Milk

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Posted by motoman 03/27/2009 @ 15:07

Tags : milk, movies, cinema, entertainment

News headlines
Global milk glut squeezes dairy farmers, consumers - Kansas City Star
A collapse in milk prices has wiped away the profits of dairy farmers, driving many out of business while forcing others to slaughter their herds or dump milk on the ground in protest. But nine months after prices began tumbling on the farm,...
ACLU threatens lawsuit over Milk report - ABC30.com
Harvey Milk poses in front of his camera shop in San Francisco in this Nov. 9, 1977 photo. (AP photo) SAN DIEGO, CA (KFSN) -- The ACLU is threatening to sue a school that stopped a student's report on Harvey Milk. The San Diego County sixth grader was...
Indy mystery: Why do Indianapolis 500 winners drink milk? - Yahoo! Sports
By Chris Chase After crossing the bricked finish line on Sunday, the winner of the Indianapolis 500 will drive into the winner's circle, be presented with a celebratory wreath and take a swig from a cold bottle of milk. The latter is one of the...
Back on the milk route: Franchitti returns to Indy after skipping 2008 - OregonLive.com
Dario Franchitti drank the milk, wore the wreath and kissed the trophy the last time he raced at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. He is, without a question, an Indianapolis 500 champion. But that was two Mays ago. Franchitti did not return to the 500,...
Vegan baking with coconut milk - Examiner.com
One of my new favorite vegan "tricks" is using coconut milk for a more fatty substitute than the traditional soy, rice or almond milk. Due to its high fat content coconut makes a more thick and creamy alternative. So far I've used it for both biscuits...
Drinking chocolate milk aids sporting performance, research finds - Melbourne Herald Sun
RESEARCHERS have discovered an unlikely weapon in the battle for elite sporting performance: chocolate milk. A study from England's Northumbria University found chocolate milk was better for post-exercise recovery than commercial sports drinks....
Baroda Dairy to hike price of two milk varieties by Re 1 - Indian Express
The Baroda Dairy authorities have announced to increase the price of two varieties of milk by Re 1 from Monday onwards. The reason cited is that farmers in the dairy cooperatives are facing problems due to escalating fodder prices as also the rising...
May 25th, 1984: Final rattles in era of home milk delivery - Irish Times
THE RATTLE of milk bottles on electric-powered milk floats was once a common early morning sound on suburban streets and something of a cliché in British films of the mid-20th century. Pádraig Yeates recorded another step in the passing of the milkman...
Lawmakers Honor Harvey Milk - FoxReno.com
SACRAMENTO -- A birthday party was held Friday at the state capitol to remember slain San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk. Milk would have turned 79 years old on Friday. He was the first openly gay elected official in California....

Milk

Drinking milk in Germany in 1932

Milk is an opaque white liquid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). It provides the primary source of nutrition for newborn mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation milk is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. The exact components of raw milk varies by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Cow's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic.

There are two distinct types of milk consumption: a natural source of nutrition for all infant mammals, and a food product for humans of all ages derived from other animals.

In almost all mammals, milk is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the milk to be stored and consumed later. Some cultures, historically or currently, continue to use breast milk to feed their children until they are 7 years old.

In many cultures of the world, especially the Western world, humans continue to consume milk beyond infancy, using the milk of other animals (in particular, cows) as a food product. For millennia, cow milk has been processed into dairy products such as cream, butter, yogurt, kefir, ice cream, and especially the more durable and easily transportable product, cheese. Industrial science has brought us casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed milk, powdered milk, and many other food-additive and industrial products.

Humans are an exception in the natural world for consuming milk past infancy. Most humans lose the ability to fully digest milk after childhood (that is, they become lactose intolerant). The sugar lactose is found only in milk, forsythia flowers, and a few tropical shrubs. The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the small intestines after birth and then begins a slow decline unless milk is consumed regularly. On the other hand, those groups that do continue to tolerate milk often have exercised great creativity in using the milk of domesticated ungulates, not only of cows, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo, horses, and camels.

The term milk is also used for whitish non-animal substitutes such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk. Even the regurgitated substance secreted by glands in the mucosa of their upper digestive tract which pigeons feed their young is called crop milk though it bears little resemblance to mammalian milk.

Milking has its advent in the very evolution of placental mammals. While the exact time of its appearance is not known, the immediate ancestors of modern mammals were much like monotremes, including the platypus. Such animals today produce a milk-like substance from glands on the surface of their skin, but without the nipple, for their offspring to drink after hatching from their eggs. Likewise, marsupials, the closest cousin to placental mammals, produce a milk-like substance from a teat-like organ in their pouches. The earliest immediate ancestor of placental mammals known seems to be eomaia, a small creature superficially resembling rodents, that is thought to have lived 125 million years ago, during the Cretaceous era. It almost certainly produced what would be considered milk, in the same way as modern placental mammals.

Animal milk is first known to have been used as human food at the beginning of animal domestication. Cow milk was first used as human food in the Middle East. Goats and sheep were domesticated in the Middle East between 9000 and 8000 BC. Goats and sheep are ruminants: mammals adapted to survive on a diet of dry grass, a food source otherwise useless to humans, and one that is easily stockpiled. The animals were probably first kept for meat and hides, but dairying proved to be a more efficient way of turning uncultivated grasslands into sustenance: the food value of an animal killed for meat can be matched by perhaps one year's worth of milk from the same animal, which will keep producing milk — in convenient daily portions — for years.

Around 7000 BC, cattle were being herded in parts of Turkey. There is evidence from DNA extraction of skeletons from the Neolithic period that people in northern Europe were missing the necessary genes to process lactase. Scientists claim it is more likely that the genetic mutation allowing the digestion of milk arose at some point after dairy farming began. The use of cheese and butter spread in Europe, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. Domestic cows, which previously existed throughout much of Eurasia, were then introduced to the colonies of Europe during the Age of exploration.

In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist.

Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, milk banks exist that allow for the collection of donated human milk and its redistribution to infants who may benefit from human milk for various reasons (premature neonates, babies with allergies or metabolic diseases, etc.).

All other female mammals do produce milk, but are rarely or never used to produce dairy products for human consumption.

In the Western world today, cow milk is produced on an industrial scale. It is by far the most commonly consumed form of milk in the western world. Commercial dairy farming using automated milking equipment produces the vast majority of milk in developed countries. Types of cattle such as the Holstein have been specially bred for increased milk production. 90% of the dairy cows in the United States and 85% in Great Britain are Holsteins. Other milk cows in the United States include Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Jersey, and Milking Shorthorn. The largest producers of dairy products and milk today are India followed by the United States and China. In India, Amul, a cooperative owned jointly by 2.6 million small farmers was the engine behind the success of Operation Flood.

This table below shows the numbers of buffalo milk productions. Cow milk is produced in a much wider range.

It was reported in 2007 that with increased worldwide prosperity and the competition of biofuel production for feedstocks, both the demand for and the price of milk had substantially increased world wide. Particularly notable was the rapid increase of consumption of milk in China and the rise of the price of milk in the United States above the government subsidized price.

Milk is an emulsion or colloid of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid. Each fat globule is surrounded by a membrane consisting of phospholipids and proteins; these emulsifiers keep the individual globules from joining together into noticeable grains of butterfat and also protect the globules from the fat-digesting activity of enzymes found in the fluid portion of the milk. In unhomogenized cow milk, the fat globules average about four micrometers across. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are found within the milkfat portion of the milk.

The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are casein protein micelles: aggregates of several thousand protein molecules, bonded with the help of nanometer-scale particles of calcium phosphate. Each micelle is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer across. There are four different types of casein proteins, and collectively they make up around 80 percent of the protein in milk, by weight. Most of the casein proteins are bound into the micelles. There are several competing theories regarding the precise structure of the micelles, but they share one important feature: the outermost layer consists of strands of one type of protein, kappa-casein, reaching out from the body of the micelle into the surrounding fluid. These Kappa-casein molecules all have a negative electrical charge and therefore repel each other, keeping the micelles separated under normal conditions and in a stable colloidal suspension in the water-based surrounding fluid.

Both the fat globules and the smaller casein micelles, which are just large enough to deflect light, contribute to the opaque white color of milk. Skimmed milk, however, appears slightly blue because casein micelles scatter the shorter wavelengths (blue compared to red).

The fat globules contain some yellow-orange carotene, enough in some breeds — Guernsey and Jersey cows, for instance — to impart a golden or "creamy" hue to a glass of milk. The riboflavin in the whey portion of milk has a greenish color, which can sometimes be discerned in skim milk or whey products. Fat-free skim milk has only the casein micelles to scatter light, and they tend to scatter shorter-wavelength blue light more than they do red, giving skim milk a bluish tint.

Milk contains dozens of other types of proteins besides the caseins. They are more water-soluble than the caseins and do not form larger structures. Because these proteins remain suspended in the whey left behind when the caseins coagulate into curds, they are collectively known as whey proteins. Whey proteins make up around twenty percent of the protein in milk, by weight. Lactoglobulin is the most common whey protein by a large margin.

The carbohydrate lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contributes about 40% of whole cow milk's calories. Lactose is a composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. In nature, lactose is found only in milk and a small number of plants. Other components found in raw cow milk are living white blood cells. Mammary-gland cells, various bacteria, and a large number of active enzymes are some other components in milk.

In most Western countries, a centralised dairy facility processes milk and products obtained from milk (dairy products), such as cream, butter, and cheese. In the United States, these dairies are usually local companies, while in the southern hemisphere facilities may be run by very large nationwide or trans-national corporations (such as Fonterra).

Pasteurization is used to kill harmful microorganisms by heating the milk for a short time and then cooling it for storage and transportation. Pasteurized milk is still perishable and must be stored cold by both suppliers and consumers. Dairies print expiration dates on each container, after which stores will remove any unsold milk from their shelves. In many countries it is illegal to sell milk that is not pasteurized.

A newer process, Ultra Pasteurization or ultra-high temperature treatment(UHT), heats the milk to a higher temperature for a shorter time. This extends its shelf life and allows the milk to be stored unrefrigerated because of the longer lasting sterilization effect.

Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer. The cream is often sold as a separate product with its own uses; today the separation of the cream from the milk is usually accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. The fat globules rise to the top of a container of milk because fat is less dense than water. The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prevent this from happening. In fact, the cream rises in cow milk much more quickly than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in the milk tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held together by a number of minor whey proteins. These clusters rise faster than individual globules can. The fat globules in milk from goats, sheep, and water buffalo do not form clusters so readily and are smaller to begin with; cream is very slow to separate from these milks.

Milk is often homogenized, a treatment which prevents a cream layer from separating out of the milk. The milk is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tubes, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitation. A greater number of smaller particles possess more total surface area than a smaller number of larger ones, and the original fat globule membranes cannot completely cover them. Casein micelles are attracted to the newly-exposed fat surfaces; nearly one-third of the micelles in the milk end up participating in this new membrane structure. The casein weighs down the globules and interferes with the clustering that accelerated separation. The exposed fat globules are briefly vulnerable to certain enzymes present in milk, which could break down the fats and produce rancid flavors. To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the milk immediately before or during homogenization.

Homogenized milk tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than unhomogenized; it is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavors. Creamline, or cream-top, milk is unhomogenized; it may or may not have been pasteurized. Milk which has undergone high-pressure homogenization, sometimes labeled as "ultra-homogenized," has a longer shelf life than milk which has undergone ordinary homogenization at lower pressures. Homogenized milk may be more digestible than unhomogenized milk.

Concerns exist about the health effects of consuming homogenized milk. Work by Kurt A. Oster, M.D. in the 1960s through the 1980s suggested a link between homogenized milk and arterosclerosis, due to the release of bovine xanthine oxidase (BXO) from the milk fat globular membrane (MFGM) during homogenization. While Oster's work has been widely criticized, it is apparent that homogenization introduces changes to the MFGM and exposures of its proteins, and the effects of these changes on food safety have not been thoroughly investigated.

Donkey and horse milk have the lowest fat content, while the milk of seals and whales can contain more than 50% fat. High fat content is not unique to aquatic animals, as guinea pig milk has an average fat content of 46%.

The amount of calcium from milk that is absorbed by the human body is disputed. Calcium from dairy products has a greater bioavailability than calcium from certain vegetables, such as spinach, that contain high levels of calcium-chelating agents, but a similar or lesser bioavailability than calcium from low-oxalate vegetables such as kale, broccoli, or other vegetables in the Brassica genus.

Studies show possible links between low-fat milk consumption and reduced risk of arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, colorectal cancer and obesity. Overweight individuals who drink milk may benefit from decreased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. One study has shown that for women desiring to have a child, those who consume full fat dairy products may actually slightly increase their fertility, while those consuming low fat dairy products may slightly reduce their fertility due to interference with ovulation. However, studies in this area are still inconsistent. Milk is a source of Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid that inhibits several types of cancer in mice. CLA has been shown to kill human skin cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer cells in vitro studies, and may help lower cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis; CLA is present only in milk from grass-fed cows.

Other studies suggest that milk consumption may increase the risk of suffering from certain health problems. Cow milk allergy (CMA) is as an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to one or more cow milk proteins. Rarely is it severe enough to cause death. Milk contains casein, a substance that breaks down in the human stomach to produce casomorphin, an opioid peptide. In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that casomorphin can cause or aggravate autism, and casein-free diets are widely promoted. Studies supporting these claims have had significant flaws, and the data are inadequate to guide autism treatment recommendations. Studies described in the book The China Study note a correlation between casein intake and the promotion of cancer cell growth when exposed to carcinogens. However other studies have shown whey protein offers a protective effect against colon cancer.

A study demonstrated that men, and to some degree women, who drink a large amount of milk and consume dairy products were at a slightly increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The reason behind this is not fully understood, and it also remains unclear why there is less of a risk for women. Several sources suggest a correlation between high calcium intake (2000 mg per day, or twice the US recommended daily allowance, equivalent to six or more glasses of milk per day) and prostate cancer. A large study specifically implicates dairy, i.e., low-fat milk and other dairy to which vitamin A palmitate has been added. A review published by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research states that at least eleven human population studies have linked excessive dairy product consumption and prostate cancer, however randomized clinical trial data with appropriate controls only exists for calcium, not dairy produce, where there was no correlation. Medical studies have also shown a possible link between milk consumption and the exacerbation of diseases such as Crohn’s Disease, Hirschsprung's disease–mimicking symptoms in babies with existing cow milk allergies, severe gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants and children hypersenstitive to milk, and the aggravation of Behçet's disease.

Since November 1993, with FDA approval, Monsanto has been selling recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)--or rBGH--to dairy farmers. Additional bovine growth hormone is administered to cattle in order to increase their milk production, though the hormone also naturally fosters liver production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). The deposit thereof in the milk of rBGH-affected cattle has been the source of concern; however, all milk contains IGF1 since all milking cows produce bovine growth hormone naturally. The IGF1 in milk from rBGH-affected cattle does not vary from the range normally found in a non-supplemented cow. Elevated levels of IGF1 in human blood has been linked to increased rates of breast, colon, and prostate cancer by stimulating their growth, though this has not been linked to milk consumption. The EU has recommended against Monsanto milk. In addition, the cows receiving rBGH supplements may more frequently contract an udder infection known as mastitis. Milk from rBGH-affected cattle is banned in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan due to the mastitis problems. On June 9, 2006 the largest milk processor in the world and the two largest supermarkets in the United States--Dean Foods, Wal-Mart, and Kroger--announced that they are "on a nationwide search for rBGH-free milk." No study has indicated that consumption of rBST-produced milk increases IGF1 levels, nor has any study demonstrated an increased risk of any disease between those consuming rBST and non-rBST produced milk. In 1994, the FDA stated that no significant difference has been shown between milk derived from rBST-treated and that from non-rBST-treated cows.

Milk may contain varying levels of white blood cells depending upon the health of the source animals, according to guidelines set up by the Food and Drug Administration and statistics reported by the dairy industry. Although not considered a human health issue by most authorities, elevated white blood cell levels indicate an immune response by cattle, which could be due in part to mastitis. There are concerns regarding the transmission of bovine paratubeculosis through somatic cells to humans, but the evidence is largely inconclusive.

Lactose, the disaccharide sugar component of all milk must be cleaved in the small intestine by the enzyme lactase in order for its constituents (galactose and glucose) to be absorbed. The production of this enzyme declines significantly after weaning in all mammals including humans. Once lactase levels have decreased sufficiently, consumption of small amounts of lactose can cause diarrhea, intestinal gas, cramps and bloating, as the undigested lactose travels through the gastrointestinal tract and serves as nourishment for intestinal microflora who excrete gas, a process known as anaerobic respiration.

Source: McCane, Widdowson, Scherz, Kloos.

These compositions vary by breed, animal, and point in the lactation period. Jersey cows produce milk of about 5.2% fat, Zebu cows produce milk of about 4.7% fat, Brown Swiss cows produce milk of about 4.0% fat, and Holstein-Friesian cows produce milk of about 3.6% fat. The protein range for these four breeds is 3.3% to 3.9%, while the lactose range is 4.7% to 4.9%.

Milk fat percentages in all dairy breeds vary according to digestible fiber, starch and oil intakes, and can therefore be manipulated by dairy farmers' diet formulation strategies. Mastitis infection can cause fat levels to decline.

Organic milk (in the United States) or bio-milk & biologique milk (in Europe) is milk produced without the use of chemical herbicides or pesticides, and generally with more natural fertilizers and higher standards for the animals, and is now easy to find on the shelves in many areas. Demeter certified milk is produced with biodynamic agriculture methods and is similar in standards to organic milk and biological milk, with a few special farm procedures added that are biodynamic-specific.

In countries where the cattle (and often the people) live indoors, commercially sold milk commonly has vitamin D added to it to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation.

Reduced fat milks often have added vitamin A to compensate for the loss of the vitamin during fat removal; in the United States this results in reduced fat milks having a higher vitamin A content than whole milk.

To aid digestion in those with lactose intolerance, milk is available in some areas with added bacterial cultures such as Lactobacillus acidophilus ("acidophilus milk") and bifidobacteria ("a/B milk"). Another milk with Lactococcus lactis bacteria cultures ("cultured buttermilk") is often used in cooking to replace the traditional use of naturally soured milk, which has become rare due to the ubiquity of pasteurization which kills the naturally occurring lactococcus bacteria.

Milk often has flavoring added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales. Chocolate flavored milk has been sold for many years and has been followed more recently by such other flavors as strawberry and banana.

South Australia has the highest consumption of flavored milk per person in the world, where Farmers Union Iced Coffee outsells Coca-Cola, a success shared only by Inca Kola in Peru and Irn-Bru in Scotland.

Because milk spoils so easily, it should, ideally, be distributed as quickly as possible. In many countries milk used to be delivered to households daily, but economic pressure has made milk delivery much less popular, and in many areas daily delivery is no longer available. People buy it chilled at grocery or convenience stores or similar retail outlets. Prior to the widespread use of plastics, milk was sold in wax-coated paper containers; prior to that milk was often distributed to consumers in glass bottles; and before glass bottles, in bulk that was ladled into the customer's container.

In the UK, milk can be delivered daily by a milkman who travels his local milk round (route) using a milk float (often battery powered) during the early hours. Milk is delivered in 1 pint glass bottles with aluminium foil tops. Silver top denotes full cream unhomogenized; red top full cream homogenized; red/silver top semi-skimmed; blue/silver check top skimmed; and gold top channel island.

Empty bottles are rinsed before being left outside for the milkman to collect and take back to the dairy for washing and reuse. Currently many milkmen operate franchises as opposed to being employed by the dairy and payment is made at regular intervals, by leaving a check; by cash collection; or direct debit.

Although there was a steep decline in doorstep delivery sales throughout the 1990s, the service is still prominent, as dairies have diversified and the service is becoming more popular again. The doorstep delivery of milk is seen as part of the UK's heritage, and is relied upon by people up and down the country.

In Australia and New Zealand, milk is no longer distributed in glass bottles, due to declining sales and the introduction of long life packaging (UHT). Milk is generally sold in plastic 2 and 3 liter bottles and cardboard cartons as well as the long life varieties.

In rural India and Pakistan, milk is delivered daily by a local milkman carrying bulk quantities in a metal container, usually on a bicycle; and in other parts of metropolitan India and Pakistan, milk is usually bought or delivered in a plastic bags or cartons via-shops or supermarkets.

In the United States, glass milk bottles have been mostly replaced with milk cartons (tall paper boxes with a square cross-section and a peaked top that can be folded outward upon opening to form a spout) and plastic jugs. Gallons of milk are almost always sold in jugs, while half-gallons and quarts may be found in both paper cartons and plastic jugs, and smaller sizes are almost always in cartons. Recently, milk has been sold in smaller resealable bottles made to fit in automobile cup holders. These individual serving sizes are also sold in flavored varieties.

The half-pint milk carton is the traditional unit as a component of school lunches. In the U.S., pictures of missing children were printed on the larger milk cartons as a public service until it was determined that this was disturbing to children.

Milk preserved by the UHT process is sold in cartons often called a brick that lack the peak of the traditional milk carton. Milk preserved in this fashion does not need to be refrigerated before opening and has a longer shelf life than milk in ordinary packaging. It is more typically sold unrefrigerated on the shelves in Europe and Latin America than in the United States.

Glass milk containers are now rare. Most people purchase milk in bags, plastic jugs or plastic-coated paper cartons. Ultraviolet (UV) light from fluorescent lighting can alter the flavor of milk, so many companies that once distributed milk in transparent or highly translucent containers are now using thicker materials that block the UV light. Many people feel that such "UV protected" milk tastes better.

Practically everywhere, condensed milk and evaporated milk is distributed in metal cans, 250 and 125 ml paper containers and 100 and 200 mL squeeze tubes, and powdered milk (skim and whole) is distributed in boxes or bags.

When raw milk is left standing for a while, it turns "sour". This is the result of fermentation, where lactic acid bacteria ferment the lactose inside the milk into lactic acid. Prolonged fermentation may render the milk unpleasant to consume. This fermentation process is exploited by the introduction of bacterial cultures (e.g. Lactobacilli sp., Streptococcus sp., Leuconostoc sp., etc) to produce a variety of fermented milk products. The reduced pH from lactic acid accumulation denatures proteins and caused the milk to undergo a variety of different transformations in appearance and texture, ranging from an aggregate to smooth consistency. Some of these products include sour cream, yoghurt, cheese, buttermilk, viili, kefir and kumis. See Dairy product for more information.

Pasteurization of cow milk initially destroys any potential pathogens and increases the shelf-life , but eventually results in spoilage that makes it unsuitable for consumption. This causes it to assume an unpleasant odor, and the milk is deemed non-consumable due to unpleasant taste and an increased risk of food poisoning. In raw milk, the presence of lactic acid-producing bacteria, under suitable conditions, ferments the lactose present to lactic acid. The increasing acidity in turn prevents the growth of other organisms, or slows their growth significantly. During pasteurization however, these lactic acid bacteria are mostly destroyed.

In order to prevent spoilage, milk can be kept refrigerated and stored between 1 and 4 degrees Celsius in bulk tanks. Most milk is pasteurized by heating briefly and then refrigerated to allow transport from factory farms to local markets. The spoilage of milk can be forestalled by using ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment; milk so treated can be stored unrefrigerated for several months until opened. Sterilized milk, which is heated for a much longer period of time, will last even longer, but also loses more nutrients and assume a different taste. Condensed milk, made by removing most of the water, can be stored in cans for many years, unrefrigerated, as can evaporated milk. The most durable form of milk is milk powder, which is produced from milk by removing almost all water. The moisture content is usually less than five percent in both drum and spray dried milk powder.

The importance of milk in human culture is attested to by the numerous expressions embedded in our languages, for example "the milk of human kindness". In ancient Greek mythology, the goddess Hera spilled her breast milk after refusing to feed Heracles, resulting in the Milky Way.

In African and Asian developing nations, butter is traditionally made from fermented milk rather than cream. It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented milk.

Holy books have also mentioned milk; the Bible contains references to the Land of Milk and Honey. In the Quran, there is a request to wonder on milk as follows: 'And surely in the livestock there is a lesson for you, We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies from the midst of digested food and blood, pure milk palatable for the drinkers.'(16-The Honeybee, 66). The Ramadhan fast is traditionally broken with a glass of milk and dates.

The word milk has had many slang meanings over time. In the early 17th century the word was used to mean semen, or vaginal secretions, or to masturbate oneself or someone else. In the 19th century, milk was used to describe a cheap alcoholic drink made from methylated spirits mixed with water. The word was also used to mean defraud, to be idle, to intercept telegrams addressed to someone else, and a weakling. In the mid 1930s, the word was used in Australia meaning to siphon gas from a car.

Milk is sometimes referred to as moo juice in American English, while Cockney rhyming slang calls it Acker Bilk, Tom Silk, Lady in silk and Kilroy silk.

The name of the Russian Molokan (Russian: "Молока́не") religion in Russian is derived from Russian "Молоко́ " meaning "Milk" as they would drink milk on the Russian Orthodox days of fast.

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Milk allergy

Milk.jpg

Milk allergy is a food allergy immune adverse reaction to one or more of the proteins in cow's milk.

The principal symptoms are gastrointestinal, dermatological and respiratory. These can translate to: skin rash, hives, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation and distress. The clinical spectrum extends to diverse disorders: anaphylactic reactions, atopic dermatitis, wheeze, infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), oesophagitis, allergic colitis and constipation.

The symptoms may occur within a few minutes after exposure in immediate reactions, or after hours (and in some cases after several days) in delayed reactions.

Milk allergy is a food allergy, an adverse immune reaction to a food protein that is normally harmless to the non-allergic individual. Lactose intolerance is a non-allergic food sensitivity, and comes from a lack of production of the enzyme lactase, required to digest the predominant sugar in milk. Lactose intolerance is not actually a disease or malady. Adverse effects of lactose intolerance occur at much higher milk consumption than adverse effects of milk allergy.

Milk protein intolerance (MPI) is delayed reaction to a food protein that is normally harmless to the non-allergic, non-intolerant individual. Milk protein intolerance produces a non-IgE antibody and is not detected by allergy blood tests. Milk protein intolerance produces a range of symptoms very similar to milk allergy symptoms, but can also include blood and/or mucus in the stool. Treatment for milk protein intolerance is the same as for milk allergy. Milk protein intolerance is also referred to as milk soy protein intolerance (MSPI).

Currently the only treatment for milk allergies is total avoidance of milk proteins. Products in addition to milk itself to be avoided by those with milk allergy include yogurt, butter, cheese, and cream. Goats' milk products may also need to be avoided.

Ingredients that also denote that food product contains dairy milk include whey, casein, caseinate, butter flavor, lactic acid (lactic acid derived from dairy products), natural or artificial flavors such as milk or butter flavor, and sodium caseinate.

Also, many processed foods that do not contain milk may be processed on equipment contaminated with dairy foods, which may cause an allergic reaction in some sensitive individuals.

Since milk protein may be transferred from a breastfeeding mother to an allergic infant, lactating mothers are given an elimination diet. For formula fed infants, milk substitute formulas are used to provide the infant with a complete source of nutrition. Milk substitutes include soy based formula, hypoallergenic formulas based on partially or extensively hydrolyzed protein (such as nutramigen, alimentum, and pregestemil) or free amino acids (such as neocate). Partially hydrolysates formula are characterised by a larger proportion of long chains (peptides) and are considered more palatable. However, they are intended for prophylactic use and are not considered suitable for treatment of milk allergy/intolerance. Extensively hydrolysed proteins comprise predominantly of free amino acids and short peptides. Casein and whey are the most commonly used sources of protein for hydrolysates because of their high nutritional quality and their amino acid composition. Non-milk derived amino acid-based formulas are suitable for the treatment of both mild-moderate and severe milk allergy, if allergic infants don’t respond to protein hydrolysate formulas. Soy based formula does have a risk of allergic sensitivity, as some infants who are allergic to milk may also be allergic to soy.

There are many commercially available replacements for milk for children and adults - Rice milk, soy milk, oat milk and almond milk are also sometimes used as milk substitutes, but are not suitable nutrition for infants. Fruit juices supplemented with calcium which may provide an alternative for adults and children. If on an avoidance diet, it is important that dietary advice is taken as a replacement source of calcium may need to be found to prevent the longer term risk of calcium deficiency and osteoporosis.

Accidental Exposure Treatment for accidental ingestion of milk products by allergic individuals varies depending on the sensitivity of the allergic person. Frequently medications such as an Epinephrine pen or an Antihistamine such as Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) are prescribed by an allergist in case of accidental ingestion. Milk allergy can cause anaphylaxis, a severe, life threatening allergic reaction.

Like many food allergies milk allergy may be outgrown eventually by children, although a percentage of children do not outgrow their allergy.(see below) Milk allergy is more likely to be outgrown than peanut allergy.

Milk allergy is the most common food allergy in early childhood. It affects somewhere between 2% and 3% of infants in developed countries, but approximately 85-90% of affected children lose clinical reactivity to milk once they surpass 3 years of age.

Between 13% and 20% of children allergic to milk are also allergic to beef.

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Milk (song)

“Milk” cover

Garbage collaborated with UK trip-hop artist Tricky on a new single remix of "Milk" in Chicago and New York in May 1996. After initial reports that the band and collaborator were unhappy with results, Garbage re-worked the track at Smart Studios and released the remix as a single.

Regarding the version with Tricky, Manson told The Face "In the studio he works in a completely different fashion from us - he's hilarious, he's a hoot! The guy is so enchanting and he has so much energy. Very illuminating." The remix, which features acoustic guitars and electronic drums in place of the album version's synth was completed in two forms — the "Siren Mix" which is simply Shirley Manson singing the remix solo, and the "Wicked Mix" with both Shirley Manson and Tricky together.

White released "Milk" in Australia on CD single and cassette single in mid-October 1996. This release, following Garbage's first Australian live dates in support of Garbage, contained the "Siren Mix", "Wicked Mix", "Tricky Mix" and "Album Version" of "Milk". Following a special tour edition of Garbage being issued to mark the Australian tour, a second "Milk" single was released containing the same bonus tracks: a Rabbit in the Moon remix of "Milk", Danny Saber remix of "Queer", a Todd Terry remix of "Stupid Girl", a Garbage remix of album track "Dog New Tricks" and UK b-side "Alien Sex Fiend".

A month before the commercial release of "Milk", Mushroom Records released a three-part 12" singles through HMV stores as a "taster release". These vinyls were limited to 500 copies each and came in a die-cut embossed card sleeve (one leather look, one gravel, one rippled), each with a different Dayglo colour inner sleeve.

Perfectly timing the singles release immediately prior to Garbage's "Breakthrough Artist" award win, "Best Group" and "Best Song" nominations and the groups acclaimed performance of "Milk" at the 1996 MTV Europe Music Awards, in London on November 14, 1996, "Milk" debuted at #10 on the UK Singles Chart the following Sunday, becoming Garbage's second top ten hit in the UK.

Throughout Europe, BMG issued the single as simply "Milk", and featured the "Siren Mix" as the singles A-side. The sleeve design and tracklisting was otherwise similar to the UK releases, however on the second single the Danny Saber remix of "Stupid Girl" was replaced with the "Milk - Wicked Remix".

In North America, where Garbage were supporting the Smashing Pumpkins' arena tour, Almo Sounds issued the album version of "Milk" on November 19, 1996, on maxi-CD and maxi-cassette containing a completely unique sleeve design from other worldwide releases. The US single was backed with both the "Wicked Mix" and "Siren Mix" as well as a remix of "Milk" by Rabbit In The Moon. "Milk" ultimately failed to reach the Billboard Hot 100 chart, but managed to settle just outside of the chart at #106 on the Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles chart. "Milk"s lack of US success could be attributed to being usurped by Garbage's inclusion on the William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet soundtrack; a new remix of former b-side "#1 Crush" which became a Modern Rock Tracks #1 hit and Hot 100 Airplay #29 hit around the same time as "Milk"s single release.

Mushroom Records issued a set of four collectable 12" singles set on May 5, 1997. Differing from the original 12" remix set, this collection was packaged in simple plain black card sleeves and featured mixes of "Queer", "Stupid Girl", and two of "Milk". The first "Milk" release contained all three Massive Attack remixes and the second contained both Goldie remixes. This special set was the last UK market release by Mushroom Records for the bands debut album, intended to bridge the gap between the release of "Milk" in late 1996 and the band's second album in mid-1998.

The promo clip for "Milk" was filmed on August 19 in London and directed by Stéphane Sednaoui for Propaganda Films. It was ready to air on August 28. Sednaoui filmed the entire sequence in a single tracking shot set to the album version of the song. So the footage could be used for a remix version of the video, Sednaoui created a second version of the video using close up shots of Manson to insert into the footage. This montage edit was dubbed with both the Siren remix and Wicked remix for international airplay.

Manson features heavily in the "Milk" video; standing solitary within a blue wind tunnel and backed with red spotlights and white strobing. During the choruses, the camera pans away to each of the male members of Garbage. As it ends, the blue is replaced with green shades, and the camera moves to Manson, ending on a small disco ball held in Manson's hand.

The "Milk" video was first commercially released on VHS and Video-CD on 1996's Garbage Video. A remastered version, re-cut to the remix version, was included on Garbage's 2007 greatest hits DVD Absolute Garbage. Neither the Siren or Wicked mix versions of the video have been commercially released.

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Milk thistle

Silybum marianum

Milk thistles are thistles of the genus Silybum Adans., flowering plants of the daisy family (Asteraceae). They are native to the Mediterranean regions of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. The name "milk thistle" derives from two features of the leaves: they are mottled with splashes of white and they contain a milky sap. However, it is the seeds of milk thistle that herbalists have used for 2000 years to treat chronic liver disease and protect the liver against toxins. Increasing research is being undertaken on the physiological effects, therapeutic properties and possible medical uses of milk thistle.

A number of other plants have been classified in this genus in the past but have since been relocated elsewhere in the light of additional research.

S. marianum is by far the more widely known species. Milk thistle is believed to give some remedy for liver diseases (e.g. viral hepatitis) and the extract, silymarin, is used in medicine. Mild gastrointestinal distress is the most common adverse event reported for milk thistle. The incidence is the same as for placebo. A laxative effect for milk thistle has also been reported infrequently.

Traditional milk thistle extract is made from the seeds, which contain approximately 4-6% silymarin. The extract consists of about 65-80% silymarin (a flavonolignan complex) and 40-65% fatty acids, including linoleic acid. Silymarin is a complex mixture of polyphenolic molecules, including seven closely related flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silychristin, isosilychristin, silydianin) and one flavonoid (taxifolin). Silibinin, a semipurified fraction of silymarin, is primarily a mixture of 2 diasteroisomers, silybin A and silybin B, in a roughly 1:1 ratio. In clinical trials silymarin has typically been administered in amounts ranging from 1420-1480 mg per day in two to three divided doses. However higher doses have been studied, such as 1900 mg daily in the treatment of type II diabetes and 9000 mg or 18,900 mg daily in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus.. An optimal dosage for milk thistle preparations has not been established.

For many centuries extracts of milk thistle have been recognized as "liver tonics.". Research into the biological activity of silymarin and its possible medical uses has been conducted in many countries since the 1970s, but the quality of the research has been uneven. Milk thistle has been reported to have protective effects on the liver and to greatly improve its function. It is typically used to treat liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis (liver inflammation), toxin-induced liver damage (including the prevention of severe liver damage from Amanita phalloides (death cap) mushroom poisoning), and gallbladder disorders.. Reviews of the literature covering clinical studies of silymarin vary in their conclusions. A review using only studies with both double-blind and placebo protocols concluded that milk thistle and its derivatives "does not seem to significantly influence the course of patients with alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C liver diseases." A different review of the literature, performed for the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, found that, while there is strong evidence of legitimate medical benefits, the studies done to date are of such uneven design and quality that no firm conclusions about degrees of effectiveness for specific conditions or appropriate dosage can yet be made.

A review of studies of silymarin and liver disease which are available on the web shows an interesting pattern in that studies which tested low dosages of silymarin concluded that silymarin was ineffective, while studies which used significantly larger doses concluded that silymarin was biologically active and had therapeutic effects.

Research suggests that milk thistle extracts both prevent and repair damage to the liver from toxic chemicals and medications. Workers who had been exposed to vapors from toxic chemicals (toluene and/or xylene) for 5-20 years were given either a standardized milk thistle extract (80% silymarin) or placebo for 3 years. The workers taking the milk thistle extract showed significant improvement in liver function tests (ALT and AST) and platelet counts vs. the placebo group.

The efficacy of silymarin in preventing drug-induced liver damage in patients taking psychotropic drugs long-term has been investigated . This class of drugs is known to cause liver damage from oxidation of lipids. Patients taking silymarin in the study had less hepatic damage from the oxidation of lipids than patients taking the placebo.

The efficacy of thirty different treatments was analyzed in a retrospective study of 205 cases of Amanita phalloides (death cap) mushroom poisoning. Both penicillin and hyperbaric oxygen independently contributed to a higher rate of survival. When silybin was added to the penicillin treatment, survival was increased even more. In another 188 cases of death cap poisoning, a correlation was found between the time elapsed before initiation of silybin therapy, and the severity of the poisoning. The data indicates that severe liver damage in Amanita Phalloides poisoning can be prevented effectively when administration of silybin begins within 8 hours of mushroom intake. In a recent 2007 event, a family of six was treated with milk thistle and a combination of other treatment to save them from ingested poisonous mushrooms. While five of the six made a full recovery, the grandmother showed liver recovery but was overcome by kidney failure related to the poisonous mushrooms.

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Source : Wikipedia