Michael McCaul

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Posted by kaori 04/08/2009 @ 02:13

Tags : michael mccaul, the house, government, politics

News headlines
Border states, US haggle over help from Guard - San Francisco Chronicle
Michael McCaul, R-Texas, a member of the House Committee on Homeland Security, said he sensed "a bit of reluctance" by the Obama administration to give the go-ahead to sending additional National Guard troops to the border. "It may boil down to whether...
Jack McDonald's Fundraising Prowess Gets Noticed - Burnt Orange Report
Michael McCaul that technically is still in the "exploratory" phase. But his first-quarter take makes it highly likely that he will make his bid official. McDonald's first-quarter report shows that he put in just $1000 of his own money and raised...
House resolution on Venezuelan Jews introduced - Jewish Telegraphic Agency
... Mark Steven Kirk (IL-10), Doug Lamborn (CO-05), Michael McCaul (TX-10), Republican Policy Committee Chairman Thaddeus McCotter (MI-11), Dana Rohrabacher (CA-46), Tom Rooney (FL-16), John Shimkus (IL-19), Aaron Schock (IL-18), Don Manzullo (IL-16),...
RedState's Morning Briefing for Thursday, May 14, 2009 - Examiner.com
Congressman Michael McCaul: Keeping Our Eye on National Security There is a reason America hasn't been attacked since 2001. We need to show the world, and the terrorists that we intend to keep it that way. Recent history has shown us that terrorists...
High school results, April 29 - Toronto Star
... Ajax 0; Jr. Girls' Soccer — St. Mary 1 (Katrina Jegg), Ajax 1 (Kaitlin McCaul); Varsity Boys' Baseball — Ajax 11-6 (Matt Earle, WP; Kyle Taylor, LP), Anderson 2-11 (Ryan Dillabough, LP; Jacob Schaaf, WP) Sr. Girls' Soccer - Michael Power/St. Joseph...
What's On: Galleries - Toronto Star
CF OCAD Professional Gallery (Ontario College of Art & Design, 100 McCaul St. level 2): Roger Ballen's exhibit "Boarding House" runs to May 31 (gallery walk-through tour May 21 at 6:30 pm). OCAD Student Gallery (285 Dundas St. W. 416-977-6000):...
Thrilling win over Kiskeam - The Corkman
Millstreet smoothly regained the initiative, yielding five points without reply from Brian G Murphy, Vaughan and Michael Murphy to secure the silverware. Millstreet lined out as Denny Twomey, Barry O'Reilly, Conor Lane, David McCaul, Darren Sheehan,...
Terrorism, Crime and Business Seminar held in Houston - St. Mary's University
Michael T. McCaul (JD '87), along with Wade M. Battles, Port of Houston Authority Acting Executive Director, presented keynote addresses. Internationally recognized experts in law and security discussed topics such as: the conceptual foundations of...
Roll Call - Tulsa World
Michael McCaul, R-Texas, to fund college and graduate training in advanced energy and energy efficiency technologies. Supporters said the bill would "improve the ability of engineers and architects to design and to construct more efficient and durable...
Obama's plan: No extension of border fence - Houston Chronicle
John Culberson of Houston, Kevin Brady of The Woodlands, and Michael McCaul of Austin. Culberson said it amounted to “more proof that the new administration will not truly secure our borders.” Jennifer A. Dlouhy and Carolyn Lochhead contributed...

Michael McCaul

Michael McCaul

Michael Thomas McCaul, Sr. (b. January 14, 1962, Dallas, Texas) is an American lawyer and politician who currently is the Republican U.S. Representative for Texas's 10th congressional district (map). The district stretches from Austin to Houston.

McCaul grew up in suburban Dallas to a fourth generation Texan family. He graduated from Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas. He earned a Bachelor of Arts in history from San Antonio's Trinity University in 1984 and his Juris Doctor from St. Mary's University in 1987. McCaul also attended Harvard University, taking courses in the Kennedy School of Government .

McCaul worked as an attorney and a federal prosecutor before entering politics. He was the Chief of Counterterrorism and National Security for Texas's branch of the US Attorney's office also worked under the Department of Justice's Public Integrity Section. McCaul was appointed Deputy Attorney General in 1998 and served in this capacity until 2002. He ran for the U.S. House of Representatives in 2004. He won a crowded Republican primary in the newly created 10th District. The district was so heavily Republican that no Democrat bothered to file, effectively handing the seat to McCaul.

McCaul's wife Linda is the daughter of Clear Channel Chairman Lowry Mays. Their children are daughters Caroline, Jewell, Avery and Lauren, and a son, Michael.

In 2004, McCaul entered the Republican primary for the newly created 10th District. He finished first in the crowded eight-way field in the spring of 2004 and emerged from the runoff with Ben Streusand with a 67% to 33% victory. The district, which took in several heavily Republican areas between Austin and Houston, included the home of the old 10th's five-term incumbent, Democrat Lloyd Doggett, leading to accusations that it had been gerrymandered to either defeat Doggett or force him into retirement. Rather than face almost certain defeat, Doggett opted to move to the nearby 25th. No Democrat even filed, effectively handing the seat to McCaul.

In 2006 he defeated Democrat Ted Ankrum and former Libertarian presidential candidate Michael Badnarik with 55% of the vote. McCaul won re-election once again in 2008 against Democrat Larry Joe Doherty and Libertarian Matt Finkel by a 54% to 43% margin.

McCaul is a member of the Republican whip team in Congress. He serves on the House Ethics Committee. McCaul is also the vice chairman of the US-Mexico Interparliamentary Group, which features discussions between legislators in both countries over issues that concern both sides.

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United States House of Representatives elections in Texas, 2008

State Seal of Texas.svg

The 2008 elections for the Texas delegation of the United States House of Representatives was held on November 4, 2008. 31 of 32 congressional seats that make up the state's delegation were contested. In Texas's 14th congressional district no one challenged incumbent Ron Paul. Since Representatives are elected for two-year terms, those elected will serve in the 111th United States Congress from January 4, 2009 until January 3, 2011.

The 2008 Presidential election, 2008 Senate election (for John Cornyn's seat), and 2008 Texas Legislature elections occurred on the same date, as well as many local elections and ballot initiatives.

The delegation prior to the election comprised 19 Republicans and 13 Democrats.

Sophomore Republican Louie Gohmert of Tyler was elected in 2004 following a controversial redistricting in 2003 by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay that moved the district of incumbent Democrat Max Sandlin into a strongly Republican constituency. Sandlin was defeated by a 24-point margin in 2004, and Gohmert won in 2006 with 68% of the vote. The district is a purely East Texas one stretching from the Tyler and Longview-Marshall areas in the north to the Lufkin-Nacogdoches area due south. Gohmert was renominated, while no Democrats ran in the 2008 Primary. He won easily with 87.7% of the vote.

Republican Ted Poe of Humble was one of four Republicans who defeated a Democratic challenger (Nick Lampson, now representing District 22) in the 2004 elections. Poe won 56% of the vote in 2004 and 66% in 2006, making him one of only a handful of Republicans who gained from the previous election (In 2006, Democrats, who won control of the House from Republicans, generally improved on their 2004 margins). The district stretches from the northern Harris County and Houston suburbs of Spring and Kingwood to southern Liberty County and much of the Golden Triangle region. Poe was renominated, while no Democrats ran in the 2008 Primary. The Libertarian Party nominated Craig Wolfe. Poe won re-election with 88.9% of the vote.

Longtime Republican Sam Johnson of Plano was 78 in 2008 but chose not to retire. He won the Republican nomination. Tom Daley (campaign website) is the Democratic nominee and Christopher J. Claytor (campaign website) is the Libertarian nominee. Johnson was re-elected 59.8-38.0% over Claytor.

This district includes several northern and northeastern suburbs of Dallas, including southwestern Collin County (including Plano and McKinney) and northeastern Dallas County including large portions of Garland and Richardson, as well as some northern portions of Dallas itself. The district is heavily Caucasian, upper-middle class, and Republican, with incomes averaging around the $75,000 range.

Republican Ralph Hall of Rockwall, the oldest living member of the House of Representatives (he will be 85 in 2008), faced Democratic nominee Glenn Melancon ([CQ Politics considered the race 'Safe Republican'.

Hall has represented the district since 1980, first elected as an “old-time” conservative Democrat before becoming a Republican in 2004. He won the 2008 Primary election, defeating foreign relations expert Joshua Kowert; businessman and NASCAR team owner Gene Christensen; and former Frisco mayor Kathy Seei. Hall defeated Melancon 68.8-29.3%.

This Northeast Texas district encompasses the Ark-La-Tex, the Rockwall County suburbs of Dallas, and the Sherman-Denison area.

Jeb Hensarling, a Republican from Dallas, was first elected in 2002 to a heavily Republican district comprising of east Dallas and its neighboring suburbs, and stretching to the south and east to a number of small East Texas counties. A favorite among fiscal conservatives in Texas, Hensarling is a potential challenger for the U.S. Senate in 2012 should the incumbent Republican, Kay Bailey Hutchison, retire. In 2008, Hensarling is expected to win another term in this district despite recent Democratic gains in Dallas County. Hensarling was renominated, while no Democrats ran in the 2008 Primary. Hensaring was re-elected with 83.6% of the vote.

Twelve-term Republican Joe Barton of Ennis was the chair of the House Energy and Commerce Committee until Democrats took over the House in 2006. The district stretches from Arlington southward to several east central Texas counties all the way to Trinity County, which is west of Lufkin and is heavily Republican. Barton won the 2008 primary, and faced Democratic winner Ludwig Otto in the general election, which Barton won 62.0-35.6%.

Incumbent Republican John Culberson faced Democratic businessman Michael Skelly in this Houston area district. CQ Politics considered this race 'Leans Republican'.

Culberson won a surprisingly modest 59% of the vote in 2006 in what is otherwise a normally strong Republican district. He was still favored to win in 2008, given the 2006 anti-Republican trend and the normally Republican voting trend of this mainly suburban district, which is among the most affluent in the nation. Skelly, a former executive of Horizon Wind Energy, earned an MBA from Harvard after serving in the Peace Corps. He currently serves on Houston Mayor Bill White's Green Building Advisory Committee. Culberson defeated Skelly 55.9-42.3%.

The district, which was once represented by former President George H. W. Bush, includes much of heavily Republican west Houston, including the mostly urban River Oaks, Galleria/Post Oak and Greenway Plaza areas, the highly affluent Memorial/Spring Branch area, and the island cities of Bellaire, West University Place, and Jersey Village, as well as many unincorporated areas of northwest Harris County including a large chunk of the Cypress-Fairbanks area. The district also includes the heavily Democratic Montrose area. No Democrat has served this district since 1966, before the district was based in its current location.

Republican Kevin Brady of The Woodlands represents a strongly GOP district centered around the northern suburbs and exurbs of Houston and Beaumont as well as the Huntsville and Lake Livingston areas, winning two-thirds of the vote in 2004 and 2006. The district was expected to remain in Republican hands; no Democrat has won this district since Jimmy Carter, the last Democrat to carry Texas in the presidential electoral college (in 1976), was President. Brady won the 2008 Primary and faced Democrat Kent Hargett who he defeated 72.6-24.8%.

Sophomore Democrat Al Green was not expected to face a serious challenge in 2008 for his heavily Democratic district, which is situated in southwest Houston and includes Houston’s Southside, as well as the Mission Bend and Alief areas (which have large Asian-American populations) and several heavily black and Hispanic northeastern neighborhoods of Missouri City. He was elected by a 3 to 1 margin in 2004 after defeating displaced incumbent Congressman and fellow Democrat Chris Bell in the primary (Bell was moved out of his previous district in the controversial 2003 redistricting engineered by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay), and won a second term unopposed in 2006. Green was renominated, while no Republicans ran in the 2008 Primary. Green was re-elected with 93.6% of the overall vote.

Incumbent Republican nominee Michael McCaul of Austin was challenged by Democratic nominee Larry Joe Doherty ,a legal ethics attorney and former TV courtroom judge. CQ Politics considered this race 'Republican Favored'. In 2006, McCaul won only 55% of the vote against a token Democratic challenger, Ted Ankrum, and Libertarian Michael Badnarik. Ultimately McCaul won 53.9-43.1%.

This Republican-leaning district stretches from north Austin into Brenham traveling all the way to several far western and northwestern suburbs of Houston.

Midland Republican Mike Conaway represents George W. Bush’s strongest district in the 2004 election. He won 77% of the vote in 2004 and was one of only a handful of Republicans who ran unopposed in 2006. Conaway’s district stretches from the Midland and San Angelo areas to several mostly rural areas northwest of Austin. No Democrat ran in the 2008 primary and Conaway received 88.3% of the vote over minor party opposition.

Republican Kay Granger, who is considered a moderate by Texas Republican standards, won two-thirds of the vote in 2006, outperforming most of her fellow Texas Republican colleagues. The popular Fort Worth-based Granger was expected to win re-election in 2008 in this district comprising western areas of Fort Worth and surrounding areas. Granger defeated Democrat nominee Tracey Smith 67.6-30.6%.

Mac Thornberry represents this Texas Panhandle district that encompasses Amarillo and Wichita Falls. The Clarendon Republican won by a 3 to 1 margin in 2006 and faced only a Libertarian candidate in 2004. Thornberry defeated Democrat nominee Roger Waun 77.6-22.4%.

Republican Ron Paul is best known for his strong libertarian views. His slogan, “The Taxpayers’ Best Friend”, emphasizes his strong — and sometimes controversial — takes on fiscal conservatism, while his social policies, which includes ending the federal War on Drugs and legalizing marijuana, as well as his belief that the federal government should not be involved in wedge issues such as gay marriage, leading to a more negative nickname, "Dr. No", for his votes against much of the legislative agenda of both parties in Congress.

The 73-year-old physician is a resident of Surfside. Paul was a Republican candidate in the 2008 presidential election (his second, following his run as Libertarian Party nominee in 1988), and ran un-opposed for re-election.

In 2006, Ron Paul won 60% of the vote against Democratic opponent Shane Sklar, a young rancher and Executive Director of the Independent Cattlemen’s Association of Texas (ICA) who ran on a promise to serve as a fiscally conservative Blue Dog Democrat and received a slightly more favorable rating from the NRA, in attempt to defeat the popular Paul. Paul was renominated, while no Democrats ran in the 2008 Primary. Libertarian Eugene J. Flynn filed to run on December 20 . The district extends from several far southern and southeastern areas of Houston, including Galveston and Brazoria County, to the Bay City, Wharton County, and Victoria areas.

Democrat Rubén Hinojosa of Mercedes won 62% of the vote in 2004 in a South Texas district that had to be realigned following a Supreme Court decision that made the neighboring 23rd District unconstitutional. Hinojosa, who was 68 in 2008, won the Democrat nomination and defeated Republican nominee Eddie Zamora 65.7-32.0%.

Democrat Silvestre Reyes represents El Paso and is the Chairman of the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, which could make him a target of some conservative Republicans over issues relating to immigration in spite of the fact that Reyes was a former border patrol agent. Still, the district remains overwhelmingly Democratic due to its large Hispanic population, and Reyes is popular with his constituents. He won two-thirds of the 2004 vote in a district that swung strongly in favor of John Kerry, and won with no Republican challenger in 2006. Reyes was renominated, while no Republican ran in the 2008 Primary. Reyes won re-election with 82.1% of the vote.

Democrat Chet Edwards has been targeted for defeat in many recent elections. His district is widely seen as arguably the most heavily Republican district held by a Democrat, and won a close election in 2004, but recovered in 2006 with a strong eighteen point win. The district, which includes the official residence of George W. Bush, stretches from several rural areas south of Fort Worth to Edwards’ hometown of Waco and the Brazos Valley region, which comprises the Bryan-College Station area. This district gave George W. Bush 70% of the vote in 2004. Edwards won the 2008 Democrat nomination and defeated Republican nominee Rob Curnock 53.0-45.5%.

Democrat Sheila Jackson Lee represents one of the most heavily Democratic areas in the state, covering several largely poor and African-American areas of Houston (including downtown Houston) and whose three previous representatives (Barbara Jordan, Mickey Leland, and Craig Washington) were all African-Americans and took staunch liberal stances.

A regular during C-SPAN’s gavel-to-gavel coverage of the House while it is in session, Jackson Lee has also been seen as controversial, and is considered by some to be one of the “meanest” members of the House, as she is known to have one of the highest turnover rates of any congressional staff. Still, she is a well-respected figure in the district, and has been re-elected with at least 80% of the vote many times. Jackson Lee won the Democrat nomination and defeated Republican nominee John Faulk 77.3-20.3% in the 2008 November general election.

Republican Randy Neugebauer of Lubbock won re-election in 2006 with 68% of the vote. His district is heavily Republican and stretches from Lubbock to Big Spring and Abilene and was created in the controversial 2003 Texas redistricting, which in 2004 led to the defeat of Neugebauer’s challenger, conservative Democrat Charles Stenholm. Neugebauer won re-election over 2008 Democrat nominee Dwight Fullingim 72.5 to 24.9%.

Democrat Charlie Gonzalez represents much of heavily Democratic, largely Hispanic inner San Antonio, including the downtown area. Gonzalez won 87% of the vote in 2006 against a Libertarian opponent and two-thirds of the 2004 vote. Gonzalez is heavily favored to win re-election to this seat, which was once held by his father, Henry Gonzalez for nearly four decades. The Gonzalez family have represented this district for 47 years as of 2008. Charlie defeated 2008 Republican nominee Robert Litoff 71.9-25.2% in the November general election.

Longtime representative Lamar Smith was the only Republican to win among the five congressional districts realigned as a result of a Supreme Court ruling that declared the nearby 23rd District unconstitutional as a result of allegations of diluted Hispanic voting power during the controversial 2003 Texas redistricting. Smith ended up being moved into a district that now encompasses several northern San Antonio suburbs as well as the Texas Hill Country and western parts of Travis County. The district includes a heavily Democratic portion of Austin, including the area around the University of Texas at Austin. However, it is no match for the heavily Republican areas around San Antonio. The Supreme Court decision restored a large amount of territory that had been shifted to Henry Bonilla's district in 2003. Smith won 60% of the vote in 2006 against six challengers, including two Democrats, in a special election that resulted from the ruling. Smith was renominated, while no Democrats ran in the 2008 primary. In the general election, Smith won with 80.0% of the vote.

The seat was held by Democrat Nick Lampson, who was defeated by Republican Pete Olson ,a former Senate aide on November 4, 2008.

In 2006, the 11-term Republican incumbent, former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, was indicted and then resigned amid allegations of corruption surrounding his campaign finance activities for ARMPAC and its Texas division, TRMPAC. DeLay's resignation came too late for another Republican to replace him on the ballot. Democrat Nick Lampson, who had moved from Beaumont to Stafford to run against DeLay, ended up winning the seat after Republicans were forced to run a write-in campaign for Shelley Sekula-Gibbs, a dermatologist and former Houston City Councilwoman who won a special election to fill the remaining seven weeks of DeLay’s unexpired term.

CQ Politics forecasts this race as 'No Clear Favorite'. Many other election experts agree the race is highly competitive, including Stuart Rothenberg, Electoral-vote.com, The Hill, The Southern Political Report, and Chris Cillizza.

An October 22, 2008, poll by John Zogby and the Houston Chronicle has stated that Olson has a 17 point lead over Lampson.

Lampson had been mentioned as a potential candidate for the Senate in 2008, where he would face Republican incumbent John Cornyn, but Lampson instead chose to run for re-election to his congressional seat. Lampson topped a list of Democrats targeted by Republican campaign operative Karl Rove in 2008. The Republican primary was a hard-fought contest, and Olson easily defeated 2006 nominee Shelley Sekula-Gibbs in the run-off election on April 8. Olson defeated Lampson 52.4-45.4% in the general election.

The heavily Republican district includes several of Houston’s affluent southern suburbs, including all of Sugar Land, affluent areas of Missouri City, Pearland, Pasadena and its surrounding smaller municipalities, and the Clear Lake master-planned community. The district is also home to the NASA Johnson Space Center, which houses Mission Control, and Ellington Field.

Ciro Rodriguez, a former Democratic congressman from San Antonio, faced Republican nominee Bexar County Commissioner Lyle Larson and Libertarian Lani Connolly in this majority-Hispanic district. CQ Politics considered this race 'Leans Democratic'.

Rodriquez defeated incumbent Republican Henry Bonilla in a December runoff after finishing in second place to Bonilla during the November general election, when Rodriguez himself ran out of money but was later helped by the DCCC. He was a former congressman who represented the nearby 28th District until a controversial redistricting plan that made this district more heavily Republican and favorable to Bonilla resulted in his defeat by that district’s current representative, Henry Cuellar. Bonilla was seen as an ally of Tom DeLay, who engineered the redistricting. Also, a Supreme Court ruled Bonilla’s district, which was situated in the Hill Country suburbs of San Antonio, unconstitutional over claims that Hispanic voting rights were diluted in the redistricting. This resulted in the 23rd becoming much more Democratic with the addition of south San Antonio, which is Rodriguez’s home base, and the removal of the Hill Country portions from the district, which were moved to Lamar Smith’s district.

Larson is a public official and businessman in San Antonio. A graduate of Texas A&M University, he worked as a salesman for Ethicon, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson. In 1991 and 1993 he was elected to the San Antonio City Council. In 1996, he was elected Bexar County Commissioner, where he continues to serve. He defeated attorney and banker Francisco "Quico" Canseco in the Republican primary. Rodriguez defeated Larson 55.8-41.9%.

In addition to southern San Antonio and Bexar County, the district also includes several northwestern areas of San Antonio. Other areas represented in the district include the border towns of Del Rio and Eagle Pass, as well as Big Bend National Park and eastern El Paso County. It includes more than 600 miles of the Texas-Mexico border.

Republican Kenny Marchant of Coppell won 60% of the vote in this Republican-leaning district that gave George W. Bush 65% of the vote in 2004. Marchant is heavily favored to win re-election to this district, which is located in the middle of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex and includes the suburbs of Duncanville and Cedar Hill in the south, Grand Prairie and part of Irving in the central area of the district, and Colleyville, Grapevine and the Carrollton-Farmers Branch area in the north, as well as Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Marchant’s district was previously represented by Martin Frost, who was moved out of this district in Tom DeLay’s controversial 2003 redistricting of the state. Marchant defeated 2008 Democrat nominee Tom Love (campaign website) and 2008 Libertarian nominee David A. Casey 55.9-41.1% in the November election.

Austin Democrat Lloyd Doggett represents a Democratic-leaning constituency that is centered around the Austin area and several smaller rural areas to the south and east which either lean Republican or strongly favor Republicans. Doggett won 67% of the vote against a largely unknown Republican opponent who initially ran as a Libertarian until the previous 25th district was thrown out in a Supreme Court ruling that declared the nearby 23rd District of Henry Bonilla unconstitutional; this district was realigned as a result of the controversial mid-decade redistricting engineered by former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, which realigned Doggett's district into a linear form that was derisively referred to as the "fajita strip". Doggett defeated 2008 Republican nominee George Morovich 65.8-30.5% in the November election.

Republican Michael Burgess of Lewisville won 60% of the vote in 2006 against an underfunded Democratic opponent, a six-percent drop from his 2004 victory against another Democrat. However, Burgess remains assured of a safe seat, as his seat takes in most of Denton County as well as parts of Fort Worth and lean heavily in favor of the Republican Party. The district was once represented by former House Majority Leader Dick Armey, who engineered the 1994 Republican Revolution along with former House Speaker Newt Gingrich. Burgess defeated 2008 Democrat nominee Ken Leach (campaign website) 60.2-36.4% in the November election.

The District is represented by Moderate Democrat Solomon Ortiz, the Dean of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus. Ortiz received 57% of the vote in 2006, a six-point decline from his 2004 performance, which was somewhat of an anomaly given the strong anti-Republican voting mood of 2006, where Democrats either performed above their 2004 performance or ran without opposition. In 2004, George W. Bush carried this South Texas district, which includes Corpus Christi as well as Brownsville and South Padre Island. Ortiz won the Democrat nomination and defeated Republican nominee Willie Vaden 57.9-38.4% in November.

Conservative Democrat Henry Cuellar won 68% of the vote in 2006 against another Democrat who received 20% of the vote. Even though Cuellar is becoming a rising star in the Democratic Party, and has even been seen by some as a potential Democratic challenger to Senator John Cornyn, Cuellar could face a challenge for his seat, which includes Laredo (where Cuellar resides) and areas south of San Antonio, due to his somewhat conservative voting record. For instance, Cuellar received the backing of the conservative Club for Growth during his 2006 primary campaign against Ciro Rodriguez, his predecessor, who later went on to win the 23rd District held by Republican Henry Bonilla, whom Cuellar nearly defeated in 2002. Cuellar won the Democrat nomination and defeated Republican nominee Jim Fish 68.7-29.2% in November.

Democrat Gene Green of Houston has won re-election easily without facing a primary challenge in this strongly Latino, heavily Democratic district, which covers eastern portions of Houston as well as some of its suburbs. Green defeated Republican nominee Eric Story 74.7-23.9%.

Incumbent Democratic nominee Eddie Bernice Johnson (campaign website) of Dallas defeated Republican nominee Fred Wood (campaign website) 82.6-15.8%. This district includes the inner city areas of Dallas, including its downtown areas, as well as several southern Dallas County suburbs south of the city which boast a large African-American population. CQ Politics considered the race to be 'Safe Democrat'.

John Carter of Round Rock won 59% of the vote in 2006 against a token Democratic opponent. His district, which was created as a result of the 2000 Census, stretches across a large segment of Central Texas from the northern Williamson County suburbs of Austin to the gigantic Fort Hood military base, all the way north to Stephenville. This description of the district would make it an opportunity for the Fighting Dems, a faction of military veterans who are members of the Democratic Party. Radio producer Brian P. Ruiz (campaign website) of Hutto won the Democratic nomination but was defeated by Carter 60.3-36.5% in the general election.

Six-term incumbent and conservative Republican Pete Sessions (campaign website) will face Democrat Eric Roberson (campaign website) in this Dallas district. CQ Politics considered the race 'Safe Republican'.

Sessions was considered to be a vulnerable candidate for a number of reasons. First, he is known to have close ties to disgraced lobbyist Jack Abramoff, an issue that is likely to become the focus of his Democratic challenger’s campaign in 2008. Also, while Sessions improved on his margin from his hotly contested 2004 race against Democrat Martin Frost, who was displaced from his previous district as a result of the controversial 2003 redistricting engineered by former House Majority Leader and Abramoff ally, Tom DeLay, it was only by a 2% margin (from 54% in 2004 to 56% in 2006). Contrarily, George W. Bush carried 59% of the vote in the district to 41% of the vote for John Kerry in 2004. Finally, in 2006, Democrats made unexpected gains in Dallas County, winning the District Attorney office and all contested state district judgeships in the county, along with a number of countywide offices on the basis of corruption within the local Republican establishment as well as momentum gained from Democratic Dallas County Sheriff Lupe Valdez’s unexpected 2004 victory.

Roberson won against Steve Love in the April 8th party runoff election to determine the Democrat nominee., but lost to Sessions 57.2-40.6% in the general election.

This Republican-leaning district includes several northern affluent areas of Dallas, including Highland Park, and significant chunks of the suburbs of Irving and Richardson.

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Kirsten Gillibrand

Kirsten Gillibrand

Kirsten Elizabeth Rutnik Gillibrand (pronounced /ˈdʒɪləbrænd/; born December 9, 1966) is the junior United States Senator from New York and a member of the Democratic Party. She was elected twice to the United States House of Representatives, representing New York's 20th congressional district from January 3, 2007 to January 26, 2009. She was the first female representative of the district and the first Democrat to represent the district since Edward W. Pattison left office in 1979. She was also a member of the Blue Dog Coalition during her tenure in the House.

On January 23, 2009, Gillibrand was appointed by Governor David Paterson to fill the Senate seat vacated by Hillary Rodham Clinton, who assumed the office of United States Secretary of State in the Obama administration. Gillibrand is widely considered to be a centrist Democrat, appealing to Republican and conservative Democratic voters in upstate New York. At 42, Gillibrand is the youngest member of the U.S. Senate. She is the second female U.S. Senator from New York.

After attending Albany's Academy of the Holy Names, she graduated in 1984 from Emma Willard School in Troy, New York, the first all-women's high school in the United States. While at Emma Willard, Gillibrand was the number one singles tennis player, she managed the school newspaper and served as a student council representative and yearbook photographer. She was inducted into the Cum Laude Society, the school’s highest academic distinction.

Known at Dartmouth College as Tina Rutnik, she majored in Asian studies and graduated magna cum laude. While in college, Gillibrand studied abroad in both Taiwan and the People's Republic of China. She is semi-fluent in Mandarin Chinese and habitually incorporates Chinese words and phrases into her normal vocabulary. Her Chinese name is Lu Tian Na.

She received her Juris Doctor (J.D.) from the UCLA School of Law in 1991. She interned for Senator Alfonse D'Amato (R-NY) during college, and served as a law clerk on the Second Circuit Court of Appeals for Judge Roger Miner.

During the Clinton administration, Gillibrand served as Special Counsel to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Andrew Cuomo. She worked on HUD's Labor Initiative and its New Markets Initiative as well as on TAP's Young Leaders Of The American Democracy, on strengthening Davis-Bacon Act enforcement, and on drafting new markets legislation for public and private investment in building infrastructure in lower income areas.

As an associate at Davis Polk & Wardwell and a partner at Boies, Schiller & Flexner, Gillibrand worked on a wide range of legal and policy-related issues. She handled many pro bono cases, including abused women and their children, and tenants seeking safe housing after lead paint and unsafe conditions were found in their homes.

During her employment at the firm, she represented Philip Morris (now Altria Group) from 1995 to 1999, during major litigation including defense of civil lawsuits and FBI criminal probes. Her campaign finance records show that she had received $23,200 in contributions from some of the company's employees. When it became an issue during the 2006 elections, Gillibrand freely discussed her Philip Morris work with the Albany Times-Union, stating that she had voted in favor of all three anti-tobacco bills in that session of Congress, that she did not try to hide her work for Philip Morris and had spoken about it before to other reporters. She stated that most of her work consisted of assisting the company in assembling documents in response to subpoenas, and that as a junior associate she had no control over which clients she worked for.

This work again became news during her senate career when, on March 27, 2009, The New York Times ran a front page article detailing her work defending Philip Morris. Although common legal practice at law firms is that junior associates are expected to work for the clients assigned to them, the article noted that associates at Davis Polk & Wardwell were given the option to refuse to represent Philip Morris if they had a moral or ethical objection, policy that was not uncommon at law firms handling tobacco industry work. However, under U.S. law, every person including corporations are ultimately entitled to competent legal counsel of their choice.

The Times reported that Gillibrand was closely involved in key tobacco-related litigation, including aiding Philip Morris' controversial attempts to hide health information collected by its German lab, the Institut Fur Biologische Forschung. Gillibrand was involved in public relations efforts by the company to deal with "mounting public unease about its product and practice." The same article went on to state that during her most recent congressional race, Ms. Gillibrand, who is a former smoker, accepted $18,200 in campaign donations from tobacco companies and their executives, inculding Phillip Morris — putting her among the top dozen House Democrats for such contributions. Many Congressional Democrats do not accept tobacco money.

In response to the article, Gillibrand put out Google ads pointing to her 100% anti-tobacco voting record as a Congresswoman and as a Senator. She cited that in 2007, 2008 and in 2009, Gillibrand voted for bill that would increase the tax on cigarettes by 61 cents to $1 per pack and raise taxes on other tobacco products to offset an expansion of the Children’s Health Insurance Program. Second, she pointed to her co-sponsorship of a bill to mandate FDA regulation of tobacco products, which would further regulate tobacco marketing and sales, require larger warnings, and increase tobacco companies' disclosure requirements. She endorsed the NY State Smoke-Free Law of 2003 and amended New York State Clean Indoor Air Act to prohibit smoking in virtually all workplaces, including restaurants and bars. Finally she pointed to her support for anti-smoking education initiatives, cracking down on internet trafficking and tobacco sales to children, and increasing support for tobacco cessation programs.

She was the Chair of the Women's Leadership Forum Network and was on the Boards of the Eleanor Roosevelt Legacy Committee and the Commission on Greenway Heritage Conservancy for the Hudson River Valley. She also served on the Advisory Board for the Brennan Center for Justice.

In 2006, Gillibrand defeated four-term Republican incumbent, John E. Sweeney, in New York's 20th congressional district election by a margin of 53%-47%. She co-founded the Congressional High Tech Caucus with Rep. Michael McCaul (R-TX) at the beginning of the 110th Congress. She voted against the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 both times it came before the House.

Gillibrand won her bid for re-election in 2008 and enjoyed a sophomore surge, defeating challenger Alexander "Sandy" Treadwell 62%-38%. During the campaign, she was criticized for hosting fundraisers in London, England, and Paris, France. While the fundraisers were legal and contributions only came from American citizens living abroad, some critics claimed that her actions were hypocritical since during her first campaign, she had criticized Sweeney for hosting an out-of-state fundraiser for the 2006 election.

Media reports of her relationship with colleagues in the New York congressional delegation have been contradictory. During the spectacle surrounding Gillibrand's eventual appointment to the United States Senate in January 2009, progressive commentators like Politico's Glenn Thrush and New York Times editorialist (and Caroline Kennedy proponent) Maureen Dowd claimed that Gillibrand was "unpopular" and was known within her delegation by the unflattering nickname "Tracy Flick", after the Reese Witherspoon character from the movie Election. However, other reports suggest that while her popularity is limited geographically within her state—the majority of New York's congressional districts are concentrated "down-state", in the highly populated New York metropolitan area—Gillibrand enjoys good relationships with fellow delegates from the slightly more conservative, mostly rural and suburban "up-state" region from which she hails.

During her tenure in the House, she would travel the Washington Metro with her son Theodore and drop him off at the congressional day care center before proceeding to work. She has also posted her daily schedules and financial disclosure forms on her website.

As a result of her appointment to the U.S. Senate, Gillibrand's Congressional seat will be filled in a special election to be called by Governor Paterson.

On December 1, 2008, President-elect Barack Obama announced his choice of Hillary Rodham Clinton, the junior U.S. Senator from New York, as United States Secretary of State. Clinton's nomination was confirmed by the Senate and she resigned her Senate seat on January 21, 2009, creating a vacancy in the Senate to be filled by appointment by Governor David Paterson until a special election in 2010 for the balance of Clinton's term, which ends in 2012. Gillibrand had been rumored by the media as one of several people, including Caroline Kennedy and New York State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo, to be under consideration as Clinton's replacement. On January 23, Paterson announced his selection of Gillibrand as the junior Senator from New York. In attendance were Al D'Amato, in whose office she interned and who is one of only three living former Senators from New York (along with Clinton and James L. Buckley), and other New York State officials and some members of the New York Congressional delegation. Gillibrand officially took office on January 27, taking the oath of office from Vice President Joe Biden.

The choice of Gillibrand was met with both praise and criticism. New York Democratic Representative Carolyn McCarthy, a vocal supporter of gun control who is reportedly considering challenging Gillibrand in the 2010 primary because of this issue, expressed strong objections to the appointment of anyone with a 100% positive rating from the NRA. Senator Chuck Schumer, also a strong gun control advocate, supported the appointment and urged McCarthy to give Gillibrand a chance. The New York Immigration Coalition also objected to the appointment based upon Gillibrand's views on immigration reform. President Obama, Secretary Clinton, and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid all expressed their support for the appointment. A Quinnipiac Poll in January 2009 showed that most New Yorkers polled expressed approval of Gillibrand's appointment to the Senate. However a Siena poll coming out at the same time showed mixed results.

Gillibrand is the first appointed Senator to represent New York since Charles Goodell. Goodell was appointed following the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy.

Gillibrand is viewed by some as a rising star in the Democratic Party with a bright political future, as alluded to by Governor Paterson in his appointment of her to fill Clinton's seat. In May 2008, she was mentioned by The New York Times as one of several new Representatives who as potential governors could become the first female President of the United States. Friends have also commented that Gillibrand may eventually rise to the presidency.

Gillibrand ran in New York's 20th Congressional District against four-term Republican incumbent John E. Sweeney. The suburban and rural district was among the more Republican in the Northeast. Sweeney had a politically conservative/libertarian stance, and had not faced a serious opponent for election in any of his previous House races. Gillibrand won the election by a 6% margin over Sweeney.

Gillibrand ran for re-election in November 2008, defeating challenger Sandy Treadwell (R) to keep her seat.

As New York election law allows fusion voting, Gillibrand ran under the aegis of both the Democratic Party and the Working Families Party in her two elections to the House. The pooled vote totals for candidates are listed first, and the split of the votes among the parties they ran as is listed beneath.

Gillibrand supports abortion rights, stem cell research, and the Children's Health and Medicare Protection Act. She also opposes attempts to partially privatize Social Security.

Gillibrand is an outspoken advocate of gun rights. She has received a 100% positive rating from the National Rifle Association. In the House of Representatives, she sponsored an amendment to the 2008 Farm Bill that would expand public lands for hunting. Gillibrand has also worked to strengthen the NRA-endorsed National Instant Criminal Background Check System Improvement Act to keep guns out of the hands of criminals.

Gillibrand firmly opposes granting amnesty and non-emergency taxpayer benefits to illegal immigrants. She also opposes giving federal contracts to employers who have hired illegal immigrants and supports increasing the number of border patrol agents.

Gillibrand believes in making English the official language of the United States.

Gillibrand now opposes deporting illegal immigrants and cutting off funds to sanctuary cities. She still, however, opposes giving driver's licences to illegal immigrants. She supports an earned path to citizenship for illegal immigrants.

Gillibrand was originally only in favor of legalizing civil unions across the country, once stating, “All things that we give to married couples, committed gay couples should be eligible for. And then the question of whether you call it a marriage or not, what you label it, that can be left to the states to decide.” In 2007, Gillibrand received an 80 out of 100 rating from the LGBT advocacy group the Human Rights Campaign—the lowest score out of New York’s Democratic representatives. She declined to cosponsor legislation repealing the military's "don't ask, don't tell" policy. She voted against legislation to grant same-sex partners of U.S. citizens and permanent residents the same immigration status of married couples. However, on the morning of her appointment to the Senate, she called the Empire State Pride Agenda to express her full support for same-sex marriage. According to the ESPA, as a member of the Senate, Gillibrand will also support a repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act and the "don't ask, don't tell" policy.

Gillibrand supports extending the Bush 2001 and 2003 tax cuts. She opposes the No Child Left Behind Act, because she believes it "places an unmanageable strain on country and school budgets." She supports doubling the Child and Dependent Care Credit, and eliminating or permanently fixing the Alternative Minimum Tax.

During the economic crisis in 2008, Gillibrand opposed the Bush administration's corporate rescue plans with her vote in the House of Representatives, calling them "fundamentally flawed". However, she did vote for the automobile industry bailout in December 2008, and voted for the $850 billion stimulus plan backed by the Obama administration, although political opponent Carolyn McCarthy, who represents New York's 4th congressional district in the House, claimed that Gillibrand opposed it, incorrectly stating that the senator-designate had already voted against the bill.

At a press conference on January 25, 2009, Gillibrand said that during her first week in the Senate, she would work to ensure that the stimulus bill included relief funds for New York state. However, Gillibrand was not among the group of moderate senators led by Republican Susan Collins of Maine and Democrat Ben Nelson of Nebraska that worked on revising and paring down the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in early February 2009, instead opting to urge the bill's swift passage.

Gillibrand lives in Hudson, a small city 35 miles (56 km) south of Albany. She splits her time between Hudson and Washington, D.C., with her husband, British national and venture capital consultant Jonathan Gillibrand, and their two sons. Their older child, Theodore, was born in 2004. On May 15, 2008, Gillibrand gave birth to her second child, Henry Nelson Gillibrand, making her the sixth woman to have a child while serving as a member of Congress. Her House colleagues gave her a standing ovation for working until the day she gave birth.

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United States House of Representatives elections in Texas, 2006

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The 2006 midterm elections were held on November 7, 2006. All 32 House seats in the United States Congress from Texas were up for election.

Freshman Congressman Louis Gohmert (R-Tyler), elected in 2004 after redistricting in East Texas, faced Roger Owen (D) of Hallsville in the general election, along with Libertarian nominee Donald Perkinson. Gohmert was one of four Republicans who succeeded in defeating incumbent Democrats with help from a controversial redistricting effort orchestrated by former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay.

In 2004, Ted Poe (R-Humble) unseated Democrat Nick Lampson after heavy redistricting changed the political landscape, allowing him to win with 55% of the vote. His opponent in November was Democrat Gary Binderim, along with the Libertarian Justo J. Perez.

Incumbent Sam Johnson (R-Plano) faced Dan Dodd, Democrat from McKinney and Libertarian Christopher J. Claytor in the general election. This district is dominated by the Republican stronghold of Collin County, as well as Garland, another large Dallas suburb.

25 year incumbent Ralph Hall (R-Rockwall), who switched from the Democratic Party shortly before the 2004 election faced Democrat Glenn Melancon of Sherman and Libertarian Kurt G. Helm. Though it is best known as the district of the well known former Speaker Sam Rayburn, and thus a long Democratic stronghold, the southern end of the district consists of Republican-dominated Dallas suburbs.

Incumbent Jeb Hensarling (R-Dallas) faced Democrat Charlie Thompson of Athens in the general election, along with Libertarian Mike Nelson.

Joe Barton (R-Ennis), who has represented the Sixth District since 1985, faced Democrat David T. Harris of Arlington in November, along with Libertarian Carl Nulsen.

Incumbent John Culberson (R-Houston) faced Democratic teacher Jim Henley of Houston and Libertarian Drew Parks in the general election in November. The seventh district is one of the most heavily Republican districts in Texas yet it is mostly urban, as it is also one of the wealthiest districts in the country and includes several affluent areas of Houston, including the Upper Kirby, Uptown, Spring Branch-Memorial, and River Oaks neighborhoods, as well as the cities of West University Place, Bellaire, and Jersey Village.

Kevin Brady (R-The Woodlands), incumbent Congressman since 1996, faced Democrat James Wright of New Caney in November.

Freshman Democratic Congressman Al Green of Houston faced no opposition in November. It should be no surprise as the Ninth District is heavily Democratic, as it contains large numbers of African-American and Hispanic voters.

Incumbent freshman Michael McCaul (R-Austin) faced some minor celebrity in that of 2004 Libertarian presidential nominee Michael Badnarik. Vietnam veteran Ted Ankrum of Houston ran as the Democratic nominee. McCaul was elected with no Democratic opposition in 2004, as the Libertarian candidate captured 15% of the vote (it should be noted, however, that no Libertarian candidate in the entire state garnered more than 4% when running against both major parties). The 10th district spans a large swath of southeast and central Texas from eastern Austin to Harris County west of Houston.

Congressman Mike Conaway (R-Midland) ran unopposed in the general election.

Incumbent Congresswoman Kay Granger (R-Fort Worth) faced John R. Morris (D), also of Fort Worth, in the general election. Gardner Osborne received the Libertarian nod.

Congressman Mac Thornberry (R-Amarillo) faced Roger Waun, Democrat from Wichita Falls in this panhandle race. Jim Thompson represented the Libertarian Party in the election.

Congressman Ron Paul, Republican from Surfside, faced Shane Sklar, Democrat from Edna for the right to represent this coastal district, which stretches from Victoria and stretches in a northward and eastward direction to Fort Bend and Brazoria counties.

Four term incumbent Congressman Rubén Hinojosa (D-McAllen) ran against Republicans Paul Haring and Eddie Zamora in a special election caused by court mandated redistricting in South Texas and the redrawing of the district's lines.

Democratic Congressman Silvestre Reyes of El Paso faced third-party opposition in the fall, in the form of Libertarian Gordon Strickland. The 16th District is heavily Democratic and comprises mainly El Paso, which is heavily Hispanic.

Incumbent Chet Edwards (D-Waco) won reelection by a 51% to 48% margin in 2004 after the 2003 Texas redistricting changed his exurban Central Texas district substantially and made it more Republican, he also pulled off the victory despite the fact Bush won the district by a margin of 40%. His district includes Waco and Crawford, the location of George W. Bush's ranch. With his district stretched to include his alma mater of Texas A&M University, he was able to pull off a narrow victory in 2004. He was also helped by the fact that his opponent, then-State Representative Arlene Wohlgemuth, was nominated only after a nasty, expensive primary. This year, he was challenged by Republican Van Taylor, an attorney and Iraq War veteran from a prominent family in Waco. Guillermo Acosto threw his hat in the ring as the Libertarian nominee.

Incumbent Sheila Jackson Lee (D-Houston) faced Republican Ahmad Hassan for the right to hold this largely Democratic and urban Congressional seat in the heart of Houston. Patrick Warren was the Libertarian nominee.

Congressman Randy Neugebauer (R-Lubbock), victorious in 2004 over fellow incumbent Congressman Charlie Stenholm (D-Abilene), faced Democrat Robert Ricketts, also of Lubbock, in November. Fred Jones was on the ballot as the Libertarian nominee.

Charlie Gonzalez (D-San Antonio) defended his Congressional seat against minimal opposition, including Libertarian Michael Idrogo and write-in candidate Robert Sanchez. His district covers much of inner city San Antonio, which is mostly Hispanic.

Lamar Smith (R-San Antonio) was running against San Antonio Democrat John Courage in the general election, along with James Arthur Strohm, the Libertarian nominee. The district was changed somewhat in the federal court remapping mandated by the Supreme Court and attracted several new candidates for the special election that will ensue as a result of the boundary change after the party primaries took place. A perennial candidate who was defeated for the Democratic U.S. Senate nomination, Gene Kelly, along with Independent candidates Tommy Calvert, James Lyle Peterson, and Mark Rossano. A majority of votes is needed to avoid a December runoff in this crowded field.

Retiring Incumbent Tom DeLay (R-Sugar Land) had been facing mounting ethical challenges and corruption charges in recent months, and won reelection by a surprisingly small 55% to 41% margin in 2004, even though George W. Bush carried the suburban Houston district with 64%. On September 28, 2005, DeLay was indicted by a grand jury in Travis County, Texas. As a result, he felt forced to step down from his post as House Majority Leader. In announcing his plans not to seek reelection, Delay noted his poor poll showing and the constant criticisms he was expecting. DeLay declared himself ineligible for the race on Tuesday, April 4th by attempting to officially change his residence to Virginia. "Those polls showed him beating Democrat Nick Lampson in the general election but in a race that would be too close for comfort, DeLay said." .

DeLay's district faced a strong challenge from former Rep. Nick Lampson, a Democrat whose district he dismantled during the 2003 mid-decade redistricting. Lampson's former district contained much of the eastern area of DeLay's present district. Lampson currently has some $1.7 million in cash on hand.

Libertarian Bob Smither also ran for the 22nd district of Texas.

The Republican nomination to replace DeLay was prevented by a court ruling that mandated that DeLay could not be replaced on the ballot. As a result, Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott, who previously sent out telephone calls encouraging Republicans to vote for DeLay in the primary, called for DeLay's name to be removed from the ballot and replaced with another GOP candidate. The court order was upheld by a panel of the Fifth Circuit Court and appeal to the Supreme Court refused by Justice Antonin Scalia. DeLay then filed to withdraw his name from the ballot to allow the GOP to rally behind another candidate.

The Texas GOP then decided to attempt to rally behind a write-in candidate, choosing Houston City Councilwoman Shelley Sekula-Gibbs during a meeting of precinct chairs in the 22nd district on August 17. The presumed favorite before the denial of the appeal, Sugar Land mayor David Wallace, filed as a write-in candidate with the Texas Secretary of State before the meeting, vowing to run even without the support of the GOP.

The 23rd district was among five districts holding a special election Nov. 7, the same day as the general election. The race pitted all certified candidates against one another in each district, regardless of party. If no one got more than 50 percent of the vote, as did happen in 23, the top two vote-getters in each district would have a runoff in December.

The reason for this arrangement stems from the controversial 2003 Texas redistricting plan which was ruled unconstitutional with respect to the 23rd district by the Supreme Court in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry. The Court ruled that the plan was a racial gerrymander; specifically that it lowered the Hispanic population percentage in the district to the extent that it unconstitutionally diminished the constituency's political influence. The 23rd had to be redrawn, and, in all, five districts were effected, and all primary results from those districts were vacated. The new lines effected mostly the 23rd and 28th districts.

The incumbent in the 23rd was Congressman Henry Bonilla (R-San Antonio). His opponent originally was Rick Bolanos, 57, Democrat from El Paso, who was to be Bonilla's challenger before the district was redrawn and forced the new elections. As redrawn, however, Bonilla's district included the home of Democratic ex-Congressman Ciro Rodriguez, who jumped into the race, after losing his primary challenge against Henry Cuellar in the 28th district. In addition to Rodriguez and Bolanos, candidates included Democrats Augie Beltran, Adrian DeLeon, Lukin Gilliland, and Albert Uresti. Independent Craig Stephens also joined the field.

Incumbent Kenny Marchant (R-Coppell), ran to keep his seat in Congress against Democrat Gary Page of Irving and the Libertarian nominee Mark Frohman.

Incumbent Congressman Lloyd Doggett (D-Austin) originally was slated to have no major party opposition in the fall. The 25th district formerly stretched from Austin to the Mexican border, but has been redrawn for the 110th Congress to be more compact and completely in the central part of the state.

As this district was redrawn after the party primaries took place, a special election ensued in November, meaning that instead of a plurality required for victory, a majority was required. If no candidate received a majority, the top two contenders would meet in a runoff election in December. He was opposed by Republican Grant Rostig, Libertarian Barbara Cunningham, and Independent Brian Parrett.

Congressman Michael C. Burgess (R-Lewisville) was challenged by Democrat Tim Barnwell of Denton, along with Libertarian Rich Haas. The Denton County-centered district is strongly Republican.

Incumbent Solomon P. Ortiz (D-Corpus Christi) ran for reelection against Republican William Vaden, also of Corpus Christi. They were joined on the ballot by Libertarian Robert Powell.

Congressman Henry Cuellar (D-Laredo) had no opposition from Republicans in November. However, a recent Supreme Court ruling struck down Texas' 23rd District, which is located next to this district, as an unconstitutional racial gerrymander resulting from the controversial 2003 Texas redistricting efforts coordinated by House Majority Leader Tom DeLay and the Republican-controlled legislature.

Cuellar's power base in Laredo was consolidated in the resulting remap and thus will not face Congressman Bonilla, as had been speculated as a scenario. This election was a special election, as the district was drawn after the party primaries, and Cuellar was faced by fellow Democrat Frank Enriquez and Constitution Party candidate Ron Avery. The Libertarian nominee did not re-file to run in the special election.

Congressman Gene Green (D-Houston) ran against Republican Eric Story, also of Houston, in the November general election. Clifford Lee Messina, a Libertarian, rounded out the ballot. This district contains several heavily Hispanic neighborhoods in inner-city Houston, as well as several blue-collar eastern suburbs of Houston, including Pasadena, Channelview and Baytown, which are home to a strong majority of the Houston area's petrochemical refineries.

Incumbent Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-Dallas) faced Republican Wilson Aurbach in the general election, along with Ken Ashby, the Libertarian nominee. The 30th District contains the southern and downtown portions of Dallas, as well as several of its inner southern suburbs. It is heavily Democratic.

Congressman John Carter (R-Round Rock) defended his Central Texas Congressional seat in November against Democrat Mary Beth Harrell of Gatesville and Libertarian Matt McAdoo. The largely Republican district consists of many northern Austin suburbs as well as the gigantic Fort Hood military base.

Incumbent Pete Sessions (R-Dallas), who defeated longtime Democratic Congressman and fellow incumbent Martin Frost in a contentious reelection in the 2004 redistricting aftermath, faced Democrat Will Pryor for the right to represent this suburban Dallas district. Joining the two was Libertarian John Hawley.

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Larry Joe Doherty

Larry Joe Doherty or LJD (born July 29, 1946) is a Texas legal ethics attorney and former television star of the show Texas Justice. He was the Democratic candidate for the 10th Congressional District of Texas in 2008, but lost by a 54% to 43% margin to Republican Congressman Michael McCaul . Born in Hillsboro, Texas, Doherty is married to Joanne Doherty.

On April 4, 2007, Doherty announced his candidacy for the United States House of Representatives for the Tenth Congressional District of Texas, the seat currently held by Republican Michael McCaul. Doherty entered the race after McCaul's relatively low win percentage in the 2006 election.

During the primary, Doherty was criticized by supporters of his primary opponent because his campaign treasurer, Houston philanthropist Jim "Mattress Mac" McIngvale, held a fundraiser for Republican Mitt Romney's presidential campaign. Doherty used the criticism as an opportunity to point out his political independence. "I'm not going to be anybody's rubber stamp, and my treasurer is free to support anybody he wants to," Doherty said. "This is an independent country, last time I checked." Doherty faced Democratic primary challenger Dan Grant in the March 4, 2008 primary and won 61% to 39%.

Doherty generated controversy in October 2008 when he said in an interview with the Austin Chronicle that, "We've killed children for oil ." This statement produced a stern response from various veterans, Vets for Freedom, and Gold Star parents that called on Doherty to apologize or explain his remarks. Many linked his statement to the accusation that American military members were "baby killers" during the Vietnam War. Doherty and his campaign never responded to this controversy.

The campaign of Doherty's Republican opponent, Congressman Michael McCaul, released a series of clips from Doherty's show, Texas Justice, that they claim show Doherty mocking African-Americans. Doherty and his campaign never respoded to this controversy. The Austin American-Statesman newspaper wrote about the issue and posted the videos on their website.

Doherty lost to McCaul by a 54% (179,493) to 43% (143,719) margin with the Libertarian, Matt Finkel, taking the remainder of the votes. McCaul won majorities in six of the eight counties in the district and overcame Doherty's 77,043 votes (60%) in liberal Travis County by running up 98,122 votes (68%) in conservative Harris County.

Doherty failed to join former illustrious actors Ben "Cooter" Jones and Fred "Gopher" Grandy in going from acting to a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. Instead, he joins Shirley Temple and Noble Willingham in the ranks of actors that failed to win their House campaigns.

Doherty would be named by The Austin Chronicle as the "biggest loser" for the fact that he received more votes than nine other candidates that won their congressional elections.

In December 2008 Doherty emailed his supporters and pleaded for them to support the runoff election of Chris Bell for a Houston, Texas area state senate seat. Doherty stated that, "I'm asking you to make a difference in another important battle: Chris Bell for Texas Senate...This is the last battleground of 2008, and Chris’s victory is important to all Democrats and Texans who want change in Austin....My friend Chris is the type of Democratic leader Texas needs -- a true visionary who will fight for real reform in the Texas Senate." Bell would earn only 43% of the vote and lose the election on Tuesday, December 16, 2008. It is not known if Doherty will be asked to endorse other campaigns in the future.

Doherty received a J.D. from the University of Houston in 1970. He is a member of the Houston Bar Association and the State Bar of Texas. Doherty is a senior partner in the Houston law firm Doherty, Long & Wagner. Doherty specializes in legal malpractice cases.

Doherty and his wife have endowed a Chair on Ethics at the University of Houston Law Center.

Doherty starred in the show Texas Justice from 2001-2005. The court show is currently in syndication. Doherty judged cases in the show, making legally binding decisions. The series lasted for 4 1/2 seasons, from January 2001 until it was canceled in September 2005.

Doherty is a former president of the Washington County Wildlife Society and a member of the Texas Wildlife Association and a past member of the Texas Quail Council, an official advisory group to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Commission. Doherty maintains the "Long Star Ranch," near Brenham, TX, as a 270-acre (1.1 km2) wildlife habitat and native grass restoration project.

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109th United States Congress

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The 109th United States Congress was the legislative branch of the United States, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, from January 3, 2005 to January 3, 2007, during the fifth and sixth years of George W. Bush's presidency. House members were elected in the 2004 elections on November 4, 2004. Senators were elected in three classes in the 2000 elections on November 7, 2000, 2002 elections on November 5, 2002, or 2004 elections on November 4, 2004. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twenty-second Census of the United States in 2000. Both chambers had a Republican majority, the same party as President Bush.

Prominent events included the filibuster "nuclear option" scare, the alleged failure of the federal government to help in Hurricane Katrina disaster relief, the Tom DeLay corruption investigation, the CIA leak scandal, the rising unpopularity of the Iraq War, the 2006 immigration reform protests and government involvement in the Terri Schiavo case.

In addition to the DeLay indictment, this Congress also had a number of scandals: Bob Ney, Randy "Duke" Cunningham, William J. Jefferson, Mark Foley scandal, and the Jack Abramoff scandals.

This Congress met for 242 days, the fewest since World War II and 12 days fewer than the 80th Congress. As the Congress neared its conclusion, some commentators labelled this the "Do Nothing Congress," a pejorative originally given to the 80th United States Congress by President Harry Truman.

The President vetoed only one bill, his first veto, the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005.

The party summary for the Senate remained the same during the entire 109th Congress. On January 16, 2006, Democrat Jon Corzine resigned, but Democrat Bob Menendez was appointed and took Corzine's seat the next day.

The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide at-large, are preceded by an "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts are preceded by their district numbers.

Members who came and left during this Congress.

All seats were filled though special elections.

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110th United States Congress

Initial percentage of members of the House of Representatives from each party by state at the opening of the 110th Congress in January 2007.

The One Hundred Tenth United States Congress was the meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, between January 3, 2007, and January 3, 2009, during the last two years of the second term of President George W. Bush. It was composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The apportionment of seats in the House was based on the 2000 U.S. census.

The Democratic Party controlled a majority in both chambers for the first time since the end of the 103rd Congress in 1995. Although the Democrats held fewer than 50 Senate seats, they had an operational majority because the two independent senators caucused with the Democrats for organizational purposes. No Democratic-held seats had fallen to the Republican Party in the 2006 elections. Democrat Nancy Pelosi became the first woman Speaker of the House. The House also received the first Muslims and Buddhists in Congress.

Members debated initiatives such as the Democrats' 100-Hour Plan and the Iraq War troop surge of 2007.

Following President Bush's 2007 State of the Union Address, Congress debated his proposal to create a troop surge to increase security in Iraq. The House of Representatives passed a non-binding measure opposing the surge and then a $124 billion emergency spending measure to fund the war, which included language that dictated troop levels and withdrawal schedules. President Bush, however, vetoed the bill as promised, making this his second veto while in office. Both houses of Congress subsequently passed a bill funding the war without timelines, but with benchmarks for the Iraqi government and money for other spending projects like disaster relief.

These are partial lists of prominent enacted legislation and pending bills.

Membership changed with one death and two resignations.

Membership fluctuated with seven deaths and eight resignations. Democrats achieved a net gain of three seats as a result of their victories in special elections. See Changes in membership, below.

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Source : Wikipedia