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Posted by bender 03/30/2009 @ 21:14

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The three graces of Liverpool's waterfront: the Royal Liver Building, the Cunard Building and the Port of Liverpool Building. Visible in the background is Liverpool's Anglican Cathedral.

Liverpool (pronounced /ˈlɪvəpuːl/) is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880. Liverpool has a population of 435,500, and lies at the centre of the wider Liverpool Urban Area, which has a population of 816,216.

Historically a part of Lancashire, the urbanisation and expansion of Liverpool were broadly brought about by the city's status as a major port. By the 18th century, trade from the West Indies, Ireland and mainland Europe coupled with close links with the Atlantic Slave Trade furthered the economic expansion of Liverpool. By the early 19th century, 40% of the world's trade passed through Liverpool's docks, contributing to Liverpool's rise as a major city.

Inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians but are also known as "Scousers", in reference to the local dish known as "scouse", a form of stew. The word "Scouse" has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Liverpool's status as a port city has contributed to its diverse population, which draws from a wide range of peoples, cultures, and religions, particularly those from Ireland.

The popularity of The Beatles and the other groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination; tourism forms a significant part of the city's modern economy. In 2007 the city celebrated its 800th anniversary, and in 2008 it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, Norway.

In 2004, several areas throughout the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO. Referred to as the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City, the site comprises six separate locations in the city including the Pier Head, Albert Dock and William Brown Street and includes many of the city's most famous landmarks.

In the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. As trade from the West Indies surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, and as the River Dee silted up, Liverpool began to grow. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade helped the town to prosper and rapidly grow. By the close of the century Liverpool controlled over 41% of Europe's and 80% of Britain's slave commerce.

By the start of the 19th century, 40% of the world's trade was passing through Liverpool and the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. The population continued to rise rapidly, especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. By 1851, approximately 25% of the city's population was Irish-born. During the first part of the 20th century, Liverpool was drawing immigrants from across Europe.

The Housing Act 1919 resulted in mass council housing building across Liverpool during the 1920s and 1930s. Thousands of families were rehoused from the inner-city to new suburban housing estates, based on the pretext that this would improve their standard of living, though this is largely subjective. A large number of private homes were also built during this era. The process continued after the Second World War, with many more new housing estates being built in suburban areas, while some of the older inner city areas where also redeveloped for new homes.

During the Second World War there were 80 air-raids on Merseyside, killing 2,500 people and causing damage to almost half the homes in the metropolitan area. Significant rebuilding followed the war, including massive housing estates and the Seaforth Dock, the largest dock project in Britain. Much of the immediate reconstruction of the city centre has been deeply unpopular, and was as flawed as much town planning renewal in the 1950s and 1960s - the portions of the city's heritage that survived German bombing could not withstand the efforts of urban renewal. Since 1952 Liverpool has been twinned with Cologne, Germany, a city which also experienced aerial bombing during the war.

In the 1960s Liverpool became a centre of youth culture. The "Merseybeat" sound which became synonymous with The Beatles and fellow Liverpudlian rock bands of the era catapulted the city to the front of the popular music scene.

From the mid-1970s onwards Liverpool's docks and traditional manufacturing industries went into sharp decline. The advent of containerization meant that the city's docks became largely obsolete. In the early 1980s unemployment rates in Liverpool were among the highest in the UK. In recent years, Liverpool's economy has recovered and has experienced growth rates higher than the national average since the mid-nineties.

Previously part of Lancashire, and a county borough from 1889, Liverpool became in 1974 a metropolitan borough within the newly created metropolitan county of Merseyside.

At the end of the 20th century Liverpool was concentrating on regeneration, a process which still continues today. To celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II in 2002, the conservation charity Plantlife organised a competition to choose county flowers; the sea-holly was Liverpool's final choice.

Capitalising on the popularity of the 1960s rock group The Beatles and other groups of the Merseybeat era, tourism has also become a significant factor in Liverpool's economy.

In 2004, property developer Grosvenor started the Paradise Project, a £920 m development centered on Paradise Street, which involved the most significant changes to Liverpool's city centre since the post-war reconstruction. Renamed 'Liverpool 1', the centre opened in May 2008.

In 2007 the city celebrated the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, for which a number of events were planned. Liverpool is a joint European Capital of Culture for 2008. The main celebrations in September 2008 involved La Princesse, a large mechanical spider which is 20 metres high and weighs 37 tonnes, and represents the "eight legs" of Liverpool: honour, history, music, the Mersey, the ports, governance, sunshine and culture. La Princesse roamed the streets of the city during the festivities, and concluded by entering the Queensway Tunnel.

Liverpool has three tiers of governance; the Local Council, the National Government and the European Parliament. Liverpool is officially governed by a Unitary Authority, as when Merseyside County Council was disbanded civic functions were returned to a district borough level. However several services such as the Police and Fire and Rescue Service, continue to be run at a county-wide level.

The City of Liverpool is governed by Liverpool City Council, and is one of five metropolitan boroughs that combine to make up the metropolitan county of Merseyside. The council consists of 90 elected councillors who represent local communities throughout the city, as well as a five man executive management team who are responsible for the day to day running of the council. Part of the responsibility of the councillors is the election of a council leader and Lord Mayor. The council leader's responsibility is to provide directionality for the council as well as acting as medium between the local council, central government and private & public partners. The Lord Mayor acts as the 'first citizen' of the city and is responsible for promoting the city, supporting local charities & community groups as well as representing the city at civic events The current council leader is Warren Bradley, and current Lord Mayor is Councillor Steve Rotheram.

As of September 2008 the council is controlled by the Liberal Democrats who took 45 seats to Labour's 39 in the most recent local election. Of the remaining seats the Liberal Party won three, the Green Party claimed two and the last one went to an independent councillor. The Conservative Party, one of the three major political parties in the UK had no representation on Liverpool City Council. Officially the result was classified as no overall control in the city, however following the defection of Croxteth Independent Councillor Nadia Stewart, the Lib Dems increased their number of seats to 46 allowing the current administration to continue. In February 2008, Liverpool City Council was revealed to be the worst performing council in the country, receiving just a one star rating (classified as inadequate). The main cause of the poor rating was attributed to the councils poor handling of tax-payer money, including the accumulation of a £20m shortfall on Capital of Culture funding.

Within Liverpool there are five parliamentary constituencies through which Members of Parliament (MPs) are elected to represent the city in Westminster: Liverpool Garston, Liverpool Riverside, Liverpool Walton, Liverpool Wavertree and Liverpool West Derby. At the last General Election all were won by Labour with representation being from Maria Eagle, Louise Ellman, Peter Kilfoyle, Jane Kennedy and Bob Wareing respectively. In proposed constituency boundary changes for the next UK election, Liverpool will only have four seats completely within the city boundaries after the announcement of plans to merge Liverpool Garston with Halewood (which was previously part of Knowsley South), creating a cross-boundary seat.. The Conservative party has not won a city constituency since 1979, and at the last election in 2005 scored less than 10% in every seat.

At 53°24′0″N 2°59′0″W / 53.4°N 2.98333°W / 53.4; -2.98333 (53.4, -2.98), 176 miles (283 km) northwest of London, the city of Liverpool is built across a ridge of sandstone hills rising up to a height of around 230 feet (70 metres) above sea-level at Everton Hill, which represents the southern boundary of the West Lancashire Coastal Plain. It has been described as having "the most splendid setting of any English city." Liverpool Urban Area runs directly into Bootle, Crosby and Maghull in south Sefton to the north, and Kirkby, Huyton, Prescot and Halewood in Knowsley to the east. It faces Wallasey and Birkenhead across the River Mersey to the west.

Liverpool experiences a temperate maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with relatively cool summers and mild winters. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year with an average of 282 days of rain per annum which compares with the UK average of 154.4. Snowfall is not a common sight in the city, with an average of only 22 days per annum.

As with other major British cities, Liverpool has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of Liverpool was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the ONS had the city's population as 435,500, which would make it the sixth largest district in the UK (N.B. This figure includes only those areas officially within the city boundaries). Liverpool’s population peaked in 1930s with 846,101 recorded in the 1931 census. Since then the city has experienced negative population growth every decade, with at its peak over 100,000 people leaving the city between 1971 and 1981. Between 2001 and 2006 it experienced the ninth largest percentage population loss of any UK unitary authority, although it has been suggested that overall the city's population is now stabalising after rapid decline in the 1980s and 1990s.

In common with many cities, Liverpool's population is younger than that of England as a whole, with 42.3 per cent of its population under the age of 30, compared to an English average of 37.4 per cent. 65.1 per cent of the population is of working age.

Liverpool is home to Britain's oldest Black community, dating to at least the 1730s. The city also contains the oldest Chinese community in Europe; the first residents of the city's Chinatown arrived as seamen in the nineteenth century. The city is also known for its large Irish and Welsh populations. In 1813, 10 per cent of Liverpool's population was Welsh, leading to the city becoming known as "the capital of North Wales". Following the start of the Irish Potato Famine, two million Irish people migrated to Liverpool in the space of one decade, many of them subsequently departing for the United States. By 1851, more than 20 per cent of the population of Liverpool was Irish. At the 2001 Census, 1.17 per cent of the population were Welsh-born and 0.75 per cent were born in the Republic of Ireland, while 0.54 per cent were born in Northern Ireland, but many more Liverpudlians are of Welsh or Irish ancestry.

As of 2005, an estimated 92.3 per cent of Liverpool's population was White, 1.9 per cent Asian or Asian British, 1.8 per cent Black or Black British, 1.9 per cent mixed-race and 2.1 per cent Chinese and other.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of Liverpool at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of pounds sterling.

The economy of Liverpool is beginning to recover from its long, post-World War II decline. Between 1995 and 2001 GVA per head grew at 6.3% annum. This compared with 5.8% for inner London and 5.7% for Bristol. The rate of job growth was 9.2% compared with a national average of 4.9% for the same period, 1998-2002. However, Liverpool is still comparatively poor; a 2001 report by CACI showed that Liverpool still had four of the ten poorest postcode districts in the country, and almost 30% of people aged 65 or over are without central heating.

Like the rest of the United Kingdom the city has seen a large growth in the service sector, both public and private. Government offices include parts of the National Health Service, Revenue and Customs and Home Office agencies such as the Criminal Records Bureau and the Identity and Passport Service, formerly the UK Passport Agency. Major private sector service industry concerns have also invested in Liverpool especially the financial services sector with Barclays, JPMorgan, Abbey National, Alliance & Leicester, Royal Bank of Scotland Group, HBOS and the Bank of Ireland either opening or expanding their sites, a number of major call centres have opened in recent years too and the professional advice sector. The activities of the port had, due to containerisation and reduced levels of commerce, left the region with a communications infrastructure that exceeded its requirements, however the port's cargo volumes have picked up significantly.

Growth in the areas of New Media has been helped by the existence of a relatively large computer game development community. Sony based one of only a handful of European PlayStation research and development centres in Wavertree, after buying out noted software publisher Psygnosis. According to a 2006 issue of industry magazine 'Edge' (issue 162), the first professional quality PlayStation software developer's kits were largely programmed by Sony's Liverpool 'studio'.

Tourism is a major factor in the economy and this has led to a great increase in the provision of high quality services such as hotels, restaurants and clubs. The buildings of Liverpool also attract film makers, who regularly use Liverpool to double for cities around the world and making it the second most filmed city in the UK.Liverpool is also one of the few cities in the world where cruise liners can berth in the city centre, and from 2008 a significant number of ships will either set sail or call at Liverpool's cruise liner terminal, including the Grand Princess, and the QE2. Large naval ships coming in to dock also draw large crowds on sunny days. Liverpool and its boroughs have a large number of sandy beaches accessible by Merseyrail, which prove popular in the summer months.

Car-manufacturing also takes place in the city at the Halewood plant where the Jaguar X-Type and Land Rover Freelander models are assembled.

The owner of Liverpool's port and airport, Peel Holdings, announced on 6 March 2007 that is had plans to redevelop the city's northern dock area with a scheme entitled Liverpool Waters, which may see the creation of 17,000 jobs and £5.5bn invested in the vicinity over a 50 year period. This is coupled with a sister scheme on the other side of the River Mersey, called Wirral Waters.

Liverpool's main shopping area is Church Street, lying between Bold Street to the East and Lord Street to the West. Liverpool One opened fully in October 2008 being the redevelopment of a large part of the postcode area L1—hence the name. It is also partly built on the old Chavasse Park, but much of the park still remains.

Liverpool's history means that there are a considerable variety of architectural styles found there. Its role as a major port in the British Empire means that many of finest buildings in the city were built as headquarters for shipping firms and insurance companies, whilst the great wealth this afforded the city allowed the development of grand civic buildings, designed to allow the local administrators to 'run the city with pride'.

There are over 2,500 listed buildings in Liverpool (of which 26 are Grade I listed and 85 are Grade II* listed) and only the UK capital London, has more. It has been the beneficiary of high-minded public spirit since the late 18th century, largely with Dissenter impetus, resulting in more public sculpture than in any UK city aside from Westminster, more listed buildings than any city apart from London and more Georgian houses than the city of Bath, though most date from after the Georgian era. Liverpool is also described by English Heritage as England's finest Victorian city.

Renowned architects are particularly well represented in Liverpool, including Peter Ellis, John Wood, the Elder of Bath (commissioned in 1749 to design the original Public Exchange which later became the Town Hall), Thomas 'Greek' Harrison, James Wyatt, Harvey Lonsdale Elmes, Philip Hardwick, Jesse Hartley (Dock engineer and architect of the Albert Dock and Stanley Dock), Charles Cockerell, Thomas Rickman, John Foster, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, J.J. Scholes, Sir Joseph Paxton, Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, J.K. Colling, J.A. Picton, George Edmund Street, John Loughborough Pearson, E.W. Pugin, E.R. Robson, Edmund Kirby, Sir Edwin Lutyens, Sir Frederick Gibberd, Alfred Waterhouse (who was born in Aigburth), W.D. Caroe, Leonard Stokes, Norman Shaw, James Francis Doyle, Walter Aubrey Thomas (architect of the iconic Royal Liver Building on the Liverpool waterfront), Gerald de Courcy Fraser, Charles Reilly and Herbert Rowse (architect of Martins Bank, Queensway Tunnel and India Buildings).

In 2004, Liverpool's waterfront was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage site, reflecting the city's importance in the development of the world's trading system and dock technology.

The docks are central to Liverpool's history, with the best-known being Albert Dock: the first enclosed, non-combustible dock warehouse system in the world and is built in cast iron, brick and stone. It was designed by Jesse Hartley. Restored in the 1980s, the Albert Dock has the largest collection of Grade I listed buildings in Britain. Part of the old dock complex is now the home to the Merseyside Maritime Museum (an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage), the International Slavery Museum and the Tate Liverpool. Other relics of the dock system include the Stanley Dock Tobacco Warehouse, which at the time of its construction in 1901, was the world's largest building in terms of area, and is still the world's largest brick-work building. Also the ill-fated passenger liner RMS Titanic was registered in Liverpool.

They were built on the site of the former George's Dock and Manchester Dock.

Kings Dock immediately south of the Albert Dock is the site of the Liverpool Echo Arena and BT Convention Centre which officially opened on the 12 January 2008.

In front of these buildings at the water's edge are the memorials to the men of the merchant navy who sailed out of the port during both World Wars. Memorials to the British mariners, Norwegian, Dutch and to the thousands of Chinese seamen who manned Britain's ships cluster together here. Perhaps most interesting is the Chinese memorial to the men forcibly deported from the city after World War Two and to the families they left behind.

The thousands of migrants and sailors passing through Liverpool resulted in a religious diversity that is still apparent today. This is reflected in the equally diverse collection of religious buildings, and two Christian cathedrals.

Christ Church, in Buckingham Road, Tuebrook, is a conservative evangelical congregation and is affiliated with the Evangelical Connexion. They worship using the 1785 Prayer Book, and regard the Bible as the sole rule of faith and practice.

The parish church of Liverpool is the Anglican Our Lady and St Nicholas, colloquially known as "the sailors church", which has existed near the waterfront since 1257. It regularly plays host to Catholic masses. Other notable churches include the Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas (built in the Neo-Byzantine architecture style), and the Gustav Adolfus Kyrka (the Swedish Seamen's Church, reminiscent of Nordic styles).

Liverpool's wealth as a port city enabled the construction of two enormous cathedrals, both dating from the 20th century. The Anglican Cathedral, which was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and plays host to the annual Liverpool Shakespeare Festival, has one of the longest naves, largest organs and heaviest and highest peals of bells in the world. The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral, on Mount Pleasant next to Liverpool Science Park was initially planned to be even larger. Of Sir Edwin Lutyens' original design, only the crypt was completed. The cathedral was eventually built to a simpler design by Sir Frederick Gibberd; while this is on a smaller scale than Lutyens' original design, it still manages to incorporate the largest panel of stained glass in the world. The road running between the two cathedrals is called Hope Street, a coincidence which pleases believers. The cathedral is colloquially referred to as "Paddy's Wigwam" due to its shape and the vast number of Irish men who worked on its construction and are living in the area.

Liverpool contains several synagogues, of which the Grade I listed Moorish Revival Princes Road Synagogue is architecturally the most notable. Princes Road is widely considered to be the most magnificent of Britain's Moorish Revival synagogues and one of the finest buildings in Liverpool. Liverpool has a thriving Jewish community with a further two orthodox Synagogues, one in the Allerton district of the city and a second in the Childwall district of the city where a significant Jewish community reside. A third orthodox Synagogue in the Greenbank Park area of L17 has recently closed, and is a listed 1930s structure. There is also a Lubavitch Chabad House and a reform Synagogue. Liverpool has had a Jewish community since the mid-18th century. The current Jewish population of Liverpool is around 3000.

Liverpool also has an increasing Hindu community, with a Mandir on 253 Edge Lane; the Radha Krishna Hindu Temple from the Hindu Cultural Organisation based there. The current Hindu population in Liverpool is about 1147. Liverpool also has the Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara in L15.

The city had one of the earliest mosques in Britain, founded in 1887 by William Abdullah Quilliam, a lawyer who had converted to Islam. This mosque, which was also the first in England, however no longer exists. Plans have been ongoing to re-convert the building where the mosque once stood into a museum. Currently there are three mosques in Liverpool: the largest and main one, Al-Rahma mosque, in the Toxteth area of the city and a mosque recently opened in the Mossley Hill district of the city. The third mosque was also recently opened in Toxteth and is on Granby Street.

The area around William Brown Street has been labeled the city's 'Cultural Quarter', owing to the presence of the William Brown Library, Walker Art Gallery and World Museum Liverpool, just three of Liverpool's neo-classical buildings. Nearby is St George's Hall, perhaps the most impressive of these neo-classical buildings. It was built to serve a variety of civic functions, including both as a concert hall and as the city's law courts. Its doors, inscribed "S.P.Q.L." (Latin senatus populusque Liverpudliensis—"the senate and people of Liverpool"), as well as its grand architecture proclaim the municipal pride and ambition of the city in the mid-nineteenth century. Also in this area are Wellington's Column and the Steble Fountain.

Liverpool's Town Hall dates from 1754 and has an interior which is well-regarded architecturally. The city's stock exchange and financial district are set immediately behind this building, and show how closely government and commerce were tied in the city's development.

At 40 storeys, West Tower is Liverpool's tallest building.

The Adelphi Hotel on Ranelagh Street is the most famous hotel in Liverpool and was very popular in the days when luxury liners crossed the Atlantic when it was described as the great Cunard liner stuck in the middle of the city. A 'fly-on-the-wall' TV documentary series was made on it and its staff.

The Atlantic Tower hotel near pier head was designed to resemble the prow of a ship to reflect Liverpool's maritime history.

The term Red Brick University, applied to British universities dating from a similar period, was inspired by the University of Liverpool's Victoria Building, noted for its clock tower.

Some of Liverpool's landmarks are better known for their oddness rather than for their role. The Williamson Tunnels are architecturally unique as being the largest underground folly in the world. The Philharmonic Dining Rooms are noteworthy for their ornate Victorian toilets, which have become a tourist attraction in their own right.

On Renshaw Street there is the new alternative shopping centre Grand Central Hall—which has not only fine external architecture but also has much to offer inside, such as the metalwork and ceiling decoration of the Ground floor and the fantastic domed ceiling of Roscoe Hall. It was originally built in 1905, under the guidance of the Methodist Church, as a 2,000-seat cinema. The original organ of Roscoe Hall still remains and is a listed item itself, although recent shop additions to the hall have obscured the view somewhat.

In the south of the city, the art deco former terminal building of Speke Airport, used from the 1930s to 1986, has been adapted for use as a hotel, and is now the Crowne Plaza Liverpool John Lennon Airport. The terraces from which fans welcomed home The Beatles have been preserved.

Everton water tower is a Grade II listed building.

There are three tunnels under the River Mersey: the Mersey Railway Tunnel; and two road tunnels, Queensway Tunnel and Kingsway Tunnel.

The Mersey Ferry continues to provide an important link between Liverpool and the Wirral, as well as a tourist attraction. Made famous by the song Ferry Cross the Mersey by Gerry & The Pacemakers, the song is now played on the ferryboats themselves every time they prepare to dock at Liverpool after a tourist cruise.

The Mersey is crossed upstream from Liverpool at Runcorn and Widnes, by the Silver Jubilee Bridge (usually known simply as the "Runcorn Bridge") and the Runcorn Railway Bridge.

Built between 1770 and 1816 the Leeds and Liverpool Canal links Liverpool and the Mersey to Leeds and the River Aire. Its terminus had been at Old Hall Street, Pall Mall, Chisenhale Street, but that section now ends at Eldonian Village. A flight of locks just north of there takes the canal down to Stanley Dock, famous for the Tobacco Warehouse, and on to the main dock system.

A new link across the front of the Pier Head buildings will link the northern docks to the Albert Dock is presently under construction, with the plan being to open it during Liverpool's Capital of Culture Year of 2008.

Opened in the 1930s, Liverpool Airport, is situated near Speke in the south of the city. It was renamed Liverpool John Lennon Airport in 2001, in honour of the late Beatle John Lennon. The airport's logo consists of a sketch that John Lennon had drawn of himself, and the words "Above us only sky", lyrics from his song Imagine. The sensitivity surrounding the airport's name change meant that the logo had to be designed in secret before it could be unveiled by John Lennon's widow Yoko Ono. The airport was the starting point for Beatles tours in the sixties, and images of the band boarding planes there were seen throughout the world. In 2006 the airport handled nearly 5 million passengers and now serves 64 destinations, including many key European cities. New routes to New York and Toronto in summer 2007 were withdrawn towards the end of the year, as was the route to London City Airport, due to low passenger numbers.

In 2002, 716,000 passengers used the Port of Liverpool, with the Isle of Man and Ireland being the two most important passenger routes, goods trade which was very low in the past decades, is growing up now. Together, the Port of Liverpool and Manchester Ship Canal offer a comprehensive range of port facilities, handling more than 40 million tonnes of cargo and 15,000 ship movements a year – making the River Mersey Britain's third busiest estuary.

The Port and Canal form the "green" gateway to an economy of more than 120,000 industrial and commercial enterprises and a population equal to that of greater London.

The Port of Liverpool and the Manchester Ship Canal are now as one under the banner of Peel Ports, the UK's second largest ports group.

Liverpool is served by the Merseyrail urban rail network. The sections in the city centre are mostly underground. It has three lines: the Northern Line, which runs to Southport, Ormskirk, Kirkby and Hunts Cross; the Wirral Line, which runs through the Mersey Railway Tunnel and has branches to New Brighton, West Kirby, Chester and Ellesmere Port; and the City Line, only from Lime Street, for St Helens,Wigan, preston, Warrington and Manchester.

The city's main railway station for longer-distance services is Lime Street station, one of the most famous railway stations in Britain. Trains operate to destinations including London (in 2 hours 8 minutes) with Pendolino trains, Birmingham, Newcastle upon Tyne, Manchester, Preston, Leeds, Scarborough, Sheffield, Nottingham and Norwich.

The London line was one of the first electrified in Britain with wire (with Manchester and Glasgow).

Liverpool had been home to the first electrically powered overhead railway in the world. Known as the Liverpool Overhead Railway (or Dockers Umbrella) it opened on 4 February 1893 with an eventual total of 14 stations. The line suffered extensive damage during the Second World War and was eventually closed down on 30 December 1956 with considerable protest. The tunnel portal in Dingle is one of the only surviving signs of the railway's existence as the iron bridges were removed for scrap.

Long distance coach services arrive at and depart from the Norton Street Coach Station. Local buses serve the whole of the city and its surrounding areas. The two principal termini for local buses are Queen Square Bus Station (located near Lime Street railway station) for services north and east of the city, and Paradise Street Interchange (located near the Albert Dock) for services to the south and east. Cross-river services to the Wirral use roadside terminus points in Castle Street and Sir Thomas Street.

Historically, Liverpool had an extensive tram network, construction of which started in 1869 by the Liverpool Tramways Company; however, this was dismantled in the 1950s. Other railway lines, such as the Canada Dock Branch from Edge Hill to Kirkdale, no longer see passenger services, or have been removed completely, such as the North Liverpool Extension Line.

In 2001, a plan to build new a light rail system, Merseytram was developed. After central government insisted on additional guarantees prior to the release of previously committed funds, it was cancelled in November 2005. However, it is to be included in the transport plan from 2006-2011, as it is deemed to be an important part of Liverpool's development.

Liverpool has direct road links with many other major areas of England.

The M62 motorway connects Liverpool with Hull and along the route also provides a link with areas including Manchester, Leeds and Huddersfield, and not far along the M62 from Liverpool is the interchange with the M6 that provides links to more distant areas including Birmingham, Staffordshire, the Lake District and the Scottish border.

The Kingsway and Queensway tunnels give a direct link to the A41 that eventually stretches to London, although using the M62 or M6 and eventually M1 is a far quicker route from Liverpool to London. However, the A41 is a relatively quick and direct link with Cheshire and Shropshire.This in turn provides a quick link to the A55 road that runs along the North Wales coastline.

In the early 1960s there were plans to build a "Liverpool Inner Motorway" which would been similar to the "urban motorways" which were later built around the cities of Manchester and Leeds. The motorway was still a possibility as the 1970s drew to a close, but it was never built.

Liverpool is internationally known as a cultural centre, with a particularly rich history in popular music (most notably The Beatles), performing and visual arts. In 2003, Liverpool was named a European Capital of Culture for 2008, the other site being Stavanger, Norway. A series of cultural events during 2003-9 is planned, peaking in 2008.

A number of notable authors have visited Liverpool including Daniel Defoe, Washington Irving, Thomas De Quincey, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Charles Dickens, and Gerald Manley Hopkins all of whom spent extended periods in the city. Hawthorne was stationed in Liverpool as United States consul between 1853 and 1856. Although he never visited, Jung had a vivid dream of the city which he analysed in one of his works.

Liverpool has a history of musical innovation with the sea shanty, Merseybeat and The Beatles all originating in the city. Since the 1960s, Liverpool has been home to a thriving music scene. The city is also home to the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, head quartered in the Philharmonic Hall, and to a youth orchestra. Max Bruch was one of numerous notable conductors of the RLPO, and dedicated his famous Kol Nidre to the Jewish community in the city. Sir Edward Elgar dedicated his famous Pomp and Circumstance No.1, Land of Hope and Glory, to the Liverpool Orchestral Society, and the piece had its first performance in the city in 1901.

During the late 1960s the city became well-known for the Liverpool poets, who include Roger McGough and the late Adrian Henri. An anthology of poems, The Mersey Sound, written by Henri, McGough and Brian Patten, has sold over 500,000 copies since first being published in 1967.

Liverpool also has a history of performing arts, reflected in its annual theatrical highlight The Liverpool Shakespeare Festival which takes place inside Liverpool Cathedral and in the adjacent historic St James' Gardens every summer, and by the number of theatres in the city. These include the Empire, Everyman, Liverpool Playhouse, Neptune, Royal Court and the Unity Theatre. The Everyman Theatre, Unity Theatre and Playhouse Theatre all run their own theatre companies.

Liverpool has more galleries and national museums than any other city in the United Kingdom apart from London. The Tate Liverpool gallery houses the modern art collection of the Tate in the North of England and was, until the opening of Tate Modern, the largest exhibition space dedicated to modern art in the United Kingdom. The FACT centre hosts touring multimedia exhibitions, whilst the Walker Art Gallery houses an extensive collection of Pre-Raphaelites. Sudley House contains another major collection of pre 20th century art., and the number of galleries continues to expand: Ceri Hand Gallery opened in 2008, exhibiting primarily contemporary art, and Liverpool University's Victoria Building was re-opened as a public art gallery and museum to display the University's artwork and historical collections which include the second-largest display of art by Audubon outside the US.

Artists have also come from the city, including painter George Stubbs who was born in Liverpool in 1724.

The Liverpool Biennial festival of arts runs from mid-September to late November and comprises three main sections; the International, The Independents and New Contemporaries although fringe events are timed to coincide. It was during the 2004 festival that Yoko Ono's work "My mother is beautiful" caused widespread public protest when photographs of a naked woman's pubic area were exhibited on the main shopping street. Despite protests the work remained in place.

In Liverpool primary and secondary education is available in various forms supported by the state including secular, Church of England, Jewish, and Roman Catholic. Islamic education is available at primary level, but there is currently no secondary provision. One of Liverpool's important early schools was The Liverpool Blue Coat School; founded in 1708 as a charitable school.

The Liverpool Blue Coat School is the top-performing school in the city with 100% 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE resulting in the 30th best GCSE results in the country and an average point score per student of 1087.4 in A/AS levels. Other notable schools include Liverpool College founded in 1840 Merchant Taylors' School founded in 1620. Another of Liverpool's notable senior schools is St. Edward's College situated in the West Derby area of the city. Historic grammar schools, such as the Liverpool Institute High School & Liverpool Collegiate, closed in the 1980s are still remembered as centres of academic excellence. Bellerive Catholic College is the city's top performing non selective school, based upon GCSE results in 2007.

Liverpool has three universities: the University of Liverpool, Liverpool John Moores University and Liverpool Hope University. Edge Hill University, originally founded as a teacher-training college in the Edge Hill district of Liverpool, is now located in Ormskirk in South-West Lancashire.

The University of Liverpool, was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool. In 1884, became part of the federal Victoria University. Following a Royal Charter and Act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university, the University of Liverpool, with the right to confer its own degrees.

Liverpool Hope University, founded in 1844, is situated on both sides of Taggart Avenue in Childwall and a second Campus in the City Centre (The Cornerstone). Hope is quickly making a name for itself within the Liberal Arts, the University has also enjoyed successes in terms of high graduate employability, campus development, and a substantial increase in student applications from outside of the City.

The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, founded to address some of the problems created by trade, continues today as a post-graduate school affiliated with the University of Liverpool and is one of only two institutions internationally that house the de facto standard anti-venom repository.

Liverpool John Moores University was previously a polytechnic, and gained status in 1992. It is named in honour of Sir John Moores, one of the founders of the Littlewoods football pools and retail group, who was a major benefactor. The institution was previously owned and run by Liverpool City Council.

The city has one further education college, Liverpool Community College.

Liverpool is associated with a variety of sports and is home to two of the country's leading football clubs–Liverpool F.C. and Everton. Liverpool is the only English city to have staged top division football every single season since the formation of the Football League in 1888, and both of the city's clubs play in high-capacity stadiums.

Liverpool F.C. are the most successful team in English football, having won 18 league titles, seven FA Cups, seven League Cups, five European Cups and three UEFA Cups. They formed in 1892 and have spent their entire history at the Anfield stadium which they occupied on their formation; it had previously been home to Everton. Liverpool have been in the top flight of English football continuously since 1962 and have been managed by a succession of great managers including Bill Shankly, Bob Paisley, Joe Fagan, Kenny Dalglish (who also played for the club and for a while was player-manager), Gerard Houllier and their current manager Rafael Benítez. They have also been represented by some of the game's finest talents of past and present; these include Billy Liddell, Ian St. John, Roger Hunt, Ron Yeats, Emlyn Hughes, Kevin Keegan, Ian Rush, Graeme Souness, Robbie Fowler and Steven Gerrard. However, the club also has an association with tragedy; in 1985, rioting on the terraces during the European Cup final at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium, resulted in the death of 39 spectators (almost all of them Juventus supporters) and led to all English clubs being barred from European competitions for the next five years (with Liverpool having to serve an extra year when all other English clubs were re-admitted). Four years later, 94 Liverpool fans (the toll eventually reached 96) were crushed to death at Hillsborough stadium in Sheffield at the FA Cup semi-final. This tragedy led to the Taylor Report which saw standing accommodation banned from all top division stadiums by the mid 1990s.

Everton are the older of Liverpool's two professional football clubs. They were founded in 1878 and have played at Goodison Park since 1892, when they relocated from the Anfield stadium that was taken over by the new Liverpool club. Everton have been league champions nine times, FA Cup winners five times and European Cup Winners' Cup winners once. They have been managed by highly successful individuals including Harry Catterick and Howard Kendall. Many high profile players have worn the Everton shirt. These include Dixie Dean (who scored a record 60 goals in a single league season), Tommy Lawton, Brian Labone, Ray Wilson, Alan Ball (who both featured in England's World Cup winning side of 1966), Neville Southall, Andy Gray, Gary Lineker, Andrei Kanchelskis, Dave Watson and Wayne Rooney.

Since the turn of the 21st century, both Liverpool-based clubs have been considering relocation to new stadiums. Liverpool have been planning a new stadium on nearby Stanley Park for some years, while Everton are currently investigating the possibility of a new stadium in Kirkby after an earlier project to relocate to King's Dock fell through due to financial difficulties.

Professional basketball is played in the city with the addition of Everton Tigers into the elite British Basketball League in 2007. The club is associated with Everton Football Club, and is part of the Toxteth Tigers youth development programme, which reaches over 1,500 young people every year. The Tigers will commence play in Britain's top league for the 2007-08 season, though their home venue has yet to be confirmed. Their closest professional rivals are the Chester Jets, based 18 miles away in Chester.

County cricket is occasionally played in Liverpool, with Lancashire County Cricket Club typically playing one match every year at Liverpool Cricket Club, Aigburth.

Aintree Racecourse to the north of Liverpool in the adjacent borough of Sefton is home to the famous steeplechase, the Grand National, One of the most famous events in the international horse racing calendar, it is held in early April each year. In addition to horse-racing, Aintree has also hosted motor racing, including the British Grand Prix in the 1950s and 1960s.

Liverpool Harriers, who meet at Wavertree Athletics Centre, are one of five athletic clubs. Liverpool has a long history of boxing that has produced John Conteh, Alan Rudkin and Paul Hodkinson and hosts high level amateur boxing events. Park Road Gymnastics Centre provides training to a high level. The City of Liverpool Swimming Club has been National Speedo League Champions 8 out of the last 11 years. Liverpool Tennis Development Programme based at Wavertree Tennis Centre is one of the largest in the UK. Liverpool is also home to the Red Triangle Karate Club, which provided many of the 1990 squad that won the World Shotokan Championships in Sunderland. Luminaries include Sensei Keinosuke Enoeda, Sensei Frank Brennan, Sensei Omry Weiss, Sensei Dekel Kerer, Sensei Andy Sherry and Sensei Terry O'Neill, who is also famous for various acting roles.

Rugby league is played at amateur and student level within the city; the last professional team bearing the city's name was Liverpool City, which folded in the 1960s. Rugby Union has a long, if low key, history in the city with Liverpool Football Club were formed in 1857 making them the oldest open rugby teams in the world. They merged with St Helens RUFC in 1986 to form Liverpool St Helens. In Sefton there is Waterloo Rugby Club located in Blundellsands. Established in 1882 they now play in National Division Two.

Liverpool is one of three cities which still host the traditional sport of British Baseball and it hosts the annual England-Wales international match every two years, alternating with Cardiff and Newport. Liverpool Trojans are the oldest existing baseball club in the UK.

The Royal Liverpool Golf Club, situated in the nearby town of Hoylake on the Wirral Peninsula, has hosted The Open Championship on a number of occasions, most recently in 2008. It has also hosted the Walker Cup.

Liverpool have played at Anfield since 1892, when the club was formed to occupy the stadium following Everton's departure due to a dispute with their landlord. Liverpool are still playing there 116 years later, although the ground has been completely rebuilt since the 1970s and only the Main Stand survives from before 1992. The Spion Kop (rebuilt as an all-seater stand in 1994/1995) was the most famous part of the ground, gaining cult status across the world due to the songs and celebrations of the many fans who packed onto its terraces. Anfield is classified as a 4 Star UEFA Elite Stadium with capacity for 45,000 spectators in comfort, and is a distinctive landmark in an area filled with smaller and older buildings. Liverpool club also has a multi-million dollar youth training facility called The Academy.

Everton moved to Goodison Park after they were evicted from Anfield in 1892. The ground is situated at the far side of Stanley Park to Anfield. Goodison Park was the first major football stadium built in England. Molineux (Wolves' ground) had been opened three years earlier but was still relatively undeveloped. St. James's Park, Newcastle, opened in 1892, was little more than a field. Only Scotland had more advanced grounds. Rangers opened Ibrox in 1887, while Celtic Park was officially inaugurated at the same time as Goodison Park. Everton performed a miraculous transformation at Mere Green, spending up to £3000 on laying out the ground and erecting stands on three sides. For £552 Mr. Barton prepared the land at 4½d a square yard. Kelly Brothers of Walton built two uncovered stands each for 4,000 people, and a covered stand seating 3,000, at a total cost of £1,460. Outside, hoardings cost a further £150, gates and sheds cost £132 10s and 12 turnstiles added another £7 15s to the bill.

The ground was immediately renamed Goodison Park and proudly opened on 24 August 1892, by Lord Kinnaird and Frederick Wall of the FA. But instead of a match the 12,000 crowd saw a short athletics meeting followed by a selection of music and a fireworks display. Everton's first game there was on 2 September 1892 when they beat Bolton 4-2. It now has the capacity for more than 40,000 spectators all-seated, but the last expansion took place in 1994 when a new goal-end stand gave the stadium an all-seater capacity. The Main Stand dates back to the 1970s, while the other two stands are refurbished pre-Second World War structures.

There are currently plans for both stadiums to be pulled down and for the teams to relocate. Liverpool have been considering a move to a new stadium in Stanley Park since 2000; seven years on work has started and the 60,000-seat stadium is expected to be ready by 2010.

Everton have been considering relocation since 1996, and in 2003 were forced to scrap plans for a 55,000-seat stadium at King's Dock due to financial reasons. The latest plan has been to move beyond Liverpool's council boundary to Kirkby, but this has proved controversial with some fans, as well as members of the local community. At one point there were plans for Everton to ground-share with Liverpool at the proposed new stadium in Stanley Park, but these were abandoned.

The ITV region which covers Liverpool is ITV Granada. In 2006, the Television company opened a new newsroom in the Royal Liver Building. Granada's regional news broadcasts were produced at the Albert Dock News Centre during the 1980s and 1990s. The BBC also opened a new newsroom on Hanover Street in 2006. But with both broadcasters based in Manchester, the arrangement is sometimes controversial, with Manchester's perceived influence over the region's media.

ITV's daily magazine programme This Morning was famously broadcast from studios at Albert Dock until 1996, when production was moved to London. Granada's short-lived shopping channel "Shop!" was also produced in Liverpool until it was axed in 2002.

Liverpool is the home of the TV production company Lime Pictures, formerly Mersey Television, which produced the now-defunct soap operas Brookside and Grange Hill. It also produces the current soap opera Hollyoaks, which was formerly filmed in Chester and began on Channel 4 in 1995. All three series were/are largely filmed in the Childwall area of Liverpool.

The city fares better with regards to other media. The city has two daily newspapers: the morning Daily Post and the evening Echo, both published by the same company, the Trinity Mirror group. The Daily Post, especially, serves a wider area, including north Wales. The UK's first online only weekly newspaper called Southport Reporter (Southport & Mersey Reporter), is also one of the many other news outlets that covers the city. Radio stations include BBC Radio Merseyside, Juice FM, KCR FM and Radio City 96.7, City Talk 105.9, as well as Magic 1548. The last three are based in St. John's Beacon which, along with the two cathedrals, dominates the city's skyline. The independent media organisation Indymedia also covers Liverpool, while 'Nerve' magazine publishes articles and reviews of cultural events.

Liverpool has also featured in films; see List of films set in Liverpool for some of them.

Liverpool was the host city for the 2008 MTV Europe Music Awards.

Many famous names have been associated with Liverpool; see Liverpudlians. Liverpool has also played a large part in UK (and sometimes world) Pop Music culture since the 1960s. For a list of some noteworthy groups from the area, consult the list of famous bands from Liverpool. The most popular group from Liverpool are The Beatles.

The Wall of Fame is located opposite the famous Cavern Club, near the original one where bricks are engraved with the name of bands and musicians who have played at the Cavern Club.

Liverpool has also been home to numerous football stars. Wayne Rooney, Robbie Fowler, Steven Gerrard, Jamie Carragher, Phil Thompson, Mick Quinn, Peter Reid, John Aldridge, Lee Trundle, Tommy Smith and Steve McManaman are just some of the many famous footballers to have been born in the city.

Nel Tarleton, who held the British featherweight championship on three separate occasions and who was one of only a handful of fighters to win two Lonsdale Belts outright, was born in Liverpool and fought many of his fights in the city.

Ian Broudie who fronted 1990s band The Lightning Seeds is also from Liverpool.

Natasha Hamilton grew up in the Kensington area of Liverpool, and started singing and performing from the age of 12 in the Starlight Show Group. She joined the fledgling Atomic Kitten group at aged 16.

Television and film personalities born in Liverpool include: stage and film actor Rex Harrison, comedian Ken Dodd, singer/TV personality Cilla Black, BAFTA award winning, Golden Globe nominee and Cannes film festival best actress (1962) Rita Tushingham (for A Taste of Honey, The Knack …and How to Get It, Girl with Green Eyes), BAFTA and Golden Globe nominee Cathy Tyson (for cult movie Mona Lisa and Band of Gold), two-time BAFTA award-nominee Lesley Sharp, actor (Shaun of the Dead) Peter Serafinowicz, anarchic comedian/author Alexei Sayle (star of The Young Ones), Margi Clarke (star of cult movie Letter to Brezhnev), John Gregson (star of Treasure Island, The Treasure of Monte Cristo and Gideon's Way), Olivier award-winning and two-time BAFTA nominee Alison Steadman, three-time BAFTA award-nominee Leonard Rossiter (Star of A Space Odyssey, Oliver! and TV show Rising Damp), actor Craig Charles (star of Red Dwarf),Big Brother 1 winner & tv diy presenter Craig Phillips two-time BAFTA nominee Tom Bell (starring in Prime Suspect and The Krays), the McGann brothers (Paul, Joe, Stephen and Mark), David Yip (star of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom and A View to a Kill) and two-time Golden Globe nominee Tom Baker and Elisabeth Sladen (both of Doctor Who fame). In addition, American actress Kim Cattrall of Sex and the City was born in Wavertree, a Liverpool suburb. Actress Cornelia Frances of Home and Away, but previous roles on The Young Doctors and Sons and Daughters.

Famous writers such as Academy Award and BAFTA nominee playwrights Alan Bleasdale, Willy Russell (author of Blood Brothers, Shirley Valentine, and Educating Rita), Roger McGough (famous poet) ,Brian Jacques (author of the Redwall and Castaways of the Flying Dutchman), award-winning horror author/director/artist Clive Barker (mostly credited for Rawhead Rex, Candyman and Hellraiser fame) and BAFTA award-winning scriptwriter Jimmy McGovern (author of Cracker and The Street) are from Liverpool.

The city was also home to a number of prominent historical political figures, including Eleanor Rathbone who pushed for the improvement of women's living conditions with some success in the UK; William Roscoe, a prominent player in the abolition of the slave trade in the UK; Alois Hitler, Jr. the half-brother of Adolf Hitler; and William Gladstone who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on four separate occasions (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886 and 1892–94).

Liverpool was the first city outside of London to be granted the right to award the prestigious blue plaque to its buildings, in recognition of the fact that the city and its residents had "made significant contributions" in every aspect of social, political, economic and cultural life.

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University of Liverpool

University of Liverpool

The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool, England. It is a member of the prestigious Russell Group and the N8 Group for research collaboration, and founded in 1881 it is also one of the six original "red brick" civic universities. The university has produced eight Nobel Prize winners and today has more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects, as well as an annual income of £219 million, including £75 million for research.

The University was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool, admitting its first students in 1882. In 1884, it became part of the federal Victoria University. Following a Royal Charter and Act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university with the right to confer its own degrees called the University of Liverpool.

The University has produced eight Nobel Prize winners, from the fields of science, medicine and peace. The Nobel laureates include the physician Sir Ronald Ross, physicist Professor Charles Barkla, the physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington, physicist Sir James Chadwick, chemist Sir Robert Robinson, physiologist Professor Har Gobind Khorana, physiologist Professor Rodney Porter, and physicist Professor Joseph Rotblat. Sir Ronald Ross was also the first British Nobel laureate in 1902.

The term "red brick" was first coined by a Liverpool professor to describe the red brick built civic universities that were built in the UK, mostly in the latter part of the 19th century; these were characterised by Victorian buildings of red brick, such as Victoria Building, which was historically the administrative heart of the University.

Liverpool has the sixth largest financial endowment of any UK university, valued at £110m, according to the Sutton Trust. It is a member of the Russell Group of Universities and a founding member of the Northern Consortium. The University has over 23,000 registered students, with almost 18,000 full-time registered students. The University has a broad range of teaching and research in both arts and sciences, and has a large medical school, which is associated with the neighbouring Royal Liverpool University Hospital. In September 2008, Sir Howard Newby took up the post of Vice-Chancellor of the University, following the retirement of Sir James Drummond Bone.

The University has a Students' union to represent students' interests, known as the Liverpool Guild of Students.

It should be noted that whilst Liverpool has a total of three universities, the colloquial term Liverpool University commonly refers to the University of Liverpool rather than either of the other two, Liverpool Hope University or Liverpool John Moores University.

The University is mainly based around a single urban campus approximately five minutes walk from Liverpool City Centre, at the top of Brownlow Hill and Mount Pleasant, the main site is divided into six faculties: Arts, Engineering, Medicine, Social and Environmental Sciences, Sciences and Veterinary Science. The Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Leahurst) and Ness Botanical Gardens are based on the Wirral Peninsula. There was formerly a research station at Port Erin on the Isle of Man until it closed in 2006. The Johnston Laboratories, a pathology research facility of repute during much of the 20th century, is now the biochemistry department of the university.

The Harold Cohen Library is the main library for science, engineering and medical, dental and veterinary sciences. It also contains eight computer centres as well as the Wolfson training suite.

The Sydney Jones Library is the main library for arts and humanities in the University of Liverpool. The library is housed in two buildings, the Grove Wing and the Abercromby Wing (formerly Senate House). The Grove Wing contains the majority of the collection and the special collections. The Abercromby Wing contains the Law Library, the library offices, computer services and the main Service Desk. The two buildings are linked by the Link Building which has the information support desks.

Liverpool Medical School was ranked as the ninth best medical school in the United Kingdom by The Times Good University Guide 2008. One of the key features of the medical programme is Problem-based learning (PBL). This is an educational process that encourages students, working in small groups, to learn through curiosity and to seek out information for themselves. Students have the opportunity to link basic medical science with clinical practice early in the programme, thereby stimulating and maintaining their interest instead of overwhelming it with facts. Other features of the programme include introduction to clinical and communication skills training, a greater emphasis on learning medicine in the community and early patient contact. However, a recent study published on the pass rates of medical school graduates in MRCP postgraduate exams has shown Liverpool graduates to be the least likely to pass amongst all other UK medical schools, even after controlling for pre-admission variability of medical school entrants. The Medical School offers a five-year undergraduate course, and a four-graduate entry course. Much of the clinical education takes part at the Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital NHS Trust. The Medical School also has one of the oldest student societies - Liverpool Medical Students' Society. LMSS in fact pre-dates the University in its conception from when simply a teaching hospital existed around which the University was built. As of 2008 the medical school accepts some 268 home students per year and a further 24 from overseas making it one of the larger medical schools in the UK .

Although business and management studies have been a key part of the University of Liverpool’s provision since the early 1900s, the University of Liverpool Management School (ULMS) was only established in 2002.

ULMS was formed as a result of the merger of existing departments, institutes and units from across the University. Five divisions were formed within the ULMS which represent the following subject areas: Accounting and Finance, e-Business and Operations Management, Economics, Management and Marketing and International Business. ULMS has developed rapidly since it was opened in 2002. ULMS offers a number of general management and specialist degrees at an undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral level.

ULMS has 67 members of academic staff including 17 Professors, 2 Readers, 9 Senior Lecturers and 39 Lecturers. 58% of ULMS staff have an international background; countries represented by ULMS faculty include Canada, Chile, China, Cyprus, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Ireland, Mexico, Nigeria, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the United States of America. .

The School of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology (also known as the SACE) is an internationally recognised centre for research in Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology with 40 members of staff and over 100 postgraduates working on over 15 research projects around the world, and thus a premier research center within the University of Liverpool. The School has pioneered the study of the ancient world since 1881, developing unique facilities, such as a museum, libraries and laboratories.There are many separate and joint degree programmes offered by the School in Ancient History, Archaeology, Classics, Egyptology and Evolutionary Anthropology, consistently rank among the top ten in the UK. The Schools has also been internationally recognised in its expertise, ranging from ancient languages to human evolution, creating a lively culture based around interdisciplinary debate and active research.

The School of Biological Sciences was formed in August 1996 from the former departments of Biochemistry, Environmental & Evolutionary Biology, and Genetics & Microbiology. The new Biosciences building cost £28.5M to build, that has multi-user laboratories for 320 researchers with cutting edge core facilities in Cell Imaging, Microarrays and Genomics, Functional Proteomics, Biological NMR, Computational & Bioinformatics Facilities, and Transgenic Plant Growth. It houses 65 senior academics plus another 150 mostly research staff, including two fellows of the Royal Society and several fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences. Research in the School is focused into 3 Divisions (Cellular Regulation and Signalling; Integrative Biology; Population and Evolutionary Biology), each with professorial leadership and further divided into specialised or interdisciplinary research groups.

The Liverpool Dental School, based at the Liverpool Dental Hospital, is one of the top dental schools in the UK. The Liverpool Dental Programme is based on a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) system, where small groups of students are given a medical case, and through research are encouraged to learn about the causes and treatments for themselves. The Dental school now hosts the best Operation Techniques suite (Phantom Head) in the world, until a similar suite based on its design, but twice its size, is finished in the USA.

The Dental School offers a five-year undergraduate course, and recently the number of dental students at the University has increased due to the introduction of a new graduate entry fast track four-year course. Liverpool Dental School is a member of the Dental Schools Council.

The Philip Leverhulme Equine Hospital is one of the busiest and most successful equine hospitals in the UK, with particular expertise in the areas of gastroenterology, oncology, orthopaedics and neurology. The University's Veterinary Development Campaign is currently in the midst of fund raising to support the installation of the first veterinary MRI Unit in the North of England and a new Radiotherapy Unit.

The Small Animal Teaching Hospital moved to its new home in April 2007: a brand new, state of the art £9.6 million facility at Leahurst. This is the most modern, well-equipped hospital for small animals in the UK. Facilities include MRI and CT scanning, the Johnson Foundation radiotherapy treatment unit, an operating theatre dedicated to key-hole surgery, and the Hill's Pet Mobility Centre.

The Farm Animal Hospital takes cases from throughout NW England and North Wales for detailed investigation and intensive care treatment.

In 2006 the faculty was voted no. 1 UK vet school in The Times Good University Guide 2006, awarded 24/24 by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education and in 2005 was cited as "the University with the most satisfied students" by the British Veterinary Association and the Association of Veterinary Students.

The Faculty of Engineering is one of the largest departments in the University, offering a wide variety of courses, including Civil, Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering, Avionics, Electrical and Electronic Engineering (except that this is a department separate from the engineering department) and variants of these, including foundation year courses.The University has recently started offering courses in Aerospace Engineering and Pilot studies.This course gives students the opportunity to acquire significant flying time(for Pilot's licence), while undertaking an Aerospace Engineering degree programme. Students obtaining AAB - AAA A level grades (in relevant A levels) are eligible for scholarships. Most of the faculty's subject areas rank within the Top 10 in the UK. The faculty's Mechanical, Aeronautical and Manufacturing research submission obtained a maximum 5* grading in the most recent research assessment. The Times "Good University" guide places the Mechanical Engineering course third nationally. The department houses the UK Centre for Materials Education (UKCME) and boasts two flight simulators, one of a very few departments to have one in the UK. £36m is being spent on refurbishing the department (due for completion in September 2008). This will include the construction of an active learning laboratory which will be one of the largest and best equipped laboratories in Europe. Pupils enrolled on the 4 year Aerospace MEng Programme, have the opportunity to spend their third year at one of America's leading engineering Schools, at the University of Illinois (Urbana champaign).

The Liverpool Engineers Student Society (LESS), of the Department of Engineering and ESHOCK, of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, organise social events for engineering students from their respective departments.

The English Language Unit (also known as the ELU) is a teaching unit within the School of English, specialising in language teaching and learning. It offers language support for registered international students, visiting fellows and international staff members. It also helps to provide a range of postgraduate courses and research opportunities for language teachers, including a well-respected CELTA course.

The Centre for Manx Studies, located in Douglas, Isle of Man, is also affiliated to the University.

The two main university accommodation complexes are both located in the Mossley Hill district of Liverpool. These both belong to the University, and include the Greenbank and Carnatic complexes. The Greenbank Halls include Derby and Rathbone Hall and Roscoe and Gladstone Hall (commonly known as D&R and R&G respectively). Carnatic Halls is the largest of the University of Liverpool accommodation complexes including 6 halls: Morton House, Lady Mountford House, Dale Hall, McNair Hall, Salisbury Hall and Rankin Hall. Both sites include a range of catered and self-catered accommodation.

Within the main campus, there are three accommodation sites: Mulberry Court, Philharmonic Court and Melville Grove. Mulberry Court is situated between Oxford Street, Mulberry Street, and Mount Pleasant. Melville Grove is on Grove Street and Philharmonic on Catharine Street. These are self-catering halls situated roughly three minutes walk from the Guild of Students, and ten minutes from the city centre. Melville Grove typically accommodates postgraduate students, though undergraduates may also apply for accommodation there. Philharmonic has halls for first year students and flats for postgraduate students with families.

All student rooms in halls have Internet access provided by ResNet which is run by Computing Services. This wired service allows fast downloading, inter/outer hall computer game play and the new addition of FreeWire, offering television via the internet.

Liverpool Guild of Students is the centre point of activity in student life. It is the largest Students' Union building in England and the second largest in Europe. The Guild often features live acts, demonstrations and tours such as the NME Tour. This has only been emphasized by Liverpool hosting the MTV Music awards, attracting the MTV tour with artists such as Dizzee Rascal, Goldfrapp and Pendulum having played at the Guild in 2008. It also hosts the student night Double Vision, which is the largest student event in the United Kingdom. The Guild also offers a selection of student help activities, and it campaigns to aid students in personal or financial crisis. In addition to this, the Guild is also the host for student media projects. These include internet based Icon Radio run by students and a filmmakers' hub to promote the university. The Guild also used to publish the Liverpool Student Newspaper, however due to mismanagement and dwindling popularity the publication was forced to close in May 2007. However since then LGoS has launched a new paper entitled Sphinx, inspired by the Sphinx statues situated atop the adjacent Egyptology building.

In the Complete University Guide 2008, published in The Independent, the University of Liverpool was ranked 42nd out of 113, based on nine measures, while The Times Good University Guide 2008 ranked Liverpool 34th out of 113 universities. The Sunday Times university guide recently ranked the University of Liverpool 27th out of 123.

In 2008 Liverpool University was voted joint seventeenth greenest university in Britain by WWF supported company Green League. This represents an improvement after finishing 55th in the league table the previous year..

The position of the university is determined by point allocation in departments such as Transport, Waste management, sustainable procurement and Emissions amongst other categories; these are then transpired into various awards. Liverpool was awarded the highest achievement possible in Environmental policy, Environmental staff, Environmental audit, Fair trade status, Ethical investment policy and Waste recycled whilst also scoring points in Carbon emissions, Water recycle and Energy source. It is Liverpool’s growing ambition to encourage students and staff to proclaim itself as an environmentally friendly University.

Liverpool University has led the way amongst UK universities with desktop computer power management; they were the first to develop their own power management solution, which has been widely adopted by other institutions. The university has subsequently piloted other advanced software approaches further increasing savings.

The University of Liverpool has a proud sporting tradition and has many premier teams in a variety of sports. The current sporting project comes under the title of Club Liverpool. This athletic union offers nearly 50 types of sport ranging from soccer, rugby and cricket to others such as windsurfing, lacrosse and cheerleading. Many of the sports have both male and female teams and most are involved in competition on a national scale. BUCS is the body which organises national university competitions involving 154 institutions in 47 sports. Most sports involve travelling to various locations across the country, mainly on Wednesday afternoons.

Two other prominent competitions are the Christie Championships and the Varsity Cup. The Christie Cup is an inter-university competition between Liverpool, Leeds and Manchester. The Varsity Cup is a popular "derby" event between Liverpool John Moores University and the University of Liverpool.

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Liverpool John Moores University

Liverpool Technology Building

Liverpool John Moores University is a modern university in Liverpool, England. It is named after John Moores and was previously called Liverpool Mechanics' School of Arts and later Liverpool Polytechnic before gaining university status in 1992. It is not to be confused with the University of Liverpool or Liverpool Hope University, which are separate institutions also based in Liverpool.

The university is a member of the University Alliance, a mission group of British universities established in 2007. It is also a member of the European University Association and the North West Universities Association. At present, LJMU serves more than 24,000 students comprising 20,270 undergraduate students and 4,100 postgraduate students, making it the largest institution in Liverpool by student population.

Originally founded as a small mechanics institution (Liverpool Mechanics' School of Arts) in 1823, the institution grew over the centuries by converging and amalgamating with different colleges before eventually becoming Liverpool Polytechnic. The institution then became a university under the terms of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 under the new title of "Liverpool John Moores University". This new title was approved by the Privy Council on 15 September 1992. The university took its name from Sir John Moores, the founder of the Littlewoods empire. Moores was a great believer in the creation of opportunity for all, which embodies the ethos of LJMU in providing educational routes for people of all ages and from all backgrounds. This belief led Sir John Moores to invest in the institution and facilities, such as the John Foster Building (housing the Liverpool Business School), designed by and named after leading architect John Foster. With the institution's backgrounds dating back as far as 1823, many of the university buildings date back also, with aesthetically pleasing Georgian and Victorian buildings found on a few of the campuses.

LJMU now has more than 24,000 students. The university has played a vital role in the cultural renaissance of Liverpool and has taken an active part in the regeneration of the city. New advances in digital technology and science have placed the university at the forefront of exciting developments in areas such as multimedia, sports science and learning how to fly. The advances in these subject areas led LJMU to be awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2005 which aims to recognise and reward the outstanding contribution that universities and colleges in the United Kingdom make to the intellectual, economic, cultural and social life of the nation.

Currently, Liverpool John Moores University is enjoying a boom in student numbers with the university receiving more applications than previously seen. The university was recently placed at number 20 in the country for applications received in 2007, the total number of applications submitted to LJMU was 28,214.

On 14 April 2008, Dr Brian May CBE was inducted into the university as the fourth Chancellor of Liverpool John Moores University. He replaced outgoing Chancellor Cherie Booth QC, wife of former British Prime Minister Tony Blair. Honorary fellows in attendance at the ceremony included Sir Patrick Moore and Pete Postlethwaite.

The university is currently expanding and improving numerous buildings on the three campus sites: the latest project will be the new £20 million Byrom Street development. Once completed in 2009, it will enable the university to consolidate science teaching to one location. Around 50 per cent of the new building's 6,400 square metre floorspace will be given over to specialist teaching and research laboratories, with the remainder being used for teaching, IT suites and staff accommodation. LJMU's School of Sport and Exercise Sciences is ranked as the United Kingdom's number one for both teaching and research in this field. The specialist facilities housed within the new building reflect the School's elite status and will include an indoor 70-metre running track and labs for testing cardio-vascular ability, motor skills and bio-mechanics functions. The building will also have additional biochemistry and psychology teaching labs.

Another major addition to the university is the Art and Design Academy, which will replace the previous disparate locations of the department. The £21.4 million development is scheduled to open in 2008 to coincide with the European Capital of Culture bid which was won by Liverpool and will be based at the Mount Pleasant campus.

LJMU hosts guest lectures on occasion, with past speakers including the Dalai Lama, Steven Spielberg, Willy Russell, Phil Redmond, Alastair Campbell, and Baroness Shirley Williams of Crosby. The latest guest speakers were United States Senator George J. Mitchell, Michael Heseltine CH, PC, and Next clothing retailer George Davies. The latest guest to feature was Sir Michael Green, who has championed popworld studies and how links between the famous club can go hand in hand with a successful degree.

There are currently three Learning Resource Centres (LRCs) based at the three campus sites operated by LJMU. The two largest and more modern LRC facilities are the Avril Robarts LRC which is based on the City campus and used mainly (but not exclusively) by students studying on the city campus, in particular the Byrom Street and Marybone students. The Aldham Robarts LRC (which is based on the Mount Pleasant campus) is used mainly by students at the Mount Pleasant campus, this campus includes the faculty of Business and Law but student based closely to the LRC on a range of courses also use this facility. The third LRC is sited on the IM Marsh campus in Aigburth and is used exclusively (due to location outside the City centre) by student at this campus.

There are more than 68,500 books in the LRCs' collections, with 1,630 work spaces available for students 24 hours a day. In addition to this there are over 16,000 e-books and 5,000 e-journals available.

The university has links with industry, with degree programmes having been developed in association with leading companies around the globe including Ford, IBM, Lucas Industries plc and Jaguar. The links with companies are set to improve, with many courses offering an additional placement year as part of the Universities "WoW" (World of Work) skills programmes. First Destination Survey results show that 89% of LJMU graduates are in employment or undertaking postgraduate study within six months of graduating.

Through recent teaching quality assessments, LJMU is top of the league for teaching in physics and astronomy, applied social work, health studies, hospitality, leisure, recreation, sport and tourism, and has consistently received good ratings for other subject areas. LJMU is also the UK's top university for teaching and research in Sports and Exercise Sciences.

In recognition of excellence within sporting disciplines at LJMU, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) awarded LJMU £4.5 million over five years for the establishment of a Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL). The CETL award recognises LJMU's outstanding record for Physical Education, Dance, Sport and Exercises Sciences. LJMU is the only United Kingdom university to be awarded an Ofsted Grade A in Physical Education and it is also the premier institution for both teaching and research in Sport and Exercise Sciences.

LJMU was also chosen (ahead of the University of Liverpool and Liverpool Hope University) to deliver the academic side of a national scheme called the New Entrepreneurs Scholarship, which is supported by Liverpool Chamber of Commerce and the Princes Trust.

The University's research profile and reputation have developed rapidly over recent years as evidenced by the sustained rise in external research income (more than trebling since 2000). The underlying demography of research-active staff is encouraging and LJMU has a relatively large cohort of young research active staff who will continue to contribute to research profile over future years. These are all key elements in securing the sustainability of research within the University.

Liverpool John Moores University is often ranked highly in local lists, with the 2007 performance being 5th out of the 12 North West universities. The top in the region is Lancaster University, which is a plate glass university. The next two universities above LJMU are Red Brick universities; the University of Liverpool and the University of Manchester. The forth university above LJMU is the modern University of Central Lancashire. Universities ranked lower than LJMU (5th) included University of Salford, Manchester Metropolitan University, University of Chester, Edge Hill University, University of Cumbria, Liverpool Hope University and University of Bolton.

Students at the University are represented by the Liverpool Students' Union. As there are three campus sites for the University, there are also three separate Student Union facilities, each open to all Liverpool John Moores University students. The main Student Union is housed in the Haigh Building at the Mount Pleasant campus. Separate Student Union buildings are based on the IM Marsh and Byrom Street campuses.

Representation for all students is central and is conducted by executive officers elected annually. In most cases, these students will be on a sabbatical from their studies. The election process is normally contested in mid April, successful candidates assuming office the following academic year.

In 2007, the university and Students' Union launched a mentoring scheme designed to help new students setting into university life.

The Haigh Building is the main City Centre venue, the venue recently won Best Bar None awards for the second year running and has three main social areas.

The Cooler features a bar and nightclub venue where students can enjoy a range of exciting entertainment. The Cooler has a diverse music scene including Indie, House and Cheesy Chart Pop. The Cooler also has a range of drinks promotions available to students and during the day plays venue to numerous societies.

The Sanctuary is in the middle of the Haigh Building and is known to be a quieter area of the Student Union. The Sanctuary has a bar which throughout the day serves drinks, sandwiches and a range of hot meals. The Sanctuary also houses the Liverpool John Moores University darts team who regularly play and practice in the venue.

The Scholars Bar is the most popular area of the Student Union, serving a large variety of beers, wines and spirits from around the globe all at student prices. There are 2 big screens that allow the broadcasting of simultaneous football matches and various sporting events. It also has 4 pool tables, games machines, quizzes and regular karaoke. Similarly to The Sanctuary, The Scholars Bar also serves food throughout the day.

Greenshields Bar is located at the IM Marsh campus. Liverpool Students' Union run the bar on campus and there is also a student shop. The bar is a popular spot at Aigburth site with our students living on and off-campus. The bar has a big screen for live football games and there is also the Friday night ‘disco’! at the venue.

The Byrom Street Students' Union provides students with a shop. The Byrom Street Union is the smallest of the three sites.

The bar at the Byrom Street campus closed down in academic year 2007/08.

The Students' Union used to publish a magazine called Havoc until it closed down in January 2007 due to a cut in funding - and mismanagement by the Union Exec Committee.

The student union also operates a radio station called Shout FM.

Liverpool John Moores University over recent years has sold off a number of previously University owned halls of residences. North Western Hall, formerly the North Western Hotel, built by Alfred Waterhouse in 1871, was sold off to Cosmopolitan Student Homes in 2004. The hall is situated conveniently between both the City and Mount Pleasant campuses.

Two of the most popular halls for students studying at the City campus are the Atlantic Point Student Village and Marybone Complex. Both of these can be found within a few hundred metres of major University buildings. IM Marsh students usually reside in the accommodation provided on campus in Aigburth. The more popular halls for students at the Mount Pleasant campus are Grand Central (for its walking distance location close to the university and city centre) and Cambridge Court.

Liverpool John Moores University has BUCS-registered teams in badminton, basketball, cricket, football, hockey, netball, rugby league, rugby union and volleyball. Many of the sports teams compete in BUCS competitions. Liverpool Students' Union has 15 BUCS sports, from which 36 teams run, catering for over 800 athletes. In recent years, LJMU students have competed for BUCS representative squads, in national finals and at World University Championships. In addition, the Students' Union also runs intramural sports leagues.

In the 2006/2007 BUCS season, LJMU was successful in winning the leagues in Men's Badminton, Women's Basketball, Women's football 1st, Netball 1st, Netball 2nd, Netball 3rd, Women's Rugby and Men's Gaelic Football. Runners up included Men's football 2nd, Women’s hockey 2nd, Men's Rugby 2nd, Men's Rugby League and Men's football 5th.

The University also enjoys success at National and World level. Gymnast Beth Tweddle studied at LJMU and has achieved national, Commonwealth, European and World medals whilst also competing at the Olympic Games.

In 1999, Liverpool John Moores University Men's Rugby League Team were crowned Student Rugby League European Champions following a 20-14 victory over University of Bordeaux at IM Marsh Campus, Liverpool. This completed a treble victory after they lifted the SRL National League and SRL Premiership.

John Moore’s Painting Prize is a contemporary art prize and involves a bi-annual competitive art exhibition held at the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. It is is named after Sir John Moores, the founder of the competition. First held in 1957, it is Britain's most well-known competition aimed solely at painters and is now part of the Liverpool Biennial, a city-wide celebration of the arts that encompasses the Tate Liverpool, Bluecoats Gallery and other venues in Liverpool. In 2008 the exhibition will be a major part of Liverpool's celebrations as European Capital of Culture.

Liverpool John Moores University is currently outperforming other North West of England Universities in applications per place. March 2008 application figures released by UCAS show that LJMU is continuing to outperform the sector by around 4%, with 26,663 applications received to date. In addition, Liverpool John Moores has also seen a 20% increase in firm acceptances for applicants, an achievement made more impressive as regional averages are down 18%.

Recently the John Moores Alumni Association created an Alumnus Board and an Alumnus Business Network Group.

Brian May, Ph.D., and former lead guitarist for Queen, was appointed Chancellor of the university in 2007.

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Liverpool (UK Parliament constituency)

Liverpool was a Borough constituency in the county of Lancashire of the House of Commons for the Parliament of England to 1706 then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It was represented by two Members of Parliament. In 1868 this was increased to three Members of Parliament.

The Borough franchise was held by the freemen of the Borough. Each elector had as many votes as there were seats to be filled. Votes had to be cast by a spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings. In 1800 there were around 3000 electors, with elections in this seat being nearly always contested.

The Borough returned several notable Members of Parliament including Prime Minister George Canning, William Huskisson, President of the Board of Trade, Banastre Tarleton, noted soldier in the American War of Independence and most notably, William Roscoe the Abolitionist and Anti Slave Trade campaigner.

The constituency was abolished in 1885, the city being split into nine divisions of Abercromby, East Toxteth, Everton, Exchange, Kirkdale, Scotland, Walton, West Derby and West Toxteth.

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Source : Wikipedia