3.4465361445842 (1328)
Posted by sonny 03/28/2009 @ 02:13

Tags : lafayette, cities and towns, indiana, states, us, louisiana

News headlines
Lafayette bank robbed - San Jose Mercury News
By Roman Gokhman LAFAYETTE — An unarmed man — possibly donning a fake mustache and wig — robbed a Pacific National Bank branch Tuesday afternoon. The man walked into the bank, at 3528 Mt. Diablo Blvd., at 4:50 pm, Lafayette police Sgt. Roxane Gruenheid...
Softball: Baylor 6, Louisiana-Lafayette 1 - Dallas Morning News
AP Baylor used a five-run fifth inning to claim a 6-1 victory over Louisiana-Lafayette (45-13) at home on Sunday and claimed its third super regional berth in five years. The Lady Bears (40-20) will play at No. 5 Michigan in Ann Arbor at a time and...
Lafayette schools to study use of $7.5 million in stimulus aid - 2TheAdvocate
By MARSHA SILLS LAFAYETTE — The Lafayette Parish School Board has nearly $7.5 million in federal Title I stimulus funds to add to its budget in the coming fiscal year. The stimulus money is on top of the district's $9.5 million in Title I funding....
UL-Lafayette, UL-Monroe ready for SBC tournament - 2TheAdvocate
The University of Louisiana at Lafayette is expected to send Zach Osborne to the mound when the Ragin' Cajuns face Florida International in the Sun Belt Conference baseball tournament opener today. Osborne, a junior right-hander, takes a 4-3 record...
Caterpillar to halve hours for 985 in Lafayette - Chicago Tribune
AP LAFAYETTE, Ind. - Caterpillar Inc. said it will cut hours at least in half for nearly 1000 workers at its Lafayette engine plant in its second work reduction announced this month and third in two months. The company filed a notice Friday with the...
43rd District softball: Lex. Catholic, Lafayette advance to finals -
Lexington Catholic advances to face Lafayette in Wednesday night's championship game. The Lady Generals put away a pesky Tates Creek squad 9-1 in the nightcap. Lexington Catholic 5, Paul Dunbar 3: Catholic dug itself an early hole when Dunbar's...
West Seattle schools: Lafayette concert, West Seattle HS DECA - West Seattle Blog
Lafayette Elementary School performed their “Spring Concert of 2008″ at West Seattle High Tuesday evening. 2. Anna Goldberg, Sage Kalil and music teacher Frank Seeberger play “Frere Jacques” to a crowd of approximately 300. 3. Charlie Schnell blows the...
Grafton softball eliminates Lafayette - Virginia Gazette
By John Harvey YORK — The Lafayette High softball team's quest for its first trip to the Region I playoffs last Saturday following an extra-inning loss at Grafton High. Kelley Anderson reached on an error and then scored on another wild throw in the...
Lafayette agrees to school's request to delay most street upgrades - Daily Camera
By Amy Bounds (Contact) LAFAYETTE, Colo. — The Lafayette City Council late Tuesday night agreed to allow a private preschool to defer most of the 111th Street improvements originally required for the school to build a permanent home this summer near...
Business Leader Leaves $2.5 Million to Lafayette School - Inside INdiana Business (press release)
The estate of a prominent Lafayette business leader is donating $2.5 million to help with a school expansion or renovation. Lafayette Christian School officials say the gift could be the largest single donation ever to a non-public school in Tippecanoe...

Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette

Young Marquis de Lafayette

Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de la Fayette (or Lafayette) (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834) was a French military officer born in the province of Auvergne in south central France. Lafayette was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde Nationale during the French Revolution.

In the American Revolution, Lafayette served in the Continental Army under George Washington. Wounded during the Battle of Brandywine, he still managed to organize a successful retreat. He served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island. In the middle of the war, he returned to France to negotiate an increased French commitment. On his return, he blocked troops led by Cornwallis at Yorktown while the armies of Washington and Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, prepared for battle against the British.

In 1788 in France, Lafayette was called to the Assembly of Notables to respond to the fiscal crisis. Lafayette proposed a meeting of the French Estates-General, where representatives from the three traditional classes of French society—the clergy, the nobility and the commoners—met. He served as vice president of the resulting body and presented a draft of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Lafayette was appointed commander-in-chief of the French (Garde nationale) National Guard in response to violence leading up to the French Revolution. During the Revolution, Lafayette attempted to maintain order, for which he ultimately was persecuted by the Jacobins. In 1791, as the radical factions in the Revolution grew in power, Lafayette tried to flee to the United States through the Dutch Republic. He was captured by Austrians and served nearly five years in prison.

Lafayette returned to France after Bonaparte freed him from an Austrian prison in 1797. Lafayette became a liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1815, a position he held until death. In 1824, President James Monroe invited Lafayette to the United States as the "nation's guest"; during the trip, he would visit all of the then twenty-four states. For his contributions to the American Revolution, many cities and monuments throughout the United States bear his name, and he was the first person granted honorary United States citizenship. During France's July Revolution of 1830 Lafayette declined an offer to become the French dictator; instead he supported Louis-Philippe. Lafayette died on 20 May 1834, and is buried in Picpus Cemetery in Paris, under soil from Revolutionary War battlefield Bunker Hill.

Lafayette was born on 6 September 1757 to Michel Louis Christophe Roch Gilbert Paulette du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, colonel aux Grenadiers de France, and Marie Louise Jolie de La Rivière, at the château de Chavaniac, in Chavaniac, near Le Puy-en-Velay, in the modern department of Haute-Loire. His full name is rarely used; instead he is often referred to as the marquis de La Fayette or Lafayette. Biographer Louis Gottschalk asserted that Lafayette indifferently spelled his name both Lafayette and LaFayette.

Lafayette's ancestor, Marshal of France Gilbert de La Fayette III, was a companion-at-arms who led Joan of Arc's army in Orléans. His great-grandfather was the comte de La Rivière, a former lieutenant general in the Royal Armées. According to legend, another ancestor acquired the Crown of Thorns during the 6th Crusade. Lafayette's uncle Jacques-Roch died fighting the Austrians and left the marquis title to Lafayette's father.

Lafayette's father, struck by a cannonball at the Battle of Minden in Westphalia, died on 1 August 1759. Lafayette became Lord of Chavaniac, but the estate went to his mother. Lafayette's mother and his maternal grandfather, marquis de La Rivière, died, on 3 April and 24 April 1770 respectively, leaving Lafayette an income of 25,000 livres. Upon the death of an uncle, the 13-year-old Lafayette inherited a handsome yearly sum of 120,000 livres. Lafayette was raised by his paternal grandmother, Mme de Chavaniac, who had brought the château into the family with her dowry. Also in the household were Mme de Chavaniac's daughters Madeleine de Motier, and Charlotte Guérin, the baronne de Chavaniac.

Lafayette's mother decided that the family's heir necessitated proper schooling in Paris rather than at home-tutoring by the Abbé Fayon. Hence, at the age of eleven, he entered the Collège du Plessis, a school for boys of the aristocracy. He studied military matters at the Versailles Academy and, on 9 April 1771, was commissioned as a sous-lieutenant (second Lieutenant) in the Mousquetaires. Through an arranged marriage, he wed Marie Adrienne Françoise de Noailles, the daughter of the wealthy Jean-Paul-François, 5th duc de Noailles. On 14 March 1774, Louis XV signed the marriage contract, and the wedding took place on 11 April; Lafayette's father-in-law gave him a dowry of 400,000 livres, the rank of captain, and command of a company in the Noailles Dragoons Regiment.

Lafayette returned to Paris in the fall and participated in sociétés de pensée (thinking groups) that discussed French involvement in the American Revolution. At these meetings, a frequent speaker, Abbé Guillaume Raynal emphasised the "rights of man". He criticised the nobility, the clergy and the practice of slavery. The monarchy banned Raynal from speaking, and he expressed his views secretly in the Masonic Lodges of which Lafayette was a member.

On 7 December 1776, Lafayette arranged through Silas Deane, an American agent in Paris, to enter the American service as a major general. Lafayette's father-in-law did not approve, and he had him appointed to a post in Britain. During a ball at Lord George Germain's, he met Lord Rawdon, met Sir Henry Clinton at the Opera, and met Lord Shelburne at breakfast. The young soldier's stay was brief, however, because Lafayette refused to toast King George. In 1777, the French government granted the American military one million livres in supplies after Minister Charles Gravier pressed for French involvement. De Broglie intrigued with his old subordinate, German Johann de Kalb, (who had returned from a reconnaissance of America), to send French officers to fight along side the Americans. De Broglie approached Gravier, suggesting assistance to the American revolutionaries. De Broglie then presented Lafayette, who had been placed on the reserve list, to de Kalb.

Returning to Paris, Lafayette found that the Continental Congress did not have the money for his voyage; hence he acquired the sailing ship La Victoire himself. The king officially forbade him to leave after British spies discovered his plan, and issued an order for Lafayette to join his father-in-law's regiment in Marseille, disobedience of which would be punishable by imprisonment. The British ambassador ordered the seizure of the ship Lafayette was fitting out at Bordeaux, and Lafayette was threatened with arrest. He eluded capture disguised as a courier, and travelled to Spain. On 20 April 1777, he sailed for America with eleven companions, leaving his pregnant wife in France. The ship's captain intended to stop in the West Indies to sell cargo; however Lafayette, fearful of arrest, bought the cargo to avoid docking at the islands. He landed on North Island near Georgetown, South Carolina, on 13 June 1777.

On arrival, Lafayette met Major Benjamin Huger, with whom he stayed for two weeks before departing on the thirty-two day journey to Philadelphia. In Pennsylvania, the Continental Congress delayed Lafayette's commission, as they had tired of "French glory seekers" and other men sent by Silas Deane. Congress, impressed by Lafayette's offer to serve without pay, commissioned the rank of major-general on 31 July 1777. The commission, however, became effective on that date, not from his original agreement with Deane. In addition, he was not assigned a unit, and he nearly returned home for this reason.

Benjamin Franklin however wrote George Washington recommending acceptance of Lafayette as his aide-de-camp, hoping it would influence France to commit more aid. Washington accepted, and Lafayette met him at Moland Headquarters on 10 August 1777. When Washington expressed embarrassment to show a French officer the state of their camp and troops, Lafayette responded, "I am here to learn, not to teach." He became a member of Washington's staff, although confusion existed regarding his status. The Congress regarded his commission as honorary, while he considered himself a full-fledged commander who would be given control of a division, when Washington deemed him prepared. To address this, Washington told Lafayette that a division would not be possible as he was of foreign birth; however, Washington said that he would be happy to hold him in confidence as "friend and father".

Lafayette's first battle was at Brandywine on 11 September 1777, which was lost. After the British outflanked the Americans, Washington acquiesced to a request by Lafayette to join General John Sullivan. Upon his arrival, Lafayette went with the Third Pennsylvania Brigade, under Brigadier Thomas Conway and attempted to rally the unit to face the attack. In face of the British and Hessian numeric superiority, Lafayette was shot in the leg. During the American retreat, Lafayette created a control point allowing a more orderly retreat before being treated for his wound. After the battle, Washington cited him for "bravery and military ardour" and, recommended him for the command of a division in a letter to Congress.

Lafayette returned to the field in December after two months of rest, and received command of Major General Adam Stephen's division. He assisted General Nathanael Greene in reconnaissance of British positions in New Jersey; with 300 soldiers, he defeated a numerically superior Hessian force in Gloucester on 24 November 1777.

He returned to Valley Forge for the winter, where the Horatio Gates led War Board asked him to prepare an invasion of Canada from Albany, New York. Thomas Conway hoped to replace Washington with Gates, who had been successful in the Battle of Saratoga. He concocted a plot known as the Conway Cabal which separated Washington from Lafayette, one of Washington's firmest supporters. Lafayette alerted Washington of his suspicions about the plot before leaving. When Lafayette arrived in Albany, he found too few men to mount a Canadian invasion in the winter. He wrote to Washington of the situation, and made plans to return to Valley Forge. Before departing, he recruited the Oneida tribe, who referred to Lafayette as Kayewla (fearsome horseman), to the American side. In Valley Forge, he vocally criticised the War Board's decision to attempt an invasion of Canada in the winter. The Continental Congress agreed and Gates was removed from the Board. Meanwhile, treaties signed by America and France were made public in March 1778, and France formally recognised American independence.

After France entered the war, the Americans tried to sense what the British forces' reaction would be. On 18 May 1778, Washington dispatched Lafayette with a 2,200 man force to reconnoitre near Barren Hill, Pennsylvania. The next day, the British heard that Lafayette had made camp nearby and sent 5,000 men to capture him for his symbolic value representing the Franco-American alliance. On 20 May, General Howe led a further 6,000 soldiers and ordered an attack on Lafayette's left flank. The flank scattered, and Lafayette organised a retreat while the British remained indecisive. To feign numerical superiority, he ordered men to appear from the woods on an outcropping known as Barren Hill (now Lafayette Hill) and to fire upon the British periodically. Lafayette's troops simultaneously escaped via a sunken road. Lafayette was then able to cross Matson's Ford with the remainder of his force.

Unable to trap Lafayette, the British resumed their march north from Philadelphia to New York; the Continental Army, including Lafayette, followed and finally attacked at the Monmouth Courthouse. At Monmouth, Washington appointed General Lee to lead the attacking force. On 28 June, Lee moved against the British flank; however, soon after fighting began, he began acting strangely. Lafayette sent a message to Washington to urge him to the front; upon his arrival he found Lee's men in retreat. Washington was able to rally the American force and repel two British attacks. Due to the day's heat, fighting ended early and the British withdrew in the night.

The French fleet arrived in America on 8 July 1778 under Admiral d'Estaing, with whom General Washington planned to attack Newport, Rhode Island. Lafayette and General Greene were sent with a 3,000-man force to participate in the attack. Lafayette wanted to control a joint Franco-American force in the attack but was rebuffed. On 9 August, the American force attacked the British without consulting d'Estaing. When the Americans asked the admiral to leave his fleet in Narragansett Bay, d'Estaing refused and attacked the British under Lord Howe. The attack dispersed the British fleet, but a storm damaged the French ships.

D'Estaing moved his ships north to Boston for repairs. When the fleet arrived, Bostonians rioted because they considered the French departure from Newport a desertion. John Hancock and Lafayette were dispatched to calm the situation, and then Lafayette returned to Newport to prepare for the retreat made necessary by d'Estaing's departure. For these actions, Lafayette was cited by the Continental Congress for "gallantry, skill and prudence". However he realised that the Boston riot might undermine the Franco-American alliance in France, so he requested and was given permission to return to France.

In February 1779, Lafayette returned to Paris. For disobeying the king by going to America, he was placed under house arrest for two weeks. Nevertheless, his return was triumphant. Benjamin Franklin's grandson presented him with a 4,800 livre gold-encrusted sword commissioned by the Continental Congress, and the king asked to see him. Louis XVI, pleased with the soldier after Lafayette proposed schemes for attacking the British, restored his position in the dragoons. Lafayette used his position to lobby for more French aid to America. Working with Franklin, Lafayette secured another 6,000 soldiers to be commanded by General Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau.

Lafayette received news that Adrienne had borne him a son, Georges Washington Lafayette. After his son's birth, he pushed for additional commitments of support from France for the American Revolutionary War. He ordered new uniforms and arranged for the fleet's departure. Before returning to America, Lafayette and the French force learned that they would be operating under American command, with Washington in control of military operations. In March 1780, Lafayette left Adrienne and France, departing for the Americas aboard the Hermione.

Lafayette returned to America in May 1781 and was sent to Virginia to defend against Benedict Arnold and to replace Baron von Steuben. Lafayette evaded Cornwallis' attempts to capture him in Richmond. In June, Cornwallis received orders from London to proceed to the Chesapeake Bay and to oversee construction of a port, in preparation of an attack on Philadelphia. As the British column travelled, Lafayette followed in a bold show of force that encouraged new recruits. In June, Lafayette's men were joined by forces under General (Mad) Anthony Wayne. Soldiers deserted both leaders; Wayne executed six for desertion. Lafayette offered to release his men from service because of the great danger ahead, all of his men remained. On 4 July, the British decamped at Williamsburg and prepared to cross the James River. Cornwallis sent only an advance guard across the river, with intentions to trap, should Lafayette attack. Lafayette ordered Wayne to strike on 6 July with roughly 800 soldiers. Wayne found himself vastly outnumbered against the full British force and, instead of retreating, led a bayonet charge. The charge bought time for the Americans, and Lafayette ordered the retreat. The British did not pursue. The result was a victory for Cornwallis, but the American army was bolstered from the display of courage by the men.

By August, Cornwallis had established the British at Yorktown, and Lafayette took up position on Malvern Hill. This manoeuvre trapped the British when the French fleet arrived. On 14 September 1781, Washington's forces joined Lafayette's, which had succeeded in containing the British until supplies and reinforcements arrived. On 28 September, with the French fleet blockading the British, the combined forces attacked in what became known as the Siege of Yorktown. Lafayette's detail formed the right end of the American wing, the 400 men of which took redoubt 10, in hand-to-hand combat. After a failed British counter-attack, Cornwallis surrendered on 19 October 1781.

Lafayette returned to France on 18 December 1781 from Boston. He was welcomed as a hero, and on 22 January 1782, he was received at Versailles. He witnessed the birth of his daughter, whom he named Marie-Antoinette Virginie upon Thomas Jefferson's recommendation. He was promoted to maréchal de camp, skipping numerous ranks. Lafayette then helped prepare for a combined French and Spanish expedition, of which he was appointed chief-of-staff, against the British West India Islands. The Treaty of Paris signed between Great Britain and the U.S. on 20 January 1783 made the expedition unnecessary.

In France, Lafayette worked with Thomas Jefferson to organize trade agreements between the United States and France. These negotiations aimed to reduce debt owed to France by the U.S., and included commitments on tobacco and whale oil. He joined the French abolitionist group Society of the Friends of the Blacks, which advocated for ending slave trade and equal rights for free blacks. In 1783, in correspondence with Washington, he urged the emancipation of slaves; and to establish them as farmer tenants. Although Washington demurred, Lafayette purchased land in the French colony of Cayenne for his plantation La Belle Gabrielle, to "experiment" with education, and emancipation.

In 1782 Lafayette returned to America, and visited all of the states except Georgia. The trip included a visit to Washington's farm at Mount Vernon on 17 August. In Virginia, Lafayette addressed the House of Delegates and prayed for "liberty of all mankind"; and urged emancipation. Lafayette advocated to the Pennsylvania Legislature for a federal union, and visited the Mohawk Valley in New York for peace negotiations between the Iroquois, some of whom had met Lafayette in 1778. Lafayette received an honorary degree from Harvard, a portrait of Washington from the city of Boston, and a bust from the state of Virginia. Maryland's legislature granted him honorary citizenship; followed by Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Virginia.

Through the next years, Lafayette was active in the Hôtel de La Fayette, in the Rue de Bourbon, the headquarters of Americans in Paris, Benjamin Franklin, Mr. and Mrs. John Jay, and Mr. and Mrs. John Adams, who met every Monday, and dined in company with family and the liberal nobility, such as Clermont-Tonnerre, and Madame de Staël. Historian Louis Gottschalk asserted that Lafayette became involved in an affair with the comtesse Aglaé d'Hunolstein, a lady who had been uninterested in him before his return from America. This affair would end on 27 March 1783 by a letter from Lafayette. He became briefly linked amorously to Madame de Simiane; however, none of these extramarital affairs appeared to be known by Adrienne.

King Louis XVI convoked the Assembly of Notables on 29 December 1786, in response to France's fiscal crisis. The King appointed Lafayette to the body, in the comte d'Artois' division, which met on 22 February 1787. Lafayette argued against proposed higher taxation to solve the economic problems, and supported measures to curb spending. He called for a "truly national assembly", which represented the three classes of French society: clergy, nobility, and commons. On 8 August 1788, the King agreed to hold an Estates General the next year. Lafayette was elected to represent the nobility (Second Estate) from Riom in the Estates General.

The Estates General convened on 5 May 1789; debate began on whether the delegates should vote by head or by Estate. If voting was by Estate then the nobility and clergy would be able to overturn the commons; if by head, then the larger Third Estate could dominate. Before the meeting, he agitated for the voting by headcount, rather than estate, as a member of the "Committee of Thirty". The issue did not resolve and, on 1 June, the Third Estate asked the others to join them. From 13 to 17 June many of the clergy and some of the nobility did so; on the 17th, the group declared itself the National Assembly. Three days later the doors to their chambers were locked. This led to the Tennis Court Oath, where the members swore to not separate until a Constitution was established. Lafayette, along with forty-six others, joined the National Assembly and, on 27 June, the remainder followed. On 11 July 1789, Lafayette presented a draft of the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen". The next day, after dismissal of Finance Minister Jacques Necker, Camille Desmoulins organised an armed mob. The King had the Royal Army under the 2nd duc de Broglie surround Paris. On 13 July, the Assembly elected him their vice-president; the following day the Bastille was stormed.

On 15 July, Lafayette was acclaimed commander-in-chief of the National Guard of France, an armed force established to maintain order under the control of the Assembly. Lafayette proposed the name and the symbol of the group: a blue, white and red cockade. On 5 October 1789, a Parisian crowd, comprised mostly of women, marched to Versailles in response to the scarcity of bread. Lafayette and members of the National Guard followed the march. At Versailles, the king accepted the Assembly's votes but refused requests to return to Paris. That evening, Lafayette replaced most of the royal bodyguards with National Guardsmen. At dawn, the crowd broke into the palace. Before it succeeded in entering the queen's bedroom, Marie Antoinette fled to the king's apartments. Lafayette took the royal family onto the palace balcony and attempted to restore order. The crowd insisted that the king and his family move to Paris where they were installed in the Tuileries Palace.

He continued to work for order through the coming months. On 20 February 1791, the Day of Daggers, Lafayette traveled to Vincennes in response to an attempt to liberate a local prison. Meanwhile, armed nobles converged around the Tuileries, afraid the unprotected king would be attacked. Lafayette returned to Paris to disarm the nobles. On 18 April, the National Guard disobeyed Lafayette and stopped the King from leaving for Saint-Cloud over Easter.

On 20 June 1791, an unsuccessful plot, called the Flight to Varennes, nearly allowed the king to escape from Paris. As leader of the National Guard, Lafayette had been responsible for the royal family's custody. He was thus blamed by Danton for the mishap and called a "traitor" to the people by Maximilien Robespierre. These accusations portrayed Lafayette as a royalist, and damaged his public perception. The episode garnered support throughout the country for the Republican movement, and "polarized" the king's supporters.

Through the latter half of 1791, Lafayette's stature continued to decline. On 17 July, the Cordeliers organized an event, at the Champ de Mars, to gather signatures on a petition which called for a referendum on Louis XVI. The assembled crowd, estimated to be up to 20,000, hanged two men, believed to be spies, after they were found under a platform. In response, the Assembly asked Bailly, the mayor of Paris, to "halt the disorder"; martial law was declared; and National Guard troops, under Lafayette, marched to the scene. Lafayette, at the head of the column, carried a red flag to signify martial law. The sequence of the following events is controversial: the crowd threw stones at the troops, and a shot was allegedly fired; in response, the National Guard shot into the crowd. Exact deaths are unknown; estimates generally range from a dozen to fifty. In combination with the Flight to Varennes, this event, known as the Champ de Mars Massacre (Fusillade du Champ de Mars), furthered the public's mistrust in Lafayette and Bailly; in the aftermath, Lafayette resigned his National Guard command and Bailly vacated his post as mayor. In November, Lafayette ran and lost against Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve in the mayoral election to succeed Bailly. Criticisms plagued Lafayette's mayoral campaign: his roles in the Champs de Mars massacre and flight from Versailles were denounced by the left and right, respectively.

Lafayette returned to Auvergne following the loss of the mayoral election. France declared war on Austria on 20 April 1792, and preparations to invade the Austrian Netherlands were begun; Lafayette received command of one of the three armies, at Metz. The war proceeded poorly: Lafayette, along with Rochambeau and Luckner, asked the Assembly to begin peace proceedings, the generals feared the army would collapse if forced to attack.

In June 1792, Lafayette criticized the growing influence of the radical clubs through a letter to the Assembly from his field post, and ended his letter by calling for radical parties to be "closed down by force". Before, in May, he had secretly proposed to a Brussels diplomat that the war be stopped until he achieved peace in Paris, perhaps by force. Lafayette's prior actions, despite the proposal's secrecy, caused suspicions that he planned a coup d’état. Marie-Antoinette advised authorities of Lafayette's plan, since she did not favor the constitution. Lafayette left his command and returned to Paris on 28 June, where he asked the Assembly for the radical parties to be outlawed, the National Guard to defend the monarchy, and for the Constitution to be upheld. His return augmented suspicions that he planned a coup d’état. Again, Lafayette and the Feuillants proposed to save the constitutional monarchy and royal family by uniting his army with General Luckner's. Marie-Antoinette refused: Lafayette had lost the support of the monarchy and the radical parties of the Revolution.

On 8 August, a vote of impeachment was held against him for abandoning his post, in which more than two thirds voted against. Two days later, on 10 August, a mob attacked the Tuileries. The king and his family were brought under guard to the Legislative Assembly who suspended Louis XVI and convoked the National Convention. Commissioners dispatched by the Paris Commune arrived at Sedan, where Lafayette now led his army, to inform him of the events and to secure allegiance to the new government. Lafayette refused their offer of an executive role in the new government, and ordered them arrested, as he found them to be "agents of a faction which had unlawfully seized power." New commissioners came to Sedan and informed Lafayette that he had been relieved of his command. On 19 August, the Assembly declared Lafayette a traitor.

Lafayette and a group of supporters decided to flee for the Dutch Republic. Lafayette hoped to escape to the United States or to rally Constitutional supporters, but did not make it; the Austrians under Field Marshall Moitelle, arrested him at Rochefort, Belgium. Among those arrested with him were Jean Baptiste Joseph, chevalier de Laumoy, Louis Saint Ange Morel, chevalier de la Colombe, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Charles César de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg, Marie Victor de Fay, marquis de Latour-Maubourg, Jean-Xavier Bureau de Pusy. Several days later, the prisoners were handed over to Prussia and imprisoned at the citadel of Wesel, where La Fayette became ill. From 25 August - 3 September 1792, he was held at Nivelles; he was held at Coblentz from 16 - 29 September 1794; he was held at Magdeburg from 15 March 1793 - 22 Jan 1794; he was held at Neisse from 16 February 1794 - 16 May 1794, and finally moved to Olmutz beginning around 25 July 1794, where he was incarcerated in a dungeon.

On 10 September 1792, soldiers placed Lafayette's wife, Adrienne, under house arrest. Adrienne sold her property and appealed to the Americans for assistance. For political reasons, the young nation could not officially assist the family, although they retroactively paid Lafayette $24,424 for his military service, and Washington personally sent financial aid. In May 1794, during the Reign of Terror, she was transferred to La Force Prison in Paris; she went from prison to prison until her release on 22 January 1795.

Adrienne organized the family's finances, including the sale of her property, and appealed to the U.S. for American passports. James Monroe secured passports for Adrienne from Connecticut, which had granted the entire Lafayette family citizenship. Their son Georges, who was hiding to avoid execution, was sent to the U.S. She, however, continued to Vienna for an audience with Emperor Francis II, who granted permission for her to live with Lafayette in captivity. Adrienne lived in his cell with him and finally, in September 1797, after five years' imprisonment, Napoleon Bonaparte released the family. This was at the request of the Directory and as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio drafted in 1797. Lafayette was not allowed to return to France until 1799, after Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état of 18 Brumaire, when Adrienne obtained permission for his return. On return, Lafayette, averse to serving in Napoleon's army, resigned his commission. They retired to La Grange, property of her mother's, which Adrienne had recovered. Charles James Fox came to visit.

Lafayette felt that he would be unneeded in Napoleon's government; thus he left Paris. In 1804, Napoleon crowned himself Emperor after a plebiscite in which Lafayette did not participate. He remained relatively quiet, although he spoke publicly on Bastille Day events. After the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson asked if he would be interested in the governorship. Lafayette declined, citing personal problems and the desire to work for liberty in France. During a trip to Auvergne, Adrienne became ill. Due to her malady, worsened by the scurvy she had contracted in prison, she was unable to hide her anemia. In 1807, she became delirious but recovered enough on Christmas Eve to gather the family around her bed and to say to Lafayette: "Je suis toute à vous" ("I am all yours"). She died the next day, apparently from lead-poisoning complications.

President James Monroe invited Lafayette to visit the United States from August 1824 to September 1825, in part to celebrate the nation's 50th anniversary. During his trip, he visited all of the American states and travelled more than 6,000 miles (9,656 km). Lafayette arrived from France at Staten Island, N.Y., on 15 August 1824, to an artillery salute. The towns and cities he visited, including Fayetteville, North Carolina, the first city named in his honour, gave him enthusiastic welcomes. On 17 October 1824, Lafayette visited Mount Vernon and George Washington's tomb. On 4 November 1824, he visited Jefferson at Monticello, and on the 8th he attended a public banquet at the University of Virginia. In late August 1825, he returned to Mount Vernon. A military unit decided to adopt the title National Guard, in honour of Lafayette's celebrated Garde Nationale de Paris. This battalion, later the 7th Regiment, was prominent in the line of march when Lafayette passed through New York before returning to France on the frigate USS Brandywine. Late in the trip, he received honorary United States citizenship. Lafayette was feted at the first commencement ceremony of George Washington University in 1824. He was voted, by the U.S. Congress, the sum of $200,000 and a township of land.

As the restored monarchy of Charles X became more conservative, Lafayette re-emerged as a prominent public figure. He had been a member of the Chamber of Deputies from Seine-et-Marne since 1815 and had pursued the abdication of Napoleon. Throughout his legislative career, he continued to endorse causes such as freedom of the press, suffrage for all taxpayers, and the worldwide abolition of slavery. He was not as directly visible in public affairs as in previous years; however, he became more vocal in the events leading up to the July Revolution of 1830. When the monarch proposed that theft from churches be made a capital crime, agitation against the Crown increased. On 27 July 1830, Parisians began erecting barricades throughout the city, and riots erupted. Lafayette established a committee as interim government. On 29 July 1830, the commission asked Lafayette to become dictator, but he demurred to offer the crown to Louis-Phillipe. Lafayette was reinstated as commander of the National Guard by the new monarch, who revoked the post after Lafayette once again called for the abolition of slavery.

Lafayette spoke for the last time in the Chamber of Deputies on 3 January 1834. The winter was wet and cold, and the next month he collapsed at a funeral from pneumonia. Although he recovered, the following May was wet and, after a thunderstorm, he became sick and bedridden. On 20 May 1834, Lafayette died. He was buried next to his wife at the Cimetière de Picpus under soil from Bunker Hill, which his son Georges sprinkled upon him. King Louis-Phillipe ordered a military funeral in order to keep the public from attending. Crowds formed to protest their exclusion from Lafayette's funeral.

American President Andrew Jackson ordered that Lafayette be accorded the same funeral honours as John Adams and George Washington. Therefore, 24-gun salutes were fired from military posts and ships, each shot represented a U.S. state. Flags flew at half mast for thirty-five days, and "military officers wore crape for six months". The Congress hung black in chambers and asked the entire country to dress in black for the next thirty days.

Lafayette was widely commemorated in the U.S. In 1824, the U.S. government named Lafayette Park in his honor; it lies immediately north of the White House in Washington, D.C. In 1826, Lafayette College was chartered in Easton, Pennsylvania. Lafayette was honored with a monument in New York City in 1917. Portraits display Washington and Lafayette in the chamber of the U.S. House of Representatives. Numerous towns and cities across the United States were named in his honor.

Lafayette was granted honorary citizenship by Congress twice, in 1824 and 2002. The Order of Lafayette was established in 1958 by U.S. Representative Hamilton Fish III, a World War I veteran, to promote Franco-American friendship and to honor Americans who fought in France. The frigate Hermione, in which Lafayette returned to America, has been reconstructed in Rochefort, Charente-Maritime, France.

In this year of 1834, Monsieur de Lafayette died. I may already have done him an injustice in speaking of him; I may have represented him as a kind of fool, with twin faces and twin reputations; a hero on the other side of the Atlantic, a clown on this. It has taken more than forty years to recognise qualities in Monsieur de Lafayette which one insisted on denying him. At the rostrum he expressed himself fluently and with the air of a man of breeding. No stain attaches to his life; he was affable, obliging and generous.

To the top

University of Louisiana at Lafayette

UL Lafayette logo

The University of Louisiana at Lafayette, or UL Lafayette, is a coeducational public research university located in Lafayette, Louisiana, in the heart of Acadiana. It is the largest campus within the eight-campus University of Louisiana System and is the second largest university in the state of Louisiana.

Founded in 1900 as an industrial institute, the university became known by its present name in 1999. The university is a member of the Southeastern Universities Research Association and is categorized as a Carnegie RU/H: Research University (high research activity), the only UL system campus to receive the latter doctoral distinction and among the top 5% of all U.S. colleges.

UL Lafayette is recognized for excellence in computer science and its graduate program in evolutionary and environmental biology. It offers Louisiana's only PhD in Francophone studies, only doctoral degree in cognitive science and only industrial design degree.

Also centered in the main campus is Cypress Lake, a swamp-like microcosm of the nearby Atchafalaya Basin, home to alligators, turtles, birds and fish.

UL Lafayette has 10 colleges and schools, one of the largest honors program in Louisiana and offers 80 undergraduate degree programs, 29 master's degree programs, and 9 Doctor of Philosophy programs, which are applied language and speech sciences, biology, cognitive science, computer engineering, computer science, educational leadership, English, Francophone studies and mathematics. It is the sole Louisiana university with a separate College of the Arts.

The Paul and Lulu Hilliard University Art Museum permanent collection consists of more than 1,500 works of art, including paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture, and photographs. This collection represents 18th, 19th and 20th century Louisiana, as well as the United States, Europe and Japan.

UL Lafayette is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. All undergraduate programs at UL Lafayette that are eligible for accreditation by professional agencies are accredited.

UL Lafayette was featured in the 2006 edition of America's Best Value Colleges, a Princeton Review/Random House college guidebook, which spotlighted fewer than 100 U.S. schools. The university was included in the 2005 edition of The Best 357 Colleges, its MBA program was included in the 2005 edition of The Best 143 Business Schools and its business school was featured in the 2007 edition of The Best 282 Business Schools — all three publications of The Princeton Review. The university graduates about 1,100 students each fall and spring.

A group of UL Lafayette students participating in the Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment (CAPE) are building a small artificial satellite, known as a CubeSat, that will be launched into orbit from the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2006. In 2004, UL Lafayette students and faculty produced CajunBot, one of 25 autonomous vehicles that competed in the U.S. Department of Defense DARPA Grand Challenge. CajunBot, which was featured on CNN, uses artificial intelligence and GPS positioning to navigate a designated route while detecting and avoiding obstacles.

The biology department has several distinguished professors who are contributing significantly to research on restoration of Louisiana's coastal wetlands. The university also inaugurated the $29M technology initiative L.I.T.E., which offers the largest known three-dimensional-immersive auditorium for visualization of fully interactive 3D models and data sets for seismic analysis, computer-aided modeling, product stress test analysis and a host of other applications that require visualization of large data sets for scientists.

UL Lafayette has several social, Greek-letter fraternities and sororities that back as early as 1920.

Academic National Organizations Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia (1947) and Sigma Alpha Iota (1943), although not affiliated with any certain conference or council, hold charters as campus organizations.

UL Lafayette's sports teams participate in NCAA Division I (I FBS for football) in the Sun Belt Conference. Sports media often refer to the university as Louisiana-Lafayette. The letters "ULL" are used to identify the school by several publications and television stations based outside of Lafayette, although the university does not recognize it as an official designation.

UL Lafayette notable alumni have held posts as business bellwethers, government and military leaders, Olympic and professional athletes, artists and entertainers. Also several distinguished faculty members have taught at the university.

UL Lafayette has only had six presidents. Ray Authement holds the longest term of a U.S. public university president, according to the Chronicle of Higher Education.

To the top

Lafayette Township, New Jersey

Census Bureau map of Lafayette Township, New Jersey

Lafayette Township is a Township located in the Skylands Region of Sussex County, New Jersey. As of the United States 2000 Census, the township population was 2,300.

Lafayette was formed as a Township based on an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 14, 1845, from part of Frankford Township and Newton Township, based on the results of a referendum held that same day. The Township was named after the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834), the French general and statesman who served in the Continental Army (1777–81) during the American Revolutionary War.

It is crossed by Route 15 and Route 94.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 18.1 square miles (46.8 km²), of which, 18.0 square miles (46.7 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (0.17%) is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,300 people, 771 households, and 647 families residing in the township. The population density was 127.6 people per square mile (49.3/km²). There were 799 housing units at an average density of 44.3/sq mi (17.1/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 97.04% White, 1.04% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.78% Asian, 0.35% from other races, and 0.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.35% of the population.

There were 771 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.4% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 16.0% were non-families. 12.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.20.

In the township the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males.

The median income for a household in the township was $82,805, and the median income for a family was $87,650. Males had a median income of $61,307 versus $38,816 for females. The per capita income for the township was $30,491. About 1.2% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.0% of those under age 18 and 2.3% of those age 65 or over.

Lafayette Township is governed under the Township form of government with a five-member Township Committee. The Township Committee is elected directly by the voters in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with one or two seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting, the Township Committee selects one of its members to serve as Mayor.

Members of the Lafayette Township Committee are George Sweeney (term ends December 31, 2008), Richard Bruning (2007), Gregory Corcoran (2008), John D'Angeli (2006) andMayor Richard Hughes (2008).

Lafayette Township is in the Fifth Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 24th Legislative District.

New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District, covering the northern portions of Bergen County, Passaic County and Sussex County and all of Warren County, is represented by Scott Garrett (R, Wantage Township). New Jersey is represented in the Senate by Frank Lautenberg (D, Cliffside Park) and Bob Menendez (D, Hoboken).

For the 2008-2009 Legislative Session, the 24th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Steve Oroho (R, Franklin) and in the Assembly by Gary R. Chiusano (R, Augusta) and Alison Littell McHose (R, Franklin). The Governor of New Jersey is Jon Corzine (D, Hoboken).

Sussex County is governed by a five-member Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2009, members of the Sussex County Board of Chosen Freeholders are Freeholder Director Glen Vetrano (R, term ends December 31, 2009; Hampton Township), Deputy Director Jeffrey M. Parrott (R, 2010; Wantage Township), Phillip R. Crabb (R, 2011; Franklin), Harold J. Wirths (R, 2010; Wantage Township), and Susan M. Zellman (R, 2009; Stanhope).

Public school students in Kindergarten through eighth grade attend Lafayette Township School, which served 330 students as of the 2005-06 school year.

For grades 9 - 12, public school students attend High Point Regional High School, located in Sussex. Attending the school are students from Branchville, Frankford Township, Lafayette Township, Sussex Borough and from Wantage Township.

McCabe, Wayne T. and Kate Gordon. A Penny A View...An Album of Postcard Views...Lafayette, N.J. (Newton, NJ: Historic Preservation Alternatives, 1993).

To the top

Lafayette County, Missouri

Map of Missouri highlighting Lafayette County

Lafayette County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. As of 2000, the population was 32,960. Its county seat is Lexington.

Lafayette is part of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area.

Lafayette County was settled primarily from migrants from the Upper South states of Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. They brought slaves and slaveholding traditions with them, and quickly started cultivating crops similar to those in Middle Tennessee and Kentucky: hemp and tobacco. Lafayette was one of several counties settled mostly by southerners to the north and south of the Missouri River. Given their culture and traditions, this area became known as Little Dixie. In 1860 slaves made up 25 percent or more of the county's population. Residents generally supported the Confederacy during the Civil War.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 639 square miles (1,655 km²), of which, 629 square miles (1,630 km²) of it is land and 10 square miles (25 km²) of it (1.49%) is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 32,960 people, 12,569 households, and 9,099 families residing in the county. The population density was 52 people per square mile (20/km²). There were 13,707 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile (8/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 95.52% White, 2.27% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, and 1.12% from two or more races. 1.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 37.3% were of German, 17.5% American, 9.9% English and 9.7% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 12,569 households out of which 33.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.30% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.60% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the county the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, and 15.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.00 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $38,235, and the median income for a family was $45,717. Males had a median income of $31,972 versus $22,684 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,493. About 6.90% of families and 8.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.90% of those under age 18 and 9.10% of those ages 65 or over.

To the top

Source : Wikipedia