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Posted by bender 03/22/2009 @ 17:09

Tags : lahore, pakistan, asia, world

News headlines
Defeating the Taliban is a pipe dream - San Francisco Chronicle
A friend called from Lahore, Pakistan, and asked if I could put up his family in my home in the Washington suburbs. "Most welcome!" I said. "When are you all coming?" "As soon as Pakistan begins to collapse!" replied Abdul Wahid Qureshi,...
A tale of two cities -
By Sonya Rehman & Khaver Siddiqi The music of Karachi has no definite history to speak of as opposed to Lahore. 'It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…' Charles Dickens' literary masterpiece, A Tale of Two Cities, begins with these words....
Three 'terrorists' arrested in Lahore - Daily Times
LAHORE: Law enforcement agencies on Friday arrested three suspected terrorists including two would-be suicide bombers from Lahore, a private TV channel reported. According to the channel, the security officials also seized two suicide vests from the...
Lahore High Court adjourns hearing of Hafiz Saeeds detention case - Little About
Lahore, May 16 - ANI: The Lahore High Court has adjourned the hearing of a habeas corpus petition against the detention of Jamat-ud-Dawa (JuD) Chief Hafiz Saeed till May 21. The High Court bench comprising Justice Ijaz Ahmad Chaudhry, Justice Hasnat...
No access to houses along Lahore-Kasur Road - The News International
By Our Correspondent THOUSANDS of residents of various colonies along the newly-constructed Lahore-Kasur road are facing serious difficulties as contractor has not given them access to their homes. Big private residential colonies and several...
Gases kill three labourers in Lahore - The News International
By By Ali Raza and Arshad Dogar LAHORE: Three labourers were killed while cleaning a manhole here on Friday. The victims were identified as Akram, 25, Tauseef, 26, and Bashir, 28. They were hired by a private contractor of Charsadda, who was registered...
Sound of the soul -
Saieen Zahoor's melodious voice resonated these beautiful verses over the strains of the ek-tara on a balmy summer evening at Peeru's Café in Lahore, recently. The event was the three-day Mystic Music Sufi Festival by the Rafi Peer Theatre Workshop...
'Taliban want sharia for material gains' - Daily Times
LAHORE: Taliban have no knowledge of true Islam and they want to enforce sharia only for material gains, Swat Bar Association President Aftab Alam said on Friday. Addressing the Lahore High Court Bar Association (LHCBA), he said Sufi Muhammad...
IGP orders crackdown on criminals in Lahore - Daily Times
LAHORE: Punjab Inspector General of Police (IG) Tariq Saleem Dogar on Wednesday directed Lahore Police officials to take effective measures to improve law and order in the city. Dogar was talking to a special meeting of police officials chaired by him....
Post Lahore, players to get heavy insurance cover -
In a move that is in sync with the times, particularly since the attack on Sri Lankan cricketers in Lahore, the Board of Control for Cricket in India has decided to substantially raise the insurance cover for each member of the squad touring abroad....


Skyline of Lahore

Lahore (help·info) (Punjabi: لہور, Urdu: لاہور pronounced ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. It is often called the Garden of Mughals because of its Mughal heritage. It is located near the Ravi River, close to the Pakistan-India border. Mughal structures such as the Badshahi Mosque, the Data Durbar Complex, the Lahore Fort, Shalimar Gardens, and the mausolea of Jehangir and Nur Jehan are popular tourist spots in the city. Lahore is also home to many British colonial structures built in the Indo-Gothic style, such as the Lahore High Court, the General Post Office (GPO), and many older universities.

Punjabi is the native language of the province and is the most widely-spoken language in Lahore. Since Pakistani independence, however, Urdu has become more prominent and is now a primary means of communication in both the city and adjoining rural areas. Urdu and English have become more popular with educated and younger people due to their official status, which Punjabi has not been accorded. Many Punjabi speakers in Lahore are known as Lahori Punjabi due to their use of a mixture of Punjabi and colloquial Urdu. According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was nearly 7 million. Mid-2006 government estimates now put the population at approximately 10 million. This makes Lahore the second largest city in Pakistan, fifth largest city in South Asia and the 26th largest city in the world.

Ptolemy, the celebrated astronomer and geographer, mentions in his Geographia a city called Labokla situated on the route between the Indus River and Palibothra, or Pataliputra (Patna), in a tract of country called Kasperia (Kashmir), described as extending along the rivers Bidastes or Vitasta (Jhelum), Sandabal or Chandra Bhaga (Chenab), and Adris or Iravati (Ravi). This city may be ancient Lahore.

A legend, based on Hindu oral traditions, states that Lahore was named after Lava, son of the Hindu god Rama, who supposedly founded the city. To this day, the Lahore Fort has a vacant temple dedicated to Lava (also pronounced Loh, hence "Loh-awar" or The Fort of Loh).

The oldest authentic document about Lahore was written anonymously in 982 and is called Hudud-i-Alam. It was translated into English by Vladimir Fedorovich Minorsky and published in Lahore in 1927. In this document, Lahore is referred to as a small shahr (city) with "impressive temples, large markets and huge orchards." It refers to "two major markets around which dwellings exist," and it also mentions "the mud walls that enclose these two dwellings to make it one." The original document is currently held in the British Museum. Lahore was called by different names throughout history, and to date there is no conclusive evidence as to when it was founded; some historians trace the history of the city as far back as 4000 years ago.

Few references to Lahore exist for times before its capture by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the eleventh century. In 1021, Mahmud appointed Malik Ayaz to the throne and made Lahore the capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. The sultan took Lahore after a long siege and battle in which the city was torched and depopulated. As the first Muslim ruler of Lahore, Ayaz rebuilt and repopulated the city with muslim invaders. He added many important features, such as city gates and a masonry fort, built in 1037-1040 on the ruins of the previous one, which had been demolished in the fighting (as recorded by Munshi Sujan Rae Bhandari, author of the Khulasatut Tawarikh in 1695-96). The present Lahore Fort stands on the same location. Under his rule, the city became a cultural and academic center, renowned for poetry. The tomb of Malik Ayaz can still be seen in the Rang Mahal commercial area of town.

After the fall of the Ghaznavid Empire, Lahore was ruled by various Muslim dynasties known as the Delhi Sultanate, including the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Sayyid, Lodhis and Suris. When Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aybak was crowned here in 1206, he became the first Muslim sultan of the Indian subcontinent. It was not until 1524 that Lahore became part of the Mughal Empire.

From 1524 to 1752, Lahore was part of the Mughal Empire, and from 1584 to 1598, under the emperors Akbar and Jahangir, the city served as its capital. Lahore reached a peak of architectural glory during the rule of the Mughals, many of whose buildings and gardens have survived the ravages of time. Lahore's reputation for beauty fascinated the English poet John Milton, who wrote "Agra and Lahore, the Seat of the Great Mughal" in 1670. During this time, the massive Lahore Fort was built. A few buildings within the fort were added by Akbar's son, Mughal emperor Jahangir, who is buried in the city. Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, was born in Lahore. He, like his father, extended the Lahore Fort and built many other structures in the city, including the Shalimar Gardens. The last of the great Mughals, Aurangzeb, who ruled from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate next to the Lahore Fort. This area attracts many tourists and is used by the modern-day government of Pakistan for public speeches and social events.

During the 18th century, as Mughal power dwindled, Lahore was often invaded, and government authority was lacking. The great Punjabi poet Baba Waris Shah said of the situation, "khada peeta wahy da, baqi Ahmad Shahy da"—"we have nothing with us except what we eat and wear, all other things are for Ahmad Shah". Ahmad Shah Durrani, an invader from Afghanistan, invaded the remnants of the Mughal Empire, consolidating control over the Punjab and Kashmir regions.

The 1740s were years of chaos, and the city had nine different governors between 1745 and 1756. Invasions and chaos in local government allowed bands of warring Sikhs to gain control in some areas. In 1801, the 12 Sikh Misls joined into one to form a sovereign Sikh state ruled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

During the 1740s, frequent invasions by Afghan marauders led by Ahmad Shah Abdali and chaos in local government had made the life difficult for the citizens of Lahore. Bhangi Misl was the fist Sikh band to plunder the Mughal Lahore. Later Ranjit Singh was able to make gains in this chaos. He defeated the expansionist son of Abdali, Zaman Shah in a battle between Lahore and Amritsar. Fed up with the chaos of Afghan rule, The citizens of Lahore invited the brave Sardar Ranjit Singh to the city. The city which had suffered 30 years of misrule needed peace and rule of law. On April 12 1801, Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharaja of Punjab on the day of Baisakhi. The investiture ceremony was performed by Sahib Singh Bedi, who was the direct descendant of Guru Nanak. A commemorative coin was issued, Nanakshahi rupee as it was called. It was a grand gala occasion. Ranjit Singh rode on the elephant and passed through the streets of Lahore. Ranjit Singh declared to treat all his subjects Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs equally. He won popular acclaim and earned a lasting place in the hearts of the people of Lahore. Many chiefs and sardars offered nazrana and in return receive khillats. The Maharaja ordered that no interference be made with the personal and public law of Muslims. They were given equal rights with other subjects. Courts presided over by the Qazis and Muftis were confirmed.

The Maharaja established a secular state in which all the subjects, Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs were treated alike. Many talented Hindus and Muslims joined his service and the Maharaja gladly participated in the religious festivals of all the communities. Faqir Azizuddin and Diwan Deena Nath were his prominent courtiers. Festivals like Eid, Dussehra, Diwali, Holi, Basant were celebrated with splendor and gaiety. By his secular outlook, the Maharaja earned great respect from his subjects and also their loyalty. Sarkar Khalsa ruled Punjab for fourty eight years. Lahore and Punjab prospered during this period. The sense of security was given to the people. Trade and Business were established on a sound basis. Ranjit Singh's biggest oversight was that he did not raised his successor. After his death, his successors fell to the court intrigues instigated by the Hindu Dogra Rajas supported by the East India Company.

Mausoleum of the Sikh emperor Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Built in 1673, the Badshahi Mosque is a prime example of Mughal Architecture.

Map of Lahore drawn up during the rule of the British, 1893.

British-built Tollinton Market, ca. 1864.

Minar-e-Pakistan, where the Declaration of the Independence of India and the Pakistan Resolution were passed.

Ranjit Singh made Lahore his capital and was able to expand the kingdom to include Jammu and Kashmir while keeping the British from expanding across the River Sutlej for more then 40 years. After his death in 1839 the internecine fighting between the Sikhs and several rapid forfeitures of territory by his sons, along with the intrigues of the Dogras and two Anglo-Sikh wars, eventually led to British control of the Lahore Darbar ten years later. For the British, Punjab was a frontier province, because Lahore had boundaries with Afghanistan and Persia. Therefore, the Punjabis, unlike the Bengalis and the Sindhis, were not allowed to use their mother tongue as an official language. It was the British who first introduced Urdu as an official language in Punjab, including Lahore, allegedly due to a fear of Punjabi nationalism. Under British rule (1849-1947), colonial architecture in Lahore combined Mughal, Gothic and Victorian styles. The GPO and YMCA buildings in Lahore commemorated the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria, an event marked by the construction of clock towers and monuments all over India. Other important British buildings included the High Court, the Government College University, the museums, the National College of Arts, Montgomery Hall, Tollinton Market, the University of the Punjab (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly. Even today, Mall Road retains a variety of Gothic and Victorian style buildings built during the British Raj. At one end of The Mall stands the university, one of the most prestiguous universities of Pakistan. The British also launched the city's first horse-racing club in 1924, starting a tradition that continues today at the Lahore Race Club.

Lahore played a special role in the independence movements of both Bharat (India) and Pakistan. The 1929 Congress session was held at Lahore. In this Congress, the Declaration of the Independence of India was moved by Pandit Nehru and passed unanimously at midnight on 31 December 1929. On this occasion, the contemporary tricolour of India (with a chakra at its centre) was hoisted as a national flag, and thousands of people saluted it.

Lahore prison was used by the British to detain revolutionary freedom fighters. Noted freedom fighter Jatin Das died in Lahore prison after fasting for 63 days in protest of British treatment of political prisoners. One of the greatest martyrs in the history of Indian independence, Shaheed Sardar Bhagat Singh, was hanged there.

The most important session of the All India Muslim League (later the Pakistan Muslim League), demanding the creation of Pakistan, was held in Lahore in 1940. Muslims under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam (Muhammad Ali Jinnah) demanded a separate homeland for Muslims of India in a document known as the Pakistan Resolution or the Lahore Resolution. It was during this session that Jinnah, the leader of the league, publicly proposed the Two-Nation Theory for the first time.

On partition, Lahore was made capital of Punjab province in the new state of Pakistan. Almost immediately, large scale riots broke out between Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus, causing many deaths as well as damage to historic monuments—including the Lahore Fort, Badshahi mosque and other colonial buildings. Among all cities of India, Lahore suffered the greatest loss due to the Partition of Punjab in 1947. It also drastically altered the demographics of the city and shifted the economic advantage from the Hindus to the Muslims. Meanwhile, the opposite situation occurred in Amritsar, which is a mere 30 miles away from Lahore, although the urban sprawl of Lahore and Amritsar are less that 15 miles apart.

With United Nations assistance, the government was able to re-build Lahore, and most scars of the communal violence of Partition were erased. Less than 20 years later, however, Lahore once again became a battleground when the Indian army made a failed attempt to capture the city, despite surrounding the city o 3 sides.

The second Islamic Summit Conference was held in the city. In 1996 the International Cricket Council Cricket World Cup final match was held at the Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore, and Lahore along with Colombo is to host the semi finals of the 2011 Cricket World Cup..

Due to its long history, Lahore's architecture, culture, demographics and language have been influenced by the Persians, the Mongols, the Afghans, the Sikhs, the Hindus and the British, all of whom have controlled the city at one point or another.

Lying between 31°15′ and 31°45′ North latitude and 74°01′ and 74°39′ East longitude, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur District. The Ravi River flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 km² and is still growing.

The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June, and July, when the temperatures soar to 40°- 45 °C. In August, the monsoon seasons starts, with heavy rainfall throughout the province. December, January, and February are the coldest months, when temperatures can drop to -1 °C. The city’s highest maximum temperature was 48.3°C, recorded on June 6, 1921, and again on June 9, 2007. At the time the meteorological office recorded this official temperature in the shade, it reported a heat index in direct sunlight of 55 °C. The lowest temperature recorded in Lahore is -6.0°C.

Under the latest revision of Pakistan's administrative structure, promulgated in 2001, Lahore was tagged as a City District, and divided into nine towns. Each town in turn consists of a group of union councils (U.C.'s).

As of 2005, the city's gross domestic product (GDP) by purchasing power parity (PPP) was estimated at $28 billion with an average growth rate of 5.9 percent. Thus the contribution of Lahore to the national economy comes up to 6%. Central to Lahore's economy is the Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE), Pakistan's second largest stock exchange. Lahore has offices of several Pakistani government corporations including the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Water and Sewage Authority (WASA). Food and restaurant businesses remain open all night. The shopping markets are usually open late into the night. Lahore is the second largest financial hub of Pakistan and has industrial areas including Kot Lakhpat and the new Sundar Industrial Estate (near Raiwand).

Lahore's economic strength relies on the fact that it is the biggest city of Pakistan's most populous province. It is also the most advanced in terms of infrastructure, having extensive and relatively well developed road links to all major cities in Punjab and NWFP, a rail link with India and the province's biggest International airport. It also has the most developed communcations infrastructure in the province, which includes a wide network of fiber optic telephone and cable lines, GSM mobile network, IPP and WiMax. It has the most developed education and health sectors as well, making it the economic, political and educational hub of the province.

The suburban population's move from commercial areas to less busy areas supports a thriving construction industry and several large housing projects including Bahria Town, Lake City, Sukh Chayn Gardens, Eden Villas, and a project by the Dhabi Group, a joint Pakistan-UAE partnership, to construct a new city on the outskirts of Lahore.

Lahore is famous as the hub of hand-made carpet manufacturing in Pakistan. At present, hand-knitted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan's leading export products, and their manufacturing is the second-largest cottage and small industry. Lahore-based carpet exports make up nearly 85 percent of all carpet exports from Pakistan. Craftsmen in Lahore produce almost every type of handmade carpet using popular motifs such as medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs. The Lahore Design Centre at the Punjab Small Industries Corporation maintains a separate section of carpet designing to experiment with new designs. Lahore is famous for single-wefted designs in Turkoman and Caucasian style and double-wefted Mughal types.

Lahore's economic importance depends on many government institutes and international companies headquartered in the city, including WorldCALL Telecom Group, Pakistan Railways, Pakistan Cricket Board, Punjab University, NCA, Bata shoes, Haier, Wateen Telecom, Warid Telecom, Honda, Reebok, Daewoo, Nestle, Audi, Coca Cola, Tetra Pak, Monsanto, Delaval, Metro Cash & Carry, Mr Cod, Porsche and Rolls Royce.. The fact these companies have settled major operations and accounted for almost half of the Foreign Direct Investment coming into Pakistan reflects Lahore's relatively calm social environment, infrastructure and sophisticated consumer market.

Expo centre Lahore is underconstruction such as long delayed Lahore expo centre, the Mubarak complex, consisting of four towers and a small eclipse shaped building, houing uniquely designed apartments along with a five story covered shopping mall, which will be biggest and most exclusive shopping and entertainment complex in the region.The project is being carried out as a joint venture between the Abu Dhabi Group and the Government of Punjab. The two investors have formed a holding company for Zayed Centre called Taavun (Pvt.) Ltd. which will be responsible for managing the project. Turner Construction, one of the largest construction companies in the US, have been hired as contractors/builders. Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum have been retained as project consultants & architects. The residential apartments will be managed by Concord. The exact cost of the project is unknown as of yet but is estimated at $500 Million US.

Lake City is a resort and residential development planned on the outskirts of Lahore. Covering an area of more than 2104 acres, the resort with its lush green parks, sinuous lakes, an 18 hole regulation Golf course and other features.

Defence Raya Golf Resort is Pakistan's largest as well as Asia's largest golf course is under construction. Defence Raya Golf Resort is the result of a partnership between DHA Lahore and BRDB Malaysia.The rapid development of mega projects in city will boost up the economy of country.

Many other projects under construction in lahore are: Pace tower(under construction), Mall99(approved), Lahore Expo Center, Expo Center tower(under construction), Mubarak Complex(under construction), IT tower(under construction), Alamgir tower(approved),DHA Halley tower(under construction), Lahore Ring Road(under construction), Lahore Sports City(under construction), Kot Lakhpat elevated expressway(approved), Lahore Mass Transit System(under construction),Xinhua mall (completed), Lahore-Sialkot motorway (under construction), Boulevard Heights(under construction), Pearl Continental tower (proposed), LDA tower(approved),Bank Square gulberg (vision), Pace Circle (under construction), Tricon Corporate tower (under construction), The economy is also enhanced by Lahore's historic and cultural importance. Being the capital of the largest province in Pakistan brings the city on of the largest development budget in the country.

Lahore is one of the most accessible cities of Pakistan. In addition to the historic Grand Trunk Road (G.T. road), a motorway was completed in 1997 from Lahore to Islamabad. Another one to Sialkot is in under construction. The government has built underpasses to ease congestion and prevent traffic jams, and according to official figures, Lahore has the highest number of underpasses in Pakistan. The government would undertake planned rehabilitation of the roads, which have outlived their designed life, construction of missing road links and development of provincewide secondary arteries linking national motorways and trade corridors to foster economic opportunities via meeting expanding domestic and international travel and trade demands.

The Punjab government had allocated Rs 170.300 million for W/I of Thokar- Raiwind Road, Rs 50 million for dualisation of Lahore-Jaranwala Road from Ferozepur Interchange to Mandi Faizabad, Rs 40 million for construction of extending building for IWMI Thokar Niaz Baig Lahore, Rs 2.7 million for construction of overhead bridge at Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jillani Road near University of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Rs 56 million for PC-II for feasibility study of elevated expressways in Lahore, Rs 10 million for construction of elevated expressway from Lahore Bridge to Niazi Chowk, Rs 50 million for strengthening of Sheikhupura-Gujranwala Road,and Rs 15 million for construction of missing by-pass between Sargodha to Lahore Road.

The Pakistan Railways headquarters is located in Lahore. Pakistan Railways provides an important mode of transportation for commuters and connects distant parts of the country with Lahore for business, sight-seeing, pilgrimage, and education. The Lahore Central Railway Station, built during the British colonial era, is located in the heart of the city.

To accommodate increased air travel, the government built a new city airport in 2003.It was named Allama Iqbal International Airport after the national poet of Pakistan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and is served by international airlines as well as the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines. The previous airport now operates as the Hajj Terminal to facilitate the great influx of pilgrims traveling to Saudi Arabia to perform the hajj every year. Lahore also has a general aviation airport known as Walton Airport.

Lahore Rapid Mass Transit (LRMT) System is a project envisioned to provide mass transit facilities to Pakistan's second largest city Lahore. The project is expected to complete in 2020. In the first phase, two light rail lines will be constructed. The first Green Line between Shahdra and Hamza Town (Ferozpur Road) will be completed by 2011 and cost 2.4 billion dollars. The second Orange Line between Pakistan Mint and Sabzazar will cost US $1.9 billion and will be completed by 2015. In the second phase, Blue and Purple lines will be constructed.

Despite these improvements, Lahore struggles for safety on its roads, which are dangerous because the number of vehicles overwhelms the road space. Massive congestion occurs every day as millions of Lahoris travel through disorganised, fast-moving traffic, and accidents are rife. The government is trying to improve traffic conditions by constructing overhead bridges, underpasses, and conducting public safety campaigns. Plans exist for a high-speed railway between Lahore and Rawalpindi.

According to the 1998 census, Lahore's population was nearly 6.8 million. Mid-2006 government estimates put the population at somewhere around 10 million, which makes it the second largest city in Pakistan, after Karachi. It is considered to be one of the 30 largest cities of the world. Also according to the 1998 census, 86.2%, or 6,896,000 of the population are Punjabis and 10.2% or 816,000 are Urdu speaker. Finally, 3% Pashto and the Seraikis at 0.4% number about 32,000. Figures are unavailable for the many Afghan refugees and migrants from Iran who have permanently settled in Lahore but were not included in the census.

The main languages spoken in Lahore are Urdu and Punjabi. According to the 1998 census, 93.9% of Lahore's population is Muslim, up from 50.1% in 1941. Other religions include Christians 5.80% (higher in rural areas where they form around 9.0% of the rural population as well as Ahmadis at 0.20% and a small number of Bahá'ís, Hindus, Parsis, and Sikhs. In 1941, Lahore had 36.3% Hindus and 18.4% Sikhs. Due to Lahore diverse culture, there are many mosques, shrines, Hindu and Jain temples, gurdwaras, and churches across the city. Some of the most famous mosques include, Badshahi Masjid, Dai Anga Mosque, Data Durbar Complex, Shia Masjid, Suneri Mosque, Wazir Khan Mosque, Moti Masjid, Masjid-e-Shuhda (Martyr's Mosque) and Mosque of Mariyam Zamani Begum. Some of the famous shrines include, Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal, Bibi Pak Daman, Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Tomb of Shah Jamal, Tomb of Lal Hussain, Tomb of Anārkalī, Tomb of Jahangir, Tomb of Empress Nur Jehan and Tomb of Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan. Some of the well-known churches include, Regal Church, Hall Road Church, Convent of Jesus & Mary and Saint Anthony's Church.

Lahore's culture is unique. Known as the cultural capital or Heart of Pakistan, the city has been the seat of the Mughal Empire and the Sikh Empire as well as the capital of Punjab in Mahmud Ghaznavi's 11th century empire and in the British Empire.

Lahore played an important role in Pakistani history, as it was in this city where the independence declaration for Pakistan was made. Along with Karachi, the city was the only known major city of the British Empire that would come into the new Muslims state. It was the largest city in the newly formed Pakistan at the time of independence and provided the easiest access to India, with its porous border near the Indian city of Amritsar only 30 miles (48 km) to the east. Large numbers of Hindus, Sikhs, and Muslims lived closely in Lahore in the pre-Partition era, and the city suffered many revolts, demonstrations and bloodshed at the time of independence due to the enmity between Muslims and Hindus at the time and the uncertainty which loomed over the fate of Lahore even after India and Pakistan gained independece. Lahore's culture, its history, institutions, food, clothing, films, music, fashion, and liberal community lifestyle attract people from all over the country.

Lahore is an extremely festive city. This city is the most happening city of Pakistan. The people of Lahore celebrate many festivals and events throughout the year, blending Mughal, Western, and current trends. Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are celebrated. Many people decorate their houses and light candles to illuminate the streets and houses; roads and businesses are lit for days during these public holidays. In Lahore is located the mausoleum of Ali Hujwiri also known as also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Persian/Urdu: داتا گنج بخش) or Data Sahib and an annual Urs is held every year as a big festival.

Basant is a Hindu festival marking the coming of spring. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are centered in Lahore, and people from all over the country as well as abroad come to the city for the annual festivities. Kite-flying competitions traditionally take place on city rooftops during Basant. Courts have banned the kite-flying because of casualties and power installation losses. The ban was lifted for two days in 2007, then immediately reimposed when 11 people were killed by celebratory gunfire, sharpened kite-strings, electrocution, and falls related to the competition.

The Festival of Lamps, or Mela Chiraghan, is an important and popular event in Lahore. This is celebrated at the same time as Basant, every spring on the last Friday of March, outside the Shalimar Gardens.

The National Horse and Cattle Show is one of the most famous annual festivals, held in spring in the Fortress Stadium. The week-long activities include a livestock display, horse and camel dances, tent pegging, colourful folk dances from all regions of Pakistan, mass-band displays, and tattoo shows in the evenings.

On August 14, the people of Pakistan celebrate the day Pakistan gained its independence from the British Raj. There are lots of celebrations in Lahore, the streets are full of people singing and dancing. Parades of the Pakistan Army and Pakistan Air Force are held early in the morning. Concerts are held with many pop and classical singers.

The World Performing Arts Festival is held every autumn (usually in November) at the Alhambra cultural complex, a large venue consisting of several theatres and amphitheatres. This ten-day festival consists of musicals, theatre, concerts, dance, solo, mime, and puppetry shows. The festival has an international character with nearly 80 percent of the shows performed by international performers. On average 15-20 different shows are performed every day of the festival.

Lahoris are known for their love of food and eating. While Lahore has a great many traditional and modern restaurants, in recent years Western fast food chains, such as McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Subway Sandwiches, Dunkin Donuts, Nando's and Kentucky Fried Chicken have appeared all over the city. Recently the food streets in the historic locales of Lahore (Gawalmandi, Anarkali, and Badshahi) have attracted tourists. Food streets have undergone restorations and are cordoned off in the evenings for pedestrian traffic only; numerous cafés serve local delicacies under the lights and balconies of restored havelis (traditional residential dwellings). Some of the trendiest restaurants in Lahore are concentrated on the M M Alam Road in Gulberg. Here, dozens of high-class culinary outlets, ranging from Western franchises to traditional, ethnic, or theme restaurants, attract all classes of Lahore's citizens. New restaurants are constantly opening, and the business is extremely competitive. Many boisterous restaurants of Lahore are open late into the night. One of Lahore's unique café restaurants is "Coocoo's Den", located in the old city just behind the Badshahi Mosque and Lahore Fort at the edge of Lahore's red light district. The restaurant is housed in a 300-year-old Kothi-style dwelling of a famous artist and was once a brothel. At different times in the life of this property, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, and Muslim families have owned it. Another famous Lahore landmark is the Pak Tea House in Anarkali, long a favoured haunt of intellectuals and artists.

Lahore is known as the City of Gardens. There were many gardens in Lahore during the Mughal era, and although some have since been destroyed, many have still survived. The Shalimar Gardens were laid out during the reign of Shah Jahan and were designed to mimic the Islamic paradise of the afterlife described in the Quran. The gardens follow the familiar charbagh model (four squares) with three descending terraces. The Lawrence Gardens were established in 1862 and were originally named after Sir John Lawrence, late 19th century British Viceroy to India. The gardens were organized in an area covering 112 acres (0.5 km2). The British East India Company vowed that it would provide for the garden 80,000 saplings of 600 different species from every corner of the world. After money was collected from the sale of Badami Bagh, the soldiers' bazaar at Anarkali, and from a grant by the Company Bahadur (an extension of the East India Company), the land was purchased in the year 1860. Today it is known as Bagh-e-Jinnah. The many other gardens and parks in the city include Hazuri Bagh, Iqbal Park, Mochi Bagh, Gulshan Iqbal Park, Model Town Park, Race Course Park, Nasir Bagh Lahore, Jallo Park, Wild Life Park, and Changa Manga, an artificial forest near Lahore in the Kasur district.

Lahore offers a variety of activities for night-time enjoyment. There are popular shisha bars (these places offer flavoured tobacco pipes commonly found in middle eastern nations), attractive food outlets and musical concerts and shows. Alcohol is available to foreigners who request it at certain hotels, but generally not sold in public.

Lahoris are known for their exquisite taste in food, so the market has produced some of the most versatile, classy and inviting restaurants in the world. The blend of food and music at some uniquely expressive locales is truly exceptional. There are many shopping areas which remain open late into the night offering an atmosphere of lively hustle and bustle (not to mention a bargain at every corner).

There are scenic parks built with a goal to promote relaxation and enjoyment of nature which are frequently visited by joggers, couples, children, students and seniors. Bagh-e-Jinah (also known as Laurence Garden) is one such place; it has a large variety of gorgeous plants, trees, long and varied pathways and creative light effects.

Younger crowd is generally more attracted to shops and restaurants near Qaddafi stadium, Fortress stadium and Gulberg. Most of the food chains are also here.

Lahore is known as the education capital of Pakistan, with more colleges and universities than any other city in the country. A true Science & Technology hub of Pakistan. Pakistan’s largest producer of quality professionals in the field of Science & Technology as well as in High Tech such as IT, Engineering, Medical, Nuclear Sciences, Pharmaceutical, Telecommunication, Bio- Technology and Microelectronics etc. Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. LUMS, the Lahore University of Management Sciences, is the most renowned business school in Pakistan.National University Of Computer and Emerging Sciences previously known as FAST-ICS has been in Lahore for a long time and producing quality graduates in Computer Science. Recently, they also introduced programs in Management, Telecommunication and Computer Engineering.

UCP, Lahore is the one of the best education Institute in Pakistan. UET, Lahore is the one of the most highly regarded engineering universities in Pakistan. COMSATS is also a well-known institute recently awarded the university charter. Lahore Chitrkar is the only private institute which offers classes in painting, various music instruments and Kathak dance. it is committed to help make Lahore the most livable mega city of the South Asian Region by 2010 and one of the thirty leading educational cultural, commercial, industrial and information technology centers of the world by 2020.

Lahore also boasts one of the finest and most renowned high school in Asia, Aitchison College, that feeds students to all the leading universities across the globe. Aitchison College is also responsible for producing renowned political leaders and sportsment for Pakistan.

Lahore is the core of Pakistan's media and Arts scene. Pakistan's most prestigious Art college, National College of Arts, is located here. Every year it hosts the 'World performing Arts festival' in which artists from dozens of countries show off their talents'. This festival is managed by the Peerzada group, which is also the largest puppetry theater company in the Pakistan. Lahore is also home to the country's developing fashion industry supported by numerous designer outlets and the country's most prestigious Fashion school, the Pakistan school of Fashion and Design which has some of the best photo studios and photographers in the country.

Lahore has also been home to Pakistan's old classical music, ghazals and Qawalis, with big names such as Noor jehan, arif lohar, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Mehdi hassan, Ghulam Ali etc all residing in the city. In recent years Lahore has given out Pakistan's largest pop singer such as Atif Aslam and Ali Zafar, while the city is recognized as the birthplace of modern rock scene in south Asia by bands such as Jal, Call the band, Roxen, Noori and Entityparadigm, which were hugely popular and lead many in the Indian film industry to import their songs.

Pakistan's film industry is also based in the city and is called Lollywood. Many films are filmed in Lahore and the city has some of the oldest film studios in the country. Many actors and directors are based in Lahore which brings many artists together to launch films. Cinema is on the incline again in recent years and IMAX is also building outlets in the city.

Several FM radio stations have set up their operations here and some of the TV channels are also working from this city. Adding to this media boom, City News Network (Pvt.) Ltd. is brining Pakistan's first City-specific satellite TV channel. They are launching a City Channel of Lahore with the name City42. City42 will be a satellite channel beaming its broadcast to entire Pakistan, Asia, Middle East and some European countries. City42 will be a NEWS and INFOTAINMENT-based channel covering everything that happens in the city of Lahore.

Lahore is also home to Geo TV's Infotainment Division and the headquarters of Pakistan's first Kids television channel Wikid and the first community Channel of Pakistan for .

Gaddafi Stadium is a Test cricket ground in Lahore. Designed by Pakistani architect Nayyar Ali Dada, it was completed in 1959 and is one of the biggest cricket stadiums in Asia. After its renovation for the 1996 Cricket World Cup, the stadium now boasts a capacity of over 60,000. Nearby is an athletics stadium, a basketball pitch, the Al Hamra, open-air hall similar in design to the coliseum, and the world's largest field hockey stadium, Another Cricket Ground and HEadquarters of Pakistan Cricket Board, all based in the city's Sports complex. In the same vicinity lie headquarters of the Pakistan Football Federation, as well as the multi-sport Punjab Stadium.

Lahore is home to Pakistan Premier League giants WAPDA FC, alongside Pakistan Railways FC, PEL FC, and Wohaib FC.

The Lahore Marathon is part of an annual package of six international marathons being sponsored by Standard Chartered Bank across Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The Lahore race carries prize money of approximately US$100,000. More than 20,000 athletes from Pakistan and all over the world participate in this event. It was first held on January 30, 2005, and again on January 29, 2006. More than 22,000 people participated in the 2006 race. The third marathon was held on January 14, 2007..

Plans exist to build Pakistan's first sports city in Lahore, on the bank of the river Ravi.

3 March 2009 will be regarded as black day in the history of Lahore when Sri Lankan team was brutally attacked by a junk of terrorists.

Lahore is home to many famous cricketers, including some of the biggest names in world cricket.

The Alamgiri Gate, photographed in 1870.

George Craddock, 1880s, Railway Station at Lahore, Pakistan.

Street scene of Lahore, 1890s.

Government College of Lahore, 1880s.

Lahore Railway Station, 1880s.

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Lahore Resolution

Muslim League Working Committee at the Lahore session

The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Lahore قرارداد لاھور), commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution (قرارداد پاکستان Qarardad-e-Pakistan), was a formal political statement adopted by the Muslim League at the occasion of its three-day general session on 22–24 March 1940 that called for greater Muslim autonomy in British India. This has been largely interpreted as a demand for a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. The resolution was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq.

Although the idea of founding the state was introduced by Allama Iqbal in 1930 and the name Pakistan had been proposed by Choudhary Rahmat Ali in his Pakistan Declaration in 1933, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and other leaders had kept firm belief in Hindu-Muslim unity. However, the volatile political climate and religious hostilities gave the idea stronger backing.

With the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939, the Viceroy of India Lord Linlithgow declared India's entrance into the war without consulting the provincial governments. In this situation, Jinnah called a general session of the All India Muslim League in Lahore to discuss the circumstances and also analyze the reasons for the defeat of Muslim League in the Indian general election of 1937 in some Muslim majority provinces.

The session was held between 22 March and 24 March, 1940, at Minto Park (now Iqbal Park), Lahore. The welcome address was made by Nawab Sir Shah Nawaz Mamdot. In his speech, Jinnah recounted the contemporary situation, stressing that the problem of India was no more of an inter-communal nature, but manifestly an international. He criticised the Congress and the nationalist Muslims, and espoused the Two-Nation Theory and the reasons for the demand for separate Muslim homelands. According to Stanley Wolpert, this was the moment when Jinnah the former ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity totally transformed himself into Pakistan's great leader.

Sikandar Hayat Khan, the Chief Minister of the Punjab, drafted the original Lahore Resolution, which was placed before the Subject Committee of the All India Muslim League for discussion and amendments. The Resolution text unanimously rejected the concept of United India on the grounds of growing inter-communal violence and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state.

After the presentation of annual report by Liaquat Ali Khan, the Resolution was moved in the general session by A.K. Fazlul Huq, the Chief Minister of undivided Bengal and was seconded by Choudhury Khaliquzzaman who explained his views on the causes which led to the demand of a separate state. Subsequently, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the NWFP, Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, and other leaders announced their support. In the same session, Jinnah also presented a resolution to condemn the Khaksar massacre of 19 March, owing to a clash between the Khaksars and the police, that had resulted in the loss of lives.

No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.

That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in the units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights of the minorities, with their consultation. Arrangements thus should be made for the security of Muslims where they were in a minority.

The Sindh assembly was the first British Indian legislature to pass the resolution in favour of Pakistan. G. M. Syed, an influential Sindhi activist, revolutionary and Sufi and one of the important leaders to the forefront of the provincial autonomy movement joined the Muslim League in 1938 and presented the Pakistan resolution in the Sindh Assembly.

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Lahore High Court

Lahore High Court

The Lahore High Court is based in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Lahore High Court was established on 21 March 1919, although it's predecessors have been providing justice since 1866. The Lahore High Court has such jurisdiction as is conferred on them by the Constitution or by law (Art. 175(2) of the 1973 Constitution). Article 199 of the Constitution of 1973 deals with the extra-ordinary jurisdiction of the High Courts. It has principal seat at Lahore and three benches at Rawalpindi, Multan and Bahawalpur.

The history of the High Court at Lahore is spread over the last hundred and fifty years.

By 1830, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the famous Sikh ruler of Punjab, consolidated the innumerable small principalities ruled by independent chieftains in the Province. Before the consolidation, there were no Judicial Courts, no written laws and no established authority to maintain or enforce them. The chieftains decided cases according to their own whims and discretions Certain rules of customs for settlement of civil and criminal disputes through arbitrators governed the field , but they were by no means uniform or reputable.

Even during Maharaja Ranjit Singh's period, no great judicial reforms were introduced. The Saddar Adulate Court (Chief Court ) at Lahore was the sole Court in his realm. There were officers dealing with fiscal and military matters, but none specifically to dispense civil or criminal justice.

The annexation of the Punjab by the British was immediately followed by the creation of a Board of Administration in 1849 consisting of three Members. The Board had powers of a Sudder (Chief) Court of Judicature and a Sudder Board of Revenue.

In 1853 the Board of Administration was replaced with a Chief Commissioner, and two Principal Commissioners separately appointed for Judicial and Administrative work. The Judicial Commissioner was the Chief Judge of appeal and his Court was the final appellate Court.

By the Punjab Courts Act, XIX of 1865, inter alia, seven classes of Courts were brought into being in the Civil Jurisdiction. Starting from the Court of Tehsildar at the bottom to the Court of the Judicial Commissioner at the top.

The Chief Court Act, IV of 1866 constituted the Chief Court of the Punjab as the ultimate Court of Appeal from the Civil and Criminal Courts in the province. The Chief Court was also vested with Extraordinary Original Civil Jurisdiction and Supervisory Jurisdiction over Subordinate Courts.

In 1867, the Governor General of India in Council was empowered by the Acting Judges Act,. XVI of 1867, to appoint a person to act temporarily as Judge. The member of permanent and ad hoc judges was increased from time to time and by 186 four additional and two for the Chief Court.

In 1877, the Punjab Courts Act, (XIX of 1865) and the Chief Court Act (IV of 1866), were repealed by the Punjab Courts Act, (XVII of 1877), which consolidated and re-stated the law inter alia relating to the Chief Court.

Over the years, it was noticed that the appeals to the Chief Court had increased to astronomical proportions and the work was greatly in excess of what the permanent and additional judges of the Court could dispose of. Though additional Judges had been appointed to clear off arrears, it was thought advisable to give some form of greater finality to the decisions of the lower appellate courts to stem the tide of appeals being preferred to the Chief Court. It was also thought advisable to reconstitute the subordinate courts and revise their scope, powers and jurisdiction.

The Punjab Courts Act, XVIII of 1884, which repealed the Punjab Courts Act of 1877, not only touched the question of subordinate courts, their reconstruction, jurisdiction and powers, but also modified and restated the law regarding the constitution, powers and jurisdiction of the Chief Court as well.

By Act XIX of 1895 the senior most Judge began to be designated as the Chief Judge. In November, 1896, the pay of the Chief Judge was raised over and above that of the other Judges by Rs. 250 per mensem. Previously, the Chief Judge and Judges drew the same salary, that is Rs. 3,500 per mensem. The increase was made consequent on a recommendation made by the Government of India to the Secretary of State for India requesting for permission to raise the salary of the Chief Judge of the Punjab Chief Court to Rs.3,750 per mensem, to be at par with the salary of Puisne Judges in the Chartered High Courts.

In 1899, the Secretary of State for India in Council, by its Resolution dated 25 April 1899, laid down as a principle that all Chief Justices and Judges of the High Courts in India thereafter to be appointed would be required to vacate their offices on attaining the age of sixty years.

In the same year, the pay of the Chief Judge of the Chief Court was raised to Rs. 4,000 per mensem consequent on the pay of other Puisne Judges of the Chief Court being raised to Rs, 3,750 per mensem.

From 1911 two additional Judges, from 1917, the third additional Judge was sanctioned and from 1918, the fourth additional Judge was added and this temporary strength of four Judges continued till the Letters Patent was granted to the Court in 1919.

In 1911 the Imperial Parliament passed the Indian High Courts Act 1911 giving the Royal Sovereign the power, inter alia, to establish new High Courts in British India from time to time as the occasion arose and to appoint temporary Additional Judge for a term not exceeding two years, Since, however, the Chief Court did not come within the category of the High Court, all additional appointments of temporary Judges to the Chief Court were made by the Governor-General under various Punjab Courts Acts enacted in 1884, 1914 and 1918 (as amended from time to time) read with the Acting Judges Act, XVI of 1867.

Four years later, the Govt. of India Act, was repealed by the Government of India Act, 1915. The new Act provided that all the existing High Courts established by Letters Patent would be treated as High Courts for the purposes of the said act that each High Court, would consist of a Chief Justice and as many other Judges as His Majesty thought fit to appoint, that the Governor-General in council would appoint persons to act as Additional Judges for such period not exceeding two years as where necessary, and that the maximum number of Judges of a High Court including the chief Justice and the Additional Judges would be twenty. The Act also provided that the Judges would hold office during His Majesty's pleasure and that Acting Judges would be appointed by the Local Governments.

The new Act also granted the Royal Sovereign authority to establish High Courts by Letters Patent in any territory in British India and to confer on any High Court so established any such jurisdiction power, and authority as were vested in or might be conferred on any High Court existing at the commencement of that Act. The Letters Patent establishing the Lahore High Court was granted pursuant to the provisions contained in Section 113 of the Government of India Act, 1915.

In 1919, under the Letters Patent creating the High Court of Judicature at Lahore, the Judges thereof were appointed directly by His Majesty the King Emperor. The Court of the Province was for the first time constituted as a Court of Record with powers to punish persons guilty of its contempt, a power which the previous Chief Court did not possess. The permanent strength of the High Court was limited to seven Judges -- one Chief Justice and six Puisne Judges.

The jurisdiction of the High Court was laid down by its Letters Patent; it had jurisdiction over the Provinces of the Punjab and Delhi. It was constituted the highest Appellate Authority in Civil and Criminal cases It possessed extraordinary Civil and Criminal Jurisdiction. It also exercised in Matrimonial, Probate and Administration matters Original Jurisdiction By Clauses 10 of the Letters Patent, Civil appeals were provided against the judgment of a single Judge to a Bench of two Judges, subject to certain stated conditions.

From 1921 onwards the Judges were required to give an undertaking upon appointment to their office, not to resume practice at the Bar on their retirement.

The Government of India Act, 1935 made certain radical changes in the constitution and powers of the various High Courts in British India. The new Act provided that the Judges would hold office during good behaviour, whereas previously they held office during His Majesty's pleasure. Instead of the ceiling of twenty Judges fixed by the earlier Act, the present Act left it to His Majesty to fix the number of Judges separately for each High Court depending upon their requirements. All acting appointments of Judges were left in the hands of the Governor-General and the powers of the Local Governments was withdrawn. Under the old system, the Chief Justice had always been a Barrister Judge.The new Act removed this limitation and opened the Chief Justiceship to Civilian Judges as well. The new Act also fixed the 60 years age limit for High Court Judges. By the Government of India (High Court Judges) Order, 1937, the maximum number of Judges fixed for the Lahore High Court was 15. The said Order also prescribed the scale of pay and rights as to leave, pension gratuity, etc, of the various judges serving the different High Courts in India including the Lahore High Court.

In the middle of 1947 by the enactment of a master instrument captioned, the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the Imperial Parliament created the two independent Dominions of Pakistan and India.

The High Courts (Punjab) Order, 1947, a subsidiary instrument of the Act created a new High Court of Judicature for the territory of East Punjab (in India ) as from the 15th day of August, 1947.

Side by side, the High Court (Lahore) Order, 1947, preserved the continuance of the High Court at Lahore with all rights, powers and privileges as hitherto enjoyed and possessed by it before the appointed day. The Governor-General of the Dominion of Pakistan became the substitute of the Crown in matters of appointment etc., of Judges of the Lahore High Court.

After the Partition, the Governor General of Pakistan fixed the strength of the Lahore High Court at 6 permanent Judges and one Additional Judge with effect from 28 September 1948.

On 6 July 1954, Government of India (Amendment) Act, 1954 was passed. By this new Act, all High Courts in Pakistan were invested for the first time with powers to issue to any person or authority, including the Government itself in appropriate cases, writ in the nature of Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo Warranto and Certiorari.

On 30 September 1955 the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan passed the Establishment of West Pakistan Act, 1955. By Section 7 of the Establishment of West Pakistan Act, 1955, the Governor-General of Pakistan was invested with the power to establish, by Order, a High Court for the Province of West Pakistan to replace the High Court of Lahore.

The High Court of West Pakistan(Establishment) Order XIX of 1955, (which came into force on 14 October, 1955) established the legal foundation for the High Court of West Pakistan and provided for various matters in relation to its jurisdiction and powers. The Order inter alia provided that the new High Court of West Pakistan would have such Original, Appellate and other jurisdiction and such powers and authority in respect of the territories included in the Province of West Pakistan as the High Court of Judicature at Lahore had immediately before the commencement of that Order.

By virtue of Article 6 of the High Court of West Pakistan(Establishment) Order, 1955, read with Section 7 of the Establishment of West Pakistan Act, 1955, Judges of the Chief Court of Sind and the Judicial Commissioners'Court at Peshawar became Judges of the High Court of West Pakistan, entitled to terms and conditions of service, not less favourable than those to which they were entitled as Judge of the High Courts from which they were transferred. Persons who were immediately before the date of the establishment of the High Court of West Pakistan serving as temporary or additional Judges became, on the interacting day, temporary or additional Judges, as the case may be of the High Court of West Pakistan.

The 1956 Constitution provided for a High Court for each of the two Provinces and declared that the existing High Court for the Provinces of East Bengal and West Pakistan functioning before the Constitution Day would be deemed to be High Courts, under the Constitution, for the Provinces of East Pakistan and West Pakistan respectively. Under the Constitution, both the Provincial High Courts retained the jurisdiction and powers as were exercisable by them immediately before the Constitution Day. Likewise, persons holding office as Chief Justice and Judges of the two Provincial High Courts, continued to retain their offices on the same terms and conditions as to remuneration and other privileges as were applicable to them immediately before the Constitution Day.

As previously provided in the Government of India Act, 1935, the new Constitution declared the two Provincial High Courts to be Courts of Record and provided for the appointment of permanent and acting Judges by the President of Pakistan (instead of the Governor-General), for their holding of the office during good behaviour and for their retirement at the age of 60. Unfortunately, the new Constitution did not provide for the appointment of temporary additional Judges to any of the two High Courts.

The qualification for appointment of persons as Judges of the said High Courts were altered. Pakistan Citizenship was made a pre-requisite. The bifurcation previously created between Barristers and Pleaders was removed and both were grouped into one compartment for eligibility, namely, advocates or pleaders having at least ten years' standing in both or either of High Courts. The qualifying period of five years service previously laid down for persons holding judicial officers in British India not inferior to that of a subordinated Judge, or judge of a Small Cause Court, was raised to ten, but the enumeration describing the two particular types of judicial offices to be held was removed. The appointment of all Judges by the President was made conditional on the President first seeking advice from the Chief Justice of Pakistan, the Governor General of Province to which the appointment related and where the appointment was out that of the Province to which the appointment related and where the appointment was not that of the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court of that Province. The Constitution also gave the President the power to transfer a Judges of a High Court from one High Court to the other High Court after securing the Judges's consent and after consultation with the Chief Justice of Pakistan and the Chief Justice of the Court of which the proposed transferee was a Judge.

The two High Courts were given power, throughout the territories in which they exercised jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority(including the government directions, orders or writs (including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari) for the enforcement of all or any of the Fundamental Rights contained in Part II of the Constitution and for any other purpose generally.

The second constitution of Pakistan was promulgated and came into force on 8 June 1962 on which date the National Assembly met for the first time at Rawalpindi. Several Orders were passed to remove difficulties coming in the way of the effective operation of the Constitution. Under the said Constitution, there was to be a High Court for each of the two Provinces, consisting of such number of Judges as at least ten years, standing and who had served as, or exercised the powers of a District Judge for at least three years, the provision was replaced by one which enabled only members of such Civil Services as were specially prescribed by law for the purpose of the said Article and who had served as or exercised the function of District judges for the period of not less than three years. to be eligible for appointment . after the Constitution came into operation, the Civil Service of Pakistan was not included as a Service prescribed by law for the purposes of Article 92. The new Constitution provided for the appointment of additional Judges. unlike the previous of which did not contain any such provision. Whereas under the previous Constitution, the right to invoke the Supreme Court's jurisdiction was itself a fundamental right, under the new Constitution the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to enforce Fundamental Rights was transferred to the High Courts, with this difference that the right was not one which could be invoked as a fundamental right but was one which could only be enforced subject to the High Courts discretion. The previous Constitution Act gave wider powers to the High Courts for the purpose of issuing Writ, directions and orders but the new Constitution while preserving the Writ Jurisdiction narrowed down the limits within which it could be exercised and added the pre-requisite that it should not be issued where other adequate remedies were provided by law. It further contained a provision prohibiting the issue of writ in relation to persons in the Defence Services of Pakistan in respect of their terms and conditions of service or matters arising therefrom or in respect of action taken against them as members of such Services and in relation to other persons in the Service of Pakistan, in respect of their terms and conditions of service, except those as were specified in the Constitution itself. In many other respects the provisions in the Chapter dealing with the High Courts in the new Constitution Act were a parallel if not similar to the provisions existing in the Constitution Act of 1956.

Through P.O. of 1969 the High Court Judges (Retiring Age) Order, P.O. 8 of 1969, the anomaly created by Article 178 of the Constitution of 1962 was removed by providing that notwithstanding anything contained in the said Constitution, a Judge of a High Court could hold office until he attained the age of 62, unless he resigned or was removed from office earlier in accordance with the procedure prescribed for such removal.

On 14 August 1973, the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973, came into force. No special change was made in the term and conditions of the Senior Judges. However, a Special Chapter headed "General Provisions relating to the judicature" was added, which inter alia provided constitutional protection to the remuneration and other terms and conditions of service of Judges of the Supreme Court the High Court, barred Judges during their term of office, from holding offices of profit the Service of Pakistan or occupying other positions carrying the right to remuneration or the rendering of services and after their retirement or resignation from holding offices of profit (other than judicial or quasi judicial offices or the office of Chief Election Commissioner or of Chairman or member of the Council of Islamic Ideology) till the expiry of two years after they ceased to hold their offices; and prevented permanent Judges after their retirement from pleading or acting in Courts in which they were holding office or before Courts or authority within its jurisdiction. The said Chapter also provided for the Constitution of a Supreme Judicial Council of Pakistan, consisting of the Chief Justice of Pakistan, the two next most senior Judges of the Supreme Court and the two most senior Chief Justices of the high Courts, for the purposes of issuing a Code of Conduct to be observed by the Judges of the Supreme Court and the high Court and for holding inquires on references by the President into the charges of physical or mental incapacity of or misconduct against Judges of the Supreme Court or the high Courts and, where such incapacity or misconduct was provided, to recommend their removal.

In April,1974, certain substantial benefits in the terms and conditions of service were granted to the Judges of the High Court. By the Judges (Leave, Pension, Privileges )(Amendment) Order, P.O. 1 of 1974, the following further benefits and privileges were provided, namely, (a) the use of a residence without payment of throughout the term of office of a Judge and for a period of 30 days thereafter. Where any finical charge to the Judge in respect of its maintenance and where a Judge has to reside in his own house, to be entitled to be paid a monthly allowance of Rs.750/- were privilege of having his residence maintained at government expense, free of local and taxes, with the full provision of electricity, gas and water by Government and use of an official car maintained at government expense, the cost of petrol being by the Judge concerned; both the benefits being free of tad.

In April, 1974, certain further amendments were made to the High Court (Traveling Allowances) Order 4 of 1965, inter alia raising the special rate of allowance admissible to Judges when travelling on duty and liberalizing the travel allowance admissible to them for journeys from their home town to the place posting and on retirement from their last place of posting to their home town.

In May, 1974, certain n important amendments were made to the Constitution, 1973, some of which related to the High Court which permitted the temporary transfer of judges from one High Court to another.

In December, 1974, the Judges (Leave Pension and Privileges) Order, P.O.9 of 1970, was further amended to provide to all Judges who were not provided residences by the Government, house allowance, irrespective of the fact whether they resided in their own houses or not. The allowances permissible to a Judge under paragraphs 22-A and 22-B of President's Order 2 of 1970 were made free of tax.

On 13 September 1976, the Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, LXII of 1976, was enacted which brought about important changes in the Constitution relating to the Supreme Court of Pakistan and the High Courts in the provinces. Articles 179 and 195 were extended to provide for the retirement of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and the Chief Justice of a High Court, whether appointed before or after the commencement of the aid Constitutional Amendment, on their completing a term of office of five and four years respectively as such Chief Justice, unless they sooner attained the age of 65 and 62 years respectively. The amendment allowed the Chief Justice the option either to retire from their offices and receive the pension to which they would be entitled if the had retired from office on attaining the ages of 65 and 62 years respectively, or to assume the office of most senior of the other puisne judges of the Supreme Court or the High Court and to continue to receive the same salary which they were receiving while holding the office of Chief Justice. The amendments also provided that a person who once held office as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court or the High Court and where such person assumed the office of the most senior of the other puisne Judges, the Judge who was until then the most senior of the other puisne, would rank next after the person who ceased to be the Chief Justice in order of seniority. Article 206 was also extended to provide that a Judge of a High court who did not accept appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court, would be deemed to have retired from his office and, on such retire ment, he would be entitled to receive a pension calculated on the basis of the length of his service as Judge and total service, if any, in the service of Pakistan. These amendments were brought about art the instance of a special request made by the Chief Justice of Pakistan to the Prime Minister in that behalf.\, as some of the Supreme Court had, in the past, refused to do so on one pretext or the other and had prevented the Supreme Court from receiving the best talent available, which it was its right to receive in the public interest. The matter came to a head when Chief Justice Ibqal refused to join the Supreme Court for certain Persona reasons. The amendment to Article 195 directly affected the retention of office of Chief Justice by Mr. Justice Sardar Muhammad Iqbal, who opted for retirement.

Apart from these sweeping changes made in the Articles of the Constitution relating to the retirement and resignation of Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, clause (3-A) of Article 199 of the Constitution of the High Court relating to the enforcement of Fundamental rights and the issue of orders in the nature of writs, was also substituted, atrociously circumscribing its jurisdiction. The new substituted clause prevented a High Court from making (a) an order prohibiting the making, or suspending the operation, of an order for the detention of any person under any law providing for preventive detention, (b) an order for the release on bail of any person detained under any law providing for preventive detention, (c) an order for the release on bail, or an order suspending the operation of an order for the custody, of any person against whom a report or complaint had been made before any Court of Tribunal, or against whom a case had been registered at any Police Station, in respect of an offence, or who had been convicted by any Court or Tribunal, (d) an order prohibiting the registration of a cases at a Police Station, or the making of a report or complaint before any Court or Tribunal, in respect of an offence, or (e) any other interim order in respect of any person referred to in categories (a) to (d) above. The amendment also provided that any such order made at any time after the commencement of the previous, that is to say, the fourth Constitutional orders, that were pending before any High Court would abate. The amendment was also made applicable to the disposal of applications made in petitions for leave to appeal, or in appeals, from orders such as were referred to in clause (3-A|) that were pending before the Supreme Court immediately before the fifth Constitutional amendment. A storm of protest was raised by the Bar all over the country to the amendments made to Article 199, as the same seriously curtailed the writ jurisdiction of the High Court. The opposition parties did not lag behind in proclaiming that the amendments were made to crush their members, who were vocal in projecting the faults of the political party in power.

On 26 March 1978, the Judges (Leave Pension and Privileges) (Amendment) Order, P.O.5 of 1976, was issued, further granting benefits and privileges to the Judges, as follows: (a) Superior Judicial Officer's allowance of Rs.1250/- p.m. to the Chief Justice and Rs.1000/- p.m. to every other Judge, free of tax, (b) increase in the monthly allowance for maintenance of house from Rs.750/- p.m. to Rs.1500 p.m. to every Judge, free of tax, and (c) reimbursement of cost of petrol not exceeding 300 liters to every Judge, free of tax. By a later President's Order, 11 of 1978, Judges who had opted to be governed by the Provisions applicable to them before the commencement of the High Court Judges (Leave, Pension and privileges) Order, P.O.9 of 1970, and who had retired after 14 August, 1973, could opt within six months from the commencement of the Amending President's Order or from the date on which they retired, to be governed by the provisions of the President's Order 9 of 1970.

On 21 August 1978, the Laws (Continuance in Force) (Sixth Amendment) Order, C.M.L.A. 1 of 1977, was passed further extending the time under clause (3) of Article 195 of the Constitution for bringing about the separation of the judiciary from the executive.

In December, by the Shariat Benches of Superior Courts Order, P.O.22 of 197, a Shariat bench was created in the High Court, as in the other High Courts, in pursuance of the policy to bring about Islamization of the judiciary. The Shariat bench was to consist of three Muslim Judges of the High Court, to be appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of the Court. A Shariat Appellate bench was also created in the Supreme Court to consist of three Muslim Judges of the said Court to be appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice of Pakistan. The Shariat bench was given powers to examine and decide all questions relating to whether or not any law or provision was repugnant to the injunctions of Islam, as laid down in the Quran and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet.

In January, 1979, the Full Court in its meeting held on Wednesday the 17th resolved that as from 12th Rabi-ul-Awal, 1399 Hijri i.e. Saturday, 10th of February, 1979, when the Shariat Benches would start functioning in the High Court, the dress of the Judges and lawyers would be black sherwani with the white collar inside, white shalwar/pajama and black shoes and socks, and the robes of Judges would be a black silk "Jubba" of the Saudi Arabian style with a gold braid with inwoven crest of the Court around the neck of the "Jubba" culminating at the center of the chest with a gold ball and tassel hanging at each end and similar gold braid around the opening of the sleeves and gold beading stitched into the seam of the "Jubba" of the same style, but in cloth sleeves. The robes prescribed for lawyers was also "Jubba" of the same style, but in cloth other than silk and with black braid and beading instead of gold. The Full Court also discussed the mode of address and decided that the Court in future would be addressed as "Sir" or "Janab-e-Wala". The decisions were taken pursuant to persistent attempts made by the Punjab and the Pakistan Bar Councils from time to time to compel the High Court to impose the "Qaumi Libas" in view of the changed circumstances and introduction of Islamic Order in the country. However, when the decision was taken and communicated to the said bar Councils, the Pakistan Bar Council, by its letter dated 31.1.1979, requested the High Court to reconsider its decision and to permit the lawyers to wear either black achkan/sherwani or black coat with black tie.

During May, 1979, as a first step towards the separation of the Judiciary from the Executive, in order to fulfil the Constitutional requirement of Article 175 (3) of the Constitution of Pakistan, the Government of the Punjab placed the services of 41 Extra Assistant Commissioners under the control of the High Court provisionally, for their posting as Judicial magistrates exercising powers under section 30 Cr.P.C. for the disposal of criminal cases. These officers otherwise remained under the administrative control of the Government and their services were repatriable to the Executive. later, as time progressed, the number of such magistrates kept dwindling, without any prospects of their being merged in the Judiciary, or the Judiciary being separated from the Executive.

In November, the Superior Courts (Courts Dress and Mode of Address) Order, P.O. 15 of 1980, was enacted to regulate Court dress and mode of address in the Superior Courts effective Ist November, 190 which was the first day of the 15th Century Hijra. Under the said Order a Judge of a Superior Court was to wear, whilst he was attending sittings of the Court, a black sherwani without bands and, during winter, a black gown, and whilst he was attending State or ceremonial functions, a black sherwani without bands. In case a Judge used a headgear, the Order provided that it was to be a Jinnah cap of back colour. The use of the expressions "My Lord" and "Your Lordship" and the like, in relation to a Judge was ordered to be discontinued and it was provided that a Judge should be addressed as "Sir" or "Janab-e-Wala" or `Janab-e-Ali" and he was to be referred in judgments, correspondence or other instruments as "Mr. Justice" so and so or the like.

On Ist January, 1981, by the High Courts (Establishment) Order (Punjab Amendment) Ordinance, 1 of 1981, permanent benches of the Lahore High Court were established with immediate effect at Bahawalpur, Multan and Rawalpindi. The said Ordinance amended the High Court (Establishment) Order, P.O. 8 of 1970, in its application to the Province of the Punjab, by substituting clause (3) of Article 3 of the President's Order with new clauses (3) of Article 3, (3A), 3B) and (3C) and adding a new Article 7-A thereto. Under the new clause (3) of Article 3, the Lahore High Court and the Judges and Divisional Courts thereof were enjoined to sit at their principal seat and the seats of its Benches, but could hold, at any place in the Province, Circuit Courts consisting of such of the Judges as the Chief Justice may, from time to time, nominate. Under clause (3A) of the said Article, the Chief Justice had the power to nominate, from time to time, Judges to the three Benches. Under clause (3B) of the same Article, all proceedings relating to the Civil Divisions of Bahawalpur, Multan and Rawalpindi pending in the Lahore High Court immediately before the commencement of the Ordinance, stood in the Lahore High Court immediately before the commencement of the ordinance, stood transferred to the benches at Bahawalpur, Multan and Rawalpindi respectively. Under clause (3C) of the said Article, the Chief Justice had the power to make provision for assigning the areas in relation to which the benches were to exercise jurisdiction, the transfer of proceedings pending in the Lahore High Court, the Benches or the Circuit Court to a Bench or to a Circuit Court or to the Lahore High Court, as the case may be, the determination of cases or classes of cases which could be disposed of by the Judges nominated to the Benches or the Circuit Courts and for all matters incidental, supplemental and consequential thereto. The Ordinance also gave the Chief Justice the power by order to delegate from time to time, all or any of his powers and functions to any Judge and in like manner to withdraw all or any of such powers.

On 24 March, the Provisional Constitution Order, C.M.L.A. 1 of 1981, (hereinafter to be referred to as "the P.C.O.") was promulgated. Ten out of its eighteen Articles mainly dealt with the Supreme Court and the High Court. Articles 5 and 6 provided for the appointment of adhoc Judges of the Supreme Court and the power of the Supreme Court to transfer cases from one High Court to another. Under clause (3) of Article 7, the Lahore High Court was provided a Bench each at Bahawalpur, Multan and Rawalpindi. Under clause (4) of the said Article, the bench referred to in clause (3), or established under clause (4) was to consist of such of the Judges of the High Court as would be nominated by the Chief Justice from time to time for a period of not less than one year. Under clause (1) of the said Article any High Court in existence immediately before the commencing day was to continue to have its principal seat at the place where it had such seat before that day and, under clause (2) thereof, each High Court and the Judges and the Divisional Courts thereof were to sit at the principal seat and the seats of its Benches and could hold, at any place within its territorial jurisdiction, Circuit Courts consisting of such of the Judges as may be nominated by the Chief Justice. Under clause (6) of the said Article, the Governor in consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned, could make Rules assigning the area in relation to which each Bench could exercise jurisdiction vested in the High Court and respecting all incidental, supplemental or consequential matters. Article 8 provided for the appointment of an Acting Chief Justice, if the office of the Chief Justice of a High Court was vacant or the Chief Justice was absent or unable to perform functions of this office due to any other cause. Article 9 laid down the powers of the High Court to issue writs, parallel and on lines almost similar to Article 199 of the 1973 Constitution as it last stood with amendments prior to the promulgation of the P.C.O. Article 10 dealt with the transfer of High Court Judges, on lines almost parallel to Article 200 of the 1973 Constitution as last amended, except that in the proviso to clause (3) the expression "High Court" in the Article under reference could also include a bench of the High Court. Article 15 validated the proclamation of the 5th day of July, 1977, all President's Orders, Order of the Chief Martial Law Administrator etc. on lines parallel to Article 212-A of the 1973 Constitution. Article-17 related to the oath of President as well as the Chief martial law Administrator was granted, and was deemed always to have had, the power to amend the Constitution. Article 17 related to the oath of office of the Judges of the Supreme Court, High Courts and the Federal Shariat Court. Under clause (1) of the said Article, a person holding office immediately before the commencement of the P.C.O. as Chief Justice of Pakistan or other Judge of the Supreme Court, or Chief Justice or other Judges of the High Court, or Chairman or member of the Federal Shariat Court, could not continue to hold that office if he was not given oath, or did not make oath, in the form set out in the Schedule, before the expiry of such time from such commencement as the President determined or within such further time as was allowed by the President. Under clause (2) of the said Article, a person who made oath as required by clause (1), was bound by the provisions of the P.C.O. and, notwithstanding the judgment of any Court, could not call in question or permit to be called in question the validity of its provisions. The oath prescribed for the Chief Justice and Judges of the High Court, enjoined upon the Judge concerned inter alia to discharge his duties, and perform his functions honestly to the best of the ability and faithfully in accordance with the Provisional Constitution Order, 1981, and the law and to abide by the Provisional Order, 1981.

On 16 July, the Lahore High Court (Establishment of benches) Rules, 1981, were framed inter alia providing for the filing and disposal of judicial matter arising within the jurisdiction of the benches and the establishment of Registries at the benches to deal with all administrative work. It also gave power to the Chief Justice to transfer pending proceedings between the principal seat and any of its benches, to determine cases or class of cases which could be disposed of at the principal seat or a Bench as may be deemed expedient, to require Judges to sit for short period at any bench. Circuit Court or Principal Seat, to redefine the areas of the Benches and to pass such orders as may be considered necessary for the efficient working of the benches. The Rules also provided for the payment of remuneration to Judges nominated under Article 7(5) of the Provisional Constitution Order, 1981, to work at the Benches for periods of not less than.

On 23 September, 1981, the Acting Chief Justice, by a notification, directed that all classes of cases arising within the areas assigned to the three permanent Benches would only be filed before and disposed of by those respective benches, excepting certain classes of cases which would be disposed of at the principal seat at Lahore. The latter category inter alia included constitutional matters requiring the interpretation of the Constitution, all Tax matters, all cases under the Companies Act, all land Reforms cases, all cases in which the original orders were passed by a Secretary of the Federal or Provincial Government or by a member of the Board of Revenue, all Murder References (at Lahore and in need of immediate relief. The object of the notification was to remove all doubts as regards the cases that could be dealt with at the principal seat and partly to accommodate requests made by certain Government departments to permit cases relating to their departments to be dealt with only at the principal seat, where they could be more effectively dealt with by the departments concerned.

On 17 November 1981, by the Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Order, P.O. 13 of 1981, the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan was amended so as to raise the salary of the Chief Justice of High Court from Rs. 5000 per mensem and the salary of a Judge of a High Court from Rs. 4000 per mensem to Rs. 5000 per mensem.

On 28 February, 1982, by the Constitution (Amendment) Order, P.O. 2 of 1982, and Explanation was added under clause (1) of Article 181 of the Constitution of Pakistan to enable a Judge of a high Court, who had retired, to be appointed as an Acting Judge of the Supreme Court.

On 10 April, 1982, the Acting Chief Justice by a Notification issued in partial modification of an earlier one, directed that all classes of civil, criminal and constitutional matters arising within the areas assigned to a Bench could be filed before and disposed of by that bench, excepting certain classes of cases which could be disposed of at the Principal seat at Lahore. The latter category inter alia included murder references at the choice of the appellants. Inter Court appeals arising out of decision of a single Judge sitting at a bench where a Division Bench was not available at that Bench and there was urgent application seeking transfer of proceedings from a bench to another bench or to the principal seat, pre=arrest bail matters where the petitioners were at Lahore and were in need of immediate interim relief and applications seeking transfer of proceedings from a subordinate Court in the area assigned to a bench to another subordinate Court in the area assigned to another Bench or to the principal seat.

On 6 February, 1983, by the Transfer of High Court Judges (Allowance & privileges) Order, P.O.2 of 1983, a monthly allowance of Rs. 1500 was fixed , in addition to salary, where a Judge of High Court was transferred from one High Court to another or from the principal seat of a High Court to a bench of that Court or was appointed to an office other than that of Judge at a place other than the principal seat of the Court, during the period for which he served as a Judge of the High Court, or at the bench to which he was transferred or held such other office in addition to the extra allowance, if the family of the Judge did not join him at the place to which he was transferred or at which he was posted, he was entitled to single rent free accommodation maintained by the Government and an official car maintained at government expense, including the supply f petrol not exceeding 150 liters per month for use in such case, provided that if there were two Judges of the same Court serving as such at the same place, they had to share one official car provided with the aforesaid quantity of petrol.

On 4 April, 1983, by the Constitution (Amendment) Order, 4 of 1983, the third para of the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973, was amended to increase the minimum pension payable to a Judge of a High Court who had put in not less than five years service from Rs. 1000 per mensem to Rs. 2100 per mensem and the maximum pension depending upon the length of his service, from Rs.1750 per mensem to Rs. 3600 per mensem.

On the same date by the Judges (Leave, Pension & Privileges) (Amendment) Order, P.O. 5of 1983, the basic pension payable under Part 1 of the First Schedule to the High Court Judges (leave, Pension and privileges) Order, 1970, was increased from Rs. 1000 per mensem to Rs. 1100 per mensem, the extra pension for each subsequent completed year of service was raised from Rs.100 to Rs.200 per mensem and the maximum pension was raised from Rs.1750 per mensem to Rs.3600 per mensem. Likewise, the pension payable to a Judge under Part II of the First Schedule of the dame raised from Rs. 100 to Rs. 200 per mensem and the maximum pension was raised from Rs.1750 per mensem to Rs.3600 per mensem.

On 17 January 1985 by the Constitution (Amendment) Order, 6 of 1985, the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution of Pakistan was amended, increasing the salary of the Chief Justice of a High Court from Rs.5800 per mensem to Rs.7200 per mensem and that of every Judge of a High Court from Rs.5000 per mensem to Rs.6500 per mensem and the minimum pension of a High court Judge from Rs.2100 per mensem to Rs.2400 per mensem and the maximum pension from Rs.3600 per mensem to Rs.4200 per mensem in addition to the above, provision was also made for the widow of a Judge of a high Court to be entitled to 50% of the net pension payable to a Judge, if he died after retirement, and 50% of the pension admissible to a Judge at the minimum rate, if the Judge died after having rendered not less than five years service as such Judge, and whilst still serving as such. The said pension was payable to the widow died, the pension was payable to the sons of the Judge who were less than 21 years of age, until they attained that age, and to the unmarried daughters who were less than 21 years of age until they attained the age or got married, whichever first occurred.

On 10 February 1985,the Administration Committee of the High Court considered the recommendations of a Sub-Committee appointed to look into the question of inter se seniority of the Judges of the High Court and decided (i) that Judge who was younger in age, when the appointment was made in the same batch, whether from the Bar or from the Service; (ii) that if two or more Judges were appointed from the Service in the same batch, they would retain their Service seniority as existing on the day of their appointment and, (iii) that if two or more Judges were appointed from the Bar and from the Service in the same batch, then the junior Judge from the Service would rank after the senior Judge from the service, even though he may be older in age to any Judge appointed from the Bar.

In 1985, one of the Judges who had come in the batch in November, 1981, and had claimed seniority over three others, attempted to settle his account vis-a-vis another brother Judge by seating himself as the senior Judge. This resulted in any unhappy situation, On coming to know of it, the Chief Justice, Mr. Justice Javed Ibqal, hurriedly convened a meeting of the Administration Committee on 10 February, 1985, where the above decision regarding seniority was taken. This decision required confirmation of the Full Court. Apprehending unpleasantness at the meeting that would be held for the purpose, it was decided that views of all the Judges be obtained by circulation. On receipt of the views, the Chief Justice referred the matter to the Law Ministry. The Ministry took it to the President, who was the appointing authority for the High Court Judges. It was directed by the President that an equitable principle consistently adopted in regard to inter se seniority of Judges, appointed by a single order, was that they should take also simultaneously made with that of candidates from the Bar, the Service Judges should retain their existing seniority in the Department, regardless of their age, which of course would be determining factor in respect of their seniority vis-a-vis candidates from the Bar. While conveying this directive of the President to the High Court, vide letter No. 12(5)/86-AII, dated 20 April, 1987, the Ministry asked the High Court to revise its seniority list accordingly and send the revised list to the Ministry for onward transmission to the President's Secretariat (Public), but this was never done and the further batch of Judges that came in July, 1983, march, 1984, and October 1988, had some complaints and though all the Judges aggrieved by their incorrect rankings attempted to secure justice, all the Chief Justices, one after the other, felt paralysed and avoided to take a decision. The oldest High Court in the country could not find a Chief Justice brave enough to implement the President's letter, or have the matter solved one way or the other.

The above President's ruling is clear that Judges who come in one batch, should first be ranked in order of seniority by age. The next question as to how a Service Judge who is junior in age to another Service Judge, but otherwise senior to him in Service, is to be placed, has not been clearly stated is the senior Service Judge to be taken out of his normal place and placed one position ahead of the junior Service Judge, or the junior Service Judge to be taken out of his normal place and placed one position below the senior Service Judge. Till this is answered, the difficulty will remain.

Pursuant to the desire of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, President of Pakistan, to restore democracy, elections were held in February, 1985, and the Revival of the Constitution of 1973 Order, 14 of 1985, was passed on 2nd march, 1985, whereby far reaching powers were granted to the President by extensive and sweeping changes made in the Constitution. On 23 May, 1985, the joint sitting of the Parliament took place and General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq too oath of office as the President.

On 2 March, 1985, by the Judges (Leave, Pension and Privileges) (Amendment) Order, P.O. 13 of 1985, the monthly allowance for the maintenance of a Judge's house, where a Judge chose to reside in a house not provided by the Government, was raised from Rs.1500 to Rs.2000 per mensem. The minimum basic pension was raised from Rs.2100 per mensem to Rs.2400 per mensem, the rate of increase of pension for each completed year of service was increased from Rs.200 per mensem to Rs.230 per mensem and the maximum pension was raised from Rs.2600 per mensem to Rs.4200 per mensem. Likewise, in respect of a Judge, who was a member of a Civil Service in Pakistan or who held any other pensionable civil post, the extra pension payable to him for each completed year of service was increased from Rs.200 per mensem to Rs.230 per mensem and the maximum pension was increased from Rs.3600 per mensem to Rs.4200 per mensem. Still further, extraordinary annual pension and gratuity in respect of a Judge, who suffered injuries, and extraordinary annual pension and gratuity to the widow of a Judge who died as a result of violence, whilst on duty, were also substantially increased.

On 19 March 1985, by the Constitution (Third Amendment) Order, P.O. 24 of 1985, clause (1) in Explanation to Article 200 of the Constitution was amended to include a Judge for the time being acting as Chief Justice of a High Court, other than a Judge of the Supreme Court acting as such in pursuance of a request made under paragraph (b) of Article 196 to enable the President to transfer an Acting Chief Justice from one High Court to another High Court. The scope of the said Article was further enlarged so that a Judge of a High Court who did not accept transfer to another high Court under clause (1) of the said Article, could be deemed to have retired from his office and, on such retirement, to be entitled to receive a pension calculated on the basis of the length of his service as Judge and total service, if any, in the service of Pakistan.

Notwithstanding numerous external and internal pressures and difficulties, the Court has during this period, maintained a dignity, respect prestige and independence which has invalid those of other Superior Courts elsewhere in the world its judgments have found their rightful place in the legal chronicles of the country. Even during the worst period of political chaos and economic stresses, the Judges of the Court and the members of its principal bar have showed indomitable spirit, integrity, honesty and independence of judgement.

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