Lance Armstrong

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Posted by r2d2 03/04/2009 @ 11:08

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News headlines
Lance Armstrong drops to 14th at Giro - Detroit Free Press
Armstrong is still regaining his form after 3 1/2 years of retirement and breaking his collarbone in March. He dropped to 14th overall, 7 minutes, 28 seconds behind race leader Denis Menchov. Levi Leipheimer, Armstrong's Astana teammate, dropped three...
Lance Armstrong's coach moves business to renovated roundhouse - Colorado Springs Gazette
Carmichael is most famous today as seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong's personal coach, but his influence goes beyond the legendary cyclist. Carmichael was a member of the US National Cycling Team for six years, was a member of the 1984...
Giro d'Italia 2009: Chris Carmichael's Lance Armstrong Update - Bicycling
Lance Armstrong's coach, Chris Carmichael, says Lance is racing consistently with his body responding positively. By Chris Carmichael It's difficult for some cycling fans to see Lance Armstrong drifting off the back of the lead group on a long climb,...
Italy finally gets Lance Armstrong - Los Angeles Times
Lance Armstrong, right, and his Team Astana teammates get in a training session in Lido di Jesolo, Italy, before the Giro d'Italia. Armstrong will race in the Giro d'Italia for the first time this year, the event's 100th anniversary....
Bend pro cyclist Steve Larsen dies after collapse - KTVZ
The husband and father of five competed all over the world in mountain biking, Ironman triathlons and bicycle races with such top names as Lance Armstrong and Levi Leipheimer. Larsen's friends said Wednesday they are devastated but want the community...
Armstrong and his team make a move at Giro - Denver Post
BERGAMO, Italy — Lance Armstrong and his teammates have not faded away. Only their jerseys have. After losing time all week in climbs and steep descents, Armstrong stayed with the chasing pack on a short uphill stretch in the eighth stage of the Giro...
Lance Armstrong says Sheryl Crow's biological clock doomed their ... - Chicago Tribune
Lance Armstrong kisses his girlfriend Sheryl Crow after his team won the fourth stage of the 92nd Tour de France. (JEAN-CHRISTOPHE MOREAU/AFP/Getty Images / July 5, 2005) It was the ticking time bomb of a biological clock that imploded Sheryl Crow and...
Armstrong Finds Oasis at Sedate Tour of Gila - New York Times
But the sight of Lance Armstrong taking a leisurely ride into town last week with a teammate after completing a stage in the Tour of the Gila caused heads to turn as regularly as his pedals. Some cars pulled alongside Armstrong and Levi Leipheimer,...
Armstrong, Astana riders protest failed payments - The Associated Press
INNSBRUCK, Austria (AP) — Lance Armstrong and other riders of the Astana team protested the Kazakhstan squad's lack of salary payments by fading out the sponsors on their jerseys in the Giro d'Italia on Friday. "I explained the situation of the team to...
Leonardo Bertagnolli wins stage; Menchov retains Giro lead - The Canadian Press
Menchov and all the other leaders crossed 1:56 behind, while seven-time Tour winner Lance Armstrong finished 2:56 back. Armstrong crossed 26th and moved up from 14th to 13th overall, 8:28 behind Menchov. The Texan is still regaining his form after 3...

Lance Armstrong

Lance Armstrong competed with the U.S. Postal Service Pro Cycling Team (later Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team) for most of his career, including his 7 Tour de France victories.

1 Team names given are those prevailing at time of rider beginning association with that team.

Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is an American professional road racing cyclist who rides for UCI ProTeam Team Astana. He won the Tour de France a record-breaking seven consecutive years, from 1999 to 2005.

He is the only individual to win seven times, having broken the previous record of five wins, shared by Miguel Indurain (consecutive) and Bernard Hinault, Eddy Merckx and Jacques Anquetil. He has survived testicular cancer, a germ cell tumor that metastasized to his brain and lungs, in 1996. His cancer treatments included brain and testicular surgery and extensive chemotherapy, and his prognosis was originally poor.

In 1999, he was named the American Broadcasting company Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year. In 2000 he won the Prince of Asturias Award in Sports. In 2002, Sports Illustrated magazine named him Sportsman of the Year. He was also named Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year for 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005. He received ESPN's ESPY Award for Best Male Athlete in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006, and won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Overseas Personality Award in 2003. Armstrong retired from racing on July 24, 2005, at the end of the 2005 Tour de France, but returned to road racing in January 2009 season.

Armstrong was born in Plano, Texas on September 18, 1971. He began as a triathlete, winning adult competitions from the age of 13. In the 1987–1988 Tri-Fed/Texas (Tri-Fed" was the former name of USA Triathlon), Armstrong was the number one ranked triathlete in the 19-and-under group; second place was Chann McRae, who became a US Postal Service cycling teammate and the 2002 USPRO national champion. Armstrong's points total for 1987 as an amateur was better than the five professionals ranked that year. At 16, Armstrong became a professional triathlete and became national sprint-course triathlon champion in 1989 and 1990 at 18 and 19, respectively.

It became clear his greatest talent was as a bicycle racer after he won the U.S. amateur championship in 1991. Representing the U.S., he finished 14th in the 1992 Summer Olympics with the help of teammates Bob Mionske and Timm Peddie. Also in 1992, Armstrong competed in the Tour of Ireland race.

In 1993, Armstrong finished the year number one in the world, winning 10 one-day events and stage races. He became one of the youngest riders to win the world road race championship, and took his first stage win at the 1993 Tour de France. He also collected the Thrift Drug Triple Crown of Cycling: the Thrift Drug Classic in Pittsburgh, the K-Mart West Virginia Classic, and the CoreStates USPRO national championship in Philadelphia. Thrift Drug said it would award $1 million to a rider winning all three races, a feat previously unachieved. At the USPRO championship, Armstrong sat up on his bicycle on the final lap, took out a comb, combed his hair and smiled for the cameras.

1994 was less prolific. Although he again won the Thrift Drug Classic and came second in the Tour Du Pont in the U.S., his successes in Europe were second placings in the Clásica San Sebastián and Liège-Bastogne-Liège. He won the Clásica San Sebastián in 1995, and this time won the Tour Du Pont and took a handful of stage victories in Europe and the U.S. Armstrong's successes were much the same in 1996, and despite several small victories, he was unremarkable in comparison to others at the time. He finished 12th in the road race at the 1996 Olympic Games.

On October 2, 1996, Armstrong was diagnosed with nonseminomatous testicular cancer. The cancer had spread to his lungs, abdomen and brain. The standard chemotherapeutic regimen is BEP (Bleomycin, Etoposide and Cisplatin (or Platinol)). Armstrong, however, chose an alternative, VIP (Etoposide, Ifosfamide, and Cisplatin), to avoid the lung toxicity associated with the drug Bleomycin. Armstrong had surgery on his brain tumors, which were necrotic, and an orchiectomy to remove his diseased testicle. After his surgery his doctor admitted that he had had less than a 50% survival chance.

Before his cancer treatment, Armstrong had won two Tour de France stages. In 1993, he won the 8th stage and in 1995 he took stage 18 in honor of teammate Fabio Casartelli who crashed and died on stage 15. Armstrong dropped out of the 1996 Tour on the 7th stage after becoming ill, a few months before his diagnosis.

Armstrong's cycling comeback began in 1998 when he finished fourth in the Vuelta a España. In 1999 he won the Tour de France, including four stages. He beat the second rider, Alex Zülle, by 7m 37s. However, the absence of Jan Ullrich (injury) and Marco Pantani (drug allegations) meant Armstrong had not yet proven himself against the biggest names. Stage wins included the prologue, stage eight, an individual time trial in Metz, an Alpine stage on stage nine, and the second individual time trial on stage 19.

In 2000, Ullrich and Pantani returned to challenge Armstrong. The race that began a six-year rivalry between Ullrich and Armstrong ended in victory for Armstrong by 6m 2s over Ullrich. Armstrong took one stage in the 2000 Tour, the second individual time trial on stage 19. In 2001, Armstrong again took top honors, beating Ullrich by 6m 44s. In 2002, Ullrich did not participate, and Armstrong won by seven minutes over Joseba Beloki.

The pattern returned in 2003, Armstrong taking first place and Ullrich second. Only 1m 1s separated the two at the end of the final day in Paris. U.S. Postal won the team time trial on stage four, while Armstrong took stage 15, despite being knocked off on the ascent to Luz Ardiden, the final climb, when a spectator's bag caught his right handlebar. Ullrich waited for him, which brought Ullrich fair-play honors.

In 2004, Armstrong finished first, 6m 19s ahead of German Andreas Klöden. Ullrich was fourth, a further 2m 31s behind. Armstrong won a personal best five individual stages, plus the team time trial. He became the first since Gino Bartali in 1948 to win three consecutive mountain stages; 15, 16, and 17. The individual time trial on stage 16 up Alpe d'Huez was won in style by Armstrong as he passed Ivan Basso on the way despite setting out two minutes after the Italian. He won sprint finishes from Basso in stages 13 and 15 and made up a significant gap in the last 250m to nip Klöden at the line in stage 17. He won the final individual time trial, stage 19, to complete his personal record of stage wins.

In his final tour in 2005, completing his record-breaking feat, Armstrong crossed the line on the Champs-Élysées on July 24 to win his 7th consecutive Tour, finishing 4m 40s ahead of Basso, with Ullrich third. He started this tour losing on the first stage time trial by two seconds while passing Ullrich on the road. His Discovery Channel team won the team time trial, while Armstrong won the final individual time trial.

Armstrong has recorded an aerobic capacity of 83.8 mL/kg/min (VO2 Max) , higher than the average person (40-50), but lower than other Tour De France winners, Miguel Indurain (88.0, although reports exist that Indurain tested at 92-94) and Greg LeMond (92.5). His heart is 30 percent larger than average; however, an enlarged heart is a common trait for many other athletes. He has a resting heart rate of 32-34 beats per minute (bpm) with a maximum heart rate of 201 bpm. Armstrong's most unusual attribute may be his low lactate levels. During intense training, the levels of most racers range from 12 μL/kg to as much as 20 μL/kg; Armstrong is below 6 μL/kg. This ability of lactate removal is most likely attributable to many years of hard training. Therefore, lactic acid build up (or acidosis) does not occur as easily in his body. Acidosis, and lactate in general, does not cause fatigue but is a good, testable, marker for the cause of muscular fatigue — muscle cell depolarization. Some have theorized that his high pedalling cadence is designed to take advantage of this low lactate level. In contrast, other cyclists rely on their power to push a larger gear at a lower rate.

Armstrong revolutionized the support behind his well-funded teams, asking sponsors and suppliers to contribute and act as part of the team. For example, rather than having the frame, handlebars, and tires designed and developed by separate companies with little interaction, his teams adopted a Formula 1 relationship with sponsors and suppliers named "F-One", taking full advantage of the combined resources of several organizations working in close communication. The team, Trek, Nike, AMD, Bontrager (a Trek company), Shimano, Giro and Oakley, collaborated for an array of products. Shimano made a dedicated pin to celebrate each Tour victory. Distributed during Interbike, it is a rarity, especially the first, 1999, edition.

Armstrong was born Lance Edward Gunderson to Linda Walling and Eddie Charles Gunderson. He was named after Lance Rentzel, a Dallas Cowboys wide receiver. His father left his mother when Lance was two. His mother later married Terry Keith Armstrong, who adopted Lance in 1974. Linda has married and divorced four times. Armstrong refuses to meet his birth father and has described his stepfather as deceitful.

Armstrong met Kristin Richards in June 1997. They married on May 8 1998 and have three children: Luke, born October 1999, and twins Isabelle and Grace, born November 2001. The pregnancy was possible through sperm Armstrong banked three years earlier, prior to chemotherapy and surgery. The couple filed for divorce in September 2003. At Armstrong's request, his children flew in for the podium ceremony in 2005, where Luke helped his father hoist the trophy, while his daughters (in yellow dresses) held the stuffed lion mascot and bouquet of yellow flowers.

Armstrong began dating singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow in autumn of 2003 and revealed their relationship in January 2004. The couple announced their engagement in September 2005 and their split in February 2006. In October 2007, Armstrong and fashion designer Tory Burch ended a relationship after several months. After that, Armstrong was linked to Ashley Olsen, 15 years his junior. He has been dating Kate Hudson, an American actress. On July 30 2008, a representative for Hudson announced the relationship had ended amicably.

In December 2008, Armstrong announced that his girlfriend, Anna Hansen, was pregnant with his child. Although it was believed that Armstrong was unable to father children, this child was conceived naturally. The baby is due in June 2009.

Armstrong owns a house in Austin, Texas, as well as a ranch in the Texas Hill Country. Armstrong is a fan of The University of Texas Longhorns college football program and is often seen on the sidelines supporting the team. He is Agnostic "At the end of the day, if there was indeed some Body or presence standing there to judge me, I hoped I would be judged on whether I had lived a true life, not on whether I believed in a certain book, or whether I'd been baptized. If there was indeed a God at the end of my days, I hoped he didn't say, "But you were never a Christian, so you're going the other way from heaven." If so, I was going to reply, "You know what? You're right. Fine."" .

Armstrong has continually denied performance-enhancing drugs and has described himself as "the most tested athlete in the world". Throughout his career only one test showed doping products: in 1999, a urine sample showed traces of corticosteroids, but the amount was not in the positive range. A medical certificate later showed he used an approved cream for saddle sores which contained the substance. Armstrong bullied cyclist Christophe Bassons, a known and vocal "clean" cyclist, during the 2000 Tour, telling Bassons to "go home." Many people interpret Armstrong's opposition to vocally clean cyclists such as Bassons and the anti-doping lobby as being indicative of his guilt. Armstrong's recent spat with journalist Paul Kimmage at the Tour of California has attracted further speculation regarding Armstrong's supposed drug use.

In October 2005, in response to calls from the International Olympic Committee and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for an independent investigation, the UCI appointed Dutch lawyer Emile Vrijman to investigate the handling of urine tests by the French national anti-doping laboratory, LNDD. Vrijman was head of the Dutch anti-doping agency for ten years; since then he has worked as a defense attorney defending high-profile athletes against doping charges. Vrijman's report cleared Armstrong because of improper handling and testing. The report said tests on urine samples were conducted improperly and fell so short of scientific standards that it was "completely irresponsible" to suggest they "constitute evidence of anything." The recommendation of the commission's report was no disciplinary action against any rider on the basis of LNDD research. It also called upon the WADA and LNDD to submit themselves to an investigation by an outside independent authority. The WADA rejected these conclusions. The IOC Ethics Commission subsequently censured Dick Pound, the President of WADA and a member of the IOC, for his statements in the media that suggested wrongdoing by Armstrong.

Since retirement, Armstrong has focused on the Lance Armstrong Foundation, which supports people affected by cancer, and on other interests. He was the pace car driver of the Chevrolet Corvette Z06 for the 2006 Indianapolis 500.

In 2007, Armstrong with Andre Agassi, Muhammad Ali, Warrick Dunn, Jeff Gordon, Mia Hamm, Tony Hawk, Andrea Jaeger, Jackie Joyner-Kersee, Mario Lemieux, Alonzo Mourning, and Cal Ripken, Jr. founded Athletes for Hope, a charity which helps professional athletes get involved in charitable causes and inspires non-athletes to volunteer and support the community.

Armstrong ran the New York City Marathon with his friend, Robert Mc Elligott. With Nike, he assembled a pace team of Alberto Salazar, Joan Benoit Samuelson, and Hicham El Guerrouj to help him reach 3 hours. He struggled with shin splints and was on pace for a little above 3 hours but pushed through the last 5 miles (8.0 km) to 2h 59m 36s, finishing 856th. He said the race was extremely difficult compared to the Tour de France. "For the level of condition that I have now, that was without a doubt the hardest physical thing I have ever done. I never felt a point where I hit the wall. It was really a gradual progression of fatigue and soreness." The NYC Marathon had a dedicated camera on Armstrong throughout the event. This camera, according to Armstrong, pushed him to continue through points in which he would have normally "stopped and stretched". He also helped raise $600,000 for his LiveStrong campaign during the run.

Armstrong ran the 2007 NYC Marathon in 2h 46m 43s finishing 232nd. On April 21, 2008, he ran the Boston Marathon in 2h 50m 58s, finishing in the top 500.

In the New York Times, teammate George Hincapie hinted at Armstrong's running for Governor of Texas after cycling. In the July 2005 issue of Outside, Armstrong hinted at running for governor, although "not in '06". Armstrong and Former president George W. Bush, a Republican and fellow Texan, call themselves friends. Bush called Armstrong in France to congratulate him after his 2005 victory, and in August 2005, The Times reported the President had invited Armstrong to his Prairie Chapel Ranch to go mountain biking. In a 2003 interview with The Observer, Armstrong said: "He's a personal friend, but we've all got the right not to agree with our friends". Armstrong has described himself as; "Left of center, against the war in Iraq, and pro-choice".

In 2006, Armstrong began to clarify that he intends to be involved in politics as an activist for change in cancer policies. In a May 2006 interview with Sports Illustrated, Armstrong is quoted: "I need to run for one office, the presidency of the Cancer Fighters' Union of the World." Sports Illustrated quoted Armstrong that he fears halving his influence with legislators if he chose one side in politics. His foundation lobbies on behalf of cancer patients before United States Congress.

Armstrong announced on September 9, 2008 that he will return to pro cycling with the express goal of winning the 2009 Tour de France. "After talking with my children, my family and my closest friends, I have decided to return to professional cycling in order to raise awareness of the global cancer burden," Armstrong said on his livestrong.org website. VeloNews reported that Armstrong will race for no salary or bonuses, and will post his internally tested blood results online.

The announcement ended speculation that he would return with Team Astana in the Tour of California, Paris-Nice, the Tour de Georgia and the Dauphiné-Libéré. Astana missed the 2008 Tour after Alexandre Vinokourov was ejected from the 2007 Tour for testing positive.

Australian ABC radio reported on September 24, 2008 that Armstrong would compete in South Australia's Tour Down Under in early 2009. UCI rules say a cyclist has to be in an anti-doping program for six months before an event but the Tour Down Under brings him in short, but he was allowed to compete.

In October 2008, Armstrong confirmed he will compete in the 2009 Giro d'Italia, his first participation.

On 17 of January, Armstrong said at a press conference in Adelaide for the Tour Down Under that his comeback was motivated by spreading the Livestrong message and raise awareness of cancer.

In January 2009, Lance placed 29th in the Tour Down Under stage race in Australia, his first official sanctioned race since retiring after the 2005 season.

In February 2009, Armstrong was confirmed to compete in the Tour of Ireland from 19-23 August 2009, before then participating in the Livestrong Global Cancer Summit from August 24-26th in Dublin.

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Lance Armstrong Foundation

LIVESTRONG Survivorship Notebook.

The Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF) is a United States 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that provides support for people affected by cancer, founded in 1997 by cancer survivor and champion cyclist Lance Armstrong. The LAF states that its mission is 'to inspire and empower' cancer sufferers and their families, under the motto "unity is strength, knowledge is power and attitude is everything". The LAF also aims to provide practical information and tools for cancer sufferers in addition to its work in the fields of advocacy, public health and research. The organisation is based in Austin, Texas.

The LIVESTRONG Survivorship Notebook provides information on the physical, practical and emotional topics of cancer survivorship -- such as aftereffects of treatment -- to help those affected by cancer navigate and take control of their cancer experience. The Notebook covers a variety of issues, ranging from financial and estate planning to suggestions for record-keeping of surgery dates, changes in physical and emotional health, medications taken, chemotherapy and radiation treatments, and follow-up appointments. The Survivorship Notebook also provides stories from other cancer survivors and additional resources available.

The LIVESTRONG Resource for Cancer Survivors is an online resource of information to help cancer survivors navigate their survivorship experience. Survivorship Topics address physical, emotional and practical issues through high-level overviews that progress into more detailed information. In addition to the Survivorship Notebook and the online Resource, the LAF also provides culturally relevant and easy to read treatment brochures. The online Resource also includes more than 5,000 stories from cancer survivors who wanted to share their experience with others.

The LAF Community Program provides financial support and capacity-building to community-centered initiatives that address the physical, emotional and practical challenges of cancer survivorship. Through the program, the LAF awards planning, implementation and evolution grants to community, nonprofit organizations to serve the needs of people living with cancer as identified by the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship: Advancing Public Health Strategies. The LAF also offers its Community Program partners regular training, technical assistance and the opportunity to discuss challenges and exchange best practices at an annual Community Program conference. Since its inception in 2001, the LAF Community Program has awarded more than $3.7 million to 147 nonprofit organizations across the country.

The LIVESTRONG Survivorship Centers of Excellence Network (LIVESTRONG Network) advances the concept of survivorship research, care and services, and truly enhances the concept of collaboration. To date, the LAF has funded the following NCI-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers as members of the LIVESTRONG Network: UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (Los Angeles, Calif.); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Wash.); University of Colorado Cancer Center (Denver, Colo.); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, N.Y.); and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, Mass.).

Through participation in the LIVESTRONG Network, the collective productivity of the participating centers is considerably greater than the sum of their individual efforts. As part of the Network, each center will have formal partnerships with LIVESTRONG Survivorship Centers of Excellence affiliates, including those located in traditionally underserved communities. Through these relationships, the LAF seeks to facilitate information sharing of research results, new interventions, expertise, clinical trials, patient referrals and cancer survivors’ needs to significantly accelerate progress in the field of cancer survivorship.

LIVESTRONG SurvivorCare offers assistance to help survivors face the everyday physical, emotional and practical challenges of cancer through education, qualified referrals and counseling services. LIVESTRONG SurvivorCare provides emotional support, individual counseling, financial assistance, assistance with legal and/or insurance issues, and matching to clinical trials.

The LAF forms long-term agreements with organizations to enhance the public health infrastructure surrounding survivorship issues.

Developed for the public health community by LAF and the Centers for Disease Control, the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship helps health organizations, physicians and caregivers understand and address survivorship needs.

The LAF advocacy team sponsors initiatives to make survivorship a national health priority and help the voice of the cancer community be heard in Washington. The LAF educates lawmakers and the public; raises awareness about the health policy issues facing cancer survivors and their loved ones; and works to increase funding for federal cancer survivorship programs, increase access to quality care and reduce disparities in treatment. Currently, the LAF is specifically working to increase funding for the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NCI needs $6.17 billion to maintain its current pace of discovery and the CDC National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program needs $25 million.

The goal of LIVESTRONG Day is to increase awareness on Capitol Hill of the needs of cancer survivors. Every year, advocates go to Washington, D.C., to meet with Members of Congress and their staffs. In 2005, advocates asked for their commitment to eliminate cancer death and suffering and to provide the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) cancer survivorship programs with critical resources to support people affected by cancer.

In May 2002, President George W. Bush appointed Lance Armstrong to serve as a member of the President's Cancer Panel (PCP), and in August 2005, President Bush reappointed Lance to the PCP for a second, three-year term. The PCP monitors the development and execution of the activities of the National Cancer Program and reports directly to the President.

The LAF believes that unity is strength and that one of the best ways to act on that is to hold events that bring the cancer community together to raise money in support of its mission and to celebrate survivorship.

The LIVESTRONG Challenge is a series of community-building fundraising events that take place across the country. The LIVESTRONG Challenge includes the signature LIVESTRONG Ride, as well as 5K run/walk to allow people of all ages and physical abilities to participate and raise funds for cancer survivors. In 2006, they took place in Southern California; Portland, OR; Denver, CO; Philadelphia, PA; and Austin, TX. In 2007, events were held in Portland, OR; Philadelphia, PA; and Austin, TX. The 2008 locations are Portland, OR; San Jose, CA; Philadelphia, PA; and Austin, TX. More information is at the organization's the LIVESTRONG Challenge web site.

Riders who raise more than $10,000 for the LIVESTRONG Challenge will be invited to participate in the Ride for the Roses in Austin, Texas, on October 12-14.

The LAF relies on individuals in communities across the world to further its mission to inspire and empower people affected by cancer. Individuals, groups, businesses, schools and clubs can raise funds by holding events or participating in established events, such as marathons or triathlons. Events can include fun runs and walks, bicycle rides, silent auctions or other organized activities. Aside from events, supporters also create letter writing campaigns or set up booths at a local community event, such as a fair or picnic. The LAF provides a number of tools to assist its fundraisers. These tools include a fundraising logo, media kit (which includes a sample press release and sample solicitation letters), informational pieces, a personal fundraising page on livestrong.org and additional materials specific to the event type. For more information, go to livestrong.org.

The LAF has sold more than 70 million wristbands nationwide, in more than 60 countries and in every continent (with the exception of Antarctica). The success of the campaign is a testament to the reality that nearly everyone is affected in some way by cancer.

Proceeds from merchandise sold at the LIVESTRONG Store help support the LAF's mission to inspire and empower people affected by cancer. The store includes LIVESTRONG wristbands, t-shirts, polo shirts, headwear, cycling gear and other accessories.

LIVESTRONG Galas are annual fundraisers that benefit the LAF public health, advocacy and research programs. The evening's events include dinner, a silent auction, LIVESTRONG Awards for people who have made a significant impact in the world of cancer survivorship, as well as a moving program featuring a keynote speaker and celebrity guests.

Sponsored in part by HP, uses modified Compaq V2000z Laptops. Every laptop sold under this special edition series, starting with the L2000, $50 from the laptop purchase goes directly to the LAF. Included with the laptop is a pouch with a letter of gratitude, a LIVESTRONG wristband, and yellow headphones.

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Yellow jersey

Commercial version of maillot jaune, 2004

The Yellow jersey (French: Maillot jaune pronounced ) is the jersey worn by the leader of many multi-stage bicycle races, originally and most notably the Tour de France. It allows the rider who was in the overall lead at the end of the previous day to be easily identified.

In American English it is sometimes referred to as the mellow johnny, a mispronunciation of its French name given by Lance Armstrong, who wore it many times while winning the 1999-2005 races. The phrase has also been used as a nickname for Lance Armstrong.

Multi-day bicycle races, known as Tours from the French word for a "circuit", are decided by totalling the time each rider takes on the daily stages. From or to this total can be added bonuses or penalties, for winning individual stages or being first to top a mountain or for breaking the rules. The rider with the lowest time receives a yellow shirt, and the right to start the next stage, usually the next day, of the Tour de France in the yellow jersey.

The rider to receive the shirt after the last stage, nowadays in Paris, is the overall (or ultimate) winner of the Tour.

Similar leader's jerseys exist in other cycling races, but are not always yellow (the color being chosen by the individual race organizers). The Tour of California and the Vuelta a Espana use gold, the Giro d'Italia uses pink, and theTour Down Under uses an ochre-coloured jersey, as ochre is a colour strongly associated with Australia, particularly its desert regions.

The winner of the first Tour de France wore not a yellow jersey but a green armband. There is doubt over when the yellow jersey began. The Belgian rider Philippe Thys, who won the Tour in 1913, 1914 and 1920, recalled in the Belgian magazine Champions et Vedettes when he was 67 that he was awarded a yellow jersey in 1913 when the organiser, Henri Desgrange, asked him to wear a coloured jersey. Thys declined, saying making himself more visible in yellow would encourage other riders to ride against him.

The formal history, therefore, is that the first yellow jersey was worn by the Frenchman Eugène Christophe in the stage from Grenoble to Geneva on July 18, 1919. The colour was chosen either to reflect the yellow newsprint of the organising newspaper, L'Auto, or because yellow was an unpopular colour and therefore the only one available with which a manufacturer could create jerseys at late notice.

The two possibilities have been promoted equally but the idea of matching the colour of Desgrange's newspaper seems more probable because Desgrange wrote: "This morning I gave the valiant Christophe a superb yellow jersey. You already know that our director decided that the man leading the race should wear a jersey in the colours of L'Auto. The battle to wear this jersey is going to be passionate." It is possible, of course, that the availability of only yellow in sufficient quantities proved a happy chance for L'Auto and that Desgrange was justifying a choice that he had never had to make.

There was no formal presentation when Christophe wore his first yellow jersey in Grenoble, from where the race left at 2am for the 325km to Geneva. He was given it the night before and tried it on later in his hotel.

After Desgrange's death, his stylized initials were added to the yellow jersey, originally on the chest. They moved in 1969 to the sleeve to make way for a logo advertising Virlux. A further advertisement for the clothing company Nike appeared at the bottom of the zip fastener at the neck, the first supplementary advertisement on the maillot jaune.

Desgrange's initials returned to the front of the jersey in 1972, some years on the left, others on the right. They were removed in 1984 to make way for a commercial logo but reappeared in 2003 as part of the Tour's centenary celebrations. One set of initials is now worn on the upper right chest of the jersey.

The original yellow jerseys were of conventional style. Riders had to pull them over their head on the rostrum. For many years the jersey was made in only limited sizes and many riders found it a struggle to pull one on, especially when tired or wet. The presentation jersey is now made with a full-length zip at the back and the rider pulls it on from the front, sliding his hands through the sleeves rather like a strait-jacket. He then receives three further jerseys each day, plus money (referred to as the "rent") for each day he leads the race.

There is no copyright on the yellow jersey and it has been imitated by many other races, although not always for the best rider overall: in the Tour of Benelux yellow is worn by the best young rider.

The Lance Armstrong Foundation donated the yellow jersey from Armstrong's fourth Tour de France win (2002) to the National Museum of American History, a branch of the Smithsonian.

In the early years of the Tour de France, the time was measured in minutes. Although usually cyclists were seconds apart, sometimes several cyclists shared the same time. In 1913, before the introduction of the yellow jersey, this had happened with the two leaders, Philippe Thys and Jean Rossius.

After the introduction of the yellow jersey in 1919, the situation occurred twice more. The first time was in 1929, when even three riders had the same time when the race reached Bordeaux. Nicolas Frantz of Luxembourg and the Frenchmen Victor Fontan and André Leducq all rode in yellow, although none held it to the finish in Paris. In 1931, the situation occurred for the second time, when Charles Pélissier and Rafaele di Paco were both leading with the same time.

Riders who became race leader through the misfortune of others have ridden next day without the yellow jersey.

In 1950, Ferdi Kubler of Switzerland rode in his national jersey rather than yellow when the race leader, Fiorenze Magni abandoned the race along with the Italian team in protest at threats said to have been made by spectators.

Eddy Merckx declined the jersey in 1971 after its previous wearer, Luis Ocaña, crashed on the col de Mente in the Pyrenees.

The Dutchman Joop Zoetemelk did not wear the yellow jersey that passed to him in 1980 when his rival, Bernard Hinault retired with a knee injury.

In 1991, Greg Lemond rode without the jersey after a crash eliminated Rolf Sørensen of Denmark.

In 2005, Lance Armstrong refused to start in the yellow jersey after the previous owner David Zabriskie was eliminated by a crash, but put it on after the neutral zone on request of the race organizers.

The yellow jersey on the first day of the Tour is traditionally permitted to be worn by the winner of the previous year's race; however, wearing it is a choice left to the rider, and in recent years has gone out of fashion. If the winner does not ride, the jersey is not worn. The previous year's winner traditionally has race number "1" (with his teammates given the other single-digit racing numbers), with subsequent sets of numbers determined by the highest classified riders for that team in the previous Tour. The lead riders for a particular team will often wear the first number in the series (11, 21, 31 and so forth), but these riders are not necessarily contenders for the general classification - teams led by sprinters will often designate the maillot vert contender as their lead rider.

In 2007 there was neither a yellow jersey at the start of the race nor a number 1; the previous winner, Floyd Landis of the United States failed a doping control after the race and organisers declined to declare an official winner pending arbitration of the Landis case. On September 20, 2007, Landis was officially stripped of his title following the arbitration court's guilty verdict, and the 2006 title passed to Óscar Pereiro; in 2008, the runner-up in 2007, Cadel Evans was given the race number "1" when the 2007 winner, Alberto Contador was unable to defend his title due to a dispute between the organisers ASO and his new team Astana barring that team from riding the Tour.

In 1978 the Belgian rider Michel Pollentier became race leader after attacking on the Alpe d'Huez. He was disqualified the same day after trying to cheat a drugs test.

In 1988, Pedro Delgado of Spain won the Tour despite a drugs test which showed he had taken a drug which could be used to hide the use of steroids. News of the test was leaked to the press by the former organiser of the Tour, Jacques Goddet. Delgado was allowed to continue because the drug, probenecid, was banned by the International Olympic Committee but not by the Union Cycliste Internationale.

The 1996 winner, Bjarne Riis of Denmark said in 2007 that he had used drugs during the race. He was disqualified and asked to stay away from that year's Tour. Riis, as Directeur Sportif of the Danish Team CSC, has implemented a stringent drug-testing regime for the team's riders, and has become an important voice against doping in the sport.

The 2006 winner, Floyd Landis was disqualified more than a year after the race. After he failed a doping control after his stunning Stage 17 victory, an arbitration panel declared him guilty of doping in September 2007, after which the official title for the 2006 Tour passed to Óscar Pereiro. Landis appealed his case to the Court of Arbitration for Sport but lost this appeal at the end of June 2008 allowing Oscar Pereiro to start the 2008 edition of Le Tour de France as the unqualified 2006 Tour champion.

In 2007, the Danish rider Michael Rasmussen was withdrawn from the race by his team after complaints that he had not made himself available for drugs tests earlier in the year. Rasmussen said he had been in Mexico but there were reports that he had been seen training in Italy.

Maurice Garin won the Tour de France before yellow jerseys were awarded but in 1904 he was disqualified as winner after complaints that he and other riders had cheated. The allegations disappeared along with the Tour de France's other archives when they were taken south in 1940 to avoid the German invasion. But a man who as a small boy knew Garin recalled that the old man had admitted catching a train part of the way.

The rider who has most worn the yellow jersey is the Belgian Eddy Merckx, who wore it 96 days. The greatest number of riders to wear the jersey in a single edition of Le Tour de France is eight, which happened in 1958 and 1987. The 2008 edition of Le Tour witnessed 7 wearers (Alejandro Valverde, Roman Feillu, Stefan Schumacher, Kim Kirchen, Cadel Evans, Frank Schleck, Carlos Sastre), leaving the record unbroken.

The yellow jersey was made for decades, like all other cycling jerseys, from wool. No synthetic fibres existed which had both the warmth and the absorption of wool. Embroidery was expensive and so the only lettering to appear on the jersey was the H.D. of Desgrange's initials. Riders added the name of the team for which they were riding or the professional team for which they normally rode (in the years when the Tour was for national rather than sponsored teams) by attaching a panel of printed cloth to the front of the jersey by pins.

While synthetic material didn't exist in a way to create whole jerseys, synthetic thread or blends were added in 1947, following the arrival of Sofil as a sponsor. Sofil made artificial yarn. Riders believed in the pureness of wool, and especially the Frenchman Louison Bobet, or Louis Bobet as he was still known.

Bobet insisted that cyclists needed wool for their long days of sweating in the heat and dust. It was a matter of hygiene. Artificial fabrics made riders sweat too much. And, in his first Tour de France, he refused to wear the jersey with which he had been presented.

No compromise was possible. Goddet had to get Sofil to produce another jersey overnight, its logo still visible but artificial fabric absent.

For the veteran writer and television broadcaster Jean-Paul Ollivier, the woollen yellow jersey...

The advent of printing by flocking, a process in which cotton fluff is sprayed on to stencilled glue, and then of screen printing, combined with the domination of synthetic materials to increase the advertising on jerseys: the domination which Ollivier regrets. "All sorts of fantasies such as fluorescent jerseys or shorts," he said. Such was the quantity of advertising when Bernard Thévenet accepted the yellow jersey when the Tour finished for the first time on the Champs Elysées in 1975 that the French sports minister counted all the logos and protested to broadcasters. Since then the number of people with access to the podium has been restricted.

The French bank, Crédit Lyonnais, has sponsored the maillot jaune since 1987. The company has been a commercial partner of the Tour since 1981. It awards a toy lion - le lion en peluche - to each day's winner as a play on its name. In 2007, sponsorship of the jersey was credited to LCL, the new name for Crédit Lyonnais following its takeover by another bank, Crédit Agricole.

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Jan Ullrich

Jan Ullrich in Hanover.

1 Team names given are those prevailing at time of rider beginning association with that team.

Jan Ullrich (born December 2, 1973, in Rostock, East Germany) is a German former professional road bicycle racer. In 1997, he was the first German to win the Tour de France. He went on to take five second places and a fourth in 2004 and in 2005. In 2006, Ullrich was barred from the Tour amid speculation of having doped. He retired in late February 2007.

Ullrich had great power with a soft, athletic style, but he often got out of shape during the off-season.

Ullrich won a gold and a silver in the Olympics 2000 in Sydney. He also won the 1999 Vuelta a España. Although not a one-day specialist, he won the HEW Cyclassics in front of a home crowd in Hamburg in 1997, and had podium finishes in the hilly classic Clásica de San Sebastián. His victorious ride in the 1997 Tour de France led to a bicycle boom in Germany.

Ullrich won his first bicycle race at 11. He was educated in the sports training system of the German Democratic Republic attending the KJS sports school in Berlin in 1986. In 1988, he was champion of the German Democratic Republic. The school closed two years after the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989. He, his trainer Peter Sager, and teammates joined an amateur club in Hamburg until 1994. In 1991, he was 5th in the amateur cyclo-cross world championships.

In 1993, at the Hamburg club, Ullrich won the world amateur road championship in Oslo. Lance Armstrong won the professional championship.

In 1994 with Becker as his agent, Ullrich turned professional for the Telekom team under Walter Godefroot. He finished third behind Chris Boardman in the world time trial championship in Sicily.

Ullrich was inconspicuous in his first 18 months as a professional . In 1995 he became national time trial champion. He also achieved top ten placings on stages of the 1995 Tour de Suisse. At 21 he wanted to start the 1995 Tour de France but Godefroot thought it was early. Instead he went to the small German stage race, the Hofbrau Cup, where he ended 3rd. Ullrich started the Vuelta later that year only to abandon on stage 12.

Ullrich gave up a place in the 1996 German Olympic team to ride his first Tour. He finished the prologue 33 seconds down. He stayed within the top 20 until the mountains on stage 7 when Miguel Indurain cracked. Ullrich finished 30 seconds back, 22 behind his teammate Bjarne Riis while Indurain finished four minutes down. On the following stage, he finished in the same group as Indurain 40 seconds behind Riis. On stage 9, Riis rode into the yellow jersey while Ullrich finished 44 seconds back and also into 5th place overall 1 minute 38 seconds from Riis.

Over the final mountains, Ullrich rode into second place behind Riis, but he conceded time on each mountain stage, eventually being nearly four minutes behind Riis. He won the final individual time trial and secured his first Tour stage win. He cut 2 minutes 18 seconds into Riis's lead . This led Indurain to comment that Ullrich would win the Tour some day, adding that it was a remarkable victory considering that Ullrich had been helping Riis. Ullrich dismissed suggestions he would have done better if he had not had to help Riis, saying Riis had inspired the team. Jan finished his first tour in second place at 1 minute 41 seconds from his teammate Bjarne Riis.

Ullrich had two wins before the 1997 Tour, ere a stage in the Tour de Suisse and the national Road Race championship a week before the tour. He became favorite in the 1997 Tour de France. He started strongly, finishing second in the prologue behind Chris Boardman. On stage 9, the first mountain stage which was won by Laurent Brochard, Ullrich worked for Riis. Only on the last ascentwhen Richard Virenque attacked did Ullrich react. Riis struggled to keep up and finished 30 seconds behind Virenque, Marco Pantani and Ullrich. On stage 10 from Luchon to Arcalis Andorra, with Riis again falling back, Ullrich dropped back to the teamcar to ask permission to attack. He returned to the lead group and pushed up the climb leaving Pantani and Virenque. He finished a minute ahead which earned his first yellow jersey. L'Équipe, greeted Ullrich with Voilà le Patron ("Here is the boss"). Ullrich won the Stage 12 time trial with three minutes between himself and the second placed rider, Virenque, who had started three minutes in front of him.

Marco Pantani attacked on the stage to the Alpe d'Huez. Ullrich, who was nine minutes ahead of Pantani overall, limited his losses to 47 seconds. Pantani attacked again on the Morzine stage and won, while Ullrich again limited his losses. In the final time trial, won by Abraham Olano, Ullrich extended his lead over Virenque and the following day became the first German to win the Tour de France. At 23, Ullrich was the fourth youngest winner of the Tour since 1947. Two weeks later, he won the Hews Cycling Classic in Hamburg. A further two weeks later Ullrich was beaten by Davide Rebellin in a sprint in the GP Suisse. He was chosen "sports person of the year" in Germany in 1997.

Ullrich was defending champion in 1998. He took the yellow jersey on stage 7, a time trial, over 58km of undulating roads. But several stages later, Marco Pantani blew the Tour apart with a victory which began on the Galibier. Ullrich was without support when Pantani attacked. Pantani topped the Galibier alone. It was misty and the roads were wet. The descent was dangerous and Pantani increased his lead. By the bottom of the final climb, Les Deux Alpes, Pantani had nearly four minutes. Telekom brought Udo Bölts and then Riis to pace Ullrich. Pantani was race leader as he crossed the line he . Ullrich finished almost nine minutes back, dropping to fourth six minutes behind Pantani.

Ullrich attacked on stage 16 on the Col de la Madeleine. Only Pantani could match him. Ullrich did all the work. Over the top, they started to work together. Ullrich won a photo-finish sprint and moved into third. He won the final stage, a 20km time trial, and moved into second.

The Tour of 1998 was haunted by doping affairs, giving it the nickname "Tour de Dopage".

In the following year during the inaugural Deutschland Tour, Ullrich fell after getting entangled with Udo Bölts during stage 3. He he had a knee injury and could not ride the 1999 Tour, which ended in the first of seven victories for Lance Armstrong. Ullrich set his targets on the world time trial championship in October by riding the Vuelta.

On the first mountain stage, Ullrich narrowly won against the defending Vuelta a España champion Abraham Olano of Team ONCE in a group sprint that included Frank Vandenbroucke, Roberto Heras and Davide Rebellin. Olano took the leader's golden jersey with Ullrich second. Olano won the following stage, a time trial, with almost one minute over Ullrich and increased his lead in stage 8. On stage 11, Ullrich gained 30 seconds back on Olano. Ullrich took the lead on stage 12 won by Igor González de Galdeano, Olano cracked and finished seven minutes behind Ullrich. González had moved into second overall and became a threat to Ullrich. On stage 18 Banesto and other Spanish teams tried to crack Ullrich, who struggled on the final climb but recovered to limit his losses to González. In the final time trial, Ullrich won by almost three minutes and built his overall lead to four minutes on González. Ullrich won his second major Tour. Several weeks later he became world time trial champion over Sweden's Michael Andersson and Briton Chris Boardman.

The 2000 Tour de France brought Ullrich, Marco Pantani and Armstrong against each other for the first time. Armstrong proved too strong and won then and again in 2001. Ullrich crashed in 2001 and Armstrong waited for him to return to his bike. Ullrich cited his failure to defeat Armstrong as why he fell into depression next year.

Ullrich rode well in the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. After establishing a three-man break with Telekom teammates Andreas Klöden and Alexandre Vinokourov, Ullrich won the gold with Vinokourov second and Klöden rounding out the all-Telekom podium. He won the silver in the time-trial, losing by a small margin to Viatcheslav Ekimov but beating Armstrong into third.

In May 2002, Ullrich had his driver's license revoked after a drunk driving incident. After a positive blood sample for amphetamine in June 2002, Ullrich's contract with Team Telekom was ended, and he was banned for six months. He said he had taken ecstasy with amphetamine. He had not been racing since January due to a knee injury, and the German Cycling Federation's disciplinary committee agreed that he was not attempting to use the drug for performance enhancement, so he was given a minimum suspension.

In January 2003, Ullrich and his advisor Rudy Pevenage joined Team Coast, but Coast pulled out after financial problems and Team Bianchi replaced it. Ullrich returned to racing in March 2003 .

The 2003 Tour de France was the first for many years that Ullrich had not been considered a favorite. In the first week, Ullrich became sick and almost retired. He lost a minute and a half on Armstrong in the Alps. Ullrich fought back in the time trial. Armstrong had trouble with the heat and lost one and a half minutes to Ullrich. Ullrich was within a minute of Armstrong in the classification. The next day, he closed the gap by another 19 seconds in the first mountain stage. Two days later Ullrich rode away from Armstrong on the Tourmalet but Armstrong caught up. Half way into the climb, Armstrong's handlebar got caught in a spectator's bag and he fell. Ullrich waited. Armstrong caught the group and attacked shortly afterwards.

Ullrich lost 40 seconds in the final kilometers, but the final time trial would be decisive. In it, Ullrich crashed and saw a stage and Tour victory disappear. He ended second by 61 seconds.

Germany made Ullrich sportsman of the year.

For 2004 Ullrich returned to Team Telekom, now named T-Mobile. He won the Tour de Suisse. In the Tour de France, he finished fourth, 8:50 behind Armstrong, his first finish lower than second. Klöden finished second and Ivan Basso third.

For 2005, Ullrich again captained T-Mobile. He maintained a low profile for the early season, surfacing in the 2005 Tour de Suisse, which he finished third behind Aitor González and Michael Rogers.

The day before the 2005 Tour de France, Ullrich was training when his team car stopped unexpectedly. Ullrich hit the back window, ending up in the back seat of the car. Less than 24 hours later Ullrich was passed by Armstrong in the time trial. Ullrich fell again in the mountains, bruising his ribs. He could not keep up with Armstrong or Ivan Basso. Ullrich began focusing on finishing ahead of Michael Rasmussen for a podium position. He rode a good second time trial, beating all but Armstrong. Rasmussen had several crashes and bike changes, which gave Ullrich a podium place in the Tour.

Armstrong retired after the Tour in 2005. Ullrich decided to ride one or two more years. Early reports said Ullrich was in better shape than previous years and could be ready for his second victory in the Tour. Ullrich finished 115th in the Tour de Romandie on April 30. However, he injured his knee in the off- season, which could have limited his performance in the 2006 Tour, had he participated (see below).

In May, riding the Giro d'Italia to prepare for the Tour, Ullrich targeted the stage 11 50km time trial, and won by 28 seconds over Maglia Rosa Ivan Basso, who beat Marco Pinotti by another 33 seconds. Only five riders finished within two minutes of Ullrich.

Ullrich dropped out of the Giro during stage 19, with back pain. Rudy Pevenage said the problem was not bad but that Ullrich wanted to avoid Tour de France problems.

Ullrich won the Tour de Suisse for a second time, winning the final time trial and jumping from third to first .

Ullrich was mentioned in the weeks before the 2006 Tour de France in a Spanish doping scandal, Operación Puerto. Ullrich denied the rumors. However on 30 June 2006, one day before Tour, he was suspended from participating. Ivan Basso and other riders were also excluded. Ullrich maintains that he has nothing to do with Fuentes.

On 3 August 2006, doping expert Werner Franke claimed Ullrich purchased about €35,000 worth of doping products a year based on documents uncovered in the Operación Puerto doping case. A German court imposed a gag order on Franke after it found there was not enough evidence to link Ullrich to doping. On 14 September 2006, officials raided Ullrich's house and collected DNA material while Ullrich was honeymooning with his new wife Sara. On 4 April 2007, Ullrich's DNA sample, had "without a doubt" matched nine bags of blood taken from Eufemiano Fuentes' office.

On 18 October 2006, Ullrich laid off his personal physiotherapist Birgit Krohme. Speculation rose that this was a sign that Ullrich had given up hope of returning to racing. Ullrich denied these rumors. On 25 October 2006, a document from the Spanish court on Ullrich's website stated that no charges would be filed.

On Monday, 26 February, 2007, Ullrich retired. At the press conference in Hamburg he said, "Today, I'm ending my career as a professional cyclist. I never once cheated as a cyclist." He said he would be an advisor to Team Volksbank.

In May 2006 Ullrich launched Jan Ullrich Collection bicycles, which he helped to develop. The three models take their names from Ullrich's career.

Ullrich lived in Merdingen, Germany, from 1994 to 2002 with his partner Gaby Weiss, with whom he had a daughter, Sarah Maria, on 1 July, 2003. They moved to Scherzingen, Switzerland, in 2002. Since separating in 2005, said to be because Weiss's reluctance to be in the limelight conflicted with Ullrich's celebrity life, Ullrich has continued to live in Scherzingen. Weiss returned with Sarah to Merdingen. In September 2006 Ullrich married Sara Steinhauser, sister of his former teammate and training partner, Tobias Steinhauser. Their first child, Max, was born five weeks prematurely on 7 August 2007.

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Source : Wikipedia