Long Island

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Posted by r2d2 03/14/2009 @ 07:11

Tags : long island, cities and towns, new york, states, us

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The Montauk Monster is back. See the latest photo here! - Gay Socialites
The editor of the website, Nicky Papers, says he got a call from an anonymous couple in Southhold NY who found this creature washed on shore while they were walking along the Long Island beach. Papers says this could be another spotting of the Montauk...
A Federal Program Helps Flip Houses on Long Island - New York Times
Nassau County, which received $3.1 million in grant money, partnered with the Long Island Housing Partnership and Bedford Construction, a private developer in Valley Stream, to buy the homes. The six homes in Nassau — one each in Valley Stream,...
Victoria Gotti, Foreclosure (Photos, Video) Long Island Mansion - National Ledger
By Jennifer Cox According to those in New York, Victoria Gotti has been trying to sell her home in Old Westbury for years. Now its in foreclosure. The reality TV star and the daughter Mafia boss John Gotti is going to lose her home....
Summer schools for cooks on Long Island - Newsday
Long Island's cooking schools offer a wide array of cooking classes, from intensive (60 hours of Baking Fundamentals at the Culinary Academy of Long Island in Syosset) to the extremely recreational (BBQ and Beer Tasting at A la Carte in Lynbrook)....
Long Island secession plan gives Staten Island lawmaker hope that ... - Staten Island Advance - SILive.com
by Staten Island Advance Secession fever is burning hotter among Republicans in the state Senate these days, leading GOP Sen. Andrew Lanza to hope that his plan for breaking Staten Island away from New York City will get a jump start. Long Island state...
Long Island estate priced to sell at $50 million - Newsday
A Long Island estate dubbed Sandcastle is for sale _ at a pre-recession price of $50 million. The mansion has 14 bedrooms and 19 bathrooms on 11.5-acres in Bridgehampton. Buyers can hold a mini-Olympics in the two-lane bowling alley, heated pool with...
Cops: Searingtown man charged with mother's murder - Newsday
A family employee found Kay Barragan, 65, at the bottom of a flight of stairs when he arrived for work shortly after 7 am, a statement from the Long Island City-based company said. Barragan was pronounced dead at 7:28 am, police said....
What do you think of Long Island seceding to form the 51st state? - Newsday
What do you think of Long Island seceding from New York to form the 51st state? Let's split from New York as soon as possible, they're holding us back We benefit more from being a part of NY than being separate We're paying politicians to waste time on...
Foreclosures Rise, With No End in Sight - New York Times
SIGN OF THE TIMES Long Island's foreclosure rate during a 44-month period has been higher than the region's. This house is in Hempstead, one of Nassau's hardest-hit areas. By DERRICK HENRY and JANET ROBERTS PACKING Olive Thompson, whose home in...
Long Island to hold 2nd gun buyback - Newsday
MINEOLA, NY - Long Island officials say Nassau County's first gun buyback went so well it has encouraged them to hold a second event to take additional illegal guns off the streets. Nassau County Executive Thomas Suozzi (SWAH'-zee) and Congresswoman...

Long Island

Long Island is located in New York

Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, just east of Manhattan. Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island contains four counties, two of which (Queens and Kings) are boroughs of New York City, and two of which (Nassau and Suffolk) are mainly suburban. Numerous bridges and tunnels through Kings (also known as the Borough of Brooklyn) and Queens connect Long Island to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut.

Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles (190 km) from New York Harbor, and varies in width from 12 to 23 miles (19 to 37 km) between the northern (Long Island Sound) coast and the southern Atlantic coast. With an area of 1,401 square miles (3,629 km2), Long Island is the 11th largest in the United States, and the 149th largest island in the world. The land area of Long Island is larger than that of the state of Rhode Island and larger than any U.S. territory except Puerto Rico.

Long Island had a population of 7,448,618 as of the 2000 census, with the population estimated at 7,559,372 as of July 1, 2006, making it the most populated island in any U.S. state or territory. It is also the 17th most populous island in the world, ahead of Ireland, Jamaica and the Japanese island of Hokkaidō. Its population density is 5,470 inhabitants per square mile (2,110 /km2). If it were a state, Long Island would rank 13th in population.

The westernmost end of Long Island contains the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn (Kings County) and Queens (Queens County). The central and eastern portions contain the suburban Nassau and Suffolk counties. However, colloquial usage of the term "Long Island" refers only to Nassau and Suffolk counties; the more dense and urban Brooklyn and Queens are not usually referred to as "Long Island", since they are politically part of New York City.

Nassau County is more urbanized and congested than Suffolk County, with pockets of rural affluence in the cliffs of the Gold Coast of the North Shore overlooking the Long Island Sound. South Shore communities are built along protected wetlands and white sand beaches fronting on the Atlantic Ocean and Outer Barrier Islands. Old money from the time of the Revolutionary War populated the island and still does to this day. American aristocrats and European nobility in the Roaring Twenties established large estates on the North Shore. Today, many exist in their original state, while others have been donated to the public as parks, arboretums, universities and museums.

Owing to economic growth and the suburbanization of the metropolitan region after World War II, Nassau was the fastest growing county in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Suffolk County remains less congested despite substantial growth in high technology and light manufacturing sectors since 1990. In its far east sections, Suffolk remains small-town rural, as in Greenport on the North Fork and some of the outward areas of The Hamptons, although summer tourism swells the population in those areas.

Long Island is known for its affluence and high quality of life. According to the 2000 Census, Nassau County is the third richest county per capita in New York State, and the 30th richest in the nation. Long Island's Nassau County has the second highest property taxes in the United States. Suffolk County has redeveloped North Fork potato fields into a burgeoning wine region. The South Fork is known for beach towns, including the world-renowned Hamptons, and for Montauk Point, home of Montauk Point Lighthouse at the eastern tip of the island.

Long Island, as part of the Outer Lands region, is formed largely of two spines of glacial moraine, with a large, sandy outwash plain beyond. These moraines consist of gravel and loose rock left behind during the two most recent pulses of Wisconsin glaciation some 21,000 years ago (19,000 BC). The northern moraine, which directly abuts the North Shore of Long Island at points, is known as the Harbor Hill moraine. The more southerly moraine, known as the Ronkonkoma moraine, forms the "backbone" of Long Island; it runs primarily through the very center of Long Island, roughly coinciding with the length of the Long Island Expressway.

The land to the south of this moraine to the South Shore is the outwash plain of the last glacier. Known as the Hempstead Plains, this land contained one of the few natural prairies to exist east of the Appalachian Mountains.

The glaciers melted and receded to the north, resulting in the difference between the North Shore beaches and the South Shore beaches. The North Shore beaches are rocky from the remaining glacial debris, while the South Shore's are crisp, clear, outwash sand. Running along the center of the island like a spine is the moraine left by the glaciers. (Bald Hill is the highest point along the moraine.) The glaciers also formed Lake Ronkonkoma, a kettle lake.

Long Island has a climate similar to other coastal areas of the Northeastern United States; it has warm, humid summers and cold winters. The Atlantic Ocean helps bring afternoon sea breezes that temper the heat in the warmer months and limit the frequency and severity of thunderstorms. Severe thunderstorms are not uncommon, especially when they approach the island from the mainland areas of the Bronx, Westchester County and Connecticut in the northwest.

Average yearly snowfall totals range from approximately 20 to 35 inches (50-89 cm), with the north shore and western parts averaging more than the south shore and the east end. In any given winter, however, some parts of the island could see up to 75 inches (190 cm) or more. There are also some very quiet winters, in which most parts of the island could see less than 10 inches (25 cm).

Long Island is one of the most densely populated regions in the United States. As of the United States 2000 Census, the total population of all four counties of Long Island was 7,448,618. New York City's portion of the census was 4,694,705, with Brooklyn's population at 2,465,326 and Queens having 2,229,379 residents.

The combined population of Nassau and Suffolk counties was 2,753,913 people; Suffolk County's share at 1,419,369 and Nassau County's at 1,334,544. Nassau County had a larger population for decades, but Suffolk County surpassed it in the 1990 census as growth and development continued to spread eastward. As Suffolk County has over twice the land area of Nassau County, the latter still has a much higher population density. Combining all four counties, Long Island's population is greater than 38 of the 50 United States. If it were an independent nation, it would rank as the 96th most populated nation, falling between Switzerland and Israel.

Population figures from the U.S. Census Bureau Census 2000 show that non-whites are in the majority in the two urban counties of New York City, while whites are in the majority in the two suburban counties of Nassau and Suffolk. Catholics are the largest religious group, with non-affiliated in second place.

At the time of European contact, the Lenape people (named the Delaware by Europeans) inhabited the western end of the Island, and spoke the Munsee dialect of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with these people when he entered what is now New York Bay in 1524. The eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of the same language family, indicative of their ties to the aboriginal peoples inhabiting what is now Connecticut and Rhode Island.

The western portion of Long Island was later settled by the Dutch, while the eastern region was settled by English Puritans from New Haven, Connecticut, settling in Southold on October 21, 1640. The entirety of Long Island came under English dominion in 1664 when the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was taken over by the English and renamed New York. In 1683, the English established the three original counties on Long Island: Kings, Queens, and Suffolk.

During the American Revolutionary War, the island was captured from General George Washington early by the British in the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. The island remained a British stronghold until the end of the war, and was the center of much of General Washington's espionage activities due to the proximity to the British North American military headquarters in New York City. After the British victory on Long Island many Patriots fled, leaving mostly Loyalists behind.

In the 19th century, Long Island was still mainly rural and agricultural. The predecessor to the Long Island Rail Road began service in 1836 from the ferry terminal (to Manhattan) through Brooklyn to Jamaica in Queens, and completed the line to the east end of Long Island in 1844. From 1830 until 1930, population roughly doubled every twenty years, and several cities were incorporated, such as the City of Brooklyn in Kings County, and Long Island City in Queens.

Until the 1883 completion of the Brooklyn Bridge, the only connection between Long Island and the rest of the United States was by boat. Other bridges and tunnels followed, and a suburban character spread as population increased. On January 1, 1898, Kings County and portions of Queens were consolidated into The City of Greater New York, abolishing all cities and towns within them. The easternmost 280 square miles (725 km2) of Queens County, which were not part of the consolidation plan, separated from Queens in 1899 to form Nassau County.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Long Island began the transformation from backwoods and farms to the paradigm of the American suburb. Railroads made possible commuting suburbs before construction of the Long Island Expressway and other major roadways. Robert Moses created various parkway projects to span the island, along with state parks for the enjoyment of many. Gradually development started to follow the parkways, with various communities springing up along the more traveled routes.

After World War II, Long Island's population skyrocketed, mostly in Nassau County and western Suffolk County. People who worked and lived in New York City moved out to Long Island in new developments built during the post-war boom. The most famous post-war development was the town of Levittown: the area became the first place to massively reproduce houses on a grand scale- providing great opportunity for GI's returning home to start a family. The immigration waves of southern and eastern Europe, followed by more recent ones from Latin America, have been pivotal in creating the diversity on Long Island that many other American regions lack. These immigrations are reflected in the large Italian American, Irish American and Jewish American populations.

The counties of Nassau and Suffolk have been long renown for their affluence.

From about 1930 to about 1990, Long Island was considered one of the aviation centers of the United States, with companies such as Grumman Aircraft having their headquarters and factories in the Bethpage area.

Long Island has played a prominent role in scientific research and in engineering. It is the home of the Brookhaven National Laboratory in nuclear physics and Department of Energy research. In recent decades companies such as Sperry Rand, Computer Associates (headquartered in Islandia), and Motorola Enterprise Mobility (now occupying the former headquarters of Symbol Technologies, previously a Grumman plant in Holtsville, New York), have made Long Island a center for the computer industry. Gentiva Health Services, a national provider of home health and pharmacy services, also is headquartered in Long Island. Stony Brook University of the State University of New York conducts far-ranging medical and technology research. Long Island is also home to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which was directed for 35 years by James D. Watson (who co-discovered the double helix structure of DNA with Francis Crick).

The eastern end of the island is still partly agricultural. In the last 25 years, development of vineyards on the North Fork became a major new industry, replacing potato fields. Pumpkin farms have been added to traditional truck farming. Farms allow fresh fruit picking by Long Islanders for much of the year. Fishing continues to be an important industry, especially at Northport and Montauk.

Long Island is home to the East Coast's largest industrial park, the Hauppauge Industrial Park. The park has over 1,300 companies employing more than 55,000 Long Islanders. Companies in the park and abroad are represented by the Hauppauge Industrial Association. as much as 20 percent of Long Islanders commute to New York City jobs. The eastern end of the island is still partly agricultural. In the last 25 years, development of vineyards on the North Fork became a major new industry, replacing potato fields. Pumpkin farms have been added to traditional truck farming. Farms allow fresh fruit picking by Long Islanders for much of the year. Fishing continues to be an important industry, especially at Northport and Montauk.

Nassau County and Suffolk County each have their own governments, with a County Executive leading each. Each has a county legislature and countywide-elected officials, such as district attorney, county clerk and county comptroller. The towns in both counties have their own governments as well, with town supervisors and a town council. Within Nassau, there are two small incorporated cities (Glen Cove and Long Beach) with a combined population of about 65,000.

Brooklyn and Queens, on the other hand, do not have independent county governments. As boroughs of New York City, both have Borough Presidents, largely ceremonial offices with little political power. The shutdown of the city's Board of Estimate due to a Supreme Court decision declaring it unconstitutional, led to a reorganization of the city government.

Two Indian reservations - Poospatuck Reservation and Shinnecock Reservation located in Suffolk County are the home of Native Americans. Numerous island place names are Native American in origin.

Nassau and Suffolk Counties have voted for the Democratic candidate in every presidential election since (and including) 1996.

In 2005, Forbes magazine listed Long Island (Nassau & Suffolk counties) as having 2,042 crimes per 100,000 residents, less than half the US average.

Queens and Brooklyn are patrolled by the New York City Police Department; Nassau has its own police department, as does Suffolk. New York State Police patrol state parks and parkways; several dozen villages and the two cities in Nassau have their own police departments.

Both Nassau and Suffolk have a sheriff's office that handles civil process, evictions, warrant service and enforcement, prisoner transport and detention, and operation of the county jail. The Nassau County Sheriff's Department employs about 1,000 correction officers and 100 deputy sheriffs and performs the above duties although deputy sheriffs have full police officer powers and can make arrests for any crime they come across.

The Suffolk County Sheriff's Office has approximately 900 correction officers and 260 deputy sheriffs and operates the two jail facilities in Suffolk County. The deputy sheriffs in Suffolk County have a full service patrol unit, including K9, Aviation, SWAT, and Marine divisions as well as a Criminal Investigation Division and various other special details and assignments. N.Y.S Court Officers secure court houses for Long Island courts.

On March 28, 2008 Suffolk County, NY Comptroller Joseph Sawicki proposed a plan that would make Long Island (specifically, Nassau and Suffolk counties) the 51st state of the United States of America. Sawicki says that all the Long Island taxpayers' money would stay on Long Island, rather than the funds being dispersed all over the entire state of New York. The state of Long Island would include as many as 2.3 million people.

Every major form of transportation serves Long Island, including John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and Long Island MacArthur Airport, multiple smaller airports, railroads, subways, and several major highways. There are historic and modern bridges, recreational and commuter trails, and ferries as well. The Long Island Expressway, Northern State Parkway, and Southern State Parkway, all products of the automobile-centered planning of Robert Moses, make east-west travel on the island straightforward, if not always quick.

There are currently ten road crossings out of Long Island, all within New York City limits at the extreme western end of the island. Plans for a Long Island Crossing at various locations in Nassau and Suffolk Counties have been discussed for decades, but there are currently no firm plans to construct such a crossing.

Roads in boldface are limited access roads. *Sunrise Highway is only limited-access from western Suffolk county eastwards.

The Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad system in North America, carrying an average of 282,400 customers each weekday on 728 daily trains.

Chartered on April 24, 1834, it is also the oldest railroad still operating under its original name.

Long Island's Nassau and Suffolk counties are home to 125 public school districts containing a total of 656 public schools. In contrast, all of Brooklyn and Queens are served by the New York City Department of Education, the largest school district in the United States. Long Island is also home to a number of private and parochial schools.

For colleges in Brooklyn and Queens, see List of colleges and universities in New York City.

Fire Island National Seashore, which is a long barrier island off Long Island's South Shore, is a hot spot for tourists, especially during the summer. The Village of Ocean Beach is the most populous community on Fire Island. There are restrictions on automobile use and the island is not accessible by car (except for one small westerly portion), requiring passage by one of numerous ferries or other watercraft.

Both Nassau and Suffolk County are home to thousands of restaurants, many of them top quality. As New York is known as a melting pot, every kind of restaurant from Mexican to Hungarian to Indian to Bengali can be found. These specialty restaurants are often family owned.

Small family-owned pizzerias are ubiquitous. It is not uncommon for a town on Long Island to have several different pizzerias, each with its own distinct flavor. The Long Island Pizza Festival & Bake-Off is annual competition where mom and pop pizzerias compete to be named best on Long Island.

Bagel stores and delis are also extremely common. Some bagel stores are Jewish-owned and approved as kosher. Long Island bagels are considered some of the best in the world. Often more than one deli can be found in a town.

Diners also abound on Long Island, many are Greek- and German-owned, and many depending on the business of the town are open all night, for late-night patrons.

Almost all major fast food and casual dining chains have a presence on Long Island as well.

Long Island is home to numerous famous athletes, including hall of famers Jim Brown, Julius Erving, John Mackey and Carl Yastrzemski. Others include Gold Medalist Sarah Hughes, D'Brickashaw Ferguson, Billy Donovan, Jumbo Elliott, Matt Serra, Boomer Esiason, Vinny Testaverde, Craig Biggio, Frank Catalanotto, Greg Sacks, Rob Burnett, Steve Park, Frank Viola, Marques Colston and Speedy Claxton.

Ebbets Field, which stood in Brooklyn from 1913 to 1957, was the home of the Brooklyn Dodgers, who decamped to California after the 1957 season to become the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Dodgers won several National League penants in the 1940s and 1950s, losing several times in the World Series—often called Subway Series—to their Bronx rivals, the New York Yankees. The Dodgers won their lone championship in Brooklyn in the 1955 World Series versus the Yankees. The Brooklyn Nets Arena is a proposed sports arena, business and residential complex to be built partly on a platform over the Atlantic Yards at Atlantic Avenue, and is intended to serve as a new home for the New Jersey Nets.

The New York Mets played at Shea Stadium now in the new Citi Field Flushing in Queens. (The New York Jets also played at Shea from 1964 until 1983, when they moved across the Hudson River to Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.) Plans have been announced for a new stadium, Citi Field in Willets Point in the parking lot of the current stadium, to be completed for the 2009 baseball season. The new stadium is designed with an exterior facade and main entry rotunda inspired by Ebbets Field. The Brooklyn Cyclones are a minor league baseball team, affiliated with the New York Mets. The Cyclones play at KeySpan Park just off the boardwalk on Coney Island.

Nassau County is home to the New York Islanders of the National Hockey League and the New York Dragons of the Arena Football League, who both play at the Nassau Coliseum in Uniondale. Long Island has been a hot spot for outdoor lacrosse at the youth and college level, which made way for a Major League Lacrosse team in 2001, the Long Island Lizards. The Lizards play at Mitchel Athletic Complex in Uniondale. The longest dirt Thoroughbred racecourse in the world is located in the Nassau County community of Elmont at Belmont Park.

Long Island is also home to the Long Island Ducks minor league baseball team of the Atlantic League. Their stadium, Citibank Park, is located in Central Islip. The American Basketball Association's Strong Island Sound play home games at Suffolk County Community College. The two main rugby teams are the Long Island RFC in East Meadow and the Suffolk Bull Moose in Stony Brook. It also has a professional soccer club, the Long Island Rough Riders, who play at Mitchel Athletic Complex in Uniondale. The Rough Riders have won two national championships, in 1995 and 2002.

Another category of sporting events popular in this region are Firematic Racing events, involving many local Volunteer fire departments.

Music on Long Island (Nassau and Suffolk) is influenced by the proximity to New York City and by the youth culture of the suburbs. Psychedelic rock was widely popular in the 1960s as flocks of disaffected youth travelled to NYC to participate in protest and the culture of the time. R & B also has a history in Long Island, especially in Nassau County, where population is denser and more closely influenced by New York City.

Jones Beach State Park is a popular place to view summer concerts, with new as well as classic artists performing there during the summer months at its outdoor venue. It hosts a large Fourth of July fireworks show every year, and the stands are filled. People park cars along the highway leading to the show, and others watch from the nearby beaches.

Long Island is also known for its schools' music programs. Many schools in Suffolk County have distinguished music programs, with high numbers of students who are accepted into the state-wide All-State music groups, or even the National All-Eastern Coast music groups. Both the Suffolk County and Nassau County Music Educator's Associations are recognized by MENC, and host numerous events, competitions, and other music-related activities.

Heroes of the Long Island (Nassau and Suffolk County) music scene include; Billy Joel, Pat Benatar, forefather of American Indie-Rock Lou Reed, Paul Simon, Johnny Ramone, Dream Theater, Debbie Gibson, Eddie Money, new-age king John Tesh, Public Enemy, Mariah Carey, Busta Rhymes, Shaggy, folk singer Oscar Brand, Harry Chapin, De La Soul, Brooklyn Bridge, Ashanti, John Nolan, Dee Snider, LL Cool J, Lindsay Lohan, Chuck D, Flavor Flav, EPMD, Rakim, Blue Öyster Cult, Stray Cats, Nine Days, Vanilla Fudge, Glassjaw, Taking Back Sunday, Sam "Bluzman" Taylor, Straylight Run, The Repercussions, From Autumn to Ashes,Brand New, Virtuoso guitarists Steve Vai Aesop Rockand Joe Satriani.

Artists from the counties of Kings and Queens are far too many to even begin naming, given the region's dominance in almost every genre of music. A handful of artists who call Queens or Kings their home include Jay Z, Nas, 50 Cent, Lloyd Banks, Mobb Deep, LL Cool J, Q-Tip, Fugees, Mos Def, Foxy Brown, Fabolous, Notorious B.I.G., Wu-Tang Clan, Beastie Boys, Run-D.M.C., A Tribe Called Quest, Art Garfunkel.

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Long Island University

Liu logo.png

Long Island University (LIU) is a private, coeducational, nonsectarian institution of higher education in the State of New York in the United States (U.S.).

LIU was chartered in 1926 in Brooklyn by the New York State Education Department to provide “effective and moderately priced education” to people from “all walks of life.” In 1947, recognizing the educational needs of the growing number of families moving to the suburbs, LIU purchased in Brookville the estate of Mrs. Joseph P. Davis, better known as Marjorie Merriweather Post. Seven years later, the C.W. Post campus was founded at this site.

In 1963, LIU established a third campus, located in Southampton. However, the management of this campus became too costly; as a result, it was sold to the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook in 2006. LIU's master's degree programs at this campus were transferred to Riverhead. Ownership of LIU's bachelor’s degree programs, located at Southampton, was transferred to SUNY Stony Brook.

LIU is administered by a president and board of trustees who elects the president. The two main campuses are governed by a chancellor, chosen by the chairperson of the board of trustees. The two main campuses each have a provost.

LIU has two main campuses and four branch campuses. The main campuses are located in Brooklyn and Brookville. The branch campuses are in Brentwood and Riverhead, as well as Rockland and Westchester counties.

The Brooklyn campus is LIU's first permanent site, established in 1926. The campus, located at the intersection of Flatbush and De Kalb avenues (across the street from Junior's restaurant), includes the former Brooklyn Paramount Theater, the world’s first theater built specifically for talking pictures. The theater, which abuts the original core campus, was bought in 1960 by LIU and converted into a gymnasium in 1963. Parts of the theater's balcony were used as lecture rooms. The theater's original Wurlitzer organ is used during the Brooklyn campus' Blackbirds' home basketball games. The campus is recognized by the New York Times as being one of the most diverse in the U.S. and is home to the prestigious George Polk Awards in journalism.

Founded in 1954, the C.W. Post campus is situated in Brookville, on Long Island's north shore. The campus is LIU's largest and is where the university's main offices are located.

The campus is home to the Tilles Center for the Performing Arts, which presents world-renowned artists in 70 music, dance, and theater performances each season. The campus also is the location of a lifetime learning program Continuing Education & Professional Studies that offers classes in the fall, spring and summer semesters. Subjects include paralegal, financial planning, interior decorating, corporate training, project management, entrepreneurship, real estate, and insurance.

The Rockland, Westchester, Brentwood, and Riverhead campuses all offer a small number of graduate degree and advance certificate programs. However, only the Brentwood campus offers a bachelor's degree program. The Riverhead campus is home to the Homeland Security Management Institute, recognized as one of the leading institutions in the U.S. in homeland security training. The institute has been designated a "Homeland Security Center of Excellence" by the United States Congress.

All campuses offering undergraduate education utilize what is called the "Long Island University Plan." The main components of the plan consists of (1) expanded academic and personal counseling from the students' first year to graduation; (2) enhanced academic and career opportunities that gives students decisive advantages in career fields of their choice by providing an option for professional employment and "special" semesters that build professional connections, credentials, and experience; and (3) essential literacies that develop the students' analytic and writing skills that familiarizes them with the fundamental languages of culture and science.

The two major LIU campuses have distinct athletic programs and thus names: the Blackbirds at the Brooklyn campus, who compete in NCAA Division I; and the Pioneers at the C.W. Post campus, who compete in NCAA Division II. The Brooklyn Campus has 14 varsity teams and the C.W. Post Campus 15 varsity teams, each representing sports from baseball to volleyball.

The Blackbirds basketball team has been the most successful of both campuses’ programs. The basketball team won the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in 1939 and 1941 under the guidance of coach Clair Bee. However, in 1951, the Blackbirds basketball players were involved in the CCNY Point Shaving Scandal that resulted in five players receiving a suspended sentence and one player a one-year prison sentence. The basketball team was suspended for six years from 1951-1957. Games were played at the Brooklyn Paramount Theater until recently.

The Long Island University Public Radio Network broadcasts on 88.3 FM (WLIU) and 88.1 FM (WCWP). The Long Island University television broadcasts on channels 36 and 37 on campus only (LIUTV).

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Episcopal Diocese of Long Island

Arms of Episcopal Diocese of Long Island

The Episcopal Diocese of Long Island, is the diocese of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America with jurisdiction over the counties of Kings, Queens, Nassau and Suffolk, which comprise Long Island, New York. It is in Province 2 and its cathedral, the Cathedral of the Incarnation, is located in Garden City, as are its diocesan offices.

The Rt. Rev. Orris G. Walker, Jr., is the seventh and current bishop of Long Island. He has a bachelor's degree from the University of Maryland, College Park, a Bachelor of Sacred Theology degree from General Theological Seminary in New York City, a doctorate in ministry from Drew University, a master of arts degree from the University of Windsor, Ontario, an M.B.A. from the Graduate Theological Foundation in South Bend, Indiana and numerous honorary doctorates.

Diocesan Bishop Orris G. Walker Jr., 65, called for a coadjutor during the diocese's annual convention in November 2007. Walker, Long Island's seventh bishop, has served the diocese since January 1991.

The Diocese has benefited from large endowments, for example, $10,000 given in 1908 by Roslyn, New York resident John Ordronaux.

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Battle of Long Island

Johannes Adam Simon Oertel, Pulling Down the Statue of King George III, N.Y.C., ca. 1859 depicting the Sons of Liberty destroying the statue after the Declaration was read by George Washington to citizens and his troops in New York City on July 9, 1776

The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn or the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, fought on August 27, 1776, was the first major battle in the American Revolutionary War following the United States Declaration of Independence, the largest battle of the entire conflict, and the first battle in which an army of the United States engaged.

After defeating the British in a siege in March 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, brought his army to defend New York City. There he established defenses and waited for the British to attack. In July, the British, under the command of General William Howe, landed on Staten Island, where they were slowly reinforced over the next month and a half, eventually bringing their total force to 32,000 men. With the British fleet in control of the waters, Washington knew the difficulty in holding the city. Believing Manhattan would be the first target, he moved the bulk of his forces there.

On August 22, the British landed on Long Island. After five days of waiting, the British attacked American defenses on the Guana Heights. However, unknown to the Americans, Howe had brought his main army around their rear and attacked their flank soon after. The Americans panicked although a stand by 250 Maryland troops prevented most of the army from being captured. The remainder of the army fled to the main defenses on Brooklyn Heights. The British dug in for a siege but on the night of August 29, Washington evacuated the entire army to Manhattan without the loss of a single life. After several more defeats, Washington and the Continental Army were driven out of New York entirely and forced to retreat through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.

Following the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the British Army was trapped in Boston. On March 5, 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, had artillery placed on Dorchester Heights. The British Commander, William Howe, knew that he could not hold the city with the artillery on the heights which would threaten the British Fleet in Boston Harbor. Two weeks later, on March 17, Howe had the army evacuate the city and they headed for Halifax, Nova Scotia.

After the British abandoned Boston, Washington began to sent regiments to New York City where he believed that the British would attack next because of its strategic importance. Washington left on April 4. The army took a route through Rhode Island and Connecticut, and civilians came out to cheer and offer food and drinks to the soldiers. On April 5, the army paraded into Providence and thousands of civilians came out to see Washington and the army. Eight days later, on April 13, Washington arrived in New York. Washington took up headquarters on Broadway and quickly set to work. In February, Washington had sent his second in command, Charles Lee, to New York to build the defenses for the city. Lee remained in control of the city's defenses until Congress sent him to South Carolina in March, and the job of preparing the defenses was left to General William Alexander (Lord Stirling). Because Lee and Stirling had too few troops to do the job, Washington found the defenses only half done. Lee had concluded that if the British commanded the sea it would be impossible to hold the city, so he built his defenses so as to force the British to pay with heavy casualties if they were to take any ground from the Americans. Lee had barricades and redoubts established in and around the city along with a bastion, called Fort Stirling, on Brooklyn Heights. While in New York, Lee sent out troops to clear Long Island of Loyalists.

Washington began moving troops to Long Island in early May. Within a short time, there were a few thousand men on Long Island. On the eastern side of the hamlet of Brooklyn, three more forts were under construction to support Fort Stirling, which was to the west of the hamlet. The three forts were named Fort Putnam (for Rufus Putnam), Fort Greene (for Nathaneal Greene) and Fort Box (for Major Daniel Box). Fort Putnam was furthest to the north, with Greene slightly to the southwest and Box slightly further southwest. All of these forts were surrounded by a large ditch and they were all connected by a line of entrenchments. The forts had 36 cannon total, mostly 18-pounders. Fort Defiance was also being built at this time, located further southwest, past Fort Box, near present day Red Hook. In addition to these new forts, a mounted battery was established on Governor's Island, cannon were placed at Fort George and more cannon placed at the Whitehall Dock, which sat on the East River.

Washington had been authorized by Congress to recruit an army of up to 28,500 men; however, he had only 19,000 troops when he arrived in New York. There was almost no discipline in the army and simple orders had to be repeated constantly. Men fired their muskets off in camp, ruined their flints, used their bayonets as knives to cut food, and often did not bother to clean their muskets. As this was the first time most men had seen others from different colonies, there were occasional differences that caused conflict.

Due to a shortage of artillerymen, the commander of the artillery, Henry Knox, convinced Washington to transfer 500 or 600 men who lacked muskets to the artillery. In early June, Knox and Greene inspected the land at the north end of Manhattan and decided to establish Fort Washington there. Another fort, Fort Constitution, later named Fort Lee, was planned for the other side of the Hudson River from Fort Washington. The purpose of these forts was to stop British ships from sailing up the Hudson.

On June 28, Washington learned that the British fleet had set sail from Halifax on June 9, and were heading toward New York. On June 29, signals were sent from men stationed on Staten Island that the British fleet had appeared. Within a few hours 45 British ships dropped anchor in Lower New York Bay. Less than a week later, there were 130 ships in the harbor under the command of Richard Howe, the brother of the General. The population of New York went into panic at the sight of the British ships, alarms went off and troops immediately rushed to their posts. On July 2, British troops began to land on Staten Island. The Continental regulars on the island took a few shots at the British before fleeing and the citizen's militia switched over to the British side.

On July 6, news reached New York that Congress had voted for independence four days earlier. On July 9, Washington had several brigades march onto the Commons of the City to hear the Declaration of Independence read. After the end of the reading, a mob ran down to Bowling Green and tore down a statue of King George III on his horse. The mob cut of the head of the statue and the rest of the statue was melted down into bullets.

On July 12, two British ships, the Phoenix and the Rose, sailed up the harbor toward the mouth of the Hudson. The American cannon stationed at Fort George, Red Hook and Governor's Island opened fire, but the British returned fire into the city. The ships sailed along the New Jersey shore and continued up the Hudson, sailing past Fort Washington and arriving at Tarrytown, the widest part of the Hudson, by night. The goal of the British ships was to cut off American supplies and encourage Loyalist support. The only deaths of the day were six Americans who were killed when their own cannon blew up.

The next day, July 13, General Howe attempted to open negotiations with the Americans. Howe sent a letter to Washington delivered by Lieutenant Philip Brown, who arrived under the flag of truce. The letter was addressed George Washington, Esq. Washington consulted his officers as to whether it should be received or not, as it did not recognize his rank as General, and they unanimously said no. Brown was told by Joseph Reed that there was no one in the army with that address. Three days later Howe tried again, this time with the address George Washington, Esq., etc., etc. but it was once again declined. The next day Howe sent Captain Nisbet Balfour to ask if Washington would meet with Howe's adjutant face to face, and a meeting was scheduled for July 20. Howe's adjutant was Colonel James Patterson. Patterson told Washington that Howe had come with powers to grant pardons but Washington said, "Those who have committed no fault want no pardon." Patterson departed soon after. Washington's performance during the meeting was praised throughout the colonies.

Meanwhile, British ships continued to arrive. On August 1, 45 ships with Generals Henry Clinton and Charles Cornwallis arrived, along with 3,000 troops. By August 12, 3,000 more British troops and another 8,000 Hessians had arrived. At this point the British fleet numbered over 400 ships, including 73 war ships, and 32,000 troops were camped on Staten Island. Faced with this large force, Washington was unsure as to where the British would attack. Both Greene and Reed thought that the British would attack Long Island, but Washington felt that a British attack on Long Island might be a diversion for the main attack on Manhattan. Washington broke his army in half, stationing half of it on Manhattan, and the other half on Long Island; the army on Long Island was commanded by Greene. However, on August 20 Greene became very sick and was forced to move to a house in Manhattan where he rested in order to recover. John Sullivan was placed in command until Greene was healthy enough to take command.

At 5:00 am, on August 22, an advance guard of 4,000 British troops, under the command of Clinton and Cornwallis, left Staten Island to land on Long Island. At 8:00 am, all 4,000 troops landed on the shore of Gravesend Bay, unopposed. Colonel Edward Hand's Pennsylvanian riflemen had been stationed on the shore, but they did not oppose the landings and fell back, killing cattle and burning farmhouses on the way. By noon, 15,000 troops had landed on shore along with 40 pieces of artillery. As hundreds of Loyalists came to greet the British troops, Cornwallis pushed on with the advance guard, advancing six miles on to the island and establishing camp at the village of Flatbush; Cornwallis was given orders to advance no further.

Washington received word of the landings the same day they occurred, but was informed that the number was 8,000 to 9,000 troops. This convinced Washington that it was the feint he had predicted and therefore he only sent 1,500 more troops to Brooklyn, bringing the total troops on Long Island to 6,000. On August 24, Washington replaced Sullivan with Israel Putnam who commanded the troops on Long Island. Putnam arrived on Long Island the next day along with six battalions. Also that day the British troops on Long Island received 5,000 Hessian reinforcements, bringing their total to 20,000. Although there was little fighting on the days immediately after the landing, some small skirmishes did take place with American riflemen picking off British troops from time to time.

The American plan was that Putnam would direct the defenses from Brooklyn Heights while Sullivan and Stirling and their troops would be stationed on the Guana Heights. The heights were up to 150 feet high and blocked the most direct route to Brooklyn Heights. Washington believed by stationing men on the heights that heavy casualties could be inflicted on the British before the troops fell back to the main defenses at Brooklyn Heights. There were three main passes through the heights; the Gowanus Road furthest to the west, the Flatbush Road slightly farther to the east, in the center of the American line where it was expected the British would attack, and the Bedford Road farthest to the east. Stirling was responsible to defend the Gowanus Road with 500 men, and Sullivan was to defend the Flatbush and Bedford Roads where there were 1,000 and 800 men respectively. 6,000 troops would remain behind at Brooklyn Heights. However, there was one lesser-known pass through the heights farther to the east, called the Jamaica Pass. This pass was defended by just five militia officers on horses.

On the British side, General Clinton learned of the almost undefended Jamaica Pass from local Loyalists. Clinton drew up a plan and gave it to William Erskine to propose to Howe. Clinton's plan had the main army making a night march and going through the Jamaica Pass to turn the American flank while other troops would keep the Americans busy in front. On August 26, Clinton received word from Howe that the plan would be used, and that Clinton was to command the advance guard of the main army of 10,000 men on the march through the Jamaica Pass. While they made the night march, General James Grant's British troops along with some Hessians, a total of 4,000 men, would attack the Americans in front to distract them from the main army coming on their flank. Howe told Clinton to be ready to move out that night, August 26.

At 9:00 pm the British moved out. No one except the commanders — not even the officers — knew of the plan. Clinton led a crack brigade of light infantry with fixed bayonets in front, followed by Cornwallis who had eight battalions and 14 artillery pieces. Cornwallis was, in turn, followed by Howe and Hugh Percy with six battalions, more artillery, and baggage. The column consisted of 10,000 men who stretched out over two miles. Three Loyalist farmers led the column toward the Jamaica Pass. The British had left their campfires burning in order to deceive the Americans into thinking that nothing was happening. The column headed northeast until it reached the village of New Lots when it headed directly north, toward the Heights. The column had yet to run into any American troops when they reached Howard's Tavern, just a few hundred yards from the Jamaica Pass. The tavern keeper and his son were taken in as additional guides and they told the British that they did not believe that the pass was guarded. Five minutes after leaving the tavern, the five American militia officers stationed at the Pass were captured without a shot fired, as they thought the British were Americans. Clinton interrogated the men and they informed him that they were the only troops guarding the pass. By dawn the British were through the pass and the troops were told to lie down in tall grass and rest. At 9:00 am, they heard the blast of two heavy cannon, the signal for continuing the attack, and Howe moved the army on.

At 3:00 am, Putnam was awakened by a guard and told that the British were attacking through the Gowanus Pass. Grant had stormed the Gowanus Pass with 300 men, scattering the Militia. Putnam lit signals to Washington who was on Manhattan and then rode south to warn Stirling of the attack. Stirling led two regiments of Delaware and Maryland Continentals, a total of 1,600 troops, taking them to establish line to stop the British advance. The British and the Americans engaged each other from about 200 yards apart, both sides under cannon fire, and the British twice assaulted Stirling's troops on the high ground, but each time they were repulsed. The Americans were, however, unaware that this was not the main British attack.

In the center, the Hessians, under the command of General von Heister, began to bombard the American lines. However, the Hessian brigades did not attack, and Sullivan sent some of his regiments to assist Stirling. At 9:00 am, Howe fired his signal guns and the Hessians began to advance in front while the main army came at Sullivan from the rear. Sullivan left his advance guard to hold off the Hessians while he turned the rest of his force around to fight the British. Heavy casualties mounted up between the Americans and the British and men on both sides fled out of fear. Sullivan attempted to calm his men and tried to lead a retreat. By this point, the Hessians had overrun the advance guard on the heights and the American left had completely collapsed. Hand-to-hand fighting followed with the Americans swinging their muskets and rifles like clubs in order to save their lives. Many of the Americans who surrendered were bayoneted by the Hessians. Despite the chaos, Sullivan managed to evacuate most of his men to Brooklyn Heights, but Sullivan himself was captured.

At 9:00 am, Washington arrived from Manhattan. Around this time five British ships attempted to sail up the East River to cut off any possible American evacuation but the wind had shifted and they were unable to do so. Washington realized that he had been wrong about a feint on Long Island and he ordered more troops to Brooklyn from Manhattan. Washington's location on the battlefield is not known for sure, because accounts differ, but most likely he was at Brooklyn Heights where he could view the battle.

On the American right, to the west, Stirling still held the line against Grant. Stirling held on for four hours, still unaware of the British flanking maneuver, and some of his own troops thought they were winning the day because the British had been unable to take their position. However, by 11:00 am, Grant, reinforced by 2,000 marines, hit Stirling's center and Stirling was attacked on his left by the Hessians. Stirling pulled back but British troops were, at this point, coming at him in his rear too. The only escape route left was across a marsh and a creek which was 80 yards wide, on the other side of which was Brooklyn Heights. Stirling ordered all of his troops, except 250 Maryland troops, to cross the creek. The 250 Maryland troops attacked the British, trying to buy time for the others to withdraw. Stirling led the 250 men in six consecutive attacks against the British, until the detachment was annihilated. Washington, on seeing this, was to have said, "Good God, what brave fellows I must this day lose!" Stirling ordered the rest of his men to get back to the Brooklyn lines any way they could. Some of the men who tried to cross the marsh were bogged down in the mud under musket fire and others who could not swim were captured. Stirling was surrounded and, unwilling to surrender to the British, broke through the British lines to Von Heister's Hessians and surrendered to them. Although the troops did not want to stop advancing, Howe ordered all of his troops to halt, against the wishes of many of his officers. Many of his officers believed that they should push on to Brooklyn Heights but Howe disagreed, and the battle ended.

At the time of the battle, it had been by far the largest battle ever fought in North America. If the Royal Navy is included, over 40,000 men took part in the battle. Howe reported his losses as 59 killed, 267 wounded and 31 missing. The Hessian casualties were 5 killed and 26 wounded. The Americans suffered much heavier losses. About 300 had been killed and over 1,000 captured.

Washington and the army were surrounded on Brooklyn Heights with the East River to their backs. If a change in wind occurred the British ships would have been able to sail up the East River and entirely surround the Americans. As the day went on, the British began to dig trenches, slowly coming closer and closer to the American defenses. By doing this, the British would not have to cross over open ground to assault the American defenses. Despite this perilous situation, Washington ordered 1,200 more men over from Manhattan in to Brooklyn on August 28. The men that came over were two Pennsylvania regiments and Colonel John Glover's Massachusetts troops. In command of the Pennsylvania troops was Thomas Mifflin who, after arriving, volunteered to inspect the outer defenses and report back to Washington. In these outer defenses, small skirmishes were still taking place. On the afternoon of August 28, it began to rain and Washington had his cannon bombard the British well into the night.

As the rain continued, Washington sent a letter to General William Heath who was at Kings Bridge, to send every flat bottomed boat or sloop without delay for the reason that battalions of infantry from New Jersey might come to reinforce their position. At 4:00 pm, on August 29, Washington held a meeting with his generals. Mifflin advised Washington to retreat to Manhattan while Mifflin and his Pennsylvania Regiments made up the rear guard, holding the line until the rest of the army had been evacuated. The Generals agreed unanimously with Mifflin that retreat was the best option and Washington had orders go out by the evening.

The troops were told that they were to gather up all their ammunition and baggage and prepare for a night attack. By 9:00 pm, the sick and wounded began to move to the Brooklyn Ferry in preparation for being evacuated. At 11:00 pm Glover and his Massachusetts troops, who were sailors and fishermen, began to evacuate the troops. As more troops were evacuated, more troops were ordered to withdraw from the lines and march to the ferry landing. Wagon wheels were muffled, and men were forbidden to talk. Mifflin's rear guard was tending campfires in order to deceive the British and convince them that nothing was going on. At 4:00 am, on August 30, Mifflin was informed that it was his unit's turn to evacuate. Mifflin told the man who had been sent to order him to leave, Major Alexander Scammell, that he must be mistaken, but Scammell insisted that he was not and Mifflin ordered his troops to move out. However, when Mifflin's troops were within a half mile of the ferry landing Washington rode up and demanded to know why they were not at their defenses. Edward Hand, who was leading the troops, tried to explain what had happened, but Mifflin arrived shortly. Washington exclaimed "Good God! General Mifflin, I am afraid you have ruined us!" Mifflin explained that he had been told that it was his turn to evacuate by Scammell; Washington told him it had been a mistake. Mifflin then led his troops back to the outer defenses.

Artillery, supplies and troops were all being evacuated across the river at this time but it was not going as fast as Washington had anticipated and daybreak soon came. A fog settled in and concealed the evacuation from the British. British patrols noticed that there did not seem to be any American pickets and thus began to search the area. While they were doing this, Washington, the last man left, stepped onto the last boat and headed for Manhattan. At 7:00 am, the last American troops landed in New York. All 9,000 troops had been evacuated without a single life lost.

The British were stunned to find that Washington and the army had escaped. The next day, August 30, the British troops occupied the American fortifications. When news of the battle reached London, it caused many festivities to take place. Bells were rung across the city, candles were lit in windows and King George III gave General Howe the Order of Bath.

General Howe would remain inactive for the next half month, not attacking until September 15 when he landed a force at Kip's Bay. The British quickly occupied the city, however, on September 21, a fire broke out, devastating much of Manhattan. Howe would defeat Washington in battle again at White Plains and then again at Fort Washington. With these defeats, Washington and the army retreated across New Jersey and into Pennsylvania.

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Source : Wikipedia