3.420945945923 (1480)
Posted by bender 02/27/2009 @ 17:39

Tags : isi, intelligence and espionage, world

News headlines
US, Pakistan gave birth to Taliban: Zardari -
'I think it was part of your past and our past, and the ISI and the CIA created them [the Taliban] together,' Zardari told the NBC news channel in an interview on Monday. Zardari's remarks come after the US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton,...
CIA, ISI together created Taliban, says Zardari - Press Trust of India
Washington, May 11 (PTI) In a frank admission, Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari today said America's intelligence agency CIA and his country's ISI together created the "monster" called Taliban. Taliban was "part of our past and your past,...
Tension in Kashmir as separatist leader Sajjad Lone stands in election - Times Online
Ajit Doval, a former director of India's Intelligence Bureau, told The Times that Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), the country's powerful spy agency would be among those wrongfooted if ordinary Kashmiris chose to vote in Indian elections....
Innovative Silicon Selected to Present at ICSI-6 - Business Wire (press release)
ISi and the Z-RAM technology have received numerous industry awards, including the World Economic Forum's selection of ISi as a 2008 Technology Pioneer, and IEEE Spectrum Magazine's selection of Z-RAM as the 2007 “Emerging Technology Most Likely to...
Pakistan's intelligence agency 'is like a woman with multiple lovers' - The State
In fact, the ISI, as it's known, is part of the Pakistani military, headed by a senior Army general and subject to the military chain of command. "It's a very disciplined organization, but with a very large freedom of action....
Studies of Monocular Trials of Glaucoma Medications: Conflicting ... - Archives of Ophthalmology
FULL TEXT | ISI | PUBMED 4. Takahashi M, Higashide T, Sakurai M, Sugiyama K. Discrepancy of the intraocular pressure response between fellow eyes in one-eye trials versus bilateral treatment: verification with normal subjects. J Glaucoma....
Should the retirement age be raised? -
By ADRIAN CHANG - BusinessDay New Zealand must consider raising the retirement age says the Investment Savings and Insurance Association (ISI). The ISI said this today in the wake of Australia's overnight budget, in which the Government announced it...
Empire ISIS & Apple Bottoms Participate in New Promotion - theMOVEMENTZ
Apple Bottoms, one of North America's leading brands in women's fashion & international sensation Empire ISIS sign a partnership deal promoting young women. “It made sense for us to sign with Apple Bottoms because ISIS is an artist that promotes women...
Good News For The Revs, Bad News For Fire -
Chicago Fire, May 2008 (ISI) Fire, May 2008 (ISI) CHICACO, Ill., May 11--The start of the year has been anything but a breeze for the New England Revolution. Saturday's contest against the Chicago Fire was a step in the right direction for the club as...
Biomechanical forces promote embryonic haematopoiesis - (subscription)
Dynamic activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by Hsp90. Nature 392, 821–824 (1998) | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort | Haar, JL & Ackerman, GA A phase and electron microscopic study of vasculogenesis and erythropoiesis in the yolk sac of...



İsi is a village and municipality in the Masally Rayon of Azerbaijan. It has a population of 186.

To the top

Institute for Scientific Information

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was founded by Eugene Garfield in 1960. It was acquired by Thomson Scientific & Healthcare in 1992, became known as Thomson ISI and now as Thomson Scientific. It is a component of the multi-billion dollar Thomson Reuters Corporation.

The ISI offers bibliographic database services. Its speciality is citation indexing and analysis, a field pioneered by Garfield. It maintains citation databases covering thousands of academic journals, including a continuation of its longtime print-based indexing service the Science Citation Index (SCI), as well as the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). All of these are available via ISI's Web of Knowledge database service. This database allows a researcher to identify which articles have been cited most frequently, and who has cited them.

The ISI also publishes annual Journal Citation Reports which list an impact factor for each of the journals that it tracks. Within the scientific community, journal impact factors play a large but controversial role in determining the kudos attached to a scientist's published research record.

A list of over 14,000 journals is maintained by the ISI. The list includes over 1100 arts and humanities journals as well as scientific journals. Listing is based on published selection criteria and is an important indicator of journal quality and impact.

The ISI also publishes a list of highly cited researchers, one of the factors included in the Academic Ranking of World Universities published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

To the top

Import substitution industrialization

Customs unions.png

Import Substitution Industrialization (also called ISI) is a trade and economic policy based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products. Adopted in many Latin American countries from the 1930s until the late 1980s, and in some Asian and African countries from the 1950s on, ISI was theoretically organized in the works of Raúl Prebisch, Hans Singer, Celso Furtado and other structuralist economics thinkers, and gained prominence with the creation of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or CEPAL). Insofar as its suggestion of state-induced industrialization through governmental spending, it is largely influenced by keynesian thinking, as well as the infant industry arguments adopted by some highly industrialized countries, such as the United States, until the 1940s. ISI is often associated with dependency theory, though the latter adopts a much broader sociological outlook which also addresses cultural elements sought to be linked with underdevelopment.

Even though ISI is a development theory, its political implementation and theoretical rationale are rooted in trade theory. Baer contends that all countries which have industrialized after the United Kingdom went through a stage of ISI in which the large part of investment in industry was directed to replace imports (Baer, pp.95-96). In his book Kicking away the ladder, Korean economist Ha-Joon Chang also argues, based on economic history, that all major developed countries – including the United Kingdom – used interventionist economic policies to promote industrialization and protected national companies until they had reached a level of development in which they were able to compete in the global market, after which those countries adopted free market discourses directed at other countries in order to obtain two objectives: to open their markets to local products and to prevent them from adopting the same development strategies which led to the developed nations' industrialization.

As a set of development policies, ISI policies are theoretically grounded on the Singer-Prebisch thesis, on the infant industry argument, and on keynesian economics. From these postulates it derives a body of practices, which are commonly: an active industrial policy to subsidize and orchestrate production of strategic substitutes, protective barriers to trade (e.g. tariffs), an overvalued currency to help manufacturers import capital goods (heavy machinery), and discouragement of foreign direct investment.

In many cases, however, these postulates did not apply: on several occasions, the Brazilian ISI process, which occurred from 1930 until the end of the 1980s, involved currency devaluation as a means of boosting exports and discouraging imports (thus promoting the consumption of locally manufactured products), as well as the adoption of different exchange rates for importing capital goods and for importing consumer goods. Moreover, governmental policies toward investment were not always opposed to foreign capital: the Brazilian industrialization process was based on a tripod which involved governmental, private, and foreign capital – the first being directed to infrastructure and heavy industry, the second to manufacturing consumer goods, and the third, to the production of durable goods (such as automobiles). Volkswagen, Ford, GM and Mercedes all established in Brazil in the 1950s and 1960's.

The major and unifying postulate of ISI can thus be described as an attempt to reduce foreign dependency of a country's economy through local production of industrialized products, whether through national or foreign investment, for domestic or foreign consumption. It should be noted, as well, that import substitution does not mean import elimination: as a country industrializes, it begins to import other kinds of goods which become necessary for its industry, such as petroleum, chemicals, and the raw materials it may lack. The real objective of import substitution is therefore not to eliminate trade, but to lift it to higher stage – that of exporting value-added products, which are not as susceptible to economic fluctuations as raw materials, according to the Singer-Prebisch thesis.

Conceptually, ISI could be outward-looking in that it promotes exports (like in Asia, especially South Korea) or inward-looking without significant links to world markets (like in Latin America). The decision to adopt one or another perspective is frequently determined by external factors. The industrialization of South Korea and other Asian Tigers, for example, was in line with the United States's geopolitical strategy of building a "contention belt" of capitalist countries around China and other communist states in Asia, which involved the granting of incentives for these countries to export to the United States. In contrast, Latin American countries, which were outside the main areas of geopolitical concern, did not receive these incentives – despite requests that they be extended to them, for example in the Pan-American Operation proposed by Brazilian President Juscelino Kubitscheck. Consequently, Latin American countries concentrated on producing for their domestic markets, or on building expanded areas which could absorb scale-production, such as the Latin American Free Trade Association (ALALC) and the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI), which were never fully implemented.

Both in inward and outward-oriented ISI, however, external competition by imports in the markets of the targeted industries are discouraged, by tariffs, devalued currencies and other factors. Hence, policies to pursue ISI have a strong protectionist component and are not favored by advocates of absolute free trade.

Import substitution policies were adopted by most nations in Latin America from the 1930s until the late 1980s. The initial date is largely attributed to the impact of the Great Depression of the 1930s, when Latin American countries, which exported primary products and imported almost all of the industrialized goods they consumed, were prevented from importing due to a sharp decline in their foreign sales. This served as an incentive for the domestic production of the goods they needed.

The first steps in import substitution were largely untheoretical and based on pragmatic choices of how to face the limitations imposed by recession, even though Populist governments in Argentina (Perón) and Brazil (Vargas) had the precedent of Fascist Italy (and, to some extent, of the Soviet Union) as inspirations of state-induced industrialization. Positivist thinking – which sought a "strong government" to "modernize" society – played a major influence on Latin American military thinking in the 20th century. Among the officials – many of whom rose to power, like Perón and Vargas – industrialization (specially steel production) was synonymous of "progress" and was naturally placed as a priority.

ISI only gained a theoretical foundation in the 1950s, when Argentine economist and UNECLAC head Raúl Prebisch was a visible proponent of the idea, as well as Brazilian economist Celso Furtado. Prebisch believed that developing countries needed to create forward linkages domestically, and could only succeed by creating the industries that used the primary products already being produced by these countries. The tariffs were designed to allow domestic infant industries to prosper.

ISI was most successful in countries with large populations and income levels which allowed for the consumption of locally produced products. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and, to a lesser extent, Chile, Uruguay and Venezuela, had the most success with ISI (Blouet and Blouet, 2002). This is so because while the investment to produce cheap consumer products may pay off in a small consumer market, the same can not be said for capital-intensive industries – such as automobiles and heavy machinery –, which depend on larger consumer markets to survive. Thus, smaller and poorer countries, such as Ecuador, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic, could only implement ISI to a limited extent.

To overcome the difficulties of implementing ISI in small-scale economies, proponents of this economic policy – some within UNECLAC – suggested two alternatives to enlarge consumer markets: income distribution within each country, through agrarian reform and other initiatives aimed at bringing Latin America's enormous marginalized population into the consumer market, and regional integration through initiatives such as the Latin American Free Trade Association (ALALC), which would allow for the products of one country to be sold in another.

In Latin American countries where ISI was most successful, it was accompanied by structural changes to the government. Old neocolonial governments were replaced by more or less democratic governments. Banks and utilities and certain foreign-owned companies were nationalized or transferred ownership to local businesspeople.

Many economists contend that ISI failed in Latin America, being one of many factors leading to the so-called Lost decade of Latin American economics. Other economists contend that ISI led to the "Mexican Miracle," the period that lasted from 1940 to 1975 in which economic growth of 6 percent or more.

The inward-looking variant of ISI was rejected by most nations in East Asia in the 1960s, and some economists attribute the superior performance of East Asia in the 1970s and 1980s to this difference in policies. Indeed, East Asian policies are most commonly not referred to as ISI, even though some would argue the rationale and execution of policy design largely followed those recipes.

Most East Asian countries, while rejecting the inward-looking component of classical import substitution policies, also maintained high tariff barriers. The strategy followed by those countries was to focus subsidies and investment on industries which would make goods for export, and not to attempt to undervalue the local currency. In pursuing this and to boost its competitiveness in the 1970s, South Korea made large investments into heavy and chemical industries, such as shipbuilding, steel and petrochemicals. This focus on export markets allowed them to create competitive industries.

It should be contended, however, that outward-looking development did not pose as a choice for many countries. As mentioned before, for geopolitical reasons, many East Asian countries received open market policies and incentives for industrialization from the United States government, as a means of creating a "contention belt" of capitalist countries around communist nations in Asia. For instance: from 1953 until 1960, the United States financed 70% of South Korea's imports of commodities, which allowed it to rise from a rural producer to an exporter of manufactured goods in just seven years (Hong & Krueger, Trade and Development in Korea. Seoul: Korea Development Institute, 1975). With such a clear path for development laid out, South Korea naturally invested in educating its population to meet the needs of its exports-driven industry.

The major advantages claimed for ISI include: increases in domestic employment (reducing dependence on labour non-intensive industries such as raw resource extraction and export); resilience in the face of a global economic shocks (such as recessions and depressions); less long-distance transportation of goods (and concomitant fuel consumption and greenhouse gas and other emissions). The disadvantages claimed for ISI is that the industries that it creates are inefficient and obsolete, and that the focus on industrial development impoverishes local commodity producers who are primarily rural.

In most manufacturing processes a point of output is reached after which the cost of producing every additional unit of output diminishes. Different types of industries, given their different production functions (combinations of capital and labor, etc.) obtain different scale thresholds or minimum levels of output necessarily to begin accruing cost savings from large-scale output. For example, a mechanical pencil factory may need to sell 5 million units of output (pencils) each year before it can achieve economies of scale of production – efficient level of production. An automobile industry may need to sell 519, 001 units of output (cars) to achieve the same level of efficiency. Clearly, the more units of anything manufactured you can sell the better the chances that your factories (consumer goods and intermediate, and ultimately capital goods) will achieve economies of scale, efficient production. In a free market global economy, industries that produce inefficiently (without obtaining economies of scale of production) under the protections of ISI have been subject to criticism from more efficient foreign industries – a force driving the neo-liberal campaign for open markets. What determines whether a country obtains efficiency – economies of scale in production? Market size (number of consumers, population) and purchasing power (usually but unreliably indicated by GNP/capita). Hence, larger, richer economies were more likely to make ISI succeed efficiently, whereas smaller countries with lower per capita incomes were less likely to succeed with ISI.

To the top

Independent Schools Inspectorate

The Independent Schools Inspectorate (ISI) is an organisation responsible for the inspection of independent schools in England which are affiliated to the Independent Schools Council (ISC). The Inspectorate is funded by, but is operationally independent of, the Independent Schools Council and has it works monitored by the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted). It is empowered to carry out inspections through an agreement with Ofsted and the Department for Education and Skills, independent schools which are not members of the ISC are inspected by Ofsted.

In May 2006 the Chief Inspector of the ISI was Christine RyanISI.. Its Inspectors include leading head teachers and academics, such as Tony Little, headmaster of Eton.

To the top

Infrared Spatial Interferometer

The Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) is an astronomical interferometer array of three 65 inch (1.65 m) telescopes operating in the mid-infrared. The telescopes are fully mobile and their current site on Mount Wilson allows for placements as far as 70 m apart, giving the resolution of a telescope of that diameter. The signals are converted to radio frequencies through heterodyne circuits and then combined electronically using techniques copied from radio astronomy. ISI is run by the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory. The longest (70m) baseline provides a resolution of 0.003 arcsec at a wavelength of 11 micrometers. On July 9, 2003, ISI recorded the first closure phase aperture synthesis measurements in the mid infrared.

To the top

Citation index

A citation index is an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents.

The first citation indices were legal citators such as Shepard's Citations (1873). In 1960, Eugene Garfield's Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, starting with the Science Citation Index (SCI), and later expanding to produce the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). As of 2006, there are other sources of such data, such as Google Scholar.

Each of these products offer an index of citations between publications and a mechanism to establish which documents cite which other documents. The different products offer different ways to access the citation list and also display their citation index differently. They differ widely in cost: WOK and Scopus are among the highest-cost subscription databases; the others mentioned are free.

While citation indexes were originally designed for information retrieval purposes, they are increasingly used for bibliometrics and other studies involving research evaluation. Citation data is also the basis of the popular journal impact factor.

There is large body of literature on citation analysis, sometimes called scientometrics, a term invented by Vasily Nalimov, or more specifically bibliometrics. The field blossomed with the advent of the Science Citation Index, which now covers source literature from 1900 on. The leading journals of the field are Scientometrics and the Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology. ASIST also hosts an electronic mailing list called SIGMETRICS at ASIST. This method is undergoing a resurgence based on the wide dissemination of the Web of Science and Scopus subscription databases in many universities, and the universally-available free citation tools such as CiteBase, CiteSeerX, Google Scholar, and Windows Live Academic.

In a classic 1965 paper, Derek J. de Solla Price described the inherent linking characteristic of the SCI as "Networks of Scientific Papers" . The links between citing and cited papers became dynamic when the SCI began to be published online. The Social Sciences Citation Index became one of the first databases to be mounted on the Dialog system in 1972. With the advent of the CD-ROM edition, linking became even easier and enabled the use of bibliographic coupling (M. M. Kessler) for finding related records. In 1973 Henry Small published his classic work on Co-Citation analysis which became a self-organizing classification system that led to document clustering experiments and eventually an Atlas of Science later called Research Reviews.

ISI also published Current Contents, a paper publication reproducing journal title pages, widely used at the time for keeping up with the current literature, a technique known as selective dissemination of information (SDI), periodic updates of literature searches based on user profiles. The combination with SCI permitted the first use in 1965 of earlier cited references as a factor in the selection, in a product called Automatic Subject Citation Alert. This continues in electronic form as the ISI Personal Alert; this feature is now almost universally available in any bibliometric database and for most electronic journals. In the case of SCI/SSCI profiles contained not only traditional natural language search terms, but also terms for cited references and cited authors, though this too is now a part of most such systems. Thus, a user can be alerted to any new works which cited the author, paper or book in question. Using journal names in a similar way, customized contents pages could also be provided.

The inherent topological and graphical nature of the worldwide citation network which is an inherent property of the scientific literature was described by Ralph Garner at Drexel University in 1965.

The use of citation counts to rank journals was a technique used in the early part of the nineteenth century but the systematic ongoing measurement of ths counts for scientific journals was initiated by Eugene Garfield at the Institute for Scientific Information who also pioneered the use of these counts to rank authors and papers. In a landmark paper of 1965 he and Irving Sher showed the correlation between citation frequency and eminence in demonstrating that Nobel Prize winners published five times the average number of papers while their work was cited 30 to 50 times the average. In a long series of essays on the Nobel and other prizes Garfield reported this phenomenon. The usual summary measure is known as impact factor, the number of citations to a journal for the previous two years, divided by the number of articles published in those years. It is widely used, both for appropriate and inappropriate purposes--in particular, the use of this measure alone for ranking authors and papers is therefore quite controversial.

In an early study in 1964 of the use of Citation Analysis in writing the history of DNA, Garfield and Sher demonstrated the potential for generating historiographs, topological maps of the most important steps in the history of scientific topics. This work was later automated by E. Garfield, A. I. Pudovkin of the Institute of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences and V. S. Istomin of Center for Teaching, Learning, and Technology, Washington State University and led to the creation of the HistCite software around 2002.

Autonomous citation indexing was introduced in 1998 by Giles, Lawrence and Bollacker and enabled automatic algorithmic extraction and grouping of citations for any digital academic and scientific document. Where previous citation extraction was a manual process, citation measures could now be computed for any scholarly and scientific field and document venue, not just those selected by organizations such as ISI. This led to the creation of new systems for public and automated citation indexing, the first being CiteSeer (now CiteSeerX, soon followed by Cora (recently reborn as Rexa), which focused primarily on the field of computer and information science. These were later followed by large scale academic domain citation systems such as the Google Scholar and previously Microsoft Academic. Such autonomous citation indexing is not yet perfect in citation extraction or citation clustering with an error rate estimated by some at 10% though a careful statistical sampling has yet to be done. This has resulted in such authors as Ann Arbor, Milton Keynes, and Walton Hall being credited with extensive academic output. It should be noted that SCI claims to create automatic citation indexing through purely programmatic methods and even the older records have a similar magnitude of error.

To the top

International Statistical Institute

The International Statistical Institute (ISI)is a professional association of statisticians. It publishes a variety of books and journals, and holds an international conference every two years. Its permanent office is located in the CBS building in Den Haag - Leidschenveen (The Hague), in The Netherlands.

The Institute was established in 1885, and has about 2,000 elected members from government, academia and the private sector.

To the top

Image Space Incorporated

Image Space Incorporated (commonly acronymed as ISI) is a video game developer in Ann Arbor, Michigan specializing in the fields of computer game development, "man-in-the-loop" simulator architectures, computer image generation, and entertainment systems integration. ISI developed the GMotor2 engine that is used in many racing simulators including: ARCA Sim Racing, GTR2, RACE 07 - The Official WTCC Game, and others.

To the top

Source : Wikipedia