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Posted by pompos 02/28/2009 @ 18:00

Tags : journeymen, folk and folk rock, artists, music, entertainment

News headlines
"The place that celebrates the journeymen:" New Tim Allen radio ad ... - The Flint Journal -
by David Harris | The Flint Journal GRAND BLANC TOWNSHIP, Michigan -- With soft music playing in the background, Tim Allen extolls the Buick Open as the tournament that "celebrates the journeymen" of the PGA Tour. It is, Allen romantizes in a soothing...
Otton aims to bring down US journeymen - Sydney Morning Herald
Otton continued his love affair with fearsome Teahupoo by scraping past defending champion Bruno Santos in their knockout round-one heat on Saturday (Sunday AEST), setting up a round two showdown with American journeyman Taylor Knox....
Journeymen put England on brink of victory - Times Online
The first day at Lord's witnessed the arrival of a special talent; now it was the turn of the journeymen. For Ravi Bopara, the possibilities are endless, but we know, as much as we can know anything in sport, that Graeme Swann and Graham Onions will...
The hard truth: Canucks must deal Luongo -
There is, however, an eclectic collection of hardy veterans, reclaimed journeymen and youngsters, of whom the 25-year-old Ward is the most highly regarded. Assuming you're still reading, this brings us around to the Vancouver Canucks, who,... - A Road Trip Gone Twitter - Killer Startups
A little background on these journeymen (and woman). Kurt Daradics is a social catalyst that has a startup named Freedom Speaks where he raises civic awareness. Jonathan Dingman is a Wordpress developer and tech scene photographer....
Evans strike ends - Times-Mail (subscription)
By KRYSTAL SHETLER BEDFORD — A week after walking out on their jobs at Evans Limestone, members of the Journeymen Stonecutters Association will go back to work. An agreement was reached this morning between Evans Limestone and the...
Jeffrey Archer in a tete'-a-tete' mood... - Hindustan Times
The three of us were bound by the thread of athletics, though in truth, Chris was in a different class — an Olympic gold medallist (Melbourne 1958, 3000 m steeplechase), while John and I were journeymen in comparison. For the next half hour,...
BC Licensed electrical journeymen needed for local company. 604 ... - Pique newsmagazine
P/t receptionist position, immediately, in Pemberton multi-practitioner clinic. Evening shifts from 3-8pm. Sat mornings. Must have strong computer skills, comfortable in a multi-tasking environment, willing to tackle light cleaning duties....
Can we afford to sell Barker ? -
It begs the question how, with a team full of loanees and journeymen, do we perform so well? And why did we improve so much in the last third of the season? The only reasons I can come up with are good management, good team spirit and the immense...
Spain pain for journeymen Colin Montgomerie and John Daly in ... - Daily Mail
By Graham Otway Last updated at 12:30 AM on 01st May 2009 John Daly and Colin Montgomerie trailed among the journeymen yesterday as Danish Ryder Cup player Soren Hansen shot a course record during the first round of the Spanish Open....

Belfast Journeymen Butchers' Association

The Belfast Journeymen Butchers' Association was a trade union in the United Kingdom. It merged with the Transport and General Workers' Union in 1937.

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The Halifax III

The Halifax Three (or The Halifax III), originally The Colonials, was a folk music band in Canada in the 1960s. the members of the trio were Denny Doherty, Pat LaCroix and Richard Byrne. The group, with the addition of Toronto born Zal Yanovsky, toured with The Journeymen and played Carnegie Hall in New York City.

Two of the major folk rock groups of the late 1960s rose from The Halifax Three/Journeyman meeting. After the Halifax group broke up, Doherty and Yanovsky formed The Mugwumps with Cass Elliot and John Sebastian. When that band ended, Sebastien and Yanovsky formed The Lovin' Spoonful while Doherty and Elliot joined Journeyman John Phillips and wife Michelle to form The Mamas & the Papas.

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Consensus based assessment

Consensus Based Assessment expands on the common practice of consensus decision-making and the theoretical observation that expertise can be closely approximated by large numbers of novices or journeymen. It creates a method for determining measurement standards for very ambiguous domains of knowledge, such as emotional intelligence, politics, religion, values and culture in general. From this perspective, the shared knowledge that forms cultural consensus can be assessed in much the same way as expertise or general intelligence.

Consensus based assessment is based on a simple finding: that samples of individuals with differing competence (e.g., experts and apprentices) rate relevant scenarios, using Likert scales, with similar mean ratings. Thus, from the perspective of a CBA framework, cultural standards for scoring keys can be derived from the population that is being assessed. Peter Legree and Joseph Psotka, working together over the past decades, proposed that psychometric g could be measured unobtrusively through survey-like scales requiring judgments. This could either use the deviation score for each person from the group or expert mean; or a Pearson correlation between their judgments and the group mean. The two techniques are perfectly correlated. Legree and Psotka subsequently created scales that requested individuals to estimate word frequency; judge binary probabilities of good continuation; identify knowledge implications; and approximate employment distributions. The items were carefully identified to avoid objective referents, and therefore the scales required respondents to provide judgments that were scored against broadly developed, consensual standards. Performance on this judgment battery correlated approximately 0.80 with conventional measures of psychometric g. The response keys were consensually derived. Unlike mathematics or physics questions, the selection of items, scenarios, and options to assess psychometric g were guided roughly by a theory that emphasized complex judgment, but the explicit keys were unknown until the assessments had been made: they were determined by the average of everyone's responses, using deviation scores, correlations, or factor scores.

One way to understand the connection between expertise and consensus is to consider that for many performance domains, expertise largely reflects knowledge derived from experience. Since novices tend to have fewer experiences, their opinions err in various inconsistent directions. However, as experience is acquired, the opinions of journeymen through to experts become more consistent. According to this view, errors are random. Ratings data collected from large samples of respondents of varying expertise can thus be used to approximate the average ratings a substantial number of experts would provide were many experts available. Because the standard deviation of a mean will approach zero as the number of observations becomes very large, estimates based on groups of varying competence will provide converging estimates of the best performance standards. The means of these groups’ responses can be used to create effective scoring rubrics, or measurement standards to evaluate performance. This approach is particularly relevant to scoring subjective areas of knowledge that are scaled using Likert response scales, and the approach has been applied to develop scoring standards for several domains where experts are scarce.

In practice, analyses have demonstrated high levels of convergence between expert and CBA standards with values quantifying those standards highly correlated (Pearson Rs ranging from .72 to .95), and with scores based on those standards also highly correlated (Rs ranging from .88 to .99) provided the sample size of both groups is large (Legree, Psotka, Tremble & Bourne, 2005). This convergence between CBA and expert referenced scores and the associated validity data indicate that CBA and expert based scoring can be used interchangeably, provided that the ratings data are collected using large samples of experts and novices or journeymen.

CBA is often computed by using the Pearson R correlation of each person's Likert scale judgments across a set of items against the mean of all people's judgments on those same items. The correlation is then a measure of that person's proximity to the consensus. It is also sometimes computed as a standardized deviation score from the consensus means of the groups. These two procedures are mathematically isomorphic. If culture is considered to be shared knowledge; and the mean of the group’s ratings on a focused domain of knowledge is considered a measure of the cultural consensus in that domain; then both procedures assess CBA as a measure of an individual person’s cultural understanding.

However, it may be that the consensus is not evenly distributed over all subordinate items about a topic. Perhaps the knowledge content of the items is distributed over domains with differing consensus. For instance, conservatives who are libertarians may feel differently about invasion of privacy than conservatives who feel strongly about law and order. In fact, standard factor analysis brings this issue to the fore.

In either centroid or principal components analysis (PCA) the first factor scores are created by multiplying each rating by the correlation of the factor (usually the mean of all standardized ratings for each person) against each item’s ratings. This multiplication weights each item by the correlation of the pattern of individual differences on each item (the component scores). If consensus is unevenly distributed over these items, some items may be more focused on the overall issues of the common factor. If an item correlates highly with the pattern of overall individual differences, then it is weighted more strongly in the overall factor scores. This weighting implicitly also weights the CBA score, since it is those items that share a common CBA pattern of consensus that are weighted more in factor analysis.

The transposed or Q methodology factor analysis, created by William Stephenson (psychologist) brings this relationship out explicitly. CBA scores are statistically isomorphic to the component scores in PCA for a Q factor analysis. They are the loading of each person’s responses on the mean of all people’s responses. So, Q factor analysis may provide a superior CBA measure, if it can be used first to select the people who represent the dominant dimension, over items that best represent a subordinate attribute dimension of a domain (such as liberalism in a political domain). Factor analysis can then provide the CBA of individuals along that particular axis of the domain.

In practice, when items are not easily created and arrayed to provide a highly reliable scale, the Q factor analysis is not necessary, since the original factor analysis should also select those items that have a common consensus. So, for instance, in a scale of items for political attitudes, the items may ask about attitudes toward big government; law and order; economic issues; labor issues; or libertarian issues. Which of these items most strongly bear on the political attitudes of the groups polled may be difficult to determine a priori. However, since factor analysis is a symmetric computation on the matrix of items and people, the original factor analysis of items, (when these are Likert scales) selects not just those items that are in a similar domain, but more generally, those items that have a similar consensus. The added advantage of this factor analytic technique is that items are automatically arranged along a factor so that the highest Likert ratings are also the highest CBA standard scores. Once selected, that factor determines the CBA (component) scores.

The most common critique of CBA standards is to question how an average could possibly be a maximal standard. This critique argues that CBA is unsuitable for maximum-performance tests of psychological attributes, especially intelligence. Even so, CBA techniques are routinely employed in various measures of non-traditional intelligences (e.g., practical, emotional, social, etc.). Detailed critiques are presented in Gottfredson (2003) and MacCann, Roberts, Matthews, & Zeidner (2004) as well as elsewhere in the scientific literature.

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Adolph Kolping

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Adolph Kolping (December 8, 1813 in Kerpen — December 4, 1865 in Cologne) was a German Catholic priest.

Kolping grew up as the son of a shepherd. At the age of 18 he went to Cologne as a shoemaker’s assistant. He was shocked by the living conditions of most people living there, which influenced his decision to become a priest. At age 23 he attended the Dreikönigsgymnasium and afterwards studied theology in Munich, Bonn and Cologne.

On April 10, 1845 he was ordained a priest in Cologne's Minoritenkirche. First he worked in Elberfeld (now part of Wuppertal) as a chaplain and religion teacher.

In 1847 he became the second president of the Catholic Association of Journeymen (founded the preceding year by Johann Gregor Breuer), which gave young journeymen religious and social support.

In 1849 he returned to Cologne as vicar of the cathedral and established Cologne’s Association of Journeymen. He united the existing journeymen associations as the Rheinischer Gesellenbund ("Federation of Journeymen of the Rhine Region") in 1850. This fusion was the origin of today’s international Kolpingwerk. Until his death he labored to spread the federation of journeymen associations. By the year of his death, 1865, there were more than four hundred journeymen associations worldwide.

In 1854, Kolping founded the weekly newspaper Rheinische Volksblätter ("Rhine Region People’s Paper"), which quickly became one of the most successful press organs of his time.

In 1862, he became the rector of Saint Maria Empfängnis Church.

On December 4, 1865 Kolping died. He is buried in the Minoritenkirche in Cologne.

On October 27, 1991 he was beatified by Pope John Paul II. He is remembered as the "Father of All Apprentices" and his feast day is on 10 December.

In Germany today, The International Kolping Society has more than 275,000 members in 2,730 local Kolpingsfamilien ("Kolping families"), making it the largest social federation in the country. The organization, based in Cologne, is represented in 59 countries with more than 470,000 members around the world, divided into about 5,000 Kolpingsfamilien.

Wenn der Mann wahrhaft Religion hat in Wort und Tat, dann hat die Frau auch gründlich Respekt vor ihm, dann ehrt sie ihn auch willig als ihr Oberhaupt.

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Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers' International Union

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The Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers' International Union (BCTGM) is a labor union in the United States and Canada. It has a membership of 100,000. The union organizes workers in bakeries, candy, cereal, sugar, grain mills, tobacco plants, food processing and manufacturing facilities and in many other occupations related to these industries. The BCTGM is an organization of, by and for working people. Union brothers and sisters have the right to elect local leaders and participate in making decisions that will affect them.

The union traces its history to the founding of the Journeymen Bakers Union in 1886. The contemporary BCTGM was formed in January, 1999 from the merger of the Bakery, Confectionery and Tobacco Workers' International Union and the American Federation of Grain Millers.

The BCTGM is affiliated with the AFL-CIO, the Canadian Labour Congress and the International Union of Foodworkers (IUF).

The predecessors of today's BCTGM include the Bakery and Confectionery Workers International Union of America, one of the pioneers of the North American labor movement. The B&C began as the Journeymen's Bakers Union, organized in 1886 in Pittsburgh, PA. In 1957, the American Bakery and Confectionery Workers International Union was formed. In 1969, the two organizations united under the B&C banner.

The Tobacco Workers International Union was founded in 1895 and was also in the forefront of the early labor movement. As it and the Bakery and Confectionery Workers International Union of America shared many common goals, both organizations came to realize that these goals could best be achieved through merger. That merger, creating the Bakery, Confectionery and Tobacco Workers (BCT), took place in 1978.

The American Federation of Grain Millers (AFGM) also has roots stemming back to the 1800s. In 1936, the National Council of Grain Processors was formed when a number of smaller grain milling unions agreed to unite as a national union under the banner of the American Federation of Labor, one of the early umbrella organizations for labor unions. In 1941, the council was renamed the American Federation of Grain Processors and in 1948 was reorganized as the AFGM. Shared goals and shared industries led to the January 1, 1999 merger between the BCT and AFGM, creating the modern BCTGM.

From the beginning, the predecessors of today’s BCTGM organized workers in the U.S. and Canada. Consequently, they included the word “International” in their names, BCTGM does today. By uniting food, tobacco and other workers in its industries across North America, BCTGM strives to provide working men and women with the power to improve their lives, secure their rights on the job and contribute to a better society.

Unions organize working people to work together to achieve common goals in the workplace and in society. Through the union, workers can negotiate with management about pay, benefits and conditions in the workplace, under the protection of the law. In the United States, the basic law is the National Labor Relations Act. In Canada, provincial and federal labour laws protect those rights. This process of working collectively to improve wages and working conditions is called collective bargaining and leads to an agreement called a “contract” between the workers and management.

Without a union, workers are considered “employees at will.” Legally that phrase means that unless a federal, state or provincial law is violated, the employer can unilaterally determine all terms and conditions of employment, including whether one can keep a job or not. Workers organize a union to limit the employer’s ability to make arbitrary decisions. Workers gain a voice in decisions affecting their working life.

The BCTGM contract is the principal way workers in its industries try to secure fairness and receive justice on the job. Just as employers enter into contracts with other companies to protect their interests in business dealings, the union contract guarantees in writing the working conditions workers want to ensure.

Once an agreement is reached and ratified by the union membership, management cannot legally change the terms of the contract without negotiating with the union. The law protects this right for organized workers only.

Everyone wants to have smooth working relationships on the job. But problems arise in every workplace. Without a union, workers must try to resolve these problems by themselves, dealing directly with a supervisor or manager who has complete authority over the solution. Management has no obligation to provide due process or have an independent third party make the final decision.

If a worker thinks management may have violated his or her rights as spelled out in the contract, the member can consult a BCTGM steward. The steward is also a rank and file union member who has volunteered or been elected to represent fellow workers in the workplace. The steward and other local union leaders can answer questions and help figure out the best way to solve workplace problems. Sometimes that process involves discussions with management. Sometimes it requires getting the support of other workers for direct action to achieve a fair solution.

If no resolution is reached and the grievance procedure is followed through to the end, a final decision is made by an impartial arbitrator chosen and paid by both parties and dependent on neither.

When a worker joins the BCTGM, they became a member of a local union. The local union organizes and represents workers in BCTGM industries in defined geographic areas or at a specific facility. The local has the main responsibility for enforcing worker rights under the union contract. There are many BCTGM local unions throughout the United States and Canada. The local number is a way of identifying the area and the workers who make up the union. All of the local unions together make up the International BCTGM, which coordinates actions and defends workers rights and living standards throughout the U.S. and Canada.

The local union negotiates most BCTGM contracts. In some companies or industries, regional or national agreements provide for common terms to be applied to local contracts. In such situations, local officers and members work with the International Officers to negotiate the standardized language addressing national or regional issues, while local officers lead bargaining to resolve specific local issues.

Every local union has a minimum of five officers prescribed by the International Constitution—a President, a Financial Secretary and three Trustees. Some Local Union Bylaws provide for additional officers. All officers are elected by the membership in elections that take place on a regular basis as spelled out by the Local Union Bylaws. Some locals also elect, appoint or employ business agents to represent members and help the officers coordinate union activities. Other positions that may be included in the Local Union Bylaws are: Vice President, Recording Secretary, Treasurer, and Sergeant-at-Arms. Stewards are elected or appointed to represent members at the plant level.

The Steward is the first line of communication within the local union. The Steward is there to assist in resolving any employment related problems and to answer questions. By law, a Steward is on an equal footing with management when dealing with violations of the contract. The shop steward system means a worker never has to be alone when trying to resolve a dispute with management.

As mentioned, the International Union is made up of all the BCTGM local unions combined. International union officers and staff organize workers and coordinate the efforts of local unions throughout the United States and Canada. All BCTGM locals have access to the services available from the International Headquarters in Kensington, Maryland.

The International Union, in turn, affiliates with the larger federations of unions in the U.S.—the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO); in Canada—the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC); and, globally—the International Union of Food and Allied Workers (IUF).

All of the elected leaders of the Union come from organized facilities in BCTGM industries. They became active in the union, often as stewards, and were recognized by their co-workers as leaders.

Every four years, union members elect delegates to an International convention, which, in turn, elects International Officers and sets policy for the BCTGM. The convention is the ultimate governing body of the union. Delegates also elect the General Executive Board, made up of elected International officers and local representatives, which is the policy-making body of the BCTGM between conventions.

There are six (6) administrative regions within the BCTGM structure. Each one of these regions has one or more International Vice Presidents, elected at the International convention, and a number of appointed International Representatives/Organizers who work with locals in negotiations, organizing and other activities.

There are two important documents that explain in detail the structure and function of both the local and International Union:the BCTGM Constitution and the Local Union Bylaws. These two documents spell out how decisions are made, who the officers are, and the rights and responsibilities of officers and members. Every union member is entitled to a copy of the Constitution and the Bylaws of the Local Union.

Members pay monthly dues to the union to support BCTGM programs and activities. How much members pay beyond the minimum is determined by a direct vote of the local union membership. Union publications, website and other communications with members, research and bargaining assistance, advice to locals, organizing and representing members are among the activities and services supported with union dues. Dues are divided between the local union and the International Union, with most of the money used directly by the local union. Each level of the union prepares annual financial reports. Those reports are regularly provided to Federal and Provincial authorities as required by law.

Dues money is not contributed directly to the campaigns of candidates for federal office. In the U.S., political contributions are made separately and voluntarily by members through BCTGM-PAC, the union's Political Action Committee. BCTGM-PAC funds are contributed to candidates who support working people and labor’s agenda, regardless of party.

If a dispute with management over terms and conditions of employment cannot be amicably resolved, workers may have to strike to pressure management to settle the dispute. Strikes are not a common occurrence. Between 98 and 99 per cent of BCTGM contracts are settled without resort to a strike. Strikes over the renewal of a contract can only be called after a majority of union members vote to strike.

When a strike is voted on, the union seeks to mobilize all its resources to "win," or compel a settlement on favorable terms. An example is the strike which began in August, 2000 at The Earthgrains Company (now a subsidiary of Sara Lee).

For five years the union had tried to work with the company leadership in a formal Labor-Management Partnership to reverse the declining fortunes of the then second largest baking company in the US. While still a subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch, worker representatives (through the BCTGM) joined with management representatives nationally and locally to introduce total quality management (TQM) methods in the Earthgrains bakeries.

The partnership survived the spinoff of Earthgrains as an independent company. However, as the company's fortune's improved, management became less interested in cooperating with the union and less responsive to workers' concerns. Plants were closed without attempting to turn them around through TQM, and the company threatened to move work to recently acquired non-union bakeries where management fought unionization efforts. Finally, that August, management's unresponsiveness led to the collapse of the Partnership. Approximately 680 BCTGM workers voted to strike against Earthgrains at a plant in Fort Payne, Alabama, the first to introduce the Partnership and TQM. A central motive of the strike was to protest mandatory overtime and few days off which were destroying family life and wearing workers down.

BCTGM members at Earthgrains around the country stood in solidarity with their brothers and sisters in Fort Payne and in defense of their own rights and quality of life. By August 31, 2000, the strike had spread to five other bakeries in Memphis and Chattanooga, Tennessee; Atlanta and Forest Park, Georgia; and Mobile, Alabama where worker contracts had expired. At this time, around 1,565 workers were involved. By September 6, the strike had expanded to eight more plants. Around 2,700 workers were involved, a total of 12% of Earthgrains' workforce. The strike eventually grew to a maximum of 27 bakeries before it was ended with the ratification of a new contract at Fort Payne on September 22.

Through strike action, the union workers demonstrated their resolve, and compelled management to respect the quality of their family lives and health by limiting the amount of overtime workers could be forced to perform. As individuals, the workers would have had no chance of changing managements' policies. The company had shown that it was also not interested in addressing workers' concerns through the formal consultative processs established under the Partnership. In the end, only worker solidarity and industrial action organized by the union allowed the workers' voice to be heard.

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Steve DeBerg

Steven Leroy DeBerg (born January 19, 1954 in Oakland, California) had a long and varied career as an American Football quarterback. His career spanned 21 years over 3 decades. Despite the fact that large portions of his career were spent as a backup, Steve DeBerg ultimately accumulated some fairly impressive NFL statistics.

DeBerg's reputation is that of a journeyman, and he was also very much a "witness to history" who played an incidental role in significant events. But late in his career, DeBerg exhibited flashes of brilliance, as well as endurance and staying power that separated him from other journeymen and career backups.

He played for the San Francisco 49ers (1978-1980), Denver Broncos (1981-1983), Tampa Bay Buccaneers (1984-1987, 1992, 1993), Kansas City Chiefs (1988-1991), Miami Dolphins (1993), and Atlanta Falcons (1998). He was selected by the Dallas Cowboys in the 10th round of the 1977 NFL Draft. Prior to joining the NFL, he played quarterback for San Jose State.

The first part of DeBerg's NFL career found him in San Francisco with Bill Walsh. In the 1979 and 1980 NFL seasons he set several records for sheer number of passing attempts and completions.

Walsh aspired to even greater things, though, and quickly brought in Joe Montana. Amazingly, similar events unfolded again and again over the next decade, wherever DeBerg sought employment. He was not only with the 49ers when they drafted Joe Montana, but also with the Denver Broncos when John Elway arrived, and at Tampa Bay when both Steve Young and Vinny Testaverde were brought in. In each case, DeBerg offered solid but unspectacular performance before being replaced.

DeBerg passed for over 34,000 career yards, and ranks in the top 20 all-time for attempts, completions, and yards passing. DeBerg's best years were with the Chiefs, during which he led the team to two playoff berths and had his best year in 1990 with a 101.2 quarterback rating, passing for 3,444 yards, 23 touchdowns and only 4 interceptions. Chronologically, most of his career was spent in a back-up role, and he never spent more than 64 games with any one team.

DeBerg also acquired a reputation for playing through particularly gruesome or unique injuries. He played with laryngitis and wore a portable amplifier during regular season games with San Francisco. He also played with an exposed metal pin sticking out of his finger in a Chiefs playoff victory in 1990. In 1993, he left a Dolphins game versus the New York Giants battered and bloodied after taking a helmet to the chin, only to return to the game following halftime.

DeBerg served as the head coach of the Arena Football League's Indiana Firebirds in 2004 for 5 games. The team's record during his tenure was 0-5. He later served as an assistant coach with the Tampa Bay Storm.

DeBerg holds the distinction of being the oldest player ever included on a Super Bowl roster, having been part of the Atlanta Falcons team that made it to the game when he was 45 years old. He did not, however, get into the game.

DeBerg now helps to coach various Football University camps around the country.

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William Heighton

William Heighton was a common shoemaker who became the leader of the Philadelphia Working Man's Party.

The Panic of 1819 accelerated the process of subdividing manufacturing and increasing industrialization. Unskilled workers filled the factories, pushing skilled workers away and bringing longer hours and smaller wages to all. William Heighton organized the skilled journeyman into the Mechanics Union of Trade Associations (MUTA). This was the first citywide organization of journeymen in America. MUTA successfully used strikes to improve wages and hours for journeymen. This organization greatly improved worker influence and rights for skilled workers. However, Heighton's organization did not help, in fact purposefully hurt, women, children, blacks, and unskilled workers, who were viewed as a threat to journeymen.

Heighton was the portrait of a self-made man. He was an English immigrant who became a wage-working shoemaker, who later became a leader of men, and a celebrity. Heighton was greatly influenced by John Gray.

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United Association

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The United Association, or UA, is a trade union of journeymen and apprentices of the plumbing and pipefitting industry of the United States of America and Canada. The members fabricate, install and service piping systems.

The UA was founded in 1889 by P. J. Quinlan, whom also operated as its first General President. Before 1889, unionized plumbers, steamfitters and gas fitters were organized by local, independent unions. These unions were organized sporadically, sometimes affiliating themselves with a variety of different trades and occasionally with no trades at all. These types of unions were ineffective and began to decline. Local union leaders considered uniting pipe trades journeymen nationally, which resulted in the creation of the United Association.

The United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada.Has a long and proud history that goes back more than 100 years.

Before and during the Civil War, plumbers and pipefitters were organized in many major cities of the United States. The first strong, long-lasting local Unions were established in the boom construction decade, 1879-1889, when United States population growth accelerated.

Journeymen in the pipe trades in the 1880s worked in three basic crafts: plumbers, steamfitters and gasfitters.

The first truly successful national body, the United Association of Journeymen Plumbers, Gas Fitters, Steam Fitters, and Steam Fitters' Helpers of the United States and Canada, was officially founded on October 11, 1889.

Gradually, former members of rival Unions joined the United Association. The depression of 1893-1897 slowed the development of a stronger organization. Membership in the United Association grew to 6,700 in 1893, but fell to 4,400 by 1897. Yet, by that year 151 local Unions were listed on its rolls.

Starting in 1898, the construction industry entered a period of expansion and prosperity that lasted until 1914. From 1898 to 1906 the United Association quadrupled its membership.

During its first years, the United Association was essentially a federation of local Unions, rather than a truly national Union of the pipe trades. The major breakthrough toward a unified national organization came at the 1902 national convention in Omaha, when delegates approved a Nationalization Committee proposal establishing a comprehensive system of sick, death and strike benefits.

As such reforms to strengthen the national organization were being made in the early part of the century, however, some locals broke ranks to form a rival Union. In August 1906, members of the secessionist Union realized the futility of further rivalry and agreed to affiliate with the United Association.

From 1898 to 1914, the United Association went through several phases of a struggle with the International Association of Steam and Hot Water Fitters and Helpers, a prolonged and sometimes bitter dispute both over jurisdiction over a craft (steamfitting) and work assignments (plumbers vs. steamfitters). The conflict affected other building trades when walkouts by the rival steamfitting organizations, as a result of their jurisdictional dispute, led to work stoppages by other crafts.

The strength of the United Association, and favorable rulings by the American Federation of Labor, including the revocation of the International Association's charter in 1912, ended this jurisdictional battle, but other jurisdictional issues would continue to challenge the Union.

New disputes arose over the construction of chemical plants and other manufacturing and service establishments that required extensive piping systems. Large volumes of newer types of pipefitting installation in the shift from World War I wartime industries to peacetime construction caused considerable difficulties. Jurisdictional problems also developed with other national Unions, but the United Association retained jurisdiction over important, growing areas of work like construction of industrial plants, public utilities, petroleum facilities and residential buildings.

In the first half of the century, the United Association moved to formalize apprenticeship training programs, including making a five-year apprenticeship mandatory in 1921, and in 1938 holding that all apprentices be members of the United Association and attend related training classes. Its National Plumbing Apprenticeship Plan of 1936 was the first set of standards governing apprenticeship to win approval of the federal government.

In the Depression, United Association membership fell from its 1929 peak of 60,000 to 26,000 by 1933.

After several constitutional changes through the years, the 1946 convention changed the name of the organization to its present name: The United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada.

Throughout World War II and after, the United Association made considerable gains in membership and prestige. Between 1940 and 1954 membership surged from 60,000 to 240,000 with veterans entering the skilled craftsmen field.

United Association member George Meany was elected in 1952 to be president of the newly formed AFL-CIO and was to provide a shaping force in the American labor movement until his death in 1980.

The New Frontier of President John F. Kennedy and Great Society of President Lyndon Johnson were movements supported by the United Association. With expanded training programs beginning in 1956, the UA was able to meet the demands of accelerated construction activity in the 1960s. With the increased work the slogan, "There is no substitute for UA skilled craftsmen" became widespread throughout the industry. By 1971 the UA was 320,000 strong.

General President William P. Hite now leads the United Association forward into the 21st century.

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Journeyman (boxing)

British boxer Peter Buckley fought his last fight on 31st October 2008, ironically winning his last bout out of a full three hundred. Buckley had boxed 1750 rounds as a professional since 1989 winning 32 and losing 256 with 12 contests drawn. For many of those defeats Buckley had taken the fights at just a few hours notice following unexpected pullouts by the fighters initially intended to box.

Another British boxer who retired from the professional game in September 2008 was Hull heavyweight Tony Booth, a man against whom the former World Cruiserweight champion David Haye made his professional debut. Booth retired with a record of 165 fights, 105 losses, 9 draws but with 50 wins! The win total in the Hull mans column meant that when he was still boxing he could claim more victories than any of the other elite fighters Britain had at the time ahead of the likes of Ricky Hatton and Joe Calzaghe in terms of number of fights won. The UK in particular seems to have a high number of boxing journeymen! At the end of 2008 fighters such as Ernie Smith (132 losses), Karl Taylor (116 losses), Paul Bonson (102 losses) and Peter Dunn (102 losses) were all still plying their trade in the ring.

The boxer who currently holds the record for the most number of losses is American Reggie Strickland from Cincinnati, Ohio. When he retired in 2005 he had fought 363 times, losing on 276 occasions. Along the way to his record breaking achievement Strickland provided competition for the likes of Keith Holmes, Cory Spinks, Raul Marquez, Randall Bailey and Anthony Bonsante to name but a few. Although despite losing more fights than any other boxer in history, Strickland still managed to notch up 66 wins.

Murray (born 3 September 1963) was a British heavyweight who retired with a record of 16 victories against 26 defeats. Based in Manchester he became an author and wrote a book about his life in the ring and his experiences as a journeyman. His book titled 'The Journeyman' was published by Mainstream Publishing in 2002. Murray's book told of how he would often called up to take a fight at short notice without being able to fully prepare in order to make a living for his family. Opponents Murray had faced included Danny Williams, Herbie Hide, Michael Sprott, Scott Welch, Johnny Nelson and John Ruiz.

Arguably one of the best known Journeymen boxers, James J Braddock won the World heavyweight title on 13th June 1934 against Max Baer after entering the ring with a record of 49 wins with 25 losses and 7 draws. His epic achievement was made into a film directed by Ron Howard and starring Russell Crowe called 'Cinderella Man'. He lost the title in his first defence to Joe Louis.

Johnny Nelson fought for the WBO Cruiserweight title on 27th March 1999 after a career which saw him achieve 31 victories against 12 losses and 1 draw. He won the fight with a stoppage in the 5th round against Carl Thompson and ended his career having successfully defended his title 13 times.

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Source : Wikipedia