France title. Second place finisher Óscar Pereiro has been officially declared the winner. The only previous Tour de France winners to be disqualified were 1904 Tour de France winner Maurice Garin.

Landis was also banned from the sport for two years, dated retroactively to January 2007. Even before the USADA's ruling on this matter, the controversy resulted in the disbandment of Landis's former team, Phonak.

Landis agreed not to participate in any racing in France in 2007 to allow him to postpone a hearing of his case there for as long as possible. On December 19, 2007, the French Anti-Doping Agency found him guilty of doping, and issued a two-year suspension, which bars him from racing in France until early 2009. He has not, so far, appealed that decision, though it is likely that he was waiting for the result of his first Court of Arbitration for Sport appeal before doing so.

After this verdict, Landis tried reverse this decision at the Court of Arbitration for Sport. On June 20, 2008, he lost this appeal. In September 2008 Landis moved in U.S. federal court to vacate the CAS arbitration award, contending that the procurement of the award was tainted by partiality and conflicts of interest. Additionally, Landis contested the $100,000 US "costs" award, characterizing it as a disguised punitive award.

On July 28, 2006 Landis appeared on "Larry King Live" to explain his situation and reiterate his innocence. Seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong phoned the show to express support for his former teammate. Armstrong expressed skepticism of the French laboratory that conducted Landis's drug test, noting it is the same laboratory involved in some of the doping allegations against him. Armstrong has continuously expressed support for Landis and stated his conviction that the process is biased against athletes.

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List of doping cases in cycling

Memorial to Tom Simpson on Mont Ventoux

The following is an incomplete list of doping cases in cycling, where doping means "use of physiological substances or abnormal method to obtain an artificial increase of performance". It is neither a 'list of shame' nor a list of illegality, as the first laws weren't passed until 1965 and their implementation is an ongoing developing process. Thus the list contains doping incidents, those who have tested positive for a illegal performance-enhancing drugs, prohibited recreational drugs or have been suspended by a sporting body for failure to submit to mandatory drug testing. It also contains and clarifies cases where subsequent evidence and explanation has shown the parties to be innocent of illegal practice.

In 1963 the Council of Europe gave a definition of doping.

In 1886 an English cyclist is popularly reputed to have died after drinking a blend of cocaine, caffeine and "stricnina", supposedly in the Bordeaux to Paris race. This was included in the 1997 International Olympic Committee study on the Historical Evolution of Doping Phenomenon, and listed as the presumed first death due to doping during a competition. The report did allow that in this period it was common practice, and not illegal. This is alternatively reported as trimethyl poisoning. However, the main Bordeaux-Paris race did not start until 1891, and the cyclist who supposedly died in 1886, Arthur Linton, actually finished second in 1896 and died a few weeks later, reportedly from a combination of drug induced exhaustion and typhoid fever. Linton was managed by the notorious Choppy Warburton - See 1896 below. The truth of the story may be lost or apocryphal.

Warburton was banned from the sport after unproven claims of massive doping in the 1896 Bordeaux-Paris and the early deaths of Arthur Linton, Tom Linton and Jimmy Michael.

The acceptance of drug-taking in the Tour de France was so complete by 1930 that the rule book, distributed by Henri Desgrange, reminded riders that drugs would not be provided by the organisers.

In 1956, following the 14th Stage of the 1956 Tour de France, the entire Belgian team went down with a mystery illness. It was officially attributed to their having eaten 'bad fish' at dinner, an excuse also used in 1962 and 1991.

The Wiel's-Groene Leeuw affair. At the stage from Luchon to Carcassonne of the 1962 Tour de France, twelve riders fell ill and said 'bad fish' was the cause. Tour doctor Pierre Dumas realized they had all been given the same drug by the same soigneur. Hans Junkermann of Germany had been ill overnight so the start was delayed by 10 minutes, but at the first hill he got off his bike and sat by the roadside, telling onlookers "I ate bad fish at the hotel last night." Eleven other riders abandoned the Tour that day, including the former leader, Willy Schroeder, the 1960 winner Gastone Nencini and a future leader, Karl-Heinz Kunde. Jacques Goddet wrote that he suspected doping but nothing was proven - other than that none of the hotels had served fish the previous night.

Testing began at the Tour de France. Raymond Poulidor was the first rider to be tested in the Tour. He said "I was strolling down the corridor in ordinary clothes when I came across two guys who asked if I was a rider. They made me go into a room, I pissed into some bottles and they closed them without sealing them. Then they took my name, my date of birth, without asking for anything to check my identity. I could have been anyone, and they could have done anything they liked with the bottles." Next morning, on the way to the Pyrenees the riders climbed off, began walking and shouting protests.

Performance-enhancing drugs became illegal on June 1, 1965. The first riders to be caught were three amateurs, two Spanish (Luis Santamarina) and one British, who were thrown out of the Milk Race when they tested positive for amphetamines after Professor Arnold Beckett first applied sensitive gas chromatographic techniques to monitor drug abuse.

In 1974, an advance in testing caught 13 prominent riders including Herman van Springel.

In 1977 the Belgian doctor, Professor Michel Debackere, perfected a test for pémoline, an amphetamine-like drug, and caught three of the biggest names in Belgium: Eddy Merckx, Freddy Maertens and Michel Pollentier.

1982 Vuelta a España - Angel Arroyo won the 1982 Vuelta a España, but 48 hours later it emerged that in the doping control that was conducted after the stage 17 Arroyo tested positive. Three other riders also failed the doping test after stage 17: Alberto Fernández, Vicente Belda and Pedro Muñoz Machín Rodríguez. The four riders were said to have tested positive for Methylphenidate (which is also known as Ritalin), a stimulant. Methylphenidate was a popular drug for doping in cycling at that time. Arroyo and his team denied the allegations and asked for a second analysis of the sample. The B analysis confirmed the first positive test. Arroyo was assigned a 10 minute penalty and stripped of his Vuelta win which was given to Lejarreta. With the 10 minute penalty Arroyo went down to 13th place in the classification. The disqualification of the winner of the Vuelta has been called the worst scandal that has ever hit the race on the official La Vuelta website.

Systematic Blood doping at the 1984 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles. The USA cycling team's successes were coloured by revelations that riders had blood transfusions before their events, a practice known as blood-doping. The transfusions were to increase red blood cells in riders' blood. That would take more oxygen to their muscles. They received the blood of others with similar blood types. The practice, instigated by national coach Eddie Borysewicz, was not against Olympic rules although Games medical guidelines discouraged it. Borysewicz and a colleague, Ed Burke, set up a clinic in a Los Angeles motel room and four of the seven athletes who had transfusions won medals. The US federation banned blood-doping in January 1985. Borysewicz and Burke were fined a month's pay. Mike Fraysse, a former president of the federation, was demoted from first to third vice-president.

Steve Hegg, won a gold and a silver; Rebecca Twigg, Pat McDonough and Leonard Nitz won silver medals. The others were John Beckman, Mark Whitehead and Brent Emery. They were identified in the subsequent inquiry as having had transfusions. The rest of the team had refused.

The Emergence of EPO - In the late 1980s a genetically engineered drug created for people suffering from kidney failure became a substance abused by athletes seeking enhanced stamina and performance. The drug is recombinant erythropoietin, known as EPO, which was developed by the Amgen company. Recombinant EPO is a genetically engineered copy of a hormone normally produced in the kidney and was not detectable by any test at the time.

EPO stimulates the bone marrow in order to increase red blood cell production and thus the body's ability to carry oxygen. A study of 15 Swedish athletes by the Stockholm Institute of Gymnastics and Sports found an improvement of nearly 10 percent in aerobic performance. The increased thickness of the blood also increases the risk of blood clotting which can block blood vessels causing a heart attack or stroke, especially in the middle of the night when the heart's rate is lowest. Doctors and blood specialists concluded that the drug could have been implicated in the deaths of as many as 18 European professional bicycle racers between 1987 and 1991. One of them was Johannes Draaijer, a 27-year-old Dutch rider who finished 130th in the 1989 Tour de France. Although the autopsy did not specify the cause of death Draaijer’s wife later told the German news magazine Der Spiegel that her husband became sick after using EPO.

The PDM Affair, In November, 1997 Cyclingnews.com reported about an inquiry that had just been made public in The Netherlands. This inquiry appeared to reveal doping in the PDM cycling team. The doctor of the team from between 1990 and 1991 was Wim Sanders who was the centre of the investigation which was reported to have been initiated when the General Manager of the team, Manfred Krikke, called the FIOD (Fiscal Information and Investigation Service) to investigate the medical business of the team. It was said that Wim Sanders supplied anabolic steroids and EPO to the team and was responsible for the ‘intralipid affair’of the 1991 Tour de France, when the entire team withdrew due to what was reported at the time as food poisoning. In a 2008 TV documentary; team members and team doctor Wim Sanders explain how the cause was in fact careless storage of Intralipid, a nutritional aid with which the team members had been injected.

According to cyclingnews.com, 1990 was the height of the drug taking in the team and during this year, two riders had to stop with acute heart problems; whether this refers to stopping with professional cycling or performance enchaning drugs is unclear. Team manager Gisbers denied any knowledge of doping in the team.

PDM. Some teams used sophisticated recovery techniques whereby riders were put on a drip during the night and fed nutrients such as Vitamin B12. This practice was blamed when the entire PDM team went down with a fever on the 10th Stage of the Tour de France. PDM management blamed a virus although only riders were infected. Ten days later a press release stated that the team had used recovery substances which were past their sell-by date.

The Telekom Affair, In May 2007, several former riders admitted to using banned substances (including EPO) while riding for the team in the mid 1990s, including Erik Zabel, Rolf Aldag, Brian Holm, Bjarne Riis, Bert Dietz, Udo Bölts and Christian Henn including the seasons in which Riis and Ullrich won the Tour de France. Team doctors Andreas Schmid and Lothar Heinrich has also confessed to participating and administering banned substances. The latter was Team Telekom's sporting director until May 3, 2007 when he was suspended following allegations published in former team member Jef d'Hont's book.

On May 25, 2007 Riis issued a statement confessing to taking EPO, growth hormone and cortisone for 5 years, from 1993 to 1998, including during his victory in the 1996 Tour de France. Earlier in the week, five of Riis' former teammates from Team Telekom confessed to having used banned substances during the 1990s when Riis won the Tour. Riis said that he bought and injected the EPO himself, and team coach Walter Godefroot turned a blind eye to the drug use on the team.. Riis removed from the official record books of Tour de France, but in July 2008 he is written back in the books along with additional notes about his use of doping.

The Festina Affair is the events that surround several doping scandals, doping investigations and confessions of riders to doping that occurred during and after the 1998 Tour de France. The affair began when a large haul of doping products was found in a car of the Festina cycling team just before the start of the race which led to an investigation, this was followed by the re-opening of a separate case into the TVM team and a subsequent searching of many teams during the race. The affair highlighted systematic doping and suspicion of a widespread network of doping in many teams of the Tour de France and was characterised by the constant negative publicity of the case, police searches of hotels, a spate of confessions by retired and current riders to doping, the detainment and arrest of many team personnel, protests by riders in the race as well as mass withdrawal of several teams from the race.

1999 Tour de France - In 2005 the French sports daily L'Équipe accused Lance Armstrong of using the performance-enhancing drug EPO during 1999 Tour de France. For years, it had been impossible to detect the drug, called erythropoietin, until UCI began using a urine test for EPO in 2001. According to the newspaper, tests on 1999 urine samples were done to help scientists improve their detection methods. The newspaper said 12 samples had revealed EPO use, including six from Armstrong. In 2006 a UCI appointed independent lawyer, Emile Vrijman, released a report in 2006 claiming that Lance Armstrong should be cleared of any suspicion surrounding the retrospective testing of the 1999 Tour de France. Vrijman denounced the manner in which the doping laboratory in Châtenay-Malabry carried out its research, claiming that there were too many procedural and chain of custody gaps. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) rejected it, calling it defamatory to WADA and its officers and employees, as well as the accredited laboratory involved.

In 2005, French daily 'Le Journal du Dimanche' reported that Spanish rider Manuel Beltrán, Danish Bo Hamburger and Colombian Joaquim Castelblanco were suspected of being among those whose frozen urine samples reportedly tested positive.

2001 Giro d'Italia - The Giro was overshadowed by a series of scandals related to doping. Police raided the hotels of several teams during the race, uncovering a variety of banned substances. Italian Dario Frigo, who was fighting for the race lead at the time, was expelled from the race as a result. The week prior to the raid saw Pascal Hervé and Riccardo Forconi expelled from the race after testing positive for EPO. Italian police carried out anti-drugs raids on a number of hotels in the town of San Remo where the participants of the race were staying. About 200 officers were involved in the raid. Police officers search the rooms of riders from all 20 teams, confiscating medicines. The organizers decided to cancel the 18th stage after second-placed Dario Frigo was sacked by Fassa Bortolo team after illegal drugs were found in his room. Frigo later admitted carrying them as security in case he needed a boost during the final stages of the race. Italian Marco Pantani was banned for six months after an insulin syringe was found in his room.

Oil for Drugs was an Italian doping case against doctor Carlos Santuccione and a number of accomplices, started in 2003. He was accused of administering prohibited doping products to professional and amateur athletes, to enhance their performance as well as being involved in doping network across Italy.

David Fuentes of California tested positive for an anabolic steroid at the Redlands Classic. He protested the USADA and controversially raced, and won, during this protest period. He was ultimately found guilty and sentenced to a two year suspension that included the year of protest in which he raced and won. He was never ordered to return any of his winnings.

2006 Tour de France was marred by doping scandals. Prior to the tour, numerous riders - including the two favourites Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso - were expelled from the Tour due to their link with the Operación Puerto doping case. After the end of the race, the apparent winner Floyd Landis was found to have failed a drug test after stage 17; Landis contested the result and demanded arbitration. On September 20, 2007 Landis was found guilty and suspended retroactive to January 30, 2007 and stripped of the 2006 Tour de France title making Óscar Pereiro the title holder .

Operación Puerto doping case (meaning Operation Mountain Pass) is a Spanish doping case against doctor Eufemiano Fuentes and a number of accomplices, started in May 2006. He is accused of administering prohibited doping products to 200 professional athletes, to enhance their performance. Tour de France's favorites Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso were expelled from the Tour de France before the race started.

2007 Tour de France - The event was affected by a series of scandals and speculations related to doping. By the end of the Tour, two cyclists were dismissed for testing positive, the wearer of the yellow jersey, Michael Rasmussen was voluntarily retired by his team for lying about his whereabouts and missing doping tests. A fourth rider was confirmed to having used doping while in a training session prior to the 2007 Tour and a fifth rider tested positive late in the race, with his result being officially announced just after the end of the Tour. Along the way, two teams contesting the competition were asked to withdraw due to positive tests of at least one member.

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Phonak (cycling team)

Team Phonak in Paris in the final stage of the 2006 Tour de France.

Phonak (UCI Team Code: PHO) was a Swiss professional cycling team active from 2002 until 2006. The Phonak team was one of the 20 teams invited to the first UCI ProTour for the 2005 season, where the team showed consistency. Though only winning one overall race in Santiago Botero's victory in the one-week race Tour de Romandie, the team finished second in the team ranking on the 2005 ProTour circuit.

16 June 2006, it was announced that presenting sponsor iShares (a subsidiary of Barclays Global Investors N.A.) had signed a three-year contract to become the team's title sponsor beginning in 2007. Thus, the team's name was to become iShares. However, 15 August 2006, Andy Rihs, owner of Phonak Hearing Systems, stated that the deal had been called off after team leader Floyd Landis tested positive for high levels of testosterone, and that the team will be disbanded at the end of the 2006 season.

During the 2004 season it centered on giving Tyler Hamilton the best possible support for winning the 2004 Tour de France. When he crashed and then withdrew from that race, and later was suspended for blood doping, the support riders got a chance to prove their worth in other races. Unfortunately, Tyler Hamilton was not the last rider to be removed for doping, causing the main sponsor Phonak to be disinclined to continue its sponsorship beyond the 2006 season.

The riders accused of the 2004 doping are Tyler Hamilton (appeal dismissed, now banned from competition until September 22, 2006), Santiago Pérez (positive, two-year ban ), Oscar Camenzind (positive, ended his career), Fabrizio Guidi (acquitted, active on Phonak) and Sascha Urweider (fired by the team after he tested positive and now awaiting trial).

5 August 2006, the Phonak team dismissed 2006 Tour de France winner Floyd Landis after confirmation that a urine sample taken immediately after his Stage 17 win twice tested positive for banned synthetic testosterone as well as a ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone nearly three times the limit allowed by World Anti-Doping Agency rules. After a review of Landis' appeal, his Tour de France title was stripped by the UCI on September 20, 2007.

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Source : Wikipedia