Indiana

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Posted by kaori 04/02/2009 @ 23:12

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News headlines
Hard-hit county gets a green jolt - msnbc.com
Mitch Daniels makes remarks during a press conference announcing plans for Electric Motors Corporation to locate a manufacturing facility in the Elkhart County, Indiana on Thursday, May 14. A partnership of traditional and green-building manufacturers...
US Mint unveils new Lincoln penny in Indiana - The Associated Press
LINCOLN CITY, Ind. (AP) — Nearly 3000 people gathered at a southern Indiana park for the release of a new penny that pays homage to Abraham Lincoln's years as a Hoosier. The penny's release Thursday at Lincoln State Park created traffic jams and a...
Indiana Mandates E-Waste Recyling - Reuters
By Sustainable Business - Matter Network Indiana became the first state to pass a major electronics recycling law in 2009 as Governor Mitch Daniels signed HB 1589 into law Wednesday, making Indiana the nineteenth state to pass a law creating a...
Former Oklahoma great Tisdale dies at 44 - The Associated Press
He spent 12 seasons in the NBA with the Indiana Pacers, Sacramento Kings and Phoenix Suns. He first learned he had a cancerous cyst below his right knee after he broke his leg in a fall at his home in Los Angeles in 2007. His leg was amputated last...
Weak tornado caused damage to S. Indiana farm - Chicago Tribune
AP HAUBSTADT, Ind. - The National Weather Service says a weak tornado caused some damage to a southwestern Indiana farm as severe weather moved through the state. Meteorologist Rick Shanklin told the Evansville Courier & Press that the tornado with...
Indiana Says 'No Thanks' to Cap and Trade - Wall Street Journal
But it's clear to me that the nation, and in particular Indiana, my home state, will be terribly disserved by this cap-and-trade policy on the verge of passage in the House. The largest scientific and economic questions are being addressed by others,...
Gaddis and other East Central Indiana Chrysler dealers spared ax - Muncie Star Press
The ranks of Detroit automobile dealerships have thinned in recent years in East Central Indiana, with some closing and others concentrating on used car and repair business. The economic downturn and poor car sales prompted some to close....
S. Indiana to forfeit entire season's wins - The Associated Press
EVANSVILLE, Ind. (AP) — Southern Indiana will forfeit its entire 2008-09 season after two players were declared ineligible and an internal investigation found five alleged NCAA violations by the men's basketball program....
Naperville-Aurora schools: Indian Prairie schools chief in line ... - Chicago Tribune
Stephen Daeschner is the top choice to lead a fast-growing southern Indiana school district, an official with the Greater Clark County School Corp. said this week. "He is the finalist for the position," said Bob McEwen, president of the district,...
Severe Storms Threaten Indiana Again - INDYchannel.com
Those storms will begin pushing into Indiana beginning late in the afternoon. The strongest of the storms is expected to be in a humid air mass behind a warm front that will slowly lift north of central Indiana. Storms that track on the southern edge...

Indiana

Map of the United States with Indiana highlighted

The State of Indiana ( /ɪndiˈænə/ (help·info)) was the 19th U.S. state admitted into the union. It is located in the midwestern region of the United States of America. With about 6.3 million residents, it is ranked 15th in population and 17th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and of the lower 48 states, Indiana is the smallest state west of the Appalachian Mountains. Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis.

Indiana is a diverse state with a few large urban areas, a number of smaller industrial cities, and many small towns. It is known nationally for its sports teams and athletic events: the NFL's Indianapolis Colts, champions of Super Bowl XLI, the NBA's Indiana Pacers, the Indianapolis 500 motorsports race, the largest single-day sporting event in the world, and for a strong basketball tradition, often called Hoosier Hysteria.

Residents of Indiana are known as Hoosiers. Although many stories are told, the origin of the term is unknown. The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or simply "Indian Land". The name dates back to at least the 1768 Indiana Land Company, and was first used by Congress when Indiana Territory was created, at which time the territory was unceded Indian land. Angel Mounds State Historic Site, one of the best preserved prehistoric Native American sites in the United States, can be found in Southwestern Indiana near Evansville.

It was thought that Indiana was inhabited by migratory tribes of Native Americans possibly as early as 8000 BC. Radiocarbon dating shows that a tool carved from deer bone, discovered by University of Indianapolis archeologists in 2003, is 10,400 years old. The find supports the growing notion that, in the wake of the most recent Ice Age, humans migrated into Indiana earlier than previously thought. These tribes succeeded one another in dominance for several thousand years. By 900 AD an advanced culture of Mississippians became dominant building large cities of 30,000 inhabitants and massive earthworks in the state. For unknown reasons, their entire civilization disappeared sometime around 1450. The region entered recorded history when the first Europeans came to Indiana and claimed the territory for Kingdom of France during the 1670s. At the conclusion of the French and Indian War and one hundred years of French rule, the region came under the control of the Kingdom of Great Britain. British control was short-lived, as the region was transferred to the newly formed United States at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War only 20 years later.

At the time the United States took possession of Indiana, there were only two permanent European settlements in the entire territory, Clark's Grant and Vincennes. The United States immediately set to work to develop Indiana. In 1800, the Indiana Territory was established and steadily settled. It was originally placed under the governorship of William Henry Harrison who oversaw the purchase of millions of acres of land from the native tribes and successfully guided the territory through Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812.

Indiana was admitted to the Union in 1816 as the nineteenth state. Following statehood, the new government set out on an ambitious plan to transform Indiana from a wilderness frontier into a developed, well populated, and thriving state. The state's founders initiated a program that led to the construction of roads, canals, railroads, and state funded public schools. The plans nearly bankrupted the state and were a financial disaster, but increased land and produce value more than four-fold. During the 1850s, the state's population grew to exceed one million and the ambitious program of the state founders was finally realized.

During the American Civil War, Indiana became politically influential and played an important role in the affairs of the nation. As the first western state to mobilize for the war, Indiana's soldiers were present in almost every engagement during the war. After the Civil War, Indiana remained important nationally as it became a critical swing state in U.S. Presidential elections, which decided control of the federal government for three decades. Following the Civil War, Indiana industry began to grow and an accelerated rate across the northern part of the state leading to the formation of labor unions and suffrage movements.

The Indiana Gas Boom led to rapid industrialization during the late 19th century. During the early 20th century, Indiana developed into a strong manufacturing state, then experienced setbacks during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The state also saw many developments with the construction of Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the takeoff of the auto industry in the state, substantial urban growth, and two major United States wars. Economic recovery began during World War II and the state continued to enjoy substantial growth. During the second half the of the 20th century, Indiana became a leader in the pharmaceutical industry, as Eli Lilly and other companies settled in the state.

Indiana is bounded on the north by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan; on the east by Ohio; on the south by Kentucky, with which it shares the Ohio River as a border; and on the west by Illinois. Indiana is one of the Great Lakes states.

The northern boundary of the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois was originally defined to be a latitudinal line drawn through the southernmost tip of Lake Michigan. Since such a line did not provide Indiana with usable frontage on the lake, its northern border was shifted ten miles (16 km) north when it was granted statehood in 1816.

The 475 mile (764 km) long Wabash River bisects the state from northeast to southwest before flowing south, mostly along the Indiana-Illinois border. The river has given Indiana a few theme songs, such as On the Banks of the Wabash, The Wabash Cannonball and Back Home Again, In Indiana. The Wabash is the longest free-flowing river east of the Mississippi, traversing 400 miles (640 km) from the Huntington dam to the Ohio River. The White River (a tributary of the Wabash, which is a tributary of the Ohio) zigzags through central Indiana.

The northwest corner of the state is part of the Chicago metropolitan area and has nearly one million residents. Gary, and the cities and towns that make up the northern half of Lake, Porter, and La Porte Counties bordering on Lake Michigan, are effectively commuter suburbs of Chicago. Porter and Lake counties are commonly referred to as "The Calumet Region". The name comes from the fact that the Grand Calumet and Little Calumet rivers run through the area. These counties are in the Central Time Zone, the same as Chicago. NICTD owns and operates the South Shore Line, a commuter rail line that runs electric-powered trains between South Bend and Chicago. Sand dunes and heavy industry share the shoreline of Lake Michigan in northern Indiana. Along the shoreline of Lake Michigan in Northern Indiana one can find many parks between the industrial areas. The Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and the Indiana Dunes State Park are two natural landmarks of the area.

The region is marked with swell and swale topography as it retreats South from Lake Michigan. The ecology changes dramatically between swells, or on opposite sides of the same swell. Plants and animals adapted to marshes are generally found in the swales, while forests or even prickly pear cactus are found in the dryer swells.

The Kankakee River, which winds through northern Indiana, serves somewhat as a demarcating line between suburban northwest Indiana and the rest of the state. Before it was drained and developed for agriculture, the Kankakee Marsh was one of the largest freshwater marshes in the country. South of the Kankakee is a large area of prairie, the eastern edge of the Grand Prairie that covers Iowa and Illinois. The Prairie Chicken and American Bison were common in Indiana's pioneer era, but are now extinct as wild species within the state.

The South Bend metropolitan area, in north central Indiana, is the center of commerce in the region better known as Michiana. Other cities located within the area include Elkhart, Mishawaka, Goshen and Warsaw. Fort Wayne, the state's second largest city, is located in the northeastern part of the state where it serves the state as a transportation hub. Other cities located within the area include Huntington and Marion. East of Fort Wayne is an area of extremely flat land that, before development, was the western-most reach of the Great Black Swamp.

Northeastern Indiana is home to a number of lakes, many of which are the remains of the glaciers that covered Indiana thousands of years ago and Glacial Lake Maumee. Some of these lakes include Lake James in Pokagon State Park, Lake Maxinkuckee, Lake Wawasee and Lake Tippecanoe. Lake Wawasee is the largest natural lake in Indiana, while Lake Tippecanoe is the deepest lake, reaching depths of over 120 feet (37 m). Both lakes are located in Kosciusko County. Chain O' Lakes State Park, located in Noble County, contains 11 lakes, 8 of which are connected by natural channels.

The state capital and largest city, Indianapolis, is situated in the central portion of the state. It is intersected by numerous Interstates, U.S. highways, and railways giving the state its motto as "The Crossroads of America". Other large cities and located within the area include Anderson, Carmel, Columbus, Kokomo, Indiana, Lafayette,Richmond, and Terre Haute.

Rural areas in the central portion of the state are typically composed of a patchwork of fields and forested areas. The geography of Central Indiana consists of gently rolling hills and sandstone ravines carved out by the retreating glaciers. Many of these ravines can be found in west-central Indiana, specifically along Sugar Creek in Turkey Run State Park and Shades State Park.

Evansville, the third largest city in Indiana, is located in the southwestern corner of the state. It is located in a tri-state area that includes Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. The south-central cities of Clarksville, Jeffersonville, and New Albany are part of the Louisville metropolitan area. Vincennes, the oldest city in the state, is located on the Wabash River.

Southern Indiana is a mixture of farmland, forest and very hilly areas, especially near Louisville and in the south central lime hills areas. The Hoosier National Forest is a 200,000-acre (810 km2) nature preserve in south central Indiana. Southern Indiana's topography is more varied than that in the north and generally contains more hills and geographic variation than the northern portion, such as the "Knobs," a series of 1,000 ft (300 m) hills that run parallel to the Ohio River in south-central Indiana. The bottomlands of Indiana, where the Wabash and Ohio converge, hosts numerous plant and animal species normally found in the Lower Mississippi and Gulf Coast region of the United States. Brown County is well-known for its hills covered with colorful autumn foliage, T.C. Steele's former home, and Nashville, the county seat and shopping destination. Harrison and Crawford Counties boast three of the state's most popular commercial caves at Wyandotte, Marengo, and Squire Boone Caverns.

The limestone geology of Southern Indiana has created numerous caves and one of the largest limestone quarry regions in the United States. Many of Indiana's official buildings, such as the Indiana Statehouse, the downtown monuments, the Indiana University School of Law in Indianapolis, many buildings at Indiana University in Bloomington, and the Indiana Government Center are all examples of Indiana architecture made with Indiana limestone. Indiana limestone has also been used in many other famous structures in the US, such as the Empire State Building, the Pentagon, and the Washington National Cathedral. In addition, 35 of the 50 state capitol buildings are made of Indiana limestone.

Indiana was settled from southern periphery northward and the state's oldest settlements and first capital, Corydon, are in southern Indiana. Until 1950, the United States Census found the center of population to lie in southern Indiana.

Most of Indiana has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with hot, humid summers and cool to cold winters. The extreme southern portions of the state border on a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) with somewhat milder winters. Summertime maximum temperatures average around 90 °F with cooler nights around 60 °F. Winters are a little more variable, but generally cool to cold temperatures with all but the northern part of the state averaging above freezing for the maximum January temperature, and the minimum temperature below 20 °F (-8 °C) for most of the state. The state receives a good amount of precipitation, 40 inches (1,000 mm) annually statewide, in all four seasons, with March through August being slightly wetter.

The state does have its share of severe weather, both winter storms and thunderstorms. While generally not receiving as much snow as some states farther north, the state does have occasional blizzards, some due to Lake-effect snow. Two major paralyzing snowstorms were theBlizzard of 1978, which affected almost the entire state, and the December, 2004 Blizzard, which primarily affected the Ohio Valley and later caused the severe flooding of the White, Wabash, and the Ohio Rivers in January, 2005. The state averages around 40–50 days of thunderstorms per year, with March and April being the period of most severe storms. While not considered part of Tornado Alley, Indiana is the Great Lakes state which is most vulnerable to tornadic activity. In fact, three of the most severe tornado outbreaks in U.S. history affected Indiana, the Tri-State Tornado of 1925, the Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1965 and the Super Outbreak of 1974. The Evansville Tornado of November 2005 killed 25 people, 20 people in Vanderburgh County and 5 in Warrick County.

As of 2006, Indiana had an estimated population of 6,313,520, which is an increase of 47,501, or 0.8%, from the prior year and an increase of 233,003, or 3.8%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 196,728 people (that is 541,506 births minus 344,778 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 51,117 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 68,935 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 17,818 people.

The center of population of Indiana is located in Hamilton County, in the town of Sheridan. Population growth since 1990 has been concentrated in the counties surrounding Indianapolis, with four of the top five fastest-growing counties in that area: Hamilton, Hendricks, Johnson, and Hancock. The other county is Dearborn County, which is near Cincinnati.

The Evansville area has experienced a shift in their population. Vanderburgh County has continued to grow by at least 3% a year while the city of Evansville struggles with retaining population. The other counties of the Evansville area of Southwestern Indiana have started to grow at an increasingly faster rate, especially Gibson and Warrick Counties who are becoming Evansville's suburban counties. Gibson County has seen at least two towns Haubstadt and Fort Branch starting to become "bedroom communities" like Newburgh and Chandler in Warrick County. In addition, the two counties have seen their minority (in particular, Asian, African-American, and Hispanic) populations nearly double in the last 15 years.

As of 2005, the total population included 242,281 foreign-born (3.9%).

German is the largest ancestry reported in Indiana, with 22.7% of the population reporting that ancestry in the Census. Persons citing "American" (12.0%) and English ancestry (8.9%) are also numerous, as are Irish (10.8%) and Polish (3.0%).

Although the largest single religious denomination in the state is Roman Catholic (836,009 members), most of the population are members of various Protestant denominations. The largest Protestant denomination by number of adherents in 2000 was the United Methodist Church with 288,308. A study by the Graduate Center found that 20% are Roman Catholic, 14% belong to different Baptist churches, 10% are other Christians, 9% are Methodist, and 6% are Lutheran. The study also found that 16% are secular.

The state is home to the University of Notre Dame and several other private, religiously affiliated schools. It also has a strong parochial school system in the larger metropolitan areas. Southern Indiana is the home to a number of Catholic monasteries and one of the two archabbeys in the United States, St. Meinrad Archabbey. Two conservative denominations, the Free Methodist Church and the Wesleyan Church, have their headquarters in Indianapolis as does the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches maintains offices and publishing work in Winona Lake. Huntington serves as the home to the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Anderson is home to the headquarters of the Church of God (Anderson) Ministries and Warner Press Publishing House. Fort Wayne is the headquarters of the Missionary Church. Fort Wayne is also home to one of The Lutheran Church Missouri Synod's seminaries - Concordia Theological Seminary. The Friends United Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, the largest branch of American Quakerism, is based in Richmond. Richmond also houses the oldest Quaker seminary in the US, the Earlham School of Religion. Indiana is home to an estimated 250,000 Muslims. The Islamic Society of North America is headquartered just off Interstate 70 in Plainfield, west of Indianapolis.

In 1906, the Census reported there were 938,405 members of different religious denominations; of this total, 233,443 were Methodists (210,593 of the Northern Church); 174,849 were Roman Catholics, 108,188 were Disciples of Christ (and 10,219 members of the Churches of Christ); 92,705 were Baptists (60,203 of the Northern Convention, 13,526 of the National (African American) Convention; 8,132 Primitive Baptists, and 6,671 General Baptists); 58,633 were Presbyterians (49,041 of the Northern Church, and 6,376 of the Cumberland Church—since united with the Northern); 55,768 were Lutherans (34,028 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference, 8,310 of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Ohio and other states), 52,700 were United Brethren (48,059 of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ; the others of the " Old Constitution ") and 21,624 of the German Evangelical Synod.

The largest city in Indiana is state capital Indianapolis. "Indy" and its surrounding suburban areas are home to over 2,000,000 people - almost a full third of the state's population.

Fort Wayne, Evansville, and South Bend are the only other Indiana cities with populations over 100,000.

Indiana Government has three branches: executive (government), legislative (parliament) and judicial. The governor of Indiana, elected for a four-year term, heads the government. The Indiana General Assembly, the legislative branch, consists of the upper house, Senate, and the lower house, House of Representatives. Indiana's fifty State Senators are elected for four-year terms and one hundred State Representatives for two-year terms. In odd-numbered years, the General Assembly meets in a sixty-one day session. In even-numbered years, it meets for thirty session days. The judicial branch consists of the Indiana Supreme Court, Indiana Court of Appeals, the Indiana Tax Court, and local circuit courts. Their government has been successful in making new laws to be passed in the senate.

The current governor of Indiana is Mitch Daniels, whose campaign slogan was "My Man Mitch," an appellation given by President George W. Bush for whom Mitch Daniels was the director of the Office of Management and Budget. He was elected to office on November 2, 2004 and reelected on November 4, 2008.

Indiana has 92 counties, each of which has its own council and local government. Counties are further divided into townships. County officials are elected to four year terms, and have limited authority to impose county-wide income taxes, excise taxes, and property taxes.

The state's U.S. Senators are Senior Sen. Richard Lugar (Republican) and Junior Sen. Evan Bayh (Democrat). Both Senators, although of opposite parties, have proved immensely popular in the state. In 2004, Sen. Bayh won reelection to a second term with 62% of the vote. And in 2006, Sen. Lugar won reelection to a sixth term with 87% of the vote against no major-party opposition.

Former governor and current U.S. Senator Evan Bayh announced in 2006 his plans for a presidential exploratory committee. His father was a three-term senator who was turned out of office in the 1980 Reagan Revolution by conservative Republican (and future Vice-President) Dan Quayle, a native of Huntington in the northeastern part of the state. However, Bayh announced that he would not be seeking the Presidency on December 16, 2006.

Indiana has long been considered to be a Republican stronghold. It has only supported a Democrat for president five times since 1900 - in 1912, 1932, 1936, 1964, and 2008. Nonetheless, half of Indiana's governors in the 20th century were Democrats.

Statistically, Indiana is more of a stronghold for Republican Presidential candidates than for candidates elected to state government. Only five Democrats have carried Indiana since 1900. On the other hand, 11 Democratic winners have been Democratic Governors. Before Mitch Daniels became governor in 2005, 3 straight governors have been Democrats. This figure includes Frank O'Bannon who won a second term. However, Democrats carry Indiana much less often in presidential election, as Lyndon Johnson was the last Democrat to carry the state in 1964 until 2008. As recently as 2004, Indiana was more Republican than the rest of the nation: George W. Bush won the state 60% to 39% in his reelection campaign, compared to his 51% to 48% win nationwide. However, in 2008, Democrat Barack Obama narrowly defeated his Republican opponent John McCain in the state, winning 50% to 49%.

Historically, Republicans have been strongest in the eastern and central portions of the state, as well as the suburbs of the state's major cities. Democrats have been strongest in the northern, northwestern and specific southern parts of the state along with the major cities. However, outside of Indianapolis, South Bend, the Chicago suburbs, and Bloomington, the state's Democrats tend to be somewhat more conservative than their counterparts in the rest of the country, especially on social issues.

Indiana's delegation to the United States House of Representatives is not limited to Republicans either. Instead, it has generally served as a bellwether for the political movement of the nation. For instance, Democrats held the majority of seats until the 1994 Republican Revolution, when Republicans took a majority. This continued until 2006, when three Republican congressmen were defeated in Indiana; (Chris Chocola, John Hostettler and Mike Sodrel), giving the Democrats a majority of the delegation again.

The total gross state product in 2005 was US$214 billion in 2000 chained dollars. Indiana's per capita income, as of 2005, was US$31,150. A high percentage of Indiana's income is from manufacturing. The Calumet region of northwest Indiana is the largest steel producing area in the U.S. Steelmaking itself requires generating very large amounts of electric power. Indiana's other manufactures include pharmaceuticals and medical devices, automobiles, electrical equipment, transportation equipment, chemical products, rubber, petroleum and coal products, and factory machinery.

Despite its reliance on manufacturing, Indiana has been much less affected by declines in traditional Rust Belt manufactures than many of its neighbors. The explanation appears to be certain factors in the labor market. First, much of the heavy manufacturing, such as industrial machinery and steel, requires highly skilled labor, and firms are often willing to locate where hard-to-train skills already exist. Second, Indiana's labor force is located primarily in medium-sized and smaller cities rather than in very large and expensive metropolises. This makes it possible for firms to offer somewhat lower wages for these skills than would normally be paid. Firms often see in Indiana a chance to obtain higher than average skills at lower than average wages.

Indiana is home to the international headquarters of pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly in Indianapolis, the state's largest corporation, as well as the world headquarters of Mead Johnson Nutritionals in Evansville. Overall, Indiana ranks fifth among all U.S. states in total sales and shipments of pharmaceutical products and second highest in the number of biopharmaceutical related jobs.

The state is located within the Corn Belt. The state has a feedlot-style system raising corn to fatten hogs and cattle. Soybeans are also a major cash crop. Its proximity to large urban centers, such as Chicago, assure that dairying, egg production, and specialty horticulture occur. Other crops include melons, tomatoes, grapes, mint, popping corn, and tobacco in the southern counties. Most of the original land was not prairie and had to be cleared of deciduous trees. Many parcels of woodland remain and support a furniture-making sector in the southern portion of the state.

Indiana's economy is considered to be one of the most business-friendly in the U.S. This is due in part to its conservative business climate, low business taxes, relatively low union membership, and labor laws. The doctrine of at-will employment, whereby an employer can terminate an employee for any or no reason, is in force.

Indiana has a flat state income tax rate of 3.4%. Many Indiana counties also collect income tax. The state sales tax rate is 7%. Property taxes are imposed on both real and personal property in Indiana and are administered by the Department of Local Government Finance. Property is subject to taxation by a variety of taxing units (schools, counties, townships, cities and towns, libraries), making the total tax rate the sum of the tax rates imposed by all taxing units in which a property is located. However, a "circuit breaker" law enacted on March 19, 2008 limits property taxes to one percent of assessed value for homeowners, two percent for rental properties and farmland and three percent for businesses.

Indiana doesn't have a legal requirement to balance the state budget either in law or its constitution. Instead, Indiana has a constitutional ban on assuming debt. Indiana has a Rainy Day Fund and for healthy reserves proportional to spending. Indiana is one of the few states in the U.S. which do not to allow a line-item veto. Indiana does not use Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.

Indiana's power production chiefly consists of the consumption of fossil fuels, mainly coal. Indiana has 24 coal power plants, including the largest coal power plant in the United States, Gibson Generating Station, located near Owensville, Indiana. While Indiana has made commitments to increasing use of renewable resources such as wind, hydroelectric, biomass, or solar power, however, progress has been very slow, mainly because of the continued abundance of coal in Southern Indiana. Most of the new plants in the state have been coal gasification plants. Another source is hydroelectric power.

Solar power and wind power are being investigated, and geothermal power is being used commercially. New estimates in 2006 raised the wind capacity for Indiana from 30 MW at 50 m turbine height to 40,000 MW at 70 m, which could double at 100 m, the height of newer turbines. As of the end of June, 2008, Indiana has installed 130 MW of wind turbines and has under construction another 400 MW.

Indianapolis International Airport serves the greater Indianapolis area and has just finished constructing a new passenger terminal. The new airport opened in November 2008 and offers a new midfield passenger terminal, concourses, air traffic control tower, parking garage, and airfield and apron improvements.

Other major airports include Evansville Regional Airport, Fort Wayne International Airport (which houses the 122d Fighter Wing of the Air National Guard), and South Bend Regional Airport. A long-standing proposal to turn the under-utilized Gary Chicago International Airport into Chicago's third major airport received a boost in early 2006 with the approval of $48 million in federal funding over the next ten years.

The Terre Haute International Airport has no airlines operating out of the facility but is used for private flying. Since 1954, the 181st Fighter Wing of the Indiana Air National Guard has been stationed at the airport. However, the BRAC Proposal of 2005 stated that the 181st would lose its fighter mission and F-16 aircraft, leaving the Terre Haute facility as a general-aviation only facility.

The southern part of the state is also served by the Louisville International Airport across the Ohio River in Louisville, Kentucky. The southeastern part of the state is served by the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport also across the Ohio River in Florence Kentucky. Many residents of northwestern Indiana use the two Chicago airports, O'Hare International Airport and Chicago Midway International Airport.

The major U.S. Interstate highways in Indiana are I-465, I-469, I-69, I-65, I-94, I-70, I-74, I-64, I-80, and I-90. The various highways intersecting in and around Indianapolis earned it the nickname "The Crossroads of America". Originally the Crossroads of America referred to Terre Haute, where the two major US 41 and US 40 (Old National Road) highways intersected.

There are also many state highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation. These are numbered according to the same convention as U.S. Highways.

Most Indiana counties use a grid-based system to identify county roads; this system replaced the older arbitrary system of road numbers and names, and (among other things) makes it much easier to identify the sources of calls placed to the 9-1-1 system. Such systems are easier to implement in the glacially flattened northern and central portions of the state. Rural counties in the southern third of the state are less likely to have grids and more likely to rely on unsystematic road names (e.g., Harrison County); there are also counties in the northern portions of the state that have never implemented a grid, or have only partially implemented one. Some counties are also laid out in an almost diamond-like grid system (e.g. Clark, Floyd and Knox Counties). Such a system is also almost useless in those situations as well. Knox County once operated two different grid systems for county roads because the county was laid out using two different survey grids, but has since decided to use road names and combine roads instead.

A notable county road system within the state is St. Joseph County's county road grid, which is relatively easy to follow. St. Joseph County, whose major city is South Bend, uses perennial (tree) names (i.e. Ash, Hickory, Ironwood, etc.) in alphabetical order for North-South roads and Presidential and other noteworthy names (i.e. Adams, Edison, Lincoln Way, etc.) in alphabetical order for East-West roads. There are exceptions to this rule in downtown South Bend and Mishawaka.

Indiana has over 4,255 railroad route miles, of which 91 percent are operated by Class I railroads, principally CSX Transportation and the Norfolk Southern Railway. Other Class I railroads in Indiana include the Canadian National Railway and Soo Line Railroad, a Canadian Pacific Railway subsidiary, as well as Amtrak. The remaining miles are operated by 37 regional, local, and switching & terminal railroads. The South Shore Line is one of the country's most notable commuter rail systems extending from Chicago to South Bend. Indiana is currently implementing an extensive rail plan that was prepared in 2002 by the Parsons Corporation.

Indiana annually ships over 70 million tons of cargo by water each year, which ranks 14th among all U.S. states. More than half of Indiana's border is water, which includes 400 miles (640 km) of direct access to two major freight transportation arteries: the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway (via Lake Michigan) and the Inland Waterway System (via the Ohio River). The Ports of Indiana manages three major ports which include Burns Harbor, Jeffersonville, and Mount Vernon.

Indiana is known as the "Brain Bank of the Midwest" as Indiana's colleges and universities attract the fourth largest number of out-of-state students in the nation and the largest out-of-state student population in the midwest. In addition, Indiana is the third best state in the country at keeping high school seniors in-state as Indiana colleges and universities attract 88% of Indiana's college attendees. This exceptional popularity is attributed to the high quality of the research and educational universities located in the state. Indiana universities also lead the nation in the attraction of international students with Purdue University and Indiana University ranked #3 and #17 respectively in the total international student enrollment of all universities in the United States. The state's leading higher education institutions include Purdue University, Indiana State University, Wabash College, DePauw University, Valparaiso University, University of Evansville, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, IPFW, IUPUI, University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Ball State University, University of Southern Indiana, Indiana University, and University of Notre Dame, are among the many public and private institutions located in the state.

Indiana has a long history with auto racing. Indianapolis hosts the Indianapolis 500 mile race over Memorial Day weekend at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway every May. The name of the race is usually shortened to "Indy 500" and also goes by the nickname "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing." The race attracts over 250,000 people every year making it the largest single day sporting event in the world. The track also hosts the Allstate 400 at the Brickyard (NASCAR) and the Red Bull Indianapolis Grand Prix (MotoGP). From 2000 to 2007, it hosted the United States Grand Prix (Formula One).

Indiana has a rich basketball heritage that reaches back to the formative years of the sport itself. Although James Naismith invented basketball in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891, Indiana is where high school basketball was born. In 1925, Naismith visited an Indiana basketball state finals game along with 15,000 screaming fans and later wrote "Basketball really had its origin in Indiana, which remains the center of the sport." The 1986 film Hoosiers is based on the story of the 1954 Indiana state champions Milan High School.

The Hilly Hundred is a bicycle tour which attracts 5,000 cycling enthusiasts each year. The course runs through Greene, Monroe and Owen Counties.

Indiana used to be home to two major military installations, Grissom Air Force Base near Peru (reduced to reservist operations in 1994) and Fort Benjamin Harrison near Indianapolis, now closed, though the Department of Defense continues to operate a large finance center there.

Current active installations include Air National Guard fighter units at Fort Wayne, and Terre Haute airports (to be consolidated at Fort Wayne under the 2005 BRAC proposal, with the Terre Haute facility remaining open as a non-flying installation). The Army National Guard conducts operations at Camp Atterbury in Edinburgh, Indiana and helicopter operations out of Shelbyville Airport. The Crane Naval Weapons Center is in the southwest of the state and the Army's Newport Chemical Depot, which is currently heavily involved in neutralizing dangerous chemical weapons stored there, is in the western part of the state. Also, Naval Operational Support Center Indianapolis is home to several Navy Reserve units, a Marine Reserve unit, and a small contingent of active and full-time-support reserve personnel.

Indiana is one of thirteen U.S. states that is divided into more than one time zone. Indiana's time zones have fluctuated over the past century. At present most of the state observes Eastern Time; six counties near Chicago and six near Evansville observe Central Time. Debate continues on the matter.

Before 2006, most of Indiana did not observe daylight saving time (DST). Some counties within this area, particularly Floyd, Clark, and Harrison counties near Louisville, Kentucky, and Ohio and Dearborn counties near Cincinnati, Ohio, unofficially observed DST by local custom. Since April 2006 the entire state observes DST. Although DST is supposed to save energy, a 2008 study of billing data before and after the change in 2006 concluded that residential electricity consumption had increased by 1% to 4%, primarily due to extra afternoon cooling.

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United States congressional delegations from Indiana

Indiana's Delegation to the United States House of Representatives during the 110th and 111th Congresses     Democratic incumbent     Republican incumbent

Since its statehood in 1816, the U.S. state of Indiana has sent congressional delegations to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. Each state elects two Senators statewide to serve for six years, and their elections are staggered to be held in two of every three even-numbered years—Indiana's Senate election years are to Classes I and III. Before the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, Senators were elected by the Indiana General Assembly. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to two-year terms, one from each of Indiana's nine congressional districts. Before becoming a state, the Indiana Territory elected delegates at-large and sent three to Congress, but the territorial delegates were restricted from voting on legislation.

The longest-serving of any of Indiana's Congressmen is Senator Richard Lugar, incumbent since 1977. The longest-serving House member is Lee H. Hamilton, who served from 1965 to 1999. There have been 342 people who have represented Indiana in Congress: 315 in the House, 27 in the Senate, and 17 in both houses, with an average term of seven years. Indiana has elected five women and three African Americans to Congress.

Each state elects two Senators, and Indiana's come from classes I and III. Senators are elected by statewide popular vote every six years, though before the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913 Senators were chosen by the Indiana General Assembly. Recent class I Senate elections in Indiana were in 1992, 1998, 2004, and 2010; recent class III elections were in 1994, 2000, and 2006.

Of the forty-four men who have been Senators from Indiana, there have been three Democratic-Republicans, three Adams Republicans (including James Noble, who was both a Democratic-Republican and Adams Republican), two Whigs, one Unionist, twenty Democrats, and sixteen Republicans. Only 44 men have been Senators, though 46 terms have been served; David Turpie and William E. Jenner served nonconsecutive terms.

Indiana's current Senators are Republican Richard Lugar, first elected in 1976, and Democrat Evan Bayh, first elected in 1998. Although of different parties, both are popular in the state, having received 87% and 62% of the vote in their most recent elections, respectively.

Indiana Territory was formed on July 4, 1800, out of the Northwest Territory and consisted of present-day Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and parts of Michigan and Minnesota. Michigan Territory was split from the territory on June 30, 1805, and Illinois Territory followed on March 1, 1809, leaving Indiana Territory with its final borders. On December 11, 1816, Indiana was admitted to the Union as a state. The territorial delegates were allowed to serve on committees, debate, and submit legislation, but were not permitted to vote on bills.

Members of the House of Representatives are elected every two years by popular vote within a congressional district. Indiana has nine congressional districts—this number is reapportioned based on the state's population, determined every ten years by a census. Indiana had a maximum representation of 13 congressmen from 1873 to 1933. Since 2003 Indiana has had nine representatives, five Democratic and four Republican, which was reduced from ten after the 2000 census. This gives Indiana the fourteenth-largest delegation; during the period from 1853 to 1873 the state had the fifth-largest delegation. Recent House elections in Indiana were in 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008.

The State of Indiana has been represented by 313 people in the House, including one who was previously a territorial delegate. Indiana's current House delegation includes Republicans Mark Souder, Steve Buyer, Dan Burton, and Mike Pence, and Democrats Pete Visclosky, Joe Donnelly, André Carson, Brad Ellsworth, and Baron Hill. All were reelected in 2008 with at least 55% of the vote.

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Indiana University (Bloomington)

Indiana U seal.png

Indiana University is the flagship campus of the Indiana University system. It is also known as "Indiana University Bloomington," "Indiana," or simply IU, and is located in Bloomington, Indiana.

U.S. News & World Report's Best Graduate Schools 2001-2002. Time magazine named Indiana University its "2001 College of the Year" among major research universities. Indiana is one of 60 members of the Association of American Universities, the leading American research universities. Additionally, IU has over 110 academic programs ranked in the top twenty.

The tenth annual Newsweek-Kaplan College Guide, which appeared in the August 22, 2005 issue of Newsweek magazine, chose IU as its "Hottest Big State School" and extolled the campus's blend of tradition with emerging technologies..

USA Today called Bloomington one of the top 10 student-friendly college towns. The university offers the latest in technology: IU was ranked as one of the top five wired universities in America according to Princeton Review and PC Magazine.

Of students enrolled in fall 2006, 1,669 (4.4%) were African-Americans, 1,339 (3.5%) were Asian, 889 (2.3%) were Hispanic, and 105 (0.3%) were American Indian. More women (19,821) were enrolled than men (18,426). Currently, the IU student body contains students from every state in the U.S. as well as over 159 foreign nations.

Indiana's state government in Corydon founded Indiana University in 1820 as the "State Seminary." It was originally located at what is now called Seminary Square Park near the intersection of Second Street and College Avenue. The 1816 Indiana state constitution required that the General Assembly (Indiana's state legislature) create a "general system of education, ascending in a regular gradation, from township schools to a state university, wherein tuition shall be gratis, and equally open to all." It took some time for the legislature to fulfill its promise, partly due to a debate regarding whether the Indiana Territory's land-grant public university—what is now Vincennes University—should be adopted as the State of Indiana's public university or whether a new public university should be founded in Bloomington to replace the territorial university. While the original state-issued legislative charter for IUB was granted in 1820, construction began in 1822; the first professor was hired in 1823; classes were offered in 1824. The first class graduated in 1830. Throughout this period and until the rechartering of Vincennes University from a four-year institution to a two-year institution in 1889, a legal-cum-political battle was fought between the territorial-chartered public university in Vincennes and the State of Indiana on behalf of the state-chartered public university in Bloomington, including the legal case (Trustees for Vincennes University v Indiana, 1853) which was appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States.

IU developed rapidly in its first years. The hiring of Andrew Wylie, its first president, in 1828 signified the school's growing professionalism. The General Assembly changed the school's name to "Indiana College" in the same year. In 1838 the legislature changed the school's name for a final time to Indiana University.

Wylie's death in 1851 marks the end of the university's first period of development. IU now had nearly a hundred students and seven professors. Despite the university's more obviously secular purpose, presidents and professors were still expected to set a moral example for their charges. It was only in 1885 that a non-clergyman, biologist David Starr Jordan, became president.

Between Wylie and Jordan's administrations, the University grew slowly. Few changes rocked the university's repose. One development is interesting to modern scholars: the college admitted its first woman student, Sarah Parke Morrison in 1867, making IU the one of the first state universities to admit women on an equal basis with men. Morrison went on to become the first female professor at IU in 1873.

The first extension office of IU was opened in Indianapolis in 1916. In 1920/1921 the School of Music and the School of Commerce and Finance (what later became the Kelley School of Business) were opened. In the 1940s Indiana University opened extension campuses in Kokomo and Fort Wayne. The controversial Kinsey Institute for sexual research was established in 1947.

The IU campus is considered one of the most beautiful college campuses in the nation, with its abundance of flowering plants and trees and graceful, limestone buildings. Art critic Thomas Gaines called IU one of America's five most beautiful universities in The Campus as a Work of Art.

IUB's 1,933 acres (7.8 km²) includes abundant green space and historic buildings dating to the university's reconstruction in the late nineteenth century. The campus rests on a bed of Indiana limestone, specifically Salem limestone and Harrodsburg limestone, with outcroppings of St. Louis limestone. The "Jordan River" is a stream flowing through the center of campus. It is named for David Starr Jordan, Darwinist, ichthyologist, and president of IU and later Stanford University.

Many of the campus's buildings, especially the older central buildings, are made from Indiana limestone quarried locally. The Works Progress Administration built much of the campus's core during the Great Depression. Many of the campus's buildings were built and most of its land acquired during the 1950s and 1960s, when first soldiers attending under the GI Bill and then the baby boom swelled the university's enrollment from 5,403 in 1940 to 30,368 in 1970.

The 1979 movie Breaking Away was filmed on location in Bloomington and the IU campus. It also featured a reenactment of the annual Little 500 bicycle race.

The 500,000-square-foot (46,000 m2) Indiana Memorial Union (IMU), the second largest student union in the United States, is the campus centerpiece — a place where students go to study, relax, eat, sleep, bowl, play pool, watch movies, play games in the arcade, and even shop. In addition to numerous stores and restaurants, it features an eight-story student activities tower, a 186-room hotel, a 400-seat theatre, a 5,000-square-foot (460 m2) Alumni Hall, 50,000 square feet (4,600 m2) of meeting space, and a Starbucks. Nearly 20,000 people go through the Union on a typical school day. The IMU houses an outstanding collection of Indiana art including artists from Brown County, the Hoosier Group, Richmond Group and others.

The Fine Arts Library houses Indiana University's books and journals in the fields of the visual arts, art history, architecture, design and related disciplines and supports the academic needs of the Henry Radford Hope School of Fine Arts, and the Indiana University Department of Fine Arts. The collection comprises over 130,000 volumes and 390 periodicals, including collections of circulating slides and plates and a non-circulating collection of over 900 artists' books.

IU's first Fine Arts Library was established in the late 1930s as part of the Departmental office on the second floor, east wing of the University Library which was then located in Franklin Hall. The Fine Arts Library has gone through many changes and now comprises over 100,000 volumes and 390 periodicals, including collections of circulating slides and plates and a non-circulating collection of over 500 artists' books.

An oft-repeated urban legend holds that the library sinks over an inch every year because when it was built, engineers failed to take into account the weight of all the books that would occupy the building. A webpage hosted on the indiana.edu domain debunks this myth, stating, among other things, that the building rests on a 94 ft (28.6 m) thick limestone bedrock.

The Lilly Library is one of the largest rare book and manuscript libraries in the United States. Founded in 1960 with the collection of J.K. Lilly, owner of Lilly Pharmaceuticals in Indianapolis, the library now contains approximately 400,000 rare books, 6.5 million manuscripts, and 100,000 pieces of sheet music. The library's holdings are particularly strong in British and American history and literature, Latin Americana, medicine and science, food and drink, children's literature, fine printing and binding, popular music, medieval and Renaissance manuscripts, and early printing. Notable items in the library's collections include the New Testament of the Gutenberg Bible, the first printed collection of Shakespeare's works, Audubon's Birds of America, one of 25 extant copies of the "First Printing of the Declaration of Independence" (also known as the "Dunlap Broadside") that was printed in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, George Washington's letter accepting the presidency of the United States, Abraham Lincoln's desk from his law office, a leaf from the famous Abraham Lincoln "Sum Book" ca. 1824-1826, Lord Chesterfield's letters to his son, the manuscripts of Robert Burns's "Auld Lang Syne", J. M. Synge's The Playboy of the Western World, and J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan, and typescripts of many of Ian Fleming's James Bond novels. The library also owns the papers of Hollywood directors Orson Welles and John Ford, the poets Sylvia Plath and Ezra Pound, and authors Edith Wharton and Upton Sinclair. In 2006, the library received a collection of 30,000 mechanical puzzles from Jerry Slocum. The collection will be on permanent display. Special permission is not required to use the collections, and the library has several exhibition galleries which are open to the public.

The IU Art Museum was first established in 1941 with a later building being designed by the world-renowned architecture firm I.M. Pei and Partners. In its unique design, it has no right angles in its construction. Completed in 1982, the museum collection of over 30,000 objects includes works by Claude Monet and Jackson Pollock. The museum has particular strengths in the art of Africa, Oceania, the Americas, Ancient Greece and Rome, and Early Modernism, and its collections of works on paper (prints, drawings and photographs). The IU Art Museum is also ranked as one of the top five university art museums along with Stanford, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale.

Notable artists who have their work displayed there include Marcel Duchamp, Pablo Picasso, and Henri Matisse.

Founded in 2002, the Neal-Marshall Black Culture Center is named after Marcellus Neal and Frances Marshall, early African American graduates from Indiana University. In addition to the culture center, it is also the home to the African American Cultural Center Library, the African American Arts Institute and the Office of Diversity Education.

In January 2002, IU opened the Lee Norvelle Theatre and Drama Center on the Bloomington campus, adjacent to the old Theatre Building. The building is beautifully designed, and provides state-of-the-art technology, expansive and well-planned workshops, spacious directing and acting studios, and two vital, new performance spaces. The Ruth N. Halls Theatre is a 443-seat proscenium space and is the venue for four season productions each academic year in addition to a University faculty dance concert. The Wells-Metz Theatre is a 236 seat flexible venue which is home to 4 season productions each academic year. An intimate space with audience as close as 5 feet (1.5 m) from the action, the Wells-Metz has been the location of musicals and large Shakespearean productions, as well as small cast shows. With a full stage trap room and overhead suspension grid, the theatre has become known for its environmental productions with performers playing throughout the space from trap to grid.

On October 16, 2007, Simon Hall (Multidisciplinary Science Building Phase I), IU's first new science structure completed in 50 years, was dedicated by Eli Lilly's CEO Sidnet Taurel. The $55.7 million dollar 140,000-square-foot (13,000 m2) structure is part of Indiana University's life science initiative. The building will house cell biologists, microbiologists, molecular biologists, geneticists, analytical chemists and biochemists, and biophysicists.

Multidisciplinary Science Building Phase II officially broke ground on September 27, 2007 and aims to expand and deepen IU's research operations. The $45.9 million dollar 128,006-square-foot (11,892.1 m2) structure is expected to be completed in 2009.

IU has over 120 majors and programs ranked in the nation's top 20. 29 graduate programs and four schools at Indiana University are ranked among the top 25 in the country in the US News & World Report's Best Graduate Schools 2001–02. Time magazine named IU its 2001 College of the Year among major research universities. Newsweek named it the Hottest Big State School in the Nation in 2005. The Institute of Higher Education at Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranked Indiana University as the 90th best university in the world.

Upon assuming leadership of Indiana University, one of President Adam Herbert's biggest initiatives focused on "mission differentiation" for IU's eight campuses, which includes making the flagship Bloomington campus choosier among freshman applicants. Under the proposal, IUB would educate the professionals, executives and researchers while the regional campuses would educate the state's remaining labor force. Advocates believe it will rejuvenate Indiana's economy while critics argue it betrays the university's mission of educating more of Indiana's populace. The university's academic system is divided into one large "College" (which itself contains one school) and twelve other schools and divisions. Together, these thirteen units offer more than 900 individual degree programs and majors.

The College of Arts and Sciences, known as the College, is the largest of the University's academic divisions, and is home to more than 40 percent of IU's undergraduates. In addition, the College offers many electives and general education courses for students enrolled in most other schools on campus. There are more than 50 academic departments in the College, encompassing a broad range of disciplines from the traditional (such as biology, chemistry, biochemistry, english, economics, mathematics, and physics) to more modern and specialized areas, including Jewish Studies, History and Philosophy of Science, and International Studies. Through the College, IU also offers instruction in over 40 foreign languages, one of the largest language study offerings at any American university. IU is the only university in the nation that offers a degree in Hungarian (although it was done through the Individualized Major Program) and is the first university in the United States to offer a doctorate in gender Studies. The university's catalog at one time boasted that a student could study any language from Albanian to Uzbek. The College is the parent division for fifteen individual research institutes, and holds the distinction of being the only academic division within the university to house an autonomous school (The Henry Radford Hope School of Fine Arts) within it. A number of first- and second-year students from the Indiana University School of Medicine (which is based at IUPUI) complete their preclinical education at the Bloomington campus's Medical Science Program, which is housed within the Department of Biology and the Indiana Molecular Biology Institute. The College is also home to the Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology, the first formally established academic department in folklore at any United States university, and the only such department to integrate these two practices into one field. IU also features a world-class cyclotron, the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, operated by the Department of Physics. The College also houses IU's Department of Theatre and Drama which offers a Bachelor of Arts in Theatre, a Master of Fine Arts in Acting, Directing, Playwriting or Design/Technology, and as of the 2007-2008 school year, a BFA in Musical Theatre. The highly selective BFA program provides the rigorous curriculum needed to train students in acting, singing and dancing.

The Maurer School of Law, founded in 1842, is one of the oldest schools on the Bloomington campus. It features a law library recently ranked first in the nation and is situated on the southwest corner of campus. In 2000, then-Chief Justice William Rehnquist presided over a mock trial of King Henry VIII in the school's moot courtroom. In the 2007 U.S. News & World Report rankings, the school was ranked 36th in the nation among law schools and 15th in public law schools. Notable alumni from the School of Law include songwriter Hoagy Carmichael, Supreme Court Justice Sherman Minton, and Vice-Chairman of the 9/11 Commission and former congressman Lee Hamilton. On December 4, 2008, the school of law was renamed the Michael Maurer School of Law.

The IU School of Library and Information Science was recently ranked by U.S. News & World Report as the 7th best program of its type in the nation. It has also been ranked number 1 in scholarly productivity by a 2006 study published in the journal Library & Information Science Research.

Founded in the beginning of the 20th century by Charles Campbell, the Jacobs School of Music is consistently regarded as one of the best college music schools in the United States. It especially excels in voice, opera, orchestral conducting, and jazz studies. It has been ranked #1 in the country tied with Juilliard and Eastman by U.S. News & World Report. With more than 1,600 students, the school is the largest of its kind in the US and among the largest in the world. The school's facilities, including five buildings located in the heart of campus, comprise recital halls, more than 170 practice rooms, choral and instrumental rehearsal rooms, and more than 100 offices and studios. Its prestigious faculty has included such notable names as János Starker, André Watts, Menahem Pressler, Abbey Simon, Ray Cramer, David Baker, Earl Bates, Carol Vaness, Sylvia McNair, violinist Joshua Bell, and composer Sven-David Sandström. Notable alumni include Edgar Meyer, and soprano Angela Brown.

The Kelley School of Business was founded in 1920 as the University's School of Commerce and Finance. Approximately 6,100 students are enrolled in undergraduate, graduate Accountancy and Information Systems degrees, MBA and PhD programs, and online degree program Kelley Direct.

Kelley is one of the top business schools in the United States. It is one of only three business schools in the nation for whom all undergraduate and graduate programs rank in the top 20 of the US News & World Report college rankings. In 2008, US News ranked the undergraduate program eleventh in the nation (sixth among public schools) and, in 2008, the MBA program 20th in the nation (seventh among public schools). In 2007, the Wall Street Journal ranked Kelley's MBA program fifth in the nation among regional programs. Kelley's programs in consumer products, and energy and industrial products and services were second, marketing was third and accounting, eighth. Business Week ranked the undergraduate program 16th in 2008 (sixth among public schools) and the graduate program 15th in the nation in 2008 and fourth among public schools. In addition, Business Week gave the undergraduate program an A in teaching and an A+ career services.

The Division of Labor Studies, formerly a unit housed within the School of Continuing Studies, was founded in the 1940s during the tenure of Herman B Wells in response to the growing role of organized labor in American society. Today, the Division is one of only several degree-granting programs in the nation for the area of labor studies or industrial relations. Over the past year, the Division has come under increased pressure to move to a larger academic unit, such as the College of Arts and Sciences. Notable faculty in recent years have included Leonard Page, General Counsel for the National Labor Relations Board during the Clinton Administration, and labor economist/author Michael Yates.

The School of Education, formerly a part of the College of Arts and Science, has been independent since 1923. One of the largest schools of education in the United States, and consistently placed among the top 20 graduate schools of education in the United States by U.S. News, it offers a range of degrees in professional education: a B.S. in teacher education leading to a teaching license, M.S., education specialist (Ed. S.) and doctoral (Ed. D, Ph.D.) degrees.

The School of Public and Environmental Affairs (or SPEA) is the largest school of its kind in the United States. Through the wide array of concentrations and joint degrees SPEA offers, students can design an education corresponding to their interests. Founded in 1972, SPEA is known for its distinctive interdisciplinary approach. It brings together the social, natural, behavioral, and administrative sciences in one faculty.

In the most recent "Best Graduate Schools" (2009) survey by U.S. News & World Report, SPEA ranked second and is the nation's highest-ranked graduate program in public affairs at a public institution. SPEA was ranked just behind Syracuse University and tied with Harvard. Six of its specialty programs are ranked in the top 10 listings; four others are in the top 20. While similar rankings do not yet exist for graduate schools of environmental science, SPEA's reputation in the field is growing. SPEA is also a founding member of the Council of Environmental Science Deans and Directors.

SPEA is the only institution in its league with an interdisciplinary character where students can combine environmental science and public affairs. Indiana University's other highly-ranked schools and programs complement SPEA's offerings; the school has 15 joint programs in social and natural sciences and professional fields. For example, in conjunction with the Department of Political Science, SPEA offers a Joint Ph.D. Program in Public Policy, the only one of its kind in the country. In addition, it offers many joint Masters degrees, such as MPA/MSES; MPA/JD; and MSES/JD programs.

In 2011, the Indiana University School of Journalism in Bloomington, Indiana, will celebrate 100 years of helping students prepare for media careers. While students a century ago used tools vastly different from those of today's students, the basic principles of journalism – writing and reporting skills, solid news judgment and ethical values – remain the same.

Housed in a building named for famed war correspondent and alumnus Ernie Pyle, the School of Journalism offers undergraduate and graduate programs for those preparing for careers as reporters, editors, broadcasters, public relations professionals, multimedia specialists and educators.

Among the alumni are more than 30 Pulitzer Prize winners. Alumni work in every field of journalism, from the oldest form of print publishing to newest form as online journalists. Many remain active in supporting the school by mentoring students, facilitating internship programs, and donating time and financial gifts to the school.

Students come from as far away as China and Ukraine and as close as Bloomington or other Indiana towns. Many are drawn to the opportunities for travel abroad during their course of study, to the availability of internships and job leads, and to the scholarships or other financial support available.

Read more about the programs, degrees, events and news at the Indiana University School of Journalism Web site: .

The School is one of a handful which offer degrees in Human-Computer Interaction. The School is the only one in the country to offer a formal degree which combines Human-Computer Interaction and Computer Security. In addition to the innovative HCI/security degree, the School offers master's degrees in Human-Computer Interaction Design, Music Informatics, Bioinformatics, Chemical Informatics, Security Informatics, and Computer Science.

On July 1, 2005 the Department of Computer Science officially moved from the College of Arts and Science to the School of Informatics. This move merged several faculty, bringing the total core faculty to over 100. Informatics also has strong ties with the School of Library and Information Sciences, Department of Telecommunications, Jacobs School of Music, and the Cognitive Science program.

IU's intercollegiate athletics program has a long tradition of excellence in several key sports. From its humble beginnings with baseball in 1867, the Hoosier athletic program has grown to include over 600 male and female student-athletes on 24 varsity teams boasting one of the nation's best overall records. Sports sponsored by the university include football, men's basketball, women's basketball, cross country and track, baseball, golf, tennis, rowing, volleyball, and more.

The Hoosiers became a member of the prestigious Big Ten Conference on December 1, 1899. The school's national affiliation is with the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). National team titles (now totaling 25; 24 NCAA, 1 AIAW) have been won in nine men's sports and one women's sport (tennis), topped by a record-setting six straight men's swimming & diving titles, seven men's soccer crowns and nine titles in men's basketball. Indiana student-athletes have won 133 NCAA individual titles, including 79 in men's swimming and diving and 31 in men's track and field. In addition, IU teams have won or shared 157 Big Ten Conference championships.

The IU athletics endowment is $32 million, the largest in the Big Ten Conference. The Varsity Club, which is the fundraising arm of the Athletics Department, drew a record $11.5 million in gifts and pledges in the fiscal year 2004–05. In addition, overall annual giving has increased 8.3% in the last year and 44.8 percent in the last three years.

In addition to its rich tradition in intervarsity sports, IU also boasts a strong reputation in many non-varsity sports. Many of these "club" teams, especially those in ice hockey and rugby union, have achieved a great deal of success in intercollegiate competition. The consistent success of these athletic clubs has several times led the university to establish varsity programs in sports in which there had previously not been a team for NCAA intervarsity competition.

It should also be noted that a large percentage of the IU student body regularly participates in both formal and/or informal intramural sports, including football, soccer, tennis, basketball, and golf. Among intramural athletics, IU's reputation for student participation and instruction in the martial arts is particularly strong.

In November 2008 the NCAA put the Indiana University men's basketball program on three years probation for recruiting violations committed by former men's basketball head coach Kelvin Sampson and his coaching staff. The punishment did not include scholarship revocations, or television or postseason bans.In the 2008-2009 season they only won six games.

With over 1,823 full-time faculty members, Indiana University leads the Big Ten public universities in the number of endowed faculty positions, with 333 chairs, professorships, and curators. IUB also reported in fall 2004 that it employed 334 part-time faculty, totaling 1,877 full-time equivalents. Of the full-time faculty, 76% were tenured. Like the student body, IUB's faculty is predominantly white. Of full-time administrators, faculty, and lecturers, 118 (6%) were Asian, 74 (4%) were African-American, 62 (4%) were Hispanic, 5 (0.3%) were Native American, and 1,535 (85%) were "other." More men (62%) than women held academic appointments at the university.

Professors at IUB were better paid than their counterparts in the IU system. A full professor earned an average of $126,500, an associate professor $89,000, and an assistant professor $74,400.

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Source : Wikipedia