3.4054462934857 (1983)
Posted by sonny 03/17/2009 @ 06:07

Tags : industry, departments, politics, canada, world

News headlines
Porn industry clinic takes anti-HIV steps - Los Angeles Times
The Adult Industry Medical Healthcare Foundation, reacting to a case disclosed last week, says it's increasing database controls and urging producers to not accept paper test results from performers. By Kimi Yoshino In an effort to prevent the possible...
EPA targets cement industry emissions - Los Angeles Times
Industry representatives warn the rules would increase costs and could lead to outsourcing. By Amy Littlefield Environmentalists and industry representatives pleaded their case with federal regulators Tuesday over rules that would slash toxic emissions...
Woman from central Minnesota fires back for a retrial against ... -
Over the years, the record industry has had financial troubles with the rise of the internet and other file-sharing programs. One of the first to come out amidst the internet explosion and the popularity of mp3s was Napster along with Ghutella,...
China Urged by Trade Groups to Review Anti-Porn Software Order - Bloomberg
The group, which includes the American Chamber of Commerce in China and the Business Software Alliance, sent the letter to Chinese Minister of Industry and Information Technology Li Yizhong yesterday. China has been criticized by industry group,...
Insurers Press Case for Federal Regulation - Wall Street Journal
By JESSICA HOLZER WASHINGTON -- Proponents of creating an optional federal charter for the insurance industry, which is currently regulated by the states, pressed their case Tuesday before a House panel. The issue has split the industry, pitting life...
mocoNews - iPhone 3G Price Cut To $99 Will Kneecap The Industry - Washington Post
Apple's price cut of the iPhone 3G to $99, largely overlooked at the launch of the iPhone 3GS last week, will not just "kneecap" the Palm (NSDQ: PALM) Pre, but will kneecap the entire industry, and most importantly carriers and cellphone makers,...
US Stocks Fall; S&P 500 Has Biggest Two-Day Drop Since April - Bloomberg
Amgen Inc., the largest biotechnology company, led health- care companies to the only gain among 10 industry groups, increasing 3.6 percent to $51.21, after Sanford C. Bernstein Co. upgraded the shares to “outperform” from “market perform,” saying the...
Lodi wine industry generates $5B for area economy - San Jose Mercury News
A new study says the economic value of Lodi's wine industry has topped $5 billion. The study commissioned by the Lodi District Grape Growers also shows that the 75 wineries pay $493 million in wages to more than 15000 people. The wineries generate $1.6...
Kingston Data Traveler 200: Industry's first 128GB USB flash drive - CNET News
Meanwhile, Kingston has set out to prove just how much you'll save with the release of the industry's first 129GB USB key, dubbed the Kingston Data Traveler 200. At just less than 3 inches long and half an inch thick, the tiny Kingston Data Traveler...
Fashion industry steps out for its Oscars, the CFDA Awards - USA Today
By Larry Busacca, Getty Images By Donna Freydkin and Andrea Mandell, USA TODAY But Seventh Avenue's elite designers, accompanied by their celebrity pals, stepped out Monday night to celebrate themselves at the Council of Fashion Designers of America...


An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent, industrious") is the manufacturing of a good or service within a category. Although industry is a broad term for any kind of economic production, in economics and urban planning industry is a synonym for the secondary sector, which is a type of economic activity involved in the manufacturing of raw materials into goods and products.

There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction, and manufacturing; the tertiary sector, which deals with services (such as law and medicine) and distribution of manufactured goods; and the quaternary sector, a relatively new type of knowledge industry focusing on technological research, design and development such as computer programming, and biochemistry. A fifth quinary sector has been proposed encompassing nonprofit activities. The economy is also broadly separated into public sector and private sector, with industry generally categorized as private.

Industry in the sense of manufacturing became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, which upset previous mercantile and feudal economies through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the steel and coal production. It is aided by technological advances, and has continued to develop into new types and sectors to this day. Industrial countries then assumed a capitalist economic policy. Railroads and steam-powered ships began speedily establishing links with previously unreachable world markets, enabling private companies to develop to then-unheard of size and wealth. Following the Industrial Revolution, perhaps a third of the world's economic output is derived from manufacturing industries—more than agriculture's share.

Many developed countries (for example the UK, the U.S., and Canada) and many developing/semi-developed countries (People's Republic of China, India etc.) depend significantly on industry. Industries, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence.

Early industries involved manufacturing goods for trade, including weapons, clothing, pottery. In medieval Europe, industry became dominated by the guilds in cities and towns, who mutual support for the member's interests, and maintained standards of workmanship and ethical conduct.

The industrial revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production, with consequent changes in society. Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process. This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot.

Historically certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in carriage manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced.

A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations toward a post-industrial society. This is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, and the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturing is relocated to more economically-favorable locations through a process of offshoring.

There are several branches of technology and engineering specialised for industrial application. This includes mathematical models, patented inventions and craft skills. See automation, industrial architecture, industrial design, industrial process, industrial arts and industrial applicability.

An industrial society can be defined in many ways. Today, industry is an important part of most societies and nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating industrial placement, industrial pollution, financing and industrial labor.

In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population. This occurs typically in the manufacturing sector. A labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labor. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labor contracts with employers. This movement first rose among industrial workers.

The industrial revolution changed warfare, with mass-produced weaponry and supplies, machine-powered transportation, mobilization, the total war concept and weapons of mass destruction. Early instances of industrial warfare were the Crimean War and the American Civil War, but its full potential showed during the world wars. See also military-industrial complex, arms industry, military industry and modern warfare.

Philosophers and economists have developed many different views of industry. See physiocrats, Adam Smith, capitalism, Marxism and Colin Clark's Sector model.

There are many other different kinds of industries, and they are usually divided into different classes or sectors. The primary sector of industry is agriculture, mining and raw material extraction. The secondary sector of industry is manufacturing - which is what is colloquially meant by the word "industry". The tertiary sector of industry is service production. Sometimes one talks about a quaternary sector of industry, consisting of intellectual services such as R&D.

ISIC (rev.4) stands for International Standard Industrial Classification of all economic activities, the most complete and systematic industrial classification made by United Nations Statistics Division. ISIC Rev.4 is a standard classification of economic activities arranged so that entities can be classified according to the activity they carry out. The categories of ISIC at the most detailed level (classes) are delineated according to what is, in most countries, the customary combination of activities described in statistical units and considers the relative importance of the activities included in these classes. While ISIC Rev.4 continues to use criteria such as input, output and use of the products produced, more emphasis has been given to the character of the production process in defining and delineating ISIC classes.

Industry Center by Yahoo!Finance is also very useful (shows trends of all industrial sectors).

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Department of Trade and Industry

Logo of the DTI

The Department of Trade and Industry was a United Kingdom government department which was disbanded with the announcement of the creation of the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform and the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on 28 June 2007.

The department was first formed in 1970 with the merger of the Board of Trade and the Ministry of Technology, creating a new cabinet post of Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. The new department also took over the Department of Employment's former responsibilities for monopolies and mergers. In January 1974, the department's responsibilities for energy production were transferred to a newly created UK Department of Energy. On 5th March that year, following a Labour Party victory in the February 1974 general election, the department was split into Department of Trade, Department of Industry and the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection.

In 1983 the departments of Trade and Industry were reunited. The Department of Energy was re-merged back into the DTI in 1992, but various media-related functions transferred to the Department for National Heritage. Until it was disbanded in June 2007 the DTI continued to set the energy policy of the United Kingdom.

After the 2005 general election the DTI was renamed to the Department for Productivity, Energy and Industry, but the name reverted to Department of Trade and Industry less than a week later, after widespread derision, including some from the Confederation of British Industry.

The DTI had a wide range of responsibilities. There were ultimately nine main areas covered by the DTI: Company Law, Trade, Business Growth, Innovation, Employment Law, Regional Economic Development, Energy, Science, and Consumer Law. From 1999 to 2005 it led the national E-Commerce Awards with InterForum, a not for profit membership organisation that helped British businesses to trade electronically. This aimed to encourage Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises to develop their business through the use of E-Commerce technologies. It also had responsibility for investigating misconduct by company directors, in which rôle Private Eye repeatedly lampooned it as "the Department of Timidity and Inaction".

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Sex industry

A depiction of a sex worker in Germany

The sex industry is the term given to the industry commercial enterprises which employ sex workers in various capacities, generally relating to what is described as adult entertainment which includes erotica, as it comprises a number of forms of entertainment not considered suitable for children.

The sex industry represents a significant portion of the world's economy and has been credited with driving technological advances in popular media, such as home video and DVD, pay-per-view, live streaming video and video on demand.

Examples of the types of modern business operating in the sex industry include Hustler (a monthly men's magazine); SexTV: The Channel (a digital cable television channel); (a popular website); Artemis (a mega-brothel in Germany); and Ann Summers (a successful chain of British sex shops).

The explosive popularity of the videocassette recorder in the 1970s and 1980s led to unprecedented growth for the adult film business. The portability of the technology vaulted the availability of so-called "dirty movies" beyond the realm of the simple loops and movie projectors of an earlier era to bigger profits and higher-quality production values. Every year, AVN Awards—including categories such as Best High-Definition Production and Best New Starlet are given to selected adult films.

The first home-PCs capable of network communication prompted the arrival of online services for adults in the late 80s and early 1990s. The wide-open early days of the World Wide Web quickly snowballed into the dot-com boom, in-part fueled by an incredible global increase in the demand for and consumption of porn and erotica.

An Adult Service Provider (ASP), or Adult Sex Provider, provides sexual services for adults. This can include escorts, call girls, prostitutes, adult webmasters, erotic dancers, the independent contractors sometimes associated with brothels, and others who are generally referred to under the umbrella term sex worker. These providers have been known to offer pastoral care and training at levels typically associated with blue chip companies to their staff.

The growth in sex tourism has led to a corresponding growth in the sex industry in some countries. Illegal sex tourism with under-age boys and girls has become a notorious problem in poorer Third World countries in places like the Caribbean and South East Asia. Legal (above the age of consent) and consensual sex industries make a significant contribution to the local economies of some urban centers. The Hamburg Reeperbahn is a licensed and taxed prostitution zone serving tourists from all over the world.

Sex industries tend to thrive around military bases. The British naval port of Portsmouth had a flourishing local sex industry in the 19th century, and until the early 1990s there were large red light districts near American military bases in the Philippines. The Monto red-light district of Dublin, one of the largest in Europe, gained most of its custom from the British soldiers stationed in the city; indeed it collapsed after Irish independence was achieved and the soldiers left. The notorious Patpong entertainment district in Bangkok, Thailand, started as an R&R location for US troops serving in the Vietnam War in the early 1970s.

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Film industry

Cinema admissions in 1995

The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i.e. film production companies, film studios, cinematography, film production, screenwriting, pre-production, post production, film festivals, distribution; and actors, film directors and other film personnel.

Though the expense involved in making movies almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve.

The film industry as it stands today spans the globe. The major business centers of film making are concentrated in the United States, India and China.

Distinct from the centers are the locations where movies are filmed. Because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in countries other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U.S. movies are filmed in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand or in Eastern European countries.

Los Angeles, California is the primary nexus of the U.S. film industry. However, four of the major film studios are owned by East Coast companies. Only The Walt Disney Company and owner of Walt Disney Pictures, Touchstone Pictures, Hollywood Pictures, Miramax Films, and the Pixar Animation Studios is actually headquartered in Southern California. The same can be said for Sony Pictures which is headquartered in Culver City, California, although the corporate side of Sony Pictures is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

Networking and establishing strong relationships are a vital part of Hollywood. The town is scattered with talented artists who do not possess the means to pitch their ideas or acquire representation. Reading the trades, Hollywood jargon for reading Daily Variety or The Hollywood Reporter, and joining a networking group or tracking board are ways to stay on top of the job market as well as the project market. This helps them take advantage of knowledge spillover. and are the two most widely used tracking board sites.

The Indian film industry is multi-lingual and the largest in the world (1200 movies released in 2002). The industry is supported mainly by a vast film-going Indian public (the largest in the world in terms of annual ticket sales), and Indian films have been gaining increasing popularity in the rest of the world — notably in countries with large numbers of expatriate Indians. One third of the India's film industry is mostly concentrated in Mumbai (Bombay), and is commonly referred to as "Bollywood" as an amalgamation of Bombay and Hollywood. The remaining majority portion is spread across west & south India (in Marathi, Tamil, Malayalam and Telugu speaking areas). However, there are several smaller centers of Indian film industries in regional languages (Apart from Hindi, Marathi, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam) centered in the states those languages are spoken. Indian films are made filled with action, romance, comedy, dance and an increasing number of special effects.

Hong Kong, China is a filmmaking hub for the Chinese-speaking world (including the worldwide diaspora) and East Asia in general. For decades it was the third largest motion picture industry in the world (after Indian and Hollywood) and the second largest exporter of films. Despite an industry crisis starting in the mid-'90s and Hong Kong's return to Chinese sovereignty in July 1997, Hong Kong film has retained much of its distinctive identity and continues to play a prominent part on the world cinema stage.

Unlike many film industries, Hong Kong has enjoyed little to no direct government support, through either subsidies or import quotas. It has always been a thoroughly commercial cinema, concentrating on crowd-pleasing genres, like comedy and action, and heavily reliant on formulas, sequels and remakes. Typically of commercial cinemas, its heart is a highly developed star system, which in this case also features substantial overlap with the pop music industry.

Nigeria was ushered into modern film making by a film known as Living in Bondage, which featured Kenneth Okonwo, Kanayo. O. Kanayo, Bob Manuel Udokwu, Francis Agu, Ngozi Nwosu, Nnena Nwabueze, etc. This movie, which hit the market in 1992, marked a turning point in the Nigerian Movie Industry and heralded the trend in modern day movie making in Nigeria.

The movie capital of the country was in Lagos. However, over the years, there has been a shift from Lagos to Enugu, in the eastern part of the country. This shift is said to be championed by Pete Edochie - a veteran in the communications industry who turned an actor and has become one of the most successful in Nigeria.

Now, with the launching of TINAPA Studios in Cross River State of Nigeria, we expect yet another shift in the regular base of the movie industry in Nigeria, considering the attractive ultra modern facilities, and beautiful scenery and location of Calabar, the capital of Cross Rivers.

The movie industry in Nigeria would not be complete without a mention of those behind the movies. Not the actors this time, but the sponsors or producers who are mostly based in Onitsha, the commercial capital of Anambra State, of Nigeria.

The first feature film ever made was that of The Story of the Kelly Gang, an Australian film based on the infamous Ned Kelly. In 1906 Dan Barry and Charles Tait of Melbourne produced and directed The Story of the Kelly Gang, a silent film that ran continuously for a breathtaking 80 minutes. It was not until 1911 that countries other than Australia began to make feature films. By this time Australia had made 16 full length feature films.

In the early 1900s, in the earliest years of the industry, motion picture production companies from New York and New Jersey started moving to California because of the good weather and longer days. Although electric lights existed at that time, none were powerful enough to adequately expose film; the best source of illumination for movie production was natural sunlight. Besides the moderate, dry climate, they were also drawn to the state because of its open spaces and wide variety of natural scenery.

Another reason was the distance of Southern California from New Jersey, which made it more difficult for Thomas Edison to enforce his motion picture patents. At the time, Edison owned almost all the patents relevant to motion picture production and, in the East, movie producers acting independently of Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company were often sued or enjoined by Edison and his agents. Thus, movie makers working on the West Coast could work independent of Edison's control. If he sent agents to California, word would usually reach Los Angeles before the agents did and the movie makers could escape to nearby Mexico.

The first movie studio in the Hollywood area, Nestor Studios, was founded in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley in an old building on the northwest corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street. In the same year, another fifteen Independents settled in Hollywood. Hollywood came to be so strongly associated with the film industry that the word "Hollywood" came to be used colloquially to refer to the entire industry.

In 1913, Cecil B. DeMille, in association with Jesse Lasky, leased a barn with studio facilities on the southeast corner of Selma and Vine Streets from the Burns and Revier Studio and Laboratory, which had been established there. DeMille then began production of The Squaw Man (1914). It became known as the Lasky-DeMille Barn and is currently the location of the Hollywood Heritage Museum.

The Charlie Chaplin Studios, on the northeast corner of La Brea and De Longpre Avenues just south of Sunset Boulevard, was built in 1917. It has had many owners after 1953, including Kling Studios, who produced the Superman TV series with George Reeves; Red Skelton, who used the sound stages for his CBS TV variety show; and CBS, who filmed the TV series Perry Mason with Raymond Burr there. It has also been owned by Herb Alpert's A&M Records and Tijuana Brass Enterprises. It is currently The Jim Henson Company, home of the Muppets. In 1969, The Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Board named the studio a historical cultural monument.

The famous Hollywood sign originally read "Hollywoodland." It was erected in 1923 to advertise a new housing development in the hills above Hollywood. For several years the sign was left to deteriorate. In 1949, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce stepped in and offered to remove the last four letters and repair the rest.

The sign, located at the top of Mount Lee, is now a registered trademark and cannot be used without the permission of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, which also manages the venerable Walk of Fame.

The first Academy Awards presentation ceremony took place on May 16, 1929 during a banquet held in the Blossom Room of the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel on Hollywood Boulevard. Tickets were USD $10.00 and there were 250 people in attendance.

From about 1930, five major Hollywood movie studios from all over the Los Angeles area, Paramount, RKO, 20th Century Fox, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Warner Bros., owned large, grand theaters throughout the country for the exhibition of their movies. The period between the years 1927 (the effective end of the silent era) to 1948 is considered the age of the "Hollywood studio system", or, in a more common term, the Golden Age of Hollywood. In a landmark 1948 court decision, the Supreme Court ruled that movie studios could not own theaters and play only the movies of their studio and movie stars, thus an era of Hollywood history had unofficially ended. By the mid-1950s, when television proved a profitable enterprise that was here to stay, movie studios started also being used for the production of programming in that medium, which is still the norm today.

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Source : Wikipedia