Jonathan Pryce

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Posted by kaori 03/31/2009 @ 02:07

Tags : jonathan pryce, actors and actresses, entertainment

News headlines
Elle Driver takes on vibrator comedy with Everett, Hawkins, Pryce -
Paris-based sales company Elle Driver has acquired Hysteria, a new UK comedy from director Tanya Wexler starring Rupert Everett, Sally Hawkins, Jonathan Pryce and Ashley Jensen. The romantic comedy - which is already building buzz - is based on a true...
mps' expenses: artists and activists join in call for electoral reform -
In a letter to the Observer today, a powerful alliance of public figures ranging from the author Philip Pullman and actor Jonathan Pryce to the musician Brian Eno launch a fresh campaign for a referendum on PR on the same day as the next general...
HIGHLIGHT / BRAZIL - Globe and Mail
Set in the not-too-distant future, the story follows lowly government clerk Sam Lowry (Jonathan Pryce). Wedged into his ever-contracting cubicle, alongside row after row of equally sallow workers, Sam dreams of paradise while filing reports no one will...
CENTRAL JERSEY - The Star-Ledger -
1600-METER RELAY: 1-Burlington Twp. (Alrick Pryce, David Slaton, Eriq Morris, Vincent Pini) 3:22.14. 2-Long Branch 3:25.48. 3-Ewing 3:27.37. 4-Matawan, 3:28.55. 5-Somerville 3:33.08. 6-North Plainfield 3:35.49. TEAMS: 1-Dunellen 105. 2-Metuchen 73....
(Following Advance for Use Monday, June 1) | North ... - Reiten Television KXMB Bismarck
Actor Jonathan Pryce is 62. Actor Powers Boothe is 61. Actress Gemma Craven is 59. Blues-rock musician Tom Principato is 57. Country singer Ronnie Dunn (Brooks and Dunn) is 56. Actress Lisa Hartman Black is 53. Singer-musician Alan Wilder is 50....
Monday, June 1 - eTaiwan News
... Colleen McCullough, Australian author (1937--); Morgan Freeman, US actor (1937--); Jason Donovan US actor (1968--); Alanis Morissette, Canadian singer (1974--); Heidi Klum, model and TV host (1973--); Jonathan Pryce, Welsh actor (1947--)....
Memorial Day observances - Worcester Telegram
Richard Pryce and the Rev. James Kerrigan. Monday: The Memorial Day parade will begin at 9:30 am from the municipal office building. Stops will be made at the Soldier's Statue in front of the police station on Maple Avenue, the War Memorial in the...
Citizen Cannes writes his biog - California Chronicle
Paris-based sales company Elle Driver (named after Daryl Hannah's character in Kill Bill) is in Cannes negotiating distribution rights to Hysteria, featuring Rupert Everett, Sally Hawkins and Jonathan Pryce. Based on a true story about the invention of...
Broadway's Chinese star falls for 'Jane Eyre' -
His portrayal of the Engineer, which was played by Welsh actor Jonathan Pryce in the London original, was "nothing less than a dazzling reinterpretation that raised the level of the entire show," according to a New York Times review....
RCC graduates 176 Students on Sunday - Richmond County Daily Journal
Jonathan Clifford Bauch, Lillian Bears, Jillian Nicole Blakely, Joshua Kyle Braddock, Nina Ann Carpenter, Justin Edgar Chappell, Frances Gene Davis, Romona Michelle Dougherty, Etta Kathleen Fox, Crystal Lynn Gary, Shelly Lynn Gautney,...

Jonathan Pryce

Pryce as Sam Lowry in Brazil

Jonathan Pryce (born 1 June 1947) is a Welsh award-winning stage and film actor/singer. After studying at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and marrying Irish actress Kate Fahy in 1974, he began his career as a stage actor in the 1970s. His work in theatre, including an award-winning performance in the title role of the Royal Court Theatre's Hamlet, led to several supporting roles in film and television. He made his breakthrough screen performance in Terry Gilliam's 1985 cult film Brazil.

Critically lauded for his versatility, Pryce has participated in big-budget productions such as Evita, Tomorrow Never Dies, Pirates of the Caribbean and The New World, as well as independent projects such as Glengarry Glen Ross and Carrington. His career in theatre has also been prolific, and he has won two Tony Awards—the first in 1977 for his Broadway debut in Comedians, the second for his 1991 role as "the Engineer" in the musical Miss Saigon.

Pryce was born John Price in Holywell, Flintshire, Wales, UK the son of Margaret Ellen (née Williams), a retail cashier and shopkeeper, and Isaac Pryce, a coal miner who also ran a small general grocery shop. Pryce has two older sisters. He was educated at Holywell Grammar School (today Holywell High School), and, at the age of 16, he went to art college and then started training to be a teacher at Edge Hill College in Ormskirk. While studying, he took part in a college theatre production. An impressed friend sent off to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art for an application form, and Pryce was awarded a scholarship to RADA. While at RADA Pryce worked as a door-to-door salesman of velvet paintings.

Despite finding RADA "straight-laced", and being told by his tutor that he could never aspire to do more than playing villains in Z-Cars, he graduated and went on to perform with the Royal Shakespeare Company and at the Nottingham Playhouse. He then joined the Everyman Theatre Liverpool Company, eventually becoming the theatre's Artistic Director. While working at the Everyman Theatre Pryce met Irish actress Kate Fahy. The two married in 1974 and based their home in the Hampstead area of London, where they currently live with their three children: Patrick (b.1983), Gabriel (b.1986) and Phoebe (b.1990). It is during this time that he made his first screen appearance in a minor role on a 1972 episode of the British science fiction programme Doomwatch, called Fire & Brimstone. It was not until 1976, however, that he got his first movie role, playing the character Joseph Manasse in the film drama Voyage of the Damned, starring Faye Dunaway. He did not, however, abandon the stage, appearing from 1978 to 1979 on the Royal Shakespeare Company's productions of The Taming of the Shrew as Petruchio, and on Antony and Cleopatra as Octavius Caesar.

In 1980, his performance in the title role of Hamlet at the Royal Court Theatre won him an Olivier Award, and was acclaimed by some critics as the definitive Hamlet of his generation. That year he also appeared in the film Breaking Glass, a film that is remarkable in that it featured in the cast (sometimes in small roles) many actors who would eventually become stars of film and television, such as Jim Broadbent, Richard Griffiths and Phil Daniels. Also during this year, Pryce had a small but pivotal role as Zarniwoop in the 12th episode of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy radio series, one that he reprised for the Quintessential Phase which was broadcast in 2005.

In 1983, Pryce had one of the leading roles in the film, Something Wicked This Way Comes, a film based on the Ray Bradbury novel of the same name. Pryce place the role of the very sinister and evil Mr. Dark. After appearing mostly in TV films, such as the Ian McEwan-scripted film The Ploughman's Lunch, and Martin Luther, Heretic, he achieved a breakthrough with his role as the subdued protagonist Sam Lowry in the ex-Monty Python Terry Gilliam's 1985 film, Brazil. The film, an analogy to Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, was acclaimed in Europe and won two BAFTA Film Awards. In the American version, Universal Pictures tried to remove numerous scenes in order to make the film "shorter" and more consumer-friendly. the movie was also well received in the United States and won three awards from the Los Angeles Film Critics Association and two Academy Awards nominations. Brazil became a cult film, and is still frequently mentioned in "best film" lists and rankings, such as Time magazine's list of the 100 best films of all time and Total Film magazine's 2004 list of the 20th greatest British movies of all time (which Brazil topped). The film was described by Harlan Ellison as "the finest SF movie ever made" and it holds a 97% freshness rate at Rotten Tomatoes. After Brazil, Pryce appeared in the historical thriller The Doctor and the Devils and then in the Gene Wilder-directed film Haunted Honeymoon. During this period of his life, Pryce continued to perform on stage, and was particularly noteworthy as the successful but self-doubting writer Trigorin in a London production of Anton Chekhov's The Seagull in late 1985. From 1986 to 1987 Pryce played the lead part on the Royal Shakespeare Company's production of Macbeth, which also starred Sinéad Cusack as Lady Macbeth.

In 1988 Pryce worked once again with Gilliam in The Adventures of Baron Munchausen, playing "The Right Ordinary Horatio Jackson". The film was a notorious financial fiasco, with production costing more than $40 million, when the original budget was $23.5 million. The film has gained cult favorite status over time, however, and in a commentary track on the DVD edition of his 2007 feature Tideland, Gilliam now says that Munchausen is one of the films that his fans most often cite as a favorite (along with Monty Python and the Holy Grail, Brazil, Twelve Monkeys and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas). During the last year of the decade, Pryce appeared on three of the earliest episodes of the improvisation show Whose Line Is It Anyway?, alongside Paul Merton and John Sessions. During this year he again appeared on a play by Checkhov, this time it was Uncle Vanya at the Vaudeville Theatre.

After some minor roles in the big screen, such as in the independent film Glengarry Glen Ross and in Scorsese's The Age of Innocence, Pryce discovered he wanted to do musicals after seeing his friend Patti LuPone on the original London production of Les Misérables. He would successfully return to the stage originating the role of The Engineer, an Eurasian pimp in the award winning West End musical Miss Saigon. His performance was praised in England, but when the production transferred to Broadway the Actors' Equity Association (AEA) would not allow Pryce to portray the Engineer because, according to their executive secretary, "he casting of a Caucasian actor made up to appear Asian is an affront to the Asian community". Cameron Mackintosh, the show's producer, decided to cancel the $10 million New York production because, he said, he would not let the freedom of artistic expression be attacked. Realizing that its decision would result in the loss of many jobs, the AEA decided to make a deal with Mackintosh, allowing Pryce to appear in the production. He would then, in 1991, win a Tony Award for his performance. Pryce returned to the London stage the following year to star alongside Elaine Paige in the 1992 revival of the Federico Fellini-inspired musical Nine.

In 1993 Pryce featured, alongside Kathy Burke and Minnie Driver, in the BBC mini-series Mr. Wroe's Virgins. Later that same year Pryce was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award and for a Golden Globe Award for his work as Henry Kravis in the HBO produced made-for-TV movie Barbarians at the Gate. Also during 1993, Pryce was set to star alongside River Phoenix and Judy Davis in the film Dark Blood, but production had to be shut down when, 11 days shy of completing production, Phoenix died of a drug overdose. Director George Sluizer, who owns the rights to what has been filmed, has made available some of the raw material, which features Pryce and Phoenix on a field in Utah, on his personal website. Between 1993 and 1994, Pryce became a spokesman for Infiniti in a series of American television commercials, notably for the Infiniti J30. These advertisements were widely ridiculed because of the campaign's general "snobiness". These commercials were parodied on Saturday Night Live in 1993, with Mike Myers doing an impersonation of Pryce, spokesmodeling for sleek luxury toilets instead of automobiles. In 1994, Pryce portrayed Fagin in a revival of the musical Oliver!, and would star the following year alongside Emma Thompson in the film Carrington, which centres on a platonic relationship between gay writer Lytton Strachey and painter Dora Carrington. Pryce's portrayal of Strachey gained him the Best Actor Award at that year's Cannes Film Festival.

The following year Pryce starred with Madonna and Antonio Banderas in his first musical film, Evita. In this Oscar-winning adaptation of Andrew Lloyd Webber's stage musical, Pryce portrayed the Argentinian dictator Juan Peron. The movie's soundtrack was an international success. It contains over 30 songs sung mainly by Madonna, Banderas and Pryce, of which two are solos for Pryce: "She Is A Diamond" and "On The Balcony Of The Casa Rosada". Both his acting and his singing received mixed reviews from the press. After Evita, Pryce went on to portray a James Bond villain, billionaire media mogul Elliot Carver, in the 1997 film Tomorrow Never Dies. During the rest of the decade Pryce would play to his new acquired villain fame, portraying an assassin in Ronin, a corrupt Cardinal in the controversial Stigmata and, for Comic Relief, the Master in the Doctor Who special, Doctor Who and the Curse of Fatal Death. In 1998, Pryce performed in Cameron Mackintosh's gala concert Hey, Mr Producer!, as Professor Henry Higgins from My Fair Lady and reprising his role as the Engineer from Miss Saigon.

During the early 2000s Pryce starred and participated in a variety of movie flops, such as The Affair of the Necklace, What a Girl Wants, Unconditional Love and Terry Gilliam's unfinished The Man Who Killed Don Quixote. While his on-screen projects were failing, however, the 2001 London stage production of My Fair Lady and his portrayal of Professor Henry Higgins was being acclaimed by the media. This production turned up to be very stressful for Pryce because Martine McCutcheon, who portrayed Eliza Doolittle, was sick during much of the shows run. McCutcheon was replaced by her understudy Alexandra Jay who would also fall sick hours before a performance forcing her understudy Kerry Ellis to take the lead. Pryce was extremely upset and on her first night introduced Ellis to the audience before the show by saying "This will be your first Eliza. Well, this is my third this week. Any member of the audience interested in playing Eliza can find applications at the door. Wednesday and Saturday matinee available." Pryce ended up dealing with four Elizas during the course of 14 months. Nevertheless, the show was nominated for four Laurence Olivier Awards on 2001: Best Actress in a Musical for Martine McCutcheon, Outstanding Musical Production, Best Theatre Choreographer and Best Actor in a Musical for Pryce. Pryce lost to Philip Quast, although McCutcheon won in her category. Pryce did express interest in doing My Fair Lady in New York, but when asked if he would do it with McCutcheon he said that "there's as much chance of me getting a date with Julia Roberts as doing My Fair Lady in New York with Martine McCutcheon".

In April 2003 Pryce returned to the non-musical stage with A Reckoning, written by American dramatist Wesley Moore. The play co-starred Flora Montgomery and after premiering at the Soho Theatre in London was described by The Daily Telegraph as "one of the most powerful and provocative new American plays to have opened since David Mamet's Oleanna." That year Pryce also landed a role in Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, where he portrayed a fictional Governor of Jamaica, Weatherby Swann, a movie he described as "one of those why-not movies". After Pirates Pryce has appeared in several large-scale productions, such as De-Lovely (Pryce's second musical film), a chronicle of the life of songwriter Cole Porter, for which Kevin Kline and Pryce covered a Porter song called "Blow, Gabriel, Blow", The Brothers Grimm, Pryce's fourth project with Terry Gilliam, starred Matt Damon and Heath Ledger, and The New World, in which he had a minor role as King James I. In 2005, Pryce was nominated for another Olivier Award in the best actor category for his role in the 2004 London production of The Goat or Who is Sylvia?, where he played Martin, a goat-lover that has to face the recriminations of his cheated-on wife, played by his real life wife Kate Fahy. Pryce's performance was highly praised, but he lost the Olivier to Richard Griffiths.

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Doctor Who

A multicoloured variant of the familiar Doctor Who diamond logo which was used in the show's titles from Seasons 11 to 17. This version was widely used on merchandise for years afterwards.

Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a mysterious alien time-traveller known as "the Doctor" who travels in his space and time-ship, the TARDIS, which normally appears from the exterior to be a blue 1950s police box. With his companions, he explores time and space, solving problems, facing monsters and righting wrongs.

The programme is listed in Guinness World Records as the longest-running science fiction television show in the world and is also a significant part of British popular culture. It has been recognised for its imaginative stories, creative low-budget special effects during its original run, and pioneering use of electronic music (originally produced by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop). In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the show has become a cult television favourite and has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series. It has received recognition from critics and the public as one of the finest British television programmes, including the BAFTA Award for Best Drama Series in 2006.

The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. After an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production with a backdoor pilot in the form of a 1996 television film, the programme was successfully relaunched in 2005, produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff. Some development money for the new series is contributed by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), which is credited as a co-producer. Doctor Who has also spawned spin-offs in multiple media, including the current television programmes Torchwood and The Sarah Jane Adventures, and a single 1981 pilot episode of "K-9 and Company".

The show's lead character, the Doctor, has been played by eleven actors over the history of the show. The transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show as regeneration, and the different parts are often treated as distinct characters to the extent that in some time travel plots they encounter one another and work together. The Doctor is currently portrayed by David Tennant. In the programme's most recent series, which ran from 5 April to 5 July 2008, Catherine Tate played the Doctor's companion, reprising her role of Donna Noble from the 2006 Christmas special. A Christmas special, entitled "The Next Doctor", was broadcast in 2008 and will be followed by four more specials in 2009 and early 2010, the first being an Easter special titled "Planet of the Dead"; the next full series, Series 5, has been confirmed to air in 2010. Tennant announced at the 2008 National Television Awards that after appearing in the four 2009–2010 Doctor Who specials, he will leave the role. The Eleventh Doctor will be portrayed by Matt Smith. Smith was 26 years old at the time of his casting, making him the youngest actor to be cast in the leading role.

Doctor Who first appeared on BBC television at 5:15 p.m. (GMT) on 23 November 1963, following discussions and plans that had been in progress for a year. The Head of Drama, Sydney Newman, was mainly responsible for developing it, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the Head of the Script Department (later Head of Serials) Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert also heavily contributed to the development of the series. The series' title theme was composed by Ron Grainer and realised by Delia Derbyshire of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop. The programme was originally intended to appeal to a family audience. The BBC drama department's Serials division produced the programme for 26 series, broadcast on BBC One. Viewing numbers that had fallen (though comparably increased at some points), a decline in the public perception of the show and a less prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, Controller of BBC One. Although it was effectively cancelled (as series co-star Sophie Aldred reported in the documentary Doctor Who: More Than 30 Years in the TARDIS), the BBC said the series would return.

While in-house production had ceased, the BBC was hopeful of finding an independent production company to relaunch the show. Philip Segal, a British expatriate who worked for Columbia Pictures' television arm in the United States, approached the BBC about such a venture. Segal's negotiations eventually led to a television film. The Doctor Who television film was broadcast on the Fox Network in 1996 as a co-production between Fox, Universal Pictures, the BBC and BBC Worldwide. Although the film was successful in the UK (with 9.1 million viewers), it was less so in the United States and did not lead to a series.

Licensed media such as novels and audio plays provided new stories, but as a television programme Doctor Who remained dormant until 2003. In September of that year, BBC Television announced the in-house production of a new series after several years of unsuccessful attempts by BBC Worldwide to find backing for a feature film version. The executive producers of the new incarnation of the series are writer Russell T Davies and BBC Wales Head of Drama/BBC Television Controller of Drama Commissioning Julie Gardner. It has been sold to many other countries worldwide (see Viewership).

Doctor Who finally returned with the episode "Rose" on BBC One on 26 March 2005. There have been three further series in 2006, 2007, and 2008 and Christmas Day specials in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The fourth series began on BBC One on 5 April 2008. There will be a rest year in 2009, with no new series, although David Tennant will star in four specials. After the 2008 Christmas special and four special episodes in 2009, a fifth full-length series is planned for Spring 2010, with Steven Moffat replacing Davies as head writer and executive producer.

The 2005–present version of Doctor Who is considered a direct continuation of the 1963–89 series, as is the 1996 telefilm. This differs from other series relaunches that have either been reimaginings or reboots (e.g., Battlestar Galactica and Bionic Woman) or series taking place in the same universe as the original but with a totally new cast of characters (e.g., Star Trek: The Next Generation and spin-offs).

The programme rapidly became a national institution in the United Kingdom, with a large following among the general viewing audience. Many renowned actors asked for or were offered and accepted guest starring roles in various stories.

With popularity came controversy over the show's suitability for children. Moral campaigner Mary Whitehouse repeatedly complained to the BBC in the 1970s over what she saw as the show's frightening or gory content; however, the programme became even more popular—especially with children. John Nathan-Turner, who produced the series during the 1980s, was heard to say that he looked forward to Whitehouse's comments, as the show's ratings would increase soon after she had made them. During the 1970s, the Radio Times, the BBC's listings magazine, announced that a child's mother said the theme music terrified her son. The Radio Times was apologetic, but the theme music remained.

There were more complaints about the programme's content than its music. During Jon Pertwee's second season as the Doctor, in the serial Terror of the Autons (1971), images of murderous plastic dolls, daffodils killing unsuspecting victims and blank-featured android policemen marked the apex of the show's ability to frighten children. Other notable moments in that decade included the Doctor's apparently being drowned by Chancellor Goth in The Deadly Assassin (1976) and the allegedly negative portrayal of Chinese people in The Talons of Weng-Chiang (1977).

It has been said that watching Doctor Who from a position of safety "behind the sofa" (as the Doctor Who exhibition at the Museum of the Moving Image in London was titled) and peering cautiously out to see if the frightening part was over is one of the great shared experiences of British childhood. The phrase has become commonly used in association with the programme and occasionally elsewhere.

The image of the TARDIS has become firmly linked to the show in the public's consciousness. In 1996, the BBC applied for a trademark to use the TARDIS' blue police box design in merchandising associated with Doctor Who. In 1998, the Metropolitan Police filed an objection to the trademark claim; in 2002 the Patent Office ruled in favour of the BBC.

The programme's broad appeal attracts audiences of children and families as well as science fiction fans. Its camp tendencies have also made it popular in gay culture.

Doctor Who originally ran for 26 series (seasons) on BBC One, from 23 November 1963 until 6 December 1989. During the original run, each weekly episode formed part of a story (or "serial")—usually of four to six parts in earlier years and three to four in later years. Notable exceptions were the epic The Daleks' Master Plan, which aired in twelve episodes (plus an earlier one-episode teaser, "Mission to the Unknown", featuring none of the regular cast), almost an entire series (season) of 7-episode serials (season 7), the 10-episode serial The War Games, and The Trial of a Time Lord, which ran for 14 episodes (albeit divided into three production codes and four narrative segments) during Season 23. Occasionally serials were loosely connected by a storyline, such as Season 16's quest for The Key to Time or Season 18's journey through E-Space and the theme of entropy.

The programme was intended to be educational and for family viewing on the early Saturday evening schedule. Initially, it alternated stories set in the past, which taught younger audience members about history, with stories set either in the future or in outer space to teach them about science. This was also reflected in the Doctor's original companions, one of whom was a science teacher and another a history teacher.

However, science fiction stories came to dominate the programme and the "historicals", which were not popular with the production team, were dropped after The Highlanders (1967). While the show continued to use historical settings, they were generally used as a backdrop for science fiction tales, with one exception: Black Orchid set in 1920s UK.

The early stories were serial-like in nature, with the narrative of one story flowing into the next, and each episode having its own title, although produced as distinct stories with their own production codes. Following The Gunfighters (1966), however, each serial was given its own title, with the individual parts simply being assigned episode numbers. What to name these earlier stories is often a subject of fan debate.

Writers during the original run included Terry Nation, Henry Lincoln, Douglas Adams, Robert Holmes, Terrance Dicks, Dennis Spooner, Eric Saward, Malcolm Hulke, Christopher H. Bidmead, Stephen Gallagher, Brian Hayles, Robert Sloman, Chris Boucher, Peter Grimwade, Marc Platt and Ben Aaronovitch.

The serial format changed for the 2005 revival, with each series consisting of thirteen 45-minute, self-contained episodes (60 minutes with adverts, on overseas commercial channels), and an extended episode broadcast on Christmas Day. Each series includes several standalone and multi-part stories, linked with a loose story arc that resolves in the series finale. As in the early "classic" era, each episode—whether standalone or part of a larger story—has its own title.

752 Doctor Who instalments have been televised since 1963, ranging between 25-minute episodes (the most common format), 45-minute episodes (for Resurrection of the Daleks in the 1984 series, a single season in 1985, and the revival), two feature-length productions (1983's "The Five Doctors" and the 1996 television film), three 60-minute Christmas specials and a 72 minute Christmas Special in 2007.

The current series is recorded in PAL 576i DigiBeta wide-screen format and then filmised to give a 25p image in post-production using a Snell & Wilcox Alchemist Platinum. Starting from the 2009 special "Planet of the Dead", the series will be filmed in 1080p for HDTV.

Between about 1964 and 1974, large amounts of older material stored in the BBC's various video tape and film libraries were either destroyed or simply wiped. This included many old episodes of Doctor Who, mostly stories featuring the first three Doctors—William Hartnell, Patrick Troughton and Jon Pertwee. Following consolidations and recoveries the archives are complete from the programme's move to colour television (starting from Jon Pertwee's time as the Doctor), although a few Pertwee episodes have required substantial restoration; a handful have been recovered only as black and white films, and several survive in colour only as NTSC copies recovered from North America (a few of which are domestic, off-air Betamax tape recordings, not transmission quality). In all, 108 of 253 episodes produced during the first six years of the programme are not held in the BBC's archives. It has been reported that in 1972 almost all episodes then made were known to exist at the BBC, whilst by 1978 the practice of wiping tapes had ended.

Some episodes have been returned to the BBC from the archives of other countries who bought copies for broadcast, or by private individuals who got them by various means. Early colour videotape recordings made off-air by fans have also been retrieved, as well as excerpts filmed from the television screen onto 8 mm cine film and clips that were shown on other programmes. Audio versions of all of the lost episodes exist from home viewers who made tape recordings of the show.

In addition to these, there are off-screen photographs made by photographer John Cura, who was hired by various production personnel to document many of their programmes during the 1950s and 1960s, including Doctor Who. These have been used in fan reconstructions of the serials. These amateur reconstructions have been tolerated by the BBC, provided they are not sold for profit and are distributed as low quality VHS copies.

One of the most sought-after lost episodes is Part Four of the last William Hartnell serial, The Tenth Planet (1966), which ends with the First Doctor transforming into the Second. The only portion of this in existence, barring a few poor quality silent 8 mm clips, is the few seconds of the regeneration scene, as it was shown on the children's magazine show Blue Peter. With the approval of the BBC, efforts are now under way to restore as many of the episodes as possible from the extant material. Starting in the early 1990s, the BBC began to release audio recordings of missing serials on cassette and compact disc, with linking narration provided by former series actors. "Official" reconstructions have also been released by the BBC on VHS, on MP3 CD-ROM and as a special feature on a DVD. The BBC, in conjunction with animation studio Cosgrove Hall has reconstructed the missing Episodes 1 and 4 of The Invasion (1968) in animated form, using remastered audio tracks and the comprehensive stage notes for the original filming, for the serial's DVD release in November 2006. Although no similar reconstructions have been announced as of early 2007, Cosgrove Hall has expressed an interest in animating more lost episodes in the future.

In April 2006, Blue Peter launched a challenge to find these missing episodes with the promise of a full scale Dalek model.

The character of the Doctor was initially shrouded in mystery. All that was known about him in the programme's early days was that he was an eccentric alien traveller of great intelligence who battled injustice while exploring time and space in an unreliable old time machine called the TARDIS, an acronym for Time And Relative Dimension(s) In Space. As it appears much larger on the inside than on the outside, the TARDIS has been described by the Third Doctor as "dimensionally transcendental" and, due to a malfunction of its Chameleon Circuit, is stuck in the shape of a 1950s-style British police box.

However, not only did the initially irascible and slightly sinister Doctor quickly mellow into a more compassionate figure, it was eventually revealed that he had been on the run from his own people, the Time Lords of the planet Gallifrey.

There have been instances where actors have returned at later dates to reprise the role of their specific doctor. In 1973's The Three Doctors, William Hartnell and Patrick Troughton returned alongside Jon Pertwee. For 1983's The Five Doctors, Troughton and Pertwee returned to star with Peter Davison, while Hartnell and Tom Baker were shown in archive footage. Patrick Troughton again returned in 1985's The Two Doctors with Colin Baker. Finally, Peter Davison returned in 2007's Children in Need short "Time Crash" alongside David Tennant. There have also been instances where another actor has filled in when the original actor has been unavailable, such as when Richard Hurndall played the First Doctor in The Five Doctors following William Hartnell's death. For more information, see the list of actors who have played the Doctor.

Despite these shifts in personality, the Doctor remains an intensely curious and highly moral adventurer who would rather solve problems with his wits than by using violence.

Throughout the programme's long history there have been controversial revelations about the Doctor. In The Brain of Morbius (1976), it was hinted that the First Doctor may not have been the first incarnation (although the other faces depicted may have been incarnations of the Time Lord Morbius). During the Seventh Doctor's era it was hinted that the Doctor was more than just an ordinary Time Lord. In the 1996 television movie, he describes himself as being "half human". The revelation has become controversial amongst series fans, given that there have been no references to the concept during the original or revived television series. The 2005 series reveals that the Ninth Doctor thought he had become the last surviving Time Lord, and that his home planet had been destroyed. The very first episode, An Unearthly Child, shows that the Doctor has a granddaughter, Susan Foreman; in "The Empty Child" (2005), in response to Constantine's statement that "before this war began, I was a father and a grandfather. Now I am neither", the Doctor remarks, "Yeah, I know the feeling"; and in both "Fear Her" (2006) and "The Doctor's Daughter" (2008), he states that he had, in the past, been a father. Also in the latter, his cells are used to produce a daughter (played by Georgia Moffett, the real-life daughter of Fifth Doctor actor Peter Davison) who is subsequently named Jenny by Donna as a result of his describing her as "a generated anomaly".

The Doctor almost always shares his adventures with up to three companions, and since 1963 more than 35 actors and actresses have featured in these roles. The First Doctor's original companions were his granddaughter Susan Foreman (Carole Ann Ford) and school teachers Barbara Wright (Jacqueline Hill) and Ian Chesterton (William Russell). The only story from the original series in which the Doctor travels alone is The Deadly Assassin.

Dramatically, the companion characters provide a surrogate with whom the audience can identify, and serve to further the story by requesting exposition from the Doctor and manufacturing peril for the Doctor to resolve. The Doctor regularly gains new companions and loses old ones; sometimes they return home or find new causes — or loves — on worlds they have visited. Some have even died during the course of the series.

Although the majority of the Doctor's companions have been young, attractive females, the production team for the 1963–1989 series maintained a long-standing taboo against any overt romantic involvement in the TARDIS. The taboo was controversially broken in the 1996 television film when the Eighth Doctor was shown kissing companion Grace Holloway. The 2005 series played with this idea by having various characters think that the Ninth Doctor and Rose (played by Billie Piper) were a couple, which they vehemently denied (see also "The Doctor and romance"). The idea of a possible involvement was suggested again in "Smith and Jones", when the Tenth Doctor kisses his soon-to-be new companion Martha Jones, although the Doctor insists that the kiss was simply for the purpose of 'genetic transfer'. In "The Unicorn and the Wasp", the Doctor is kissed by Donna Noble to shock him to neutralise a poison in his system, but again, a romantic purpose is unstated.

Previous companions reappeared in the series, usually for anniversary specials. One former companion, Sarah Jane Smith (played by Elisabeth Sladen), together with the robotic dog K-9, appeared in an episode of the 2006 series more than twenty years after their last appearances in the 20th Anniversary story "The Five Doctors" (1983). Afterwards, the character was featured in the spinoff series The Sarah Jane Adventures. Sladen once again appeared as Sarah Jane in the final two episodes of the fourth season of the new Doctor Who, with K-9 appearing briefly in the final episode, "Journey's End".

The latest companions of the Doctor included a large ensemble cast ranging from Catherine Tate reprising her role as Donna, Billie Piper as Rose, Noel Clarke as Mickey Smith, Freema Agyeman as Martha, Elisabeth Sladen as Sarah Jane and John Barrowman as Captain Jack, all of whom departed in the episode "Journey's End". Agyeman appeared as Martha Jones in three episodes of the spin-off series Torchwood before returning to Doctor Who halfway through the fourth series. Billie Piper briefly reprised her role as Rose Tyler in the fourth series episode "Partners in Crime" and returned to the series from "Turn Left" to "Journey's End". For the 2007 Christmas episode "Voyage of the Damned", the Doctor's companion was Astrid Peth, played by Australian performer Kylie Minogue.

Though not always considered a companion, Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart was a recurring character in the original series, making his first appearance alongside the Second Doctor and his final alongside the Seventh. The actor Nicholas Courtney who portrayed the Brigadier had previously also starred as Bret Vyon alongside first Doctor William Hartnell in the 12-part The Daleks' Master Plan, and he appeared on television with every Doctor of the classic series except Colin Baker, and appears with the Sixth Doctor in the charity crossover special Dimensions in Time and in audio adventures from Big Finish Productions. Lethbridge-Stewart, still played by Courtney, appeared in Enemy of the Bane, a two-part episode of The Sarah Jane Adventures spinoff in 2008, more than 40 years after the character was first introduced, making him the longest-serving ongoing character in the franchise beyond the Doctor himself. He and UNIT appeared regularly during the Third Doctor's tenure, and UNIT has continued to appear or be referred to in the revival of the show and its spin-offs.

When Sydney Newman commissioned the series, he specifically did not want to perpetuate the cliché of the "bug-eyed monster" of science fiction. However, monsters were a staple of Doctor Who almost from the beginning and were popular with audiences. Notable adversaries of the Doctor from the series' initial 26-year run include the Autons, the Cybermen, the Sontarans, the Zygons, the Sea Devils, the Silurians, the Ice Warriors, the Rani, the Yeti, Davros (the creator of the Daleks), the Master (a Time Lord with a thirst for universal conquest), and, most notably, the Daleks. This continued with the resurrection of the series in 2005.

Current executive producer, Russell T. Davies, stated that it had always been his intention to bring back classic icons of Doctor Who one step at a time: Daleks in series 1, Cybermen in series 2 and the Master in series 3. He also stated that he was not finished and would continue reviving villains from the series' past. Series 4 saw the return of the Sontarans and the Daleks' creator, Davros. Since its 2005 return, the series has also introduced new aliens, including the Slitheen, the Ood, the Judoon and the Hath.

Of all the monsters and villains, the ones that have most secured the series' place in the public's imagination are the Daleks, who first appeared in 1963 and were the series' very first "monster". The Daleks are Kaled mutants in tank-like mechanical armour shells from the planet Skaro. Their chief role in the great scheme of things, as they frequently remark in their instantly recognisable metallic voices, is to "Exterminate!" all beings inferior to themselves, even destroying the Time Lords in the often referenced but never shown Time War. Davros, the Daleks' creator, became a recurring villain after he was introduced in Genesis of the Daleks, in which the Time Lords send the Doctor back to either destroy the Daleks, avert their creation, or tamper with their genetic structure to make them less warlike. Davros has been played by Michael Wisher (first introduced in Genesis of the Daleks), David Gooderson (Destiny of the Daleks), and Terry Molloy. Davros returned to Doctor Who portrayed by Julian Bleach in the 2008 episodes "The Stolen Earth" and "Journey's End".

The Daleks were created by writer Terry Nation (who intended them as an allegory of the Nazis) and BBC designer Raymond Cusick. The Daleks' début in the programme's second serial, The Daleks (1963–64), caused a tremendous reaction in the viewing figures and the public, putting Doctor Who on the cultural map. A Dalek appeared on a postage stamp celebrating British popular culture in 1999, photographed by Lord Snowdon.

Cybermen were originally a wholly organic species of humanoids originating on Earth's twin planet Mondas that began to implant more and more artificial parts into their bodies. This led to the race becoming coldly logical and calculating, with emotions usually only shown when naked aggression was called for. The 2006 series introduced a totally new variation of Cybermen created in a parallel universe by transplanting the brains of humans into powerful metal bodies, sending them orders using a mobile phone network, and inhibiting their emotions with an electronic chip.

The Master is a renegade Time Lord, and the Doctor's nemesis. Conceived as "Professor Moriarty to the Doctor's Sherlock Holmes," the character first appeared in 1971. As with the Doctor, the role has been portrayed by several actors, the first being Roger Delgado who continued in the role until his death in 1973. The Master was briefly played by Peter Pratt and Geoffrey Beevers until Anthony Ainley took over and continued to play the character until Doctor Who's "hiatus" in 1989. The Master returned in the 1996 television movie of Doctor Who, played by Gordon Tipple in the ultimately unused pre-credits voiceover, then Eric Roberts, and in the three-part finale of the 2007 series, portrayed by Derek Jacobi, who then regenerated into John Simm at the conclusion of the episode "Utopia".

The original 1963 radiophonic arrangement of the Doctor Who theme is widely regarded as a significant and innovative piece of electronic music, and Doctor Who was the first television series in the world to have a theme entirely realised through electronic means.

The original theme was composed by Ron Grainer and realised by Delia Derbyshire at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, with assistance from Dick Mills. The various parts were built up by creating tape loops of an individually struck piano string and individual test oscillators and filters. The Derbyshire arrangement served, with minor edits, as the theme tune up to the end of Season 17 (1979–80).

A more modern and dynamic arrangement was composed by Peter Howell for Season 18 (1980), which was in turn replaced by Dominic Glynn's arrangement for Season 23's The Trial of a Time Lord (1986). Keff McCulloch provided the new arrangement for the Seventh Doctor's era which lasted from Season 24 (1987) until the series' suspension in 1989. For the return of the series in 2005, Murray Gold provided a new arrangement which featured samples from the 1963 original with further elements added; in the 2005 Christmas episode "The Christmas Invasion", Gold introduced a modified closing credits arrangement that was used up until the conclusion of the 2007 series.

A new arrangement of the theme, once again by Gold, was introduced in the 2007 Christmas special episode, "Voyage of the Damned".

Versions of the "Doctor Who Theme" have also been released in a pop music venue over the years. In the early 1970s, Jon Pertwee, who had played the Third Doctor, recorded a version of the Doctor Who theme with spoken lyrics, titled, "Who Is the Doctor". In 1988 the band The Justified Ancients of Mu Mu (later known as The KLF) released the single "Doctorin' the Tardis" under the name The Timelords, which reached No. 1 in the UK and No. 2 in Australia; this version incorporated several other songs, including "Rock and Roll Part 2" by Gary Glitter (who recorded vocals for some of the CD-single remix versions of "Doctorin' the Tardis"). Others who have covered or reinterpreted the theme include Orbital, Pink Floyd, the Australian string ensemble Fourplay, New Zealand punk band Blam Blam Blam, The Pogues, and the comedians Bill Bailey and Mitch Benn, and it and obsessive fans were satirised on The Chaser's War on Everything. A reggae/ska version of the Doctor Who theme tune was released on the Explosion label in 1969 by Bongo Herman and Les. The theme tune has also appeared on many compilation CDs and has made its way into mobile phone ring tones. Fans have also produced and distributed their own remixes of the theme.

Most of the innovative incidental music for Doctor Who has been specially commissioned from freelance composers, although in the early years some episodes also used stock music, as well as occasional excerpts from original recordings or cover versions of songs by popular music acts such as The Beatles and The Beach Boys.

The incidental music for the first Doctor Who adventure, An Unearthly Child, was written by Norman Kay. Many of the stories of the William Hartnell period were scored by electronic music pioneer Tristram Cary, whose Doctor Who credits include The Daleks, Marco Polo, The Daleks' Master Plan, The Gunfighters and The Mutants. Other composers in this early period included Richard Rodney Bennett, Carey Blyton and Geoffrey Burgon.

The most frequent musical contributor during the first fifteen years was Dudley Simpson, who is also well known for his theme and incidental music for Blake's 7, and for his haunting theme music and score for the original 1970s version of The Tomorrow People. Simpson's first Doctor Who score was Planet of Giants (1964) and he went on to write music for many adventures of the 1960s and 1970s, including most of the stories of the Jon Pertwee / Tom Baker periods, ending with The Horns of Nimon (1979). He also made a cameo appearance in The Talons of Weng-Chiang (as a Music hall conductor).

Beginning with The Leisure Hive (1980), the task of creating incidental music was assigned to the Radiophonic Workshop. Paddy Kingsland and Peter Howell contributed many scores in this period and other contributors included Roger Limb, Malcolm Clarke and Jonathan Gibbs.

The Radiophonic Workshop was dropped after the The Trial of a Time Lord season, and Keff McCulloch took over as the series' main composer, with Dominic Glynn and Mark Ayres also contributing scores.

All the incidental music for the 2005 revived series has been composed by Murray Gold and Ben Foster and has been performed by the BBC National Orchestra of Wales from the 2005 Christmas episode The Christmas Invasion onwards. A concert featuring the orchestra performing music from the first two series took place on 19 November 2006 to raise money for Children in Need. David Tennant hosted the event, introducing the different sections of the concert. Murray Gold and Russell T Davies answered questions during the interval and Daleks and Cybermen menaced the audience whilst music from their stories was played. The concert aired on BBCi on Christmas Day 2006. A Doctor Who Prom was celebrated on 27 July 2008 in the Royal Albert Hall as part of the annual BBC Proms. The BBC Philharmonic and the London Philharmonic Choir performed Murray Gold's compositions for the series, conducted by Ben Foster, as well as a selection of classics based around the theme of space and time. The event was presented by Freema Agyeman and guest-presented by various other stars of the show with numerous monsters participating in the proceedings. It also featured the specially filmed mini-episode Music of the Spheres, written by Russell T Davies and starring David Tennant.

Since its 2005 return, the series has featured occasional use of excerpts of pop music from the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s, including works by Ian Dury and the Blockheads, Electric Light Orchestra, Soft Cell, Rogue Traders, Britney Spears and the Scissor Sisters. The soundtrack for Series 1 and 2 was released on 4 December 2006 by Silva Screen Records. The soundtrack for Series 3 was released on 5 November 2007. A soundtrack for Series 4 was released on 17 November 2008.

Doctor Who's science-fiction themes and settings meant that many sound effects had to be specially created for the series, although some common sound effects (such as crowds, horses and jungle noises) were sourced from stock recordings. Because Doctor Who began several years before the advent of the first mass-produced synthesisers, much of the equipment used to create electronic sound effects in the early days was custom-built by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop and until the early 1970s audio effects were produced using a combination of electronic and radiophonic techniques.

Almost all of the original sound effects and audio backgrounds during the 1960s were overseen by the Radiophonic Workshop's Brian Hodgson, who worked on Doctor Who from its inception until the middle of Jon Pertwee's tenure in the early 1970s, when he was succeeded by Dick Mills. Hodgson created hundreds of pieces of "special sound" ranging from ray-gun blasts to dinosaurs, but without doubt his best known sound effects are the sound of the TARDIS as it de-materialises and re-appears, and the voices of the Daleks.

The basic audio source Hodgson used for the TARDIS effect was the sound of his house keys being scraped up and down along the strings of an old gutted piano, and played backwards. The famous Dalek voice effect was obtained by passing the actors' voices through a device called a ring modulator, and it was further enhanced by exploiting the distortion inherent in the microphones and amplifiers then in use. However, the precise sonic character of the Daleks' voices varied somewhat over time because the original frequency settings used on the ring modulator were never noted down.

Doctor Who has always appeared on the BBC's mainstream BBC One channel, where it is regarded as a family show, drawing audiences of many millions of viewers. The programme's popularity has waxed and waned over the decades, with three notable periods of high ratings. The first of these was the "Dalekmania" period (circa 1964–1965), when the popularity of the Daleks regularly brought Doctor Who ratings of between 9 and 14 million, even for stories which did not feature them. The second was the late 1970s, when Tom Baker occasionally drew audiences of over 12 million. During the ITV network strike of 1979, viewership peaked at 16 million. Figures remained respectable into the 1980s, but fell noticeably after the programme's 23rd season was postponed in 1985 and the show was off the air for 18 months. Its late 1980s performance of three to five million viewers was seen as poor at the time and was, according to the BBC Board of Control, a leading cause of the programme's 1989 suspension. Some fans considered this disingenuous, since the programme was scheduled against the soap opera Coronation Street, the most popular show at the time. After the series' revival in 2005 (the third noteworthy period of high ratings), it has consistently had high viewership levels for the evening on which the episode is broadcast, and often attracts the most viewers on that evening. The BBC One broadcast of "Rose", the first episode of the 2005 revival, drew an average audience of 10.81 million, third highest for BBC One that week and seventh across all channels. The largest audience for an episode of Doctor Who since its revival was achieved by the 2007 Christmas special "Voyage Of The Damned", which received 13.31 million viewers, a feat which also made it the second most watched show of the year. The highest weekly chart ranking is first, for the 2008 series finale "Journey's End", which was watched by 10.57 million viewers. The current revival also garners the highest audience Appreciation Index of any non-soap drama on television. Its continued viewership has resulted in becoming part of the UK's popular culture.

The series also has a fan base in the United States, where it was shown in syndication from the 1970s to the 1990s, particularly on PBS stations (see Doctor Who in North America). New Zealand was the first country outside the UK to screen Doctor Who beginning in September 1964, and continued to screen the series for many years, including the new series from 2005. In Canada, the series debuted in January 1965, but the CBC only aired the first twenty-six episodes. TVOntario picked up the show in 1976 beginning with The Three Doctors and aired it through to Season 24 in 1991. TVO's schedule ran several years behind the BBC's throughout this period. From 1979 to 1981, TVO airings were bookended by science-fiction writer Judith Merril who would introduce the episode and then, after the episode concluded, try to place it in an educational context in keeping with TVO's status as an educational channel. The airing of The Talons of Weng-Chiang resulted in controversy for TVOntario as a result of accusations that the story was racist. Consequently the story was not rebroadcast. CBC began showing the series again in 2005.

A fan base exists in Australia, where it has been exclusively first run on ABC1, and periodically repeated - including screening all available episodes for the show's 40th anniversary in 2003. Repeats have also been shown on the subscription television channel UK.TV. The ABC also broadcasts the first run of the revived series, on ABC1, with repeats on ABC2. UK.TV also shows repeats of the revived series. The ABC also provided partial funding for the 20th anniversary special episode "The Five Doctors".

Only four episodes have ever had their premier showings on channels other than BBC One. The 1983 twentieth anniversary special "The Five Doctors" had its début on 23 November (the actual date of the anniversary) on the Chicago PBS station WTTW in the United States and various other PBS members two days prior to its BBC One broadcast. The 1988 story Silver Nemesis was broadcast with all three episodes edited together in compilation form on TVNZ in New Zealand in November, after the first episode had been shown in the UK but before the final two instalments had aired there. Finally, the 1996 television film premièred on 12 May 1996 on CITV in Edmonton, Canada, fifteen days before the BBC One showing, and two days before it aired on Fox in the US.

A wide selection of serials is available from BBC Video on VHS and DVD, on sale in the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States. Every fully extant serial has been released on VHS, and BBC Worldwide continues to regularly release serials on DVD. The 2005 series is also available in its entirety on UMD for the PlayStation Portable.

As of July 2008, the revived series has been, or is currently, broadcast weekly in 42 countries, including Argentina (People+Arts), Australia (ABC1), Austria (Pro 7), Belgium (Één), Brazil (People+Arts), Canada (CBC (in English) and Ztélé (in French)), Catalonia (TV3 and BBC Entertainment), Croatia (Croatian Radiotelevision), Denmark (Danmarks Radio), Finland (TV2), France (France 4), Germany (Pro 7 and Sci Fi Channel), Hong Kong (ATV World and BBC Entertainment), Hungary (RTL Klub-owned COOL TV), Iceland (RÚV), Ireland (TV3), Israel (Yes Stars 2 and AXN), Italy (Jimmy), Japan (NHK BS2), Malaysia (Astro Network), the Netherlands (NED 3), New Zealand (Prime TV), Norway (NRK), Poland (TVP1), Portugal (People+Arts, SIC Radical), Romania (TVR), Russia (STS TV), Spain (People+Arts , Sci Fi Channel ), Latin America (People+Arts), South Korea (KBS2 (dubbed in Korean) and Fox (subtitled in Korean)), Sweden (SVT), Switzerland (Pro 7), Thailand (Channel 7), Turkey (Cine5), the United States (Sci Fi Channel , public television and BBC America ), Greece (Skai TV), Style UK (part of Showtime Arabia) for the Middle East, North Africa and the Levant territories. Doctor Who is one of the five top grossing titles for BBC Worldwide, the BBC's commercial arm. BBC Worldwide CEO John Smith has said that Doctor Who is one of a small number of "Superbrands" which Worldwide will promote heavily.

A special logo has been designed for the Japanese broadcast with the katakana "ドクター・フー" (romanised as Dokutaa Fuu). The series has apparently "mystified" viewers in Japan where it has been broadcast in a late evening time slot, leading to some not realising it is a family show.

The series one episodes aired in Canada a couple of weeks after their UK broadcast, a situation made possible by the 2004–05 NHL lockout which left vast gaps in CBC's schedule. For the Canadian broadcast, Christopher Eccleston recorded special video introductions for each episode (including a trivia question as part of a viewer contest) and excerpts from the Doctor Who Confidential documentary were played over the closing credits; for the broadcast of "The Christmas Invasion" on 26 December 2005, Billie Piper recorded a special video introduction. CBC began airing series two on 9 October 2006 at 8:00 pm E/P (8:30 in Newfoundland and Labrador), shortly after that day's CFL double header on Thanksgiving in most of the country.

Series three began broadcasting on BBC One in the United Kingdom on 31 March 2007. It began broadcasting on CBC on 18 June 2007 followed by the second Christmas special, "The Runaway Bride" at midnight, and the Sci Fi Channel began on 6 July 2007 starting with the second Christmas special at 8:00 pm E/P followed by the first episode.

Series four aired in the U.S. on the Sci-Fi Channel, beginning in April 2008. It aired on CBC Canada beginning 19 September 2008, although the CBC did not air the Voyage of the Damned special. The Canadian cable network Space will broadcast "The Next Doctor" in March 2009.

There are two "Dr. Who" cinema films: Dr. Who and the Daleks, released in 1965 and Daleks - Invasion Earth 2150 AD in 1966. Both are retellings of existing TV stories (specifically, the first two Dalek serials) on the big screen, with a larger budget and alterations to the series concept.

In these films, Peter Cushing plays a human scientist named "Dr. Who", who travels with his two granddaughters and other companions in a time machine he has invented. The Cushing version of the character reappears in both comic strip and literary form, the latter attempting to reconcile the film continuity with that of the series.

Doctor Who has appeared on stage numerous times. In the early 1970s, Trevor Martin played the role in Doctor Who and the Daleks in the Seven Keys to Doomsday which also featured former companion actress Wendy Padbury (Pertwee's Doctor made a cameo appearance via film). In the early 1990s, Jon Pertwee and Colin Baker both played the Doctor at different times during the run of a musical play titled Doctor Who - The Ultimate Adventure. For two performances while Pertwee was ill, David Banks (best known for playing various Cybermen) played the Doctor. Other original plays have been staged as amateur productions, with other actors playing the Doctor, while Terry Nation wrote The Curse of the Daleks, a stage play mounted in the late 1960s, but without the Doctor.

A pilot episode ("A Girl's Best Friend") for a potential spin-off series, K-9 and Company, was aired in 1981 with Elisabeth Sladen reprising her role as companion Sarah Jane Smith and John Leeson as the voice of K-9, but was not picked up as a regular series.

Concept art for an animated Doctor Who series was produced by animation company Nelvana in the 1980s, but the series was not produced.

The Doctor has also appeared in webcasts and in audio plays; prominent among the latter were those produced by Big Finish Productions from 1999 onwards, who were responsible for a range of audio plays released on CD, as well as 2006's eight-part BBC 7 series starring Paul McGann.

Following the success of the 2005 series produced by Russell T Davies, the BBC commissioned Davies to produce a 13-part spin-off series titled Torchwood (an anagram of "Doctor Who"), set in modern-day Wales and investigating alien activities and crime. The series debuted on BBC Three on 22 October 2006. John Barrowman reprised his role of Jack Harkness from the 2005 series of Doctor Who. Two other actresses who appeared in Doctor Who also star in the series; Eve Myles as Gwen, who also played the similarly named servant girl Gwyneth in the 2005 Doctor Who episode "The Unquiet Dead", and Naoko Mori who reprised her role as Toshiko Sato first seen in "Aliens of London". A second series of Torchwood aired in 2008; for three episodes, the cast was joined by Freema Agyeman reprising her Doctor Who role of Martha Jones. A third season will air in the spring of 2009, consisting of a single five-part story called Children of Earth.

The Sarah Jane Adventures, starring Elisabeth Sladen who reprises her role as Sarah Jane Smith, has been developed by CBBC; a special aired on New Year's Day 2007 and a full series began on Monday, 24 September 2007. A second season followed in 2008, notable for (as noted above) featuring the return of Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart. In the fall of 2008 the BBC announced it had commissioned a third season to air in the fall of 2009.

An animated serial, The Infinite Quest, aired alongside the 2007 series of Doctor Who as part of the children's television series Totally Doctor Who. The serial featured the voices of series regulars David Tennant and Freema Agyeman but is not considered part of the 2007 season.

A new K-9 children's series, K-9, is in development, but not by the BBC. It is currently scheduled to air beginning in 2009.

In 1983, coinciding with the series' 20th anniversary, a charity special entitled The Five Doctors was produced in aid of Children in Need, featuring three of the first five Doctors, a new actor to replace the deceased William Hartnell, and unused footage to represent Tom Baker. This was a full-length, 90-minute film, the longest single episode of Doctor Who produced to date (discounting the 1996 made-for-TV film, which ran a few minutes longer with commercial breaks not included).

In 1993, for the franchise's 30th anniversary, another charity special entitled "Dimensions in Time" was produced for Children in Need, featuring all of the surviving actors who played the Doctor and a number of previous companions. Not taken seriously by many, the story had the Rani opening a hole in time, cycling the Doctor and his companions through his previous incarnations and menacing them with monsters from the show's past. It also featured a crossover with the soap opera EastEnders, the action taking place in the latter's Albert Square location and around Greenwich, including the Cutty Sark. The special was one of several special 3D programmes the BBC produced at the time, using a 3D system that made use of the Pulfrich effect requiring glasses with one darkened lens; the picture would look perfectly normal to those viewers who watched without the glasses.

In 1999, another special, "Doctor Who and the Curse of Fatal Death", was made for Comic Relief and later released on VHS. An affectionate parody of the television series, it was split into four segments, mimicking the traditional serial format, complete with cliffhangers, and running down the same corridor several times when being chased. (The version released on video was split into only two episodes.) In the story, the Doctor (Rowan Atkinson) encounters both the Master (Jonathan Pryce) and the Daleks. During the special the Doctor is forced to regenerate several times, with his subsequent incarnations played by, in order, Richard E. Grant, Jim Broadbent, Hugh Grant and Joanna Lumley. The script was written by Steven Moffat, later to be head writer and executive producer to the revived series.

Since the return of Doctor Who in 2005, the franchise has produced two original "mini-episodes" to support Children in Need. The first was an untitled 7-minute scene (see Doctor Who: Children in Need) which served to introduce David Tennant as the new Doctor. which aired in November 2005. It was followed in November 2007 by Time Crash, a 7-minute scene which featured the Tenth Doctor meeting the Fifth Doctor (played once again by Peter Davison). In 2008 the Doctor Who production team did not produce a new Children in Need mini-episode; instead, the opening scene from the 2008 Christmas special, The Next Doctor was broadcast.

Doctor Who has been satirised and spoofed on many occasions by comedians including Spike Milligan and Lenny Henry. Doctor Who fandom has also been lampooned on programmes such as Saturday Night Live, The Chaser's War on Everything, Mystery Science Theater 3000, Family Guy, American Dad and The Simpsons.

The Doctor in his fourth incarnation has been represented on several episodes of The Simpsons, starting with the episode "Sideshow Bob's Last Gleaming".

Jon Culshaw frequently impersonates the Fourth Doctor in the BBC Dead Ringers series. Culshaw's "Doctor" has telephoned four of the "real" Doctors—Tom Baker, Peter Davison, Colin Baker and Sylvester McCoy—in character as the Fourth Doctor. In the 2005 Dead Ringers Christmas special, broadcast shortly before "The Christmas Invasion", Culshaw impersonated both the Fourth and Tenth Doctors, while the Second, Seventh and Ninth Doctors were impersonated by Mark Perry, Kevin Connelly and Phil Cornwell, respectively.

Less a spoof and more of a pastiche is the character of Professor Justin Alphonse Gamble, a renegade from the Time Variance Authority, who appeared in Marvel Comics' Power Man and Iron Fist #79 and Avengers Annual #22. His enemies include the rogue robots known as the Dredlox.

There have also been many references to Doctor Who in popular culture and other science fiction franchises, including Star Trek: The Next Generation ("The Neutral Zone", among others). In the Channel 4 series Queer As Folk (created by current Doctor Who executive producer Russell T Davies), the character of Vince was portrayed as an avid Doctor Who fan, with references appearing many times throughout in the form of clips from the programme. References to Doctor Who have also appeared in the young adult fantasy novel High Wizardry, the video game Rock Band, the soap opera EastEnders, the Adult Swim comedy show "Robot Chicken" and the Family Guy Star Wars spoof episode "Blue Harvest", among other sources. Doctor Who has long been a favourite referent for political cartoonists, from a 1964 cartoon in the Daily Mail depicting Charles de Gaulle as a Dalek, to a 2008 edition of This Modern World by Tom Tomorrow in which the Tenth Doctor informs an incredulous character from 2003 that the Democratic Party will nominate an African-American (Barack Obama) as its presidential candidate. In the daily comic strip Retail, character Cooper Costello dresses as the Fourth Doctor for Halloween and builds a replica of the TARDIS. Everyone at the store's Halloween party mistakes him for Sherlock Holmes, leaving Cooper exasperated at people's inability to recognise and appreciate his costumes.

Since its beginnings, Doctor Who has generated many hundreds of products related to the show, from toys and games to collectible picture cards and postage stamps. These include board games, card games, gamebooks, computer games, roleplaying games, action figures and a pinball game.

Many games have been released that feature the Daleks, including Dalek computer games.

Doctor Who books have been published from the mid-sixties through to the present day. From 1965 to 1991 the books published were primarily novelised adaptations of broadcast episodes; beginning in 1991 an extensive line of original fiction was launched. Since the relaunch of the programme in 2005, a new range of novels have been published by BBC Books, featuring the adventures of the Ninth and Tenth Doctors.

Although Doctor Who was fondly regarded during its original 1963–1989 run, it received little critical recognition at the time. In 1975, Season 11 of the series won a Writers' Guild of Great Britain award for Best Writing in a Children's Serial. In 1996, BBC television held the "Auntie Awards" as the culmination of their "TV60" season, celebrating sixty years of BBC television broadcasting, where Doctor Who was voted as the "Best Popular Drama" the corporation had ever produced, ahead of such ratings heavyweights as EastEnders and Casualty. In 2000, Doctor Who was ranked third in a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes of the twentieth century, produced by the British Film Institute and voted on by industry professionals. In 2005, the series came first in a survey by SFX magazine of "The Greatest UK Science Fiction and Fantasy Television Series Ever". Also, in the 100 Greatest Kids' TV shows (a Channel 4 countdown in 2001), the 1963–1989 run was placed at number eight.

The British Academy Television Awards (BAFTA) nominations, released on 27 March 2006, revealed that Doctor Who had been short-listed in the category of Best Drama Series. This is the highest-profile and most prestigious British television award for which the series has ever been nominated. Doctor Who was also nominated in several other categories in the BAFTA Craft Awards, including Best Writer (Russell T Davies), Best Director (Joe Ahearne), and Break-through Talent (production designer Edward Thomas). However, it did not eventually win any of its categories at the Craft Awards.

On 22 April 2006, the programme won five categories (out of fourteen nominations) at the lower-profile BAFTA Cymru awards, given to programmes made in Wales. It won Best Drama Series, Drama Director (James Hawes), Costume, Make-up and Photography Direction. Russell T Davies also won the Siân Phillips Award for Outstanding Contribution to Network Television. The programme enjoyed further success at the BAFTA Cymru awards the following year, winning eight of the thirteen categories in which it was nominated, including Best Actor for David Tennant and Best Drama Director for Graeme Harper.

On 7 May 2006, the main BAFTA award winners were announced, and Doctor Who won both of the categories it was nominated for, the Best Drama Series and audience-voted Pioneer Award. Russell T Davies also won the Dennis Potter Award for Outstanding Writing for Television. Writer Steven Moffat won the Best Writer category at the 2008 BAFTA Craft Awards for his 2007 Doctor Who episode "Blink".

The series also won awards at the BAFTA Cymru ceremony on 27 April 2008, including "Best Screenwriter" for Steven Moffat, "Best Director: Drama" for James Strong, "Best Director Of Photography: Drama" for Ernie Vincze, "Best Sound" for the BBC Wales Sound Team and "Best Make-Up" for Barbara Southcott and Neill Gorton (of Millennium FX).

In March 2009, it was announced that Doctor Who had again been nominated in the Best Drama Series category at the main BAFTA Awards.

In 2005, at the National Television Awards (voted on by members of the British public), Doctor Who won "Most Popular Drama", Christopher Eccleston won "Most Popular Actor" and Billie Piper won "Most Popular Actress". The series and Piper repeated their wins at the 2006 National Television Awards, and David Tennant won "Most Popular Actor" in 2006 and 2007, with the series again taking the Most Popular Drama award in 2007. A scene from "The Doctor Dances" won "Golden Moment" in the BBC's "2005 TV Moments" awards, and Doctor Who swept all the categories in's online "Best of Drama" poll in both 2005 and 2006. The programme also won the Broadcast Magazine Award for Best Drama. Eccleston was awarded the TV Quick and TV Choice award for Best Actor in 2005; in the same awards in 2006 Tennant won Best Actor, Piper won Best Actress and Doctor Who won Best-Loved Drama.

Doctor Who was nominated in the Best Drama Series category at the 2006 Royal Television Society awards, but lost to BBC Three's medical drama Bodies.

Doctor Who also received several nominations for the 2006 Broadcasting Press Guild Awards: the programme for Best Drama, Eccleston for Best Actor (David Tennant was also nominated for Secret Smile), Piper for Best Actress and Davies for Best Writer. However, it did not win any of these categories.

A panel of journalists and television executives for the annual awards given out at the Edinburgh Television Festival voted Doctor Who as the best programme of the year in 2007 and in 2008.

Several episodes of the 2005 series of Doctor Who were nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form: "Dalek", "Father's Day" and the double episode "The Empty Child"/"The Doctor Dances". At a ceremony at the Worldcon (L.A. Con IV) in Los Angeles on 27 August 2006, the Hugo was awarded to "The Empty Child"/"The Doctor Dances". "Dalek" and "Father's Day" came in second and third places respectively. The 2006 series episodes "School Reunion", "Army of Ghosts"/"Doomsday" and "The Girl in the Fireplace" were nominated for the same category of the 2007 Hugo Awards, with "The Girl in the Fireplace" winning. The 2007 series episodes "Blink" and "Human Nature"/"The Family of Blood" also secured nominations in this category in the 2008 Hugo Awards, with "Blink" winning the award.

On 7 July 2007, the series won three Constellation Awards: David Tennant won "Best Male Performance in a 2006 Science Fiction Television Episode" for the episode "The Girl in the Fireplace", and the series itself won "Best Science Fiction Television Series of 2006" and "Outstanding Canadian Contribution to Science Fiction Film or Television in 2006". It was eligible for the latter award due to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's involvement as co-producer of the series.

On 12 July 2008, the series won three Constellation Awards: David Tennant won "Best Male Performance in a 2007 Science Fiction Television Episode" for the episodes "Human Nature/The Family Of Blood", Carey Mulligan won "Best Female Performance in a 2007 Science Fiction Television Episode" for the episode "Blink" and the series itself won "Best Science Fiction Television Series of 2007".

On 8 November 2007, the series received its first mainstream American award nomination when it was nominated for the 34th Annual People's Choice Awards in the category of "Favorite Sci-Fi Show". The awards, broadcast on CBS on 8 January 2008 are voted on by the people via an Internet poll. Doctor Who faced competition from American-produced series Battlestar Galactica (itself a revival of an older series), and Stargate Atlantis. It was defeated by Stargate Atlantis. In June 2008, the series won the inaugural Best International Series category at the 34th Saturn Awards, defeating its spin-off, Torchwood, which was also nominated.

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Brazil (film)

Logo of the Ministry of Information

Brazil is a 1985 film directed by Terry Gilliam. It was written by Gilliam, Charles McKeown, and Tom Stoppard and stars Jonathan Pryce. The film also features Robert De Niro, Kim Greist, Michael Palin, Katherine Helmond, Bob Hoskins, and Ian Holm. John Scalzi's Rough Guide to Sci-Fi Movies describes the film as a "dystopian satire".

The film centers on Sam Lowry (Jonathan Pryce), a young man trying to find a woman who appears in his dreams while he is working in a mind-numbing job and living a life in a small apartment, set in a dystopian world in which there is an over-reliance on poorly maintained (and rather whimsical) machines. Brazil's bureaucratic, totalitarian government is reminiscent of the government depicted in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, except that it has a buffoonish, slap-stick quality, and lacks any kind of figurehead.

Jack Mathews, movie critic and author of The Battle of Brazil (1987), characterized the film as "satirizing the bureaucratic, largely dysfunctional industrial world that had been driving crazy all his life." Though a success in Europe, the film flopped upon initial release in North America, even with the extra publicity of the fight with the studio. It has since become an important cult film.

Sam Lowry (Jonathan Pryce) is a low-level government employee, often daydreaming of saving a beautiful maiden. One day he is assigned the task of trying to rectify an error created by a government mishap, causing the incarceration of a Mr. Harry Buttle instead of the suspected terrorist, Harry Tuttle. When Sam visits Mr. Buttle's widow, he discovers Jill Layton (Kim Greist), the upstairs neighbor of the Buttles, is the same woman as in his dreams. Jill is trying to help Mrs. Buttle find out what happened to her husband, but has gotten sick of dealing with the bureaucracy. Unbeknownst to her, she is now considered a terrorist friend of Tuttle for trying to report the mistake of Buttle's arrest in Tuttle's place to bureaucrats that would not admit such a mistake. When Sam tries to approach her, she is very cautious and avoids giving Sam full details, worried the government will track her down. During this time, Sam comes in contact with the real Harry Tuttle (Robert De Niro), a renegade air conditioning specialist who once worked for the government but left due to the amount of paperwork. Tuttle helps Sam deal with two government workers who are taking their time fixing the broken air conditioning in Sam's apartment.

Sam determines the only way to learn about Jill is to transfer to "Information Retrieval" where he would have access to her classified records. He requests the help of his mother Ida (Katherine Helmond), vainly addicted to rejuvenating plastic surgery under the care of cosmetic surgeon Dr. Jaffe (Jim Broadbent), as she has connections to high ranking officers and is able to help her son get the position. His mother is delighted as she used to be frustrated at her son's prior lack of ambition, and the promotion Sam receives is one his mother has previously arranged for him but that Sam has declined. He eventually obtains Jill's records and tracks her down before she is arrested, then falsifies her records to make her appear deceased, allowing her to escape the bureaucracy. The two share a romantic night together before Sam is apprehended by the government at gun-point for misusing his position.

Sam is taken to be tortured by his old friend, Jack Lint (Michael Palin), as he is now considered part of an assumed terrorist plot including Jill and Tuttle. However, before Lint can start, Tuttle and other members of the resistance shoot Jack and save Sam, blowing up the Ministry building as they flee. As they try to disappear into the crowds, Tuttle's disappearance is surreal and mysterious; he is slowly covered by the stray scraps of paper from the destroyed Ministry building, and once Lowry comes to his aid and tears through the layer of paper, Tuttle has disappeared. The scene becomes dream-like as Sam runs to his mother at a funeral. The funeral is described as that of Mrs. Terrain (Barbara Hicks). Rather than Mrs. Terrain who is recently deceased due to her cosmetic surgery gone wrong, Sam's mother, thanks to Dr. Jaffe's repeated surgery, now seems like in her 20s again, looking exactly like Sam's love interest Jill, and is surrounded by a flock of juvenile admirers younger than Sam himself. She refuses to help and, falling into Mrs. Terrain's seemingly bottomless coffin, he then continues to run from the police in streets that more and more resemble the concrete and brick walls of his nightmare daydreams. When he finds himself surrounded on three sides by the police and the imaginary monsters of his nightmares, he turns to the only escape way left and climbs up a seemingly insurmountable pile of old flex-ducts such as those running the world of Brazil, and finds sanctuary in a trailer driven by Jill, whereupon the two leave the city together.

However, it is quickly revealed this happy ending is all happening inside Sam's head when in front of the idyllic scene, two faces come into view staring at the camera, that of Jack and of Mr. Helpmann (Peter Vaughan), who as Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Information is the system's highest official we see in the film. What they are looking at, as they now realize, is Sam having become insane at Jack's hands. Jack gives up trying to torture Sam, and Sam is left with a smile on his face, humming "Brazil" as Jack moves Mr. Helpmann in his wheelchair away from the scene.

Gilliam developed the story and wrote the first draft of the screenplay with Charles Alverson, who was paid for his work but ultimately uncredited in the final film. Gilliam, McKeown, and Stoppard collaborated on further drafts. Brazil was developed under the titles The Ministry and 1984 ½, the latter a nod not only to Orwell's original 1984 but also to Federico Fellini's 8½, a director which Gilliam often cites as one of the defining influences for his stunning and visionary visuals when it comes to directing. During the film's production, other working titles floated about, including The Ministry of Torture, How I Learned to Live with the System - So Far, and So That's Why the Bourgeoisie Sucks, before settling with Brazil relating to the name of its escapist signature tune (but also note Brazil (mythical island)).

Gilliam sometimes refers to this film as the second in his "Trilogy of Imagination" movies, starting with Time Bandits (1981) and ending with The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1989). All are about the "craziness of our awkwardly ordered society and the desire to escape it through whatever means possible." All three movies focus on these struggles and attempts to escape them through imagination; Time Bandits, through the eyes of a child, Brazil, through the eyes of a thirty-something year old, and Munchausen, through the eyes of an elderly man.

Robert De Niro originally wanted to play Jack, but Gilliam had already promised the role to Michael Palin. De Niro still wanted to be in the film, and so was cast as Tuttle instead.

Terry Gilliam's daughter Holly Gilliam plays Jack Lint's daughter Holly.

Wrote Michael Atkinson of The Village Voice in his review of Brazil, "Gilliam understood that all futuristic films end up quaintly evoking the naive past in which they were made, and turned the principle into a coherent comic aesthetic.", The result has been dubbed retro-futurism by fellow film-makers Jean-Pierre Jeunet and Marc Caro. Generally called "sci-fi noir", it is "a view of what the 1980s might have looked at viewed from the perspective of a 1940s filmmaker", an eclectic yet coherent mixture of styles and production designs derived from Fritz Lang's films (particularly Metropolis and M) or film noir pictures starring Humphrey Bogart: "On the other hand, Sam's reality has a '40s noir feel. Some sequences are shot to recall images of Humphrey Bogart on the hunt and one character (Harvey Lime) may be named as an homage to The Third Man's Harry Lime". A number of reviewers also saw a distinct influence of German Expressionism, as 1920s seminal, more nightmarish predecessor to 1940s film noir, in general in how Gilliam's Brazil made cunning use of lighting and set designs. All that was coupled with Gilliam's trademark obsession for very wide lenses and tilted camera angles.

One visual element which figures prominently in the movie is the ducts, specifically the snakelike "flex-ducts" used in modern construction. The film opens with an advertisement for different styles of ducting available for homes, seen on a display of television sets in a shop, which is then blown up in a terrorist bombing. As a visual metaphor, the ducting is a physical manifestation of the bureaucracy that consumes Sam's life.

Sam's apartment is dominated by a wall consisting entirely of metal panels which conceal a complex air-conditioning system, and his hero is the guerrilla mechanic Tuttle, who is the only person able to tame this monster. Later, Sam lunches in a restaurant dominated by a giant centerpiece where the "flowers" are actually flex-ducts. After that, when Sam makes a potentially seditious nighttime visit to his office, the emptiness of the government building's gigantic lobby is set off by maintenance men's floor buffing machines, trailing long cords of flex-duct.

In the working-class Buttle home, the family have to live their lives while giving way to ducts that in fact hinder their daily activities. In Sam's home, the ducts are not visible initially, but make their presence felt as an undertone, particularly when they break down. In the Department of Records, the ducts are a visible part of the environment, but above everyone's heads. Finally, in the dreaded Ministry of Information, there are no ducts at all - for this is the center of power, and also where all ducting leads to ultimately.

Ary Barroso's 1939 song "Aquarela do Brasil" ("Watercolor of Brazil", often simply "Brazil") is the leitmotif of the movie, although other background music is also utilized. Michael Kamen, who scored the music, originally recorded "Brazil" with vocals by Kate Bush. This recording was not included in the actual film or the original soundtrack release; however, it has been subsequently released on re-pressings of the soundtrack.

Similarly, the elevation of meaningless considerations of status and vanity over personal happiness and well-being is continuously portrayed throughout the movie. Sam's mother and her friend, Mrs. Terrain, as part of this world's high society, undergo a number of cosmetic surgeries in a seemingly addicted fashion to look young and beautiful. Even when terrorist bombing attacks are occurring nearby, all they care about are most recent surgery catalog prices.

In Brazil, Sam is not so much beset by malicious characters as he is by a vast, impersonal, and indifferent social structure that is both hypocritical and pedantic for its own sake. Most of the individual villains are neither malicious nor sadistic, they are merely doing their jobs. Consequently, a major theme is the absurdity of the anonymous, ritualized, and soulless machinery that make up the absurd necessities of adult life in modern society. This absurd, anonymous machinery is apparent in the fact the film's whole plot is set into motion by a (quite literal) bug in the system that nobody is aware of. In the end, nobody but the viewer has a full grasp of the events that occurred and all of their causes, or how each central person fits in there. Sam, as the most perceptive character, only came across pieces to the puzzle by a row of accidents, while being entirely focused on finding, then saving his love interest; Jill is seemingly oblivious to her endangered situation until her very last minute in the film, and probably of her life; and Jack, as well as the system behind him as embodied by Mr. Helpmann, have built up an elaborate yet self-delusional tale of sabotage and terrorism to explain away the bugs of their own making. Additionally illustrating this world of absurd, automated necessities are the various Rube Goldberg machines, such as those in Sam's own flat, that have fully automated everyday life.

The movie was produced by Arnon Milchan's company Embassy International Pictures (not to be confused with Joseph E. Levine's Embassy Pictures). Gilliam's original cut of the film is 142 minutes long and ends on a dark note. This version was released internationally outside the US by 20th Century Fox.

US distribution was handled by Universal. Universal executives thought the ending tested poorly, and Universal chairman Sid Sheinberg insisted on dramatically re-editing the film to give it a happy ending, a decision that Gilliam resisted vigorously. As with the cult science fiction film Blade Runner (1982), which had been released three years earlier, a version of Brazil was created by the movie studio with a more consumer-friendly ending. After a lengthy delay with no sign of the film being released, Gilliam took out a full-page ad in the trade magazine Variety urging Sheinberg to release Brazil in its intended version. Eventually, after Gilliam conducted private screenings (without the studio's approval), Brazil was awarded the Los Angeles Film Critics Association award for "Best Picture", which prompted Universal to finally agree to release a modified 131-minute version supervised by Gilliam, in 1985.

In North America, the film was released on VHS and Laserdisc in the 131-minute US version. A slightly modified 142-minute version of the original European cut was first made available in a 5-disc Criterion Collection laserdisc box set in 1996, and is currently available on DVD (referred to in the director's commentary as the "fifth and final cut", it uses the American cloud opening instead of a stark blank screen setting the time and place).

Sheinberg's edit, the 94-minute so-called "Love Conquers All" version, was shown on syndicated television and was first made available for sale to consumers as a separate disc in the Criterion laserdisc box set, and subsequent DVD three-disc set in 1999 (both of which also featured a special video documentary version of Jack Mathews' book, with new Gilliam interviews and tape-recorded interviews from Sid Sheinberg for the original book).

The box set presents the feature film in its correct aspect ratio for the first time, but the version on the original DVD release is not enhanced for newer widescreen TVs. New 16:9-enhanced editions of the film in both a complete set and separate film-only disc were re-issued on DVD by Criterion on September 5, 2006.

The British and American versions of the film have several differences.

These are scenes missing in the UK release of the film and what Americans saw in US theaters. The reasons for excluding these scenes from the UK version and adding them to the US version are unknown.

These are scenes missing in the US release of the film and what British audiences saw in UK cinemas. These scenes were edited for the US release by Sheinberg because he thought that an American audience would be highly disturbed and unsettled by their content and length.

The Sheinberg Edit also aired on syndicated TV for time restrictions on some occasions and it pleased Gilliam as it showed how bad the studio cut of the film was.

The film has a 98% on the Rotten Tomatoes Tomatometer, with 39 out of 40 reviewers giving positive reviews. It has received a score of 88 on Metacritic, based on 12 reviews.

In 2004 Total Film named Brazil the 20th greatest British movie of all time. In 2005 Time film reviewers Richard Corliss and Richard Schickel named Brazil in an unordered list of the 100 best films of all time. In 2006 Channel 4 voted Brazil one of the "50 Films to See Before You Die", shortly before its broadcast on FilmFour.

Wired ranked Brazil number 5 in its list of the top 20 sci-fi movies. Entertainment Weekly listed Brazil as the sixth best science-fiction piece of media released since 1982. The magazine also ranked the film #13 on their list of "The Top 50 Cult Films".

The film was nominated for two Academy Awards; for Original Screenplay and Best Art Direction (Norman Garwood, Maggie Gray) According to Gilliam in an interview with Clive James in his online programme Talking in the Library, to his surprise Brazil is apparently a favorite film of the far Right in America.

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Glengarry Glen Ross


Glengarry Glen Ross is a 1982 play written by David Mamet. The play shows parts of two days in the lives of four desperate Chicago real estate agents who are prepared to engage in any number of unethical, illegal acts—from lies and flattery to bribery, threats, intimidation, and burglary—to sell undesirable real estate to unwilling prospective buyers. The play draws partly on Mamet's experiences of life in a Chicago real estate office, where he worked briefly in the late 1960s. The title of the play comes from the names of two of the real estate developments being peddled by the salesmen characters, Glengarry Highlands and Glen Ross Farms.

Mamet had sent the play to Harold Pinter for comment, who admired it and, as an associate director to Peter Hall, recommended it for production. As a result the world premiere was at the National Theatre in London on September 21, 1983, where Bill Bryden's production in the Cottesloe was acclaimed as a triumph of ensemble acting.

The play opened on Broadway on March 25, 1984 and closed on February 17, 1985. The production was directed by Gregory Mosher and starred Joe Mantegna, Mike Nussbaum, Robert Prosky, Lane Smith, James Tolkan, Jack Wallace, and J.T. Walsh. The production was nominated for four Tony awards including Best Play, Best Director, and two Best Actor nominations for Robert Prosky and Joe Mantegna, who won the production's one Tony.

Scene 1: Shelley Levene has been in a major slump, and has not made a sale in some time. He is desperate for money, and knows he will lose his job soon if he cannot turn things around. He tries in every way imaginable to convince office Manager John Williamson to give him some of "the Glengarry leads" (names and phone numbers of promising potential clients for expensive properties the firm will be selling in the near future). Williamson adamantly refuses. Levene tries first to charm Williamson, then to threaten him, and finally to bribe him. Williamson is willing to sell some of the prime leads, but demands cash in advance. Levene cannot come up with the cash and must leave without any good leads to work with.

Scene 2: Dave Moss and George Aaronow are complaining about Mitch and Murray, the big bosses. They hate the pressure management has put on them to succeed. Moss tells Aaronow that they need to strike back at Mitch and Murray by stealing all the Glengarry leads and selling them to another real estate agency. Moss's plan would require the hapless Aaronow to break into the office, stage a burglary, and steal all the prime leads. Aaronow wants no part of the plan, but Moss intimidates him, saying that Aaronow is already an accomplice, legally, simply because he listened to the idea.

Scene 3: Ricky Roma delivers a long, disjointed but compelling monologue to a meek, middle-aged man named James Lingk. Roma does not bring up the real estate he wants to sell to Lingk until the very end. Instead, Roma preys upon Lingk's insecurities, and his sense that he has never done anything adventurous with his life. "When you die, you'll regret the things you didn't do," Roma tells Lingk, who finds Ricky spellbinding. Lingk sees in Ricky Roma all the virtues he lacks: virility, confidence, a sense of adventure. By the time Roma brings out sales brochures, Lingk is ready to do almost anything to ingratiate himself with Roma.

Someone has broken into the office and stolen everything that wasn't bolted down, including the Glengarry leads. Williamson has called in a police detective, who interrogates each salesman behind closed doors, in Williamson's office. George Aaronow is extremely nervous, and guilty-looking.

Shelley Levene bursts into the office, looking deliriously happy, because he has finally sold a large plot of land to a couple named Nyborg. In his joy, he hardly seems to notice that the office is in shambles.

A nervous James Lingk enters the office, looking for Ricky Roma. Lingk's wife has ordered him to cancel the sales contract he signed with Roma, and under Illinois law, he has the right to terminate that contract within 72 hours. Lingk asks for his check to be refunded. Roma tries to stall him, by assuring him the contract has not been turned in and the check has not yet been cashed. At this point, John Williamson (who has completely misread the situation) steps in to reassure Lingk that the contract has been sent through and the check has been deposited. Horrified, Lingk leaves to seek redress from the state Attorney General's office.

Ricky Roma is furious at Williamson, who has blown a big sale and commission for him. He berates and humiliates Williamson, calling him a "fairy" and a "cunt" and asking him "who told you you could work with men?" When Roma is finished, he has to leave to be interviewed by the police detective. Roma tells Williamson he is oblivious to the way the sales business works and shouldn't be there. Shelley Levene picks up where Roma left off, and begins insulting Williamson, telling him what a stupid mistake it was to lie about turning in the contract and depositing the check.

Williamson realizes then that Shelley Levene must have been the thief — only the real thief could have known that he was lying, because only the real thief could have known that the contract and the check were sitting on Williamson's desk. Williamson accuses Levene, and threatens to tell his suspicions to the police detective. Levene folds, and admits pathetically that he and Dave Moss were the thieves. Once again, he tries to bribe Williamson to forget about the crime. He offers to give Williamson his commission from the Nyborg sale. Williamson laughs at this and reveals to Levene that the Nyborgs are crazy old folks who have no money and just enjoy talking to salesmen. Williamson has been feeding Levene worthless leads like the Nyborgs for months, because he just does not like Shelley.

When Roma comes back from his interrogation, Williamson goes to tell the detective that Moss and Levene are the thieves. Roma, who has no idea what just went on between Williamson and Levene, proposes to Levene that they should form their own partnership. Shelley smiles sadly, and agrees, knowing that he is going to be arrested any moment. The detective comes out and calls Levene's name. Levene meekly walks away with the detective. And Ricky heads off to the restaurant.

There was controversy over lines in the play, and in the movie adaptation of it, which it was claimed showed prejudice against people from India. As a result, Mamet removed the language from the latest Broadway revival.

The controversial dialog included in the movie version about a potential lead from the Patels, a family from South Asia.

The world premiere of Glengarry Glen Ross was in 1982 and later opened at Cottesloe Theatre of the Royal National Theatre in London on 21 September 1983, directed by Bill Bryden.

Glengarry Glen Ross premiered in the United States at the Goodman Theatre of the Arts Institute of Chicago in a Chicago Theatre Groups, Inc. production on February 6, 1984. The play opened on Broadway on March 25, 1984 at the John Golden Theatre, in a production directed by Gregory Mosher. The original American cast is below, with Lane Smith replacing William L. Petersen on Broadway.

The play received numerous Tony Award nominations, including those for the director, Mosher, and actors Prosky and Mantegna, with Mantegna winning in the Best Featured Actor category. In 2005, Glengarry Glen Ross was revived on Broadway, opening on May 1, 2005 at the Bernard B Jacobs Theatre (formerly the Royale Theatre), in a production directed by Joe Mantello.

The revival received numerous Tony Award nominations, including Best Featured Actor nominations for Alda, Clapp, and Schreiber, with Schreiber taking home the prize. The production also won a Tony for Best Revival of a Play. On September 27, 2007, the play was revived at the Apollo Theatre, London, starring Jonathan Pryce as Shelley, alongside Aidan Gillen (Roma), Paul Freeman (George), Matthew Marsh (Dave) and Peter McDonald (Williamson). The production was directed by James Macdonald. Glengarry Glen Ross has also been produced as a radio play for BBC Radio 3, featuring Hector Elizondo, Stacy Keach, Bruce Davison, and Alfred Molina as Roma, and first airing March 20, 2005.

The 1992 a film adaptation directed by James Foley was released using an expanded script featuring a role specifically written for Alec Baldwin.

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Evita (soundtrack)

Evita - The Motion Picture Music Soundtrack cover

Evita is the third soundtrack album to feature American singer-songwriter Madonna, released on October 25, 1996 by Warner Bros. Records. It also includes performances by Antonio Banderas, Jonathan Pryce and Jimmy Nail. It was released to promote and accompany the 1996 motion picture, Evita. The RIAA certified it Gold & Platinum on January 24th 1997 & 5.00x Multi Platinum on March 29th 1999, recognising 2.5 million shipments throughout the United States (as it is a double album and exceeds 100 minutes in length, the RIAA counts each unit sale twice).

The soundtrack was released in two different versions: a two-disc edition entitled Evita: The Motion Picture Music Soundtrack featured all the tracks from the film, and Evita: Music From The Motion Picture, a single-disc edition contained a selection of highlights from the soundtrack. The single-disc version uses the same artwork that was used to promote the film.

The album was an international Top 10 success, reaching No. 2 in the US and No. 1 in the UK, and contains three hit singles; "You Must Love Me" (No. 18 in the US and No. 10 in the UK), sung by Madonna, "Don't Cry for Me Argentina" (No. 8 in the US, No. 3 in the UK, and No. 1 in France), also sung by Madonna, and "Another Suitcase in Another Hall" (No. 7 in the UK), in which Madonna sings lead vocals.

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Evita (film)


Evita is the 1996 film adaptation of Tim Rice and Andrew Lloyd Webber's musical based on the life of Eva Perón. It was directed by Alan Parker and starred Madonna, Antonio Banderas and Jonathan Pryce. It was released on December 25, 1996 by Hollywood Pictures and Cinergi Pictures.

Evita traces the life of Eva Duarte (later Eva Duarte de Perón) (Madonna) from a child from the lower class to becoming the first lady and spiritual leader of Argentina.

The film begins with the announcement of Eva's death and public funeral as the audience is introduced to the film's narrator, Che, (Antonio Banderas) an everyman who tells the story of Eva's rise to power and subsequent illness and death, appearing in many different guises and serving as Eva's conscience and critic. The film flashes back to Eva's childhood, and she is seen as a young girl attempting to attend her father's funeral in the town of Junín with her mother and siblings. But her father's wife and other family (who are middle class) ban Eva's family from entering and carry Eva out screaming after she runs in on her own and pays her last respect.

At age 15, Eva decides to leave Junín to seek a better life and hitches a ride to Buenos Aires with a tango singer, Augustin Magaldi (Jimmy Nail), with whom she's having an affair. After Magaldi leaves her, She progresses through several relationships with increasingly influential men, becoming a model, actress and radio personality until her fateful meeting with Colonel Juan Perón (Jonathan Pryce) at a fundraiser. Perón's connection with Eva lends him a populist air, since she is from the working class (as is Perón himself). Eva has a radio show during Perón's rise and uses all her skills to promote Perón, even when the controlling administration has him jailed to try and stunt his political momentum. The groundswell of support Eva generates forces the government to release Perón, and he finds the people enamored of him and Eva. Perón wins election to the presidency and Eva promises the new government will serve the "descamisados" (literally, "the shirtless ones"—i.e., the working poor). Eva establishes a foundation and distributes aid while the Perónists otherwise plunder the public treasury. Argentine society is very class-based, and the military officer corps and social elites despise Eva's common roots and affinity for the poor. During a world tour Evita becomes ill and is rushed home. Towards the end of her life she understands that she is terminally ill but rationalizes that her life was short because she shone like the "brightest fire" and helps Perón prepare to go on without her. The film ends with a large crowd surrounding the Casa Rosada in a candlelight vigil praying for her recovery when the light of her room goes out, signifying her death.

In addition, Mark Ryan, who played Magaldi in the original 1978 London stage production, appeared as a waiter and Billie Piper was an uncredited extra, notably appearing next to Perón in A New Argentina.

Discussion of the film production began soon after the original 1978 London production was staged. Several actresses were considered for the role. At one point, Lloyd Webber favoured an actress of Spanish descent to play the lead role and suggested Charo. Then Meryl Streep was offered the role, but production was delayed. Meanwhile, Madonna had been campaigning for the part but when Parker was ready for filming, several people objected to Madonna playing the part. Barbra Streisand, Glenn Close, Olivia Newton-John and Michelle Pfeiffer had also been rumored to be involved. Pfeiffer, who recorded a number of demo tracks, was almost cast, but director Alan Parker wanted to shoot the picture on location, not in Pfeiffer's preferred Hollywood sound studio. Patti LuPone was not offered to reprise her original role as Evita. As a actress, in her forties, she was to "old" to play the part of Eva Peron. When the lead of Eva was announced, Madonna, Patti LuPone was asked to play the role of Eva's mother, but she refused.

Filming began on February 1996 and it finished in May. On set, Madonna received vocal training to ensure she was in the best possible voice. Midway through production, Madonna discovered she was pregnant; she later delivered daughter Lourdes Maria Ciccone Leon.

The film received a warm reception from many critics. It was nominated for five Academy Awards and won the award for "Best Song" for "You Must Love Me". Evita also had five Golden Globe nominations and three wins (Best Picture - Comedy or Musical; Best Original Song, "You Must Love Me"; and Best Actress in a Comedy or Musical, Madonna) and was one of the National Board of Review's Top Ten Films of the Year.

Following the success of the film, the government of Argentina released its own film biography of Peron, entitled Eva Perón, to correct alleged distortions in the Lloyd Webber account.

The movie earned Madonna a Guinness World Record title, "Most costume changes in a film". Madonna broke Elizabeth Taylor's 1963 record for Cleopatra (65 costume changes), in her Golden Globe-winning turn as Eva Peron in Evita. She changed costumes 85 times (which included 39 hats, 45 pairs of shoes and 56 pairs of earrings). In addition to the normal challenges of creating that many costumes for one actress, the costume designer and wardrobe department also had to deal with the challenge of concealing Madonna's real-life pregnancy throughout the production.

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Source : Wikipedia