3.3875432525911 (2023)
Posted by kaori 04/02/2009 @ 04:14

Tags : montgomery, the montgomery brothers, jazz, artists, music, entertainment, wes montgomery, tim montgomery, athletes, athletics, sports, will montgomery, football players, football

News headlines
For Council in Montgomery - Washington Post
That's the margin out of more than 8700 cast by which Nancy Navarro slipped by her main opponent in last month's Democratic primary to fill a vacant seat on the Montgomery County Council. Ms. Navarro emerged to face off against Robin Ficker (R) in a...
Montgomery County sheriff to cut 15 jobs -
The Montgomery County Sheriff Department is laying off about 15 employees, including several deputies, in response to a county wide measure to shore up its budget, a county spokesperson confirmed Thursday. Montgomery County will cut its 2009 general...
Montgomery plan cuts energy use -
Montgomery County officials will reduce their energy consumption in county buildings by 4 percent starting in July, and the cutback is expected to result in $1.1 million in savings during the next fiscal year, according to a plan backed unanimously by...
Online Gossip Site Goes Too Far - Washington Post
John Reinikka of the Montgomery County's family crimes division. A second two-day shutdown occurred in March. Much of the site's traffic comes from Montgomery County, Pearson notes. "We've blocked it [from school access computers] because it violates...
John Michael Montgomery Eyeing Outlaw Tribute Album - Billboard
Now that he has "a little bit more control over my career" thanks to his own label, Stringtown Records, John Michael Montgomery is eyeing a covers album for his next project. The country music star -- who's sold more than 10 million albums and scored...
Crosby tops Montgomery in softball playoffs (w/ video) - Houston Chronicle
Montgomery's defense was stout Thursday at New Caney, turning two double plays and getting two diving catches from shortstop Shelbi Tucker. But it was Crosby third baseman Laici O'Neill who supplied the biggest play of the night....
Montgomery police, ABI probes officer shooting - WZTV
MONTGOMERY, Ala. (AP) -- The Alabama Bureau of Investigation is looking into the second shooting involving a Montgomery police officer. It happened at an apartment complex on Wesley Drive. Thornton said 3 officers responded to a call by a 39-year-old...
Alabama Teacher of the Year From Montgomery - WSFA
Montgomery, Ala. - And the winner is... Yung Bui-Kincer, Anatomy, Biology and Environmental Science teacher at Booker T. Washington Magnet High School in the Montgomery County School System. Near the end of the live broadcast event, The 2009 Alabama...
Garrett Reid sent to Graterford prison - Philadelphia Inquirer
By Mari A. Schaefer Garrett Reid, the eldest son of Eagles coach Andy Reid, was sent to Graterford prison today after he tested positive for narcotics when he returned to a halfway house from an approved furlough, the Montgomery County District...
Alabama House, Senate votes on budget -
Bishop, C. (Jasper); Brooks, B. (Mobile); Dixon, L. (Montgomery); Glover, R. (Semmes); Holley, J. (Elba); Marsh, D. (Anniston); Orr, A. (Decatur); Pittman, T. (Daphne); Smith, HA (Slocomb); Waggoner, J. (Vestavia Hills). Barron, L. (Fyffe); Bedford,...

Montgomery County, Illinois

Map of Illinois highlighting Montgomery County

Montgomery County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. As of 2000, the population was 30,652. Its county seat is Hillsboro, Illinois.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles (1,838 km²), of which, 704 square miles (1,823 km²) of it is land and 6 square miles (15 km²) of it (0.84%) is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 30,652 people, 11,507 households, and 7,928 families residing in the county. The population density was 44 people per square mile (17/km²). There were 12,525 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile (7/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.88% White, 3.73% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, and 0.46% from two or more races. 1.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 33.7% were of German, 19.3% American, 12.6% English and 9.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 11,507 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.10% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.10% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the county the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, and 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 106.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $33,123, and the median income for a family was $39,923. Males had a median income of $30,657 versus $20,563 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,272. About 10.60% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.40% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over.

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Montgomery (town), New York

Montgomery Town Hall

Montgomery is a town in Orange County, New York, United States. The population was 20,891 at the 2000 census. It was named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 at the Battle of Quebec.

The Town of Montgomery is in the northern part of the county at the county line shared by Ulster County. Montgomery is immediately west of the Town of Newburgh. It contains three villages, one also called Montgomery, as well as Walden and most of Maybrook.

The early town began as a patent to Henry Wileman in 1710, who was the first settler.

The town was originally established as "Hanover" in 1772, but became the Town of Montgomery in 1782.

The community of Montgomery set itself off by incorporating as a village in 1810, and in 1855, the community of Walden incorporated also. Maybrook village did not set itself off until 1926.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 51.1 square miles (132.3 km²), of which, 50.4 square miles (130.6 km²) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.7 km²) of it (1.25%) is water.

Interstate 84 crosses the south part of Montgomery.

The Wallkill River flows northward through Montgomery.

As of the census of 2000, there were 20,891 people, 7,273 households, and 5,447 families residing in the town. The population density was 414.2 people per square mile (159.9/km²). There were 7,643 housing units at an average density of 151.5/sq mi (58.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 91.28% White, 3.69% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.35% from other races, and 1.73% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.75% of the population.

There were 7,273 households out of which 40.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.1% were non-families. 20.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.28.

In the town the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $49,422, and the median income for a family was $56,376. Males had a median income of $40,881 versus $29,163 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,222. About 4.6% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.2% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.

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Montgomery County, Alabama

Map of Alabama highlighting Montgomery County

Montgomery County is a county in the U.S. state of Alabama. It was named in honor of Lemuel P. Montgomery, a military officer killed at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in the War of 1812. The county seat, Montgomery, Alabama, has a different origin for its name, being named for Richard Montgomery. Richard Montgomery was an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada.) As of 2000 its population was 223,510.

Montgomery County is the largest county (by population) in the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Montgomery County was established on December 6, 1816.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 800 square miles (2,071 km²), of which, 790 square miles (2,045 km²) of it is land and 10 square miles (26 km²) of it (1.25%) is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 223,510 people, 86,068 households, and 56,804 families residing in the county. The population density was 283 people per square mile (109/km²). There were 95,437 housing units at an average density of 121 per square mile (47/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 48.85% White, 48.58% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.99% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, and 0.94% from two or more races. 1.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

By 2005 population changes had brought Montgomery County to the point of having an African-American majority. This was not a growth or decline but a shift. The population was estimated to have grown by 61 people from 2000 to 2006. African Americans now constituted 52.5% of the population. Non-Hispanic whites were 44.0% of the population while Latinos were 1.4% of the population. Asians had risen to 1.2% of the population. 0.2% was Native Americans. 0.9% of the population reported two or more races. This excludes those who reported "some other race" and "white" since all those who reported "some other race" were arbitrarily reclassified as white by the census bureau.

There were 86,068 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.80% were married couples living together, 18.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.00% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the county the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 11.70% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 20.90% from 45 to 64, and 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 90.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $35,962, and the median income for a family was $44,669. Males had a median income of $32,018 versus $24,921 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,358. About 13.50% of families and 17.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.10% of those under age 18 and 13.70% of those age 65 or over.

Although John McCain won Alabama by a wide margin, Democrat Barack Obama did very well in Montgomery County. He won 59% of the vote and 62,166 votes. John McCain won 40% of the vote and 42,031 votes. In 2004, John Kerry won Montgomery County by only a few hundred votes but it was the excitment from the Obama campaign which caused Obama to do so well in Montgomery County.

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Lucy Maud Montgomery

Birth place of Lucy Maud Montgomery

Lucy Maud Montgomery CBE, (always called "Maud" by family and friends) and publicly known as L. M. Montgomery, (November 30, 1874–April 24, 1942) was a Canadian author, best known for a series of novels beginning with Anne of Green Gables, published in 1908.

Once published, Anne of Green Gables was an immediate success. The central character, Anne, an orphaned girl, made Montgomery famous in her lifetime and gave her an international following. The first novel was followed by a series of sequels with Anne as the central character. The novels became the basis for the highly acclaimed 1985 CBC television miniseries, Anne of Green Gables and several other television movies and programs, including Road to Avonlea, which ran in Canada and the U.S. from 1990-1996.

Lucy Maud Montgomery was born in Clifton (now New London), Prince Edward Island on November 30, 1874. Her mother, Clara Woolner Macneill Montgomery, died of tuberculosis when Maud was 21 months old. Her father, Hugh John Montgomery, moved to Saskatchewan when Montgomery was seven years old. She went to live with her maternal grandparents, Alexander Marquis Macneill and Lucy Woolner Macneill, in the nearby community of Cavendish and was raised by them in a strict and unforgiving manner. In 1890, Montgomery was sent to live in Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, with her father and stepmother, but returned to the home of her grandparents after a year.

In 1893, following the completion of her grade school education in Cavendish, she attended Prince of Wales College in Charlottetown. Completing a two-year program in one year, she obtained her teaching certificate. In 1895 and 1896 she studied literature at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Upon leaving Dalhousie, Montgomery worked as a teacher in various island schools. As well, beginning in 1897, she began to have her short stories published in various magazines and newspapers. A prolific talent, Montgomery had over 100 stories published from 1897 to 1907 inclusive.

In 1898 Montgomery moved back to Cavendish to live with her widowed grandmother. For a short time in 1901 and 1902 she worked in Halifax for the newspapers Chronicle and Echo. She returned to live with and care for her grandmother in 1902. Montgomery was inspired to write her first books during this time on Prince Edward Island.

In 1908, Montgomery published her first book, Anne of Green Gables. Three years later, shortly after her grandmother's death, she married Ewen (found in Montgomery's notes and letters as "Ewan") Macdonald (1870 - 1943), a Presbyterian Minister, and moved to Ontario where he had taken the position of minister of St. Paul's Presbyterian Church, Leaskdale in present-day Uxbridge Township, also affiliated with the congregation in nearby Zephyr.

Montgomery had three sons: Chester Cameron Macdonald (July 7, 1912–1964); Hugh Alexander Macdonald, who was stillborn August 13, 1914 and inspired the death of Anne Shirley's first child, Joyce, in Anne's House of Dreams; and Ewan Stuart Macdonald (October 7, 1915–1982).

Montgomery wrote her next eleven books from the Leaskdale manse. The structure was subsequently sold by the congregation and is now the Lucy Maud Montgomery Leaskdale Manse Museum. In 1926, the family moved in to the Norval Presbyterian Charge, in present-day Halton Hills, Ontario, where today the Lucy Maud Montgomery Memorial Garden can be seen from Highway 7.

In 1935, upon her husband's retirement, Montgomery moved to Toronto, buying a house on the Humber River in the city's west end, which she named "Journey's End". Montgomery continued to write, publishing Jane of Lantern Hill in 1937, and the final Anne novel Anne of Ingleside in 1939.

Beginning in 1940, Montgomery began work on a collection of short stories and poems called The Blythes Are Quoted. The stories were previously published works that were slightly rewritten to include Anne and her family as mainly peripheral characters; the poems (in the context of the book) were accredited to Anne and her son Walter. The book was not published until 1974, when it was issued as The Road To Yesterday, with all but one of the poems removed.

It was reported at the time of her death that Montgomery died of congestive heart failure in Toronto. However, it was revealed by her granddaughter Kate Macdonald Butler in September 2008 that Montgomery suffered from depression and took her own life via a drug overdose. But there is another point of view.

According to Mary Rubio, who has written a biography of Montgomery "The Gift of Wings" (2008), what her family believes is her suicide note is actually an entry to be added to her journal and not supposed to be a suicide note. In all, during her lifetime she had published 20 novels, over 500 short stories, an autobiography and a book of poetry. She was buried at the Cavendish Community Cemetery in Cavendish following her wake in the Green Gables farmhouse and funeral in the local Presbyterian church.

Her major collections are archived at the University of Guelph, while the L.M. Montgomery Institute at the University of Prince Edward Island coordinates most of the research and conferences surrounding her work. The first biography of Montgomery was The Wheel of Things: A Biography of L.M. Montgomery (1975) written by Mollie Gillen. Dr. Gillen also discovered over 40 of Montgomery's letters to her pen-friend George Boyd MacMillan in Scotland and used them as the basis for her work. Beginning in the 1980s her complete journals, edited by Mary Rubio and Elizabeth Waterston, were published by the Oxford University Press. From 1988-95, editor Rea Wilmshurst collected and published numerous short stories by Montgomery.

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Montgomery Bus Boycott

The National City Lines bus, No. 2857, on which Rosa Parks was riding before she was arrested (a GM "old-look" transit bus, serial number 1132), is now a museum exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. It also had many important people that were all involved in eliminating bus segregation, such as Martin Luther King Jr., and others, as listed below. This caused deficits in public transit profits because a large percentage of people who used the public transportation were now boycotting it. The ensuing struggle lasted from December 1, 1955, to December 20, 1956, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses unconstitutional.

Under the system of segregation used on Montgomery buses, white people who boarded the bus took seats in the front rows, filling the bus toward the back. Black people who boarded the bus took seats in the back rows, filling the bus toward the front. Eventually, the two sections would meet, and the bus would be full. If another black person boarded the bus, he was required to stand. If another white person boarded the bus, then everyone in the black row nearest the front had to get up and stand, so that a new row for white people could be created.

Rosa Parks was born on February 4, 1913, in Tuskegee, Alabama. She was a seamstress by profession and secretary for the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. Shortly before being arrested on December 1, 1955, she had completed a course in "Race Relations" at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee where nonviolent civil-disobedience had been discussed as a tactic.

Thursday, December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was sitting in the front-most row for black people. When a Caucasian man boarded the bus, the bus driver, James F. Blake, told everyone in her row to move back to create a new row for the whites. While all of the other colored people in her row complied, Rosa refused, and was arrested for failing to obey the driver's seat assignments, as city ordinance did not explicitly mandate segregation, but did give the bus driver authority to assign seats.

When found guilty on December 15, Parks was fined $10 plus a court cost of $4, but she appealed. The boycott was triggered by her arrest. As a result, Rosa Parks is considered one of the pioneers of the civil rights movement.

Some kind of action against segregation had been in the works for some time before Rosa Parks' arrest, under the leadership of E. D. Nixon, president of the local NAACP chapter and a member of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Nixon intended that her arrest be a test case to allow Montgomery's black citizens to challenge segregation on the city's public buses. With this goal, community leaders had been waiting for the right person to be arrested, a person who would anger the black community into action, who would agree to test the segregation laws in court, and who, most importantly, was "above reproach." When sixteen year old Claudette Colvin was arrested early in 1955 for refusing to give up her seat to a white man, E.D. Nixon thought he had found the perfect person, but the teenager turned out to be pregnant. Nixon later explained, "I had to be sure that I had somebody I could win with." Parks, however, was a good candidate because of her employment and marital status, along with her good standing in the community.

Between Parks' arrest and trial, Nixon organized a meeting of local ministers at Martin Luther King, Jr.'s church. Though Nixon could not attend the meeting because of his work schedule, he arranged that no election of a leader for the proposed boycott would take place until his return. When he returned he caucused with Ralph Abernathy and Rev. E.N. French to name the association to lead the boycott (they selected the 'Montgomery Improvement Association' ("MIA")) to the city, and select King (Nixon's choice) to lead the boycott. Nixon wanted King to lead the boycott because the young minister was new to Montgomery and the city fathers had not had time to intimidate him. At a subsequent, larger meeting of ministers, Nixon's agenda was threatened by the clergy men's reluctance to support the campaign. Nixon was indignant, pointing out that their poor congregations worked to put money into the collection plates so these ministers could live well, and when those congregations needed the clergy to stand up for them, those comfortable ministers refused to do so. Nixon threatened to reveal the ministers' cowardice to the black community, and King spoke up, denying he was afraid to support the boycott. King agreed to lead the MIA, and Nixon was elected its treasurer.

The next morning at a church meeting led by the new MIA head, King, a citywide boycott of public transit was proposed to demand a fixed dividing line for the segregated sections of the buses. Such a line would have meant that if the white section of the bus was oversubscribed, whites would have to stand; blacks would not be forced to remit their seats to whites.

This demand was a compromise for the leaders of the boycott who believed that the city of Montgomery would be more likely to accept it rather than a demand for a full integration of the buses. In this respect, the MIA leadership followed the pattern of earlier boycott campaigns in the Deep South during the 1950s. A prime example was the successful boycott a few years earlier of service stations in Mississippi for refusing to provide restrooms for blacks. The organizer of that campaign, T.R.M. Howard of the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, had spoken in Montgomery as King's guest at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church only days before Parks's arrest. This demand was to be supplemented by a requirement that all bus passengers receive courteous treatment by bus operators, be seated on a first-come, first-served basis, and blacks be employed as bus drivers. The proposal was passed, and the boycott was to commence the following Monday. To publicize the impending boycott it was advertised at black churches throughout Montgomery the following Sunday.

On Saturday, December 3, it was evident that the black community would support the boycott, and very few blacks rode the buses that day. That night a mass meeting was held to determine if the protest would continue, and attendees enthusiastically agreed. The boycott proved extremely effective, with enough riders lost to the city transit system to cause serious economic distress. Martin Luther King later wrote " miracle had taken place." Instead of riding buses, boycotters organized a system of carpools, with car owners volunteering their vehicles or themselves driving people to various destinations. Some white housewives also drove their black domestic servants to work, although it is unclear to what extent this was based on sympathy with the boycott, versus the desire to have their staff present and working. When the city pressured local insurance companies to stop insuring cars used in the carpools, the boycott leaders arranged policies with Lloyd's of London.

Black taxi drivers charged ten cents per ride, a fare equal to the cost to ride the bus, in support of the boycott. When word of this reached city officials on December 8, 1955, the order went out to fine any cab driver who charged a rider less than 45 cents. In addition to using private motor vehicles, some people used non-motorized means to get around, such as cycling, walking, or even riding mules or driving horse-drawn buggies. Some people also hitchhiked. During rush hours, sidewalks were often crowded. As the buses received extremely few, if any, passengers, their officials asked the City Commission to allow stopping service to black communities. Across the nation, black churches raised money to support the boycott and collected new and slightly used shoes to replace the tattered footwear of Montgomery's black citizens, many of whom walked everywhere rather than ride the buses and submit to Jim Crow laws.

In response, opposing whites swelled the ranks of the White Citizens' Council, the membership of which doubled during the course of the boycott. The councils sometimes resorted to violence: Martin Luther King's and Ralph Abernathy's houses were firebombed, as were four black Baptist churches. Boycotters were often physically attacked.

Pressure increased across the country and on June 4, 1956, the federal district court ruled that Alabama's racial segregation laws for buses were unconstitutional. However, an appeal kept the segregation intact, and the boycott continued until, finally, on November 13, 1956, the Supreme Court upheld the district court's ruling. This victory led to a city ordinance that allowed black bus passengers to sit virtually anywhere they wanted, and the boycott officially ended December 20, 1956. The boycott of the buses had lasted for 381 days. Martin Luther King, Jr. capped off the victory with a magnanimous speech to encourage acceptance of the decision. The Montgomery Bus Boycott also had ramifications that reached far beyond the desegregation of public buses and provided more than just a positive answer to the Supreme Court's action against racial segregation. The Montgomery Bus Boycott sent vibrations throughout the United States, which stimulated a national struggle to freedom and justice, the Civil Rights Movement.

The boycott resulted in the U.S. civil rights movement receiving one of its first victories and gave Martin Luther King, Jr. the national attention that made him one of the prime leaders of the cause.

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Montgomery County, Virginia

Seal of Montgomery County, Virginia

Montgomery County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia. As of the 2000 census, the population was 83,629. Its county seat is Christiansburg. It is part of the Blacksburg–Christiansburg–Radford Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Montgomery County and the city of Radford.

Montgomery County was established in 1777 from Fincastle County. The county is named for Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 389 square miles (1,009 km²), of which, 388 square miles (1,005 km²) of it is land and 1 square miles (3 km²) of it (0.31%) is water.

The county is bordered by Craig County to the north, Floyd County to the south, Giles County to the northwest, the City of Radford and Pulaski County to the southwest, and Roanoke County to the northeast.

As of the census of 2000, there were 83,629 people, 30,997 households, and 17,203 families residing in the county. The population density was 215 people per square mile (83/km²). There were 32,527 housing units at an average density of 84 per square mile (32/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 90.00% White, 3.65% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 3.97% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, and 1.53% from two or more races. 1.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 30,997 households out of which 25.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.80% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.50% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the county, the population was spread out with 17.10% under the age of 18, 31.30% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 17.30% from 45 to 64, and 8.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females there were 110.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $32,330, and the median income for a family was $47,239. Males had a median income of $33,674 versus $23,555 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,077. About 8.80% of families and 23.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over.

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Montgomery (village), New York

Location of Montgomery withinthe state of New York

Montgomery is a village in Orange County, New York, United States. The population was 3,636 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Poughkeepsie–Newburgh–Middletown, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the larger New York–Newark–Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area. The village is named after General Richard Montgomery, an officer of the American Revolution.

The Village of Montgomery is inside the Town of Montgomery.

The original name for the village was Ward's Bridge, from James Ward, one of the first settlers, who built and operated a grist mill in what is now the village during the mid-18th century. A bridge over the Wallkill River near the mill was named after him, and even today the name and the bridge, which carries Route NY-17K into the village, remain in use.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.5 square miles (3.8 km²), of which, 1.4 square miles (3.6 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it (4.14%) is water.

Most of that water area is accounted for by the portions of the Wallkill which forms Montgomery's northern boundary; there are no other significant bodies of water in the village. The village is completely surrounded by the Town of Montgomery.

From the river the village extends to the southwest almost two miles (3.2 km), generally longer than it is wide, with a projecting area to the southeast along Goodwill Road. The village's downtown is centered on its historical core, the area covered by the Bridge Street and Union Street-Academy Hill historic districts, just south of Ward Street (NY-17K). Clinton Street, one block south of Ward, is lined with shops and restaurants. Further to the east, some larger businesses are located near the former Wallkill Valley Railroad (WVRR) tracks, still used by Norfolk Southern as a freight spur.

Away from downtown, the streets become primarily residential, with newer housing. There are some undeveloped areas at the northern and southern extremes of the village, the latter taking the form of actively-farmed fields. To the west-southwest of downtown, closer to the river, is Montgomery's major park, Veteran's Memorial Park.

These lands in the west are the lowest-lying in the village. Much of its topography rises gently from the river, with little relief save the Academy Hill area on the east edge of downtown where the village hall is located, and a 455-foot (139 m) hill at the junction of Purple Martin Road and Cardinal Drive that is the highest point in the village, marked by a water tower.

Route 17K leads east to Newburgh and west to Bloomingburg, where it ends at NY 17, the future I-86. Its major intersection in the village, Montgomery's only traffic light, is the three-way intersection with Union Street, the northern terminus of NY-211, which connects it to Middletown to the southwest. Just south of the village, NY-416 branches off from 211, providing access to Goshen via NY-207 at its southern terminus.

Interstate 84 passes close to the southeast. The nearest access to the village is Exit 5, reached by taking Route 17K or Goodwill Road east to NY 208. From here it is a short drive to the New York State Thruway (Interstate 87), the nearest major north-south road.

The nearest passenger rail connection is the Campbell Hall station on Metro-North's Port Jervis Line, near the junction of routes 416 and 207 to the southeast. It provides commuter rail service to Hoboken Terminal in New Jersey. Some officials in Walden, where the freight spur ends, have been lobbying Metro-North to restore passenger service along the old WVRR freight spur, which also raises the possibility of a station in Montgomery.

Orange County Airport is located just south of the village. Commercial passenger service is available at Stewart International Airport outside Newburgh, a short distance east via I-84.

As of the census of 2000, there were 3,636 people, 1,304 households, and 971 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,616.4 people per square mile (1,010.0/km²). There were 1,338 housing units at an average density of 962.8/sq mi (371.7/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 90.51% White, 4.29% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 2.61% from other races, and 1.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.73% of the population.

There were 1,304 households out of which 39.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.5% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.24.

In the village the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.7 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $52,407, and the median income for a family was $59,952. Males had a median income of $41,923 versus $31,944 for females. The per capita income for the village was $21,204. About 4.7% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over.

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Montgomery County, Indiana

Map of Indiana highlighting Montgomery County

Montgomery County is a county located in the U.S. state of Indiana. As of 2000, the population was 37,629. The county seat is Crawfordsville.

The earliest known inhabitants of the area that would become Montgomery County were the Mound Builders, Native American peoples who built large earthen mounds, two of which were constructed in southeastern Franklin Township. Subsequent Native American tribes occupied the area until as late as 1832.

The first white settler in the area that would become Montgomery County was William Offield, earlier of Tennessee, who arrived in 1821 with his wife Jennie (née Laughlin) and one child and settled near the confluence of Offield Creek and Sugar Creek, about five miles southwest of Crawfordsville. The first land in the county to be purchased from the government was a tract in Scott Township sold to John Loop on July 23, 1822; many more tracts were entered in subsequent months, most in Union Township. The area's settlers mostly came from Kentucky and Ohio, with others arriving from Tennessee, Virginia and the Carolinas.

Montgomery County was established by an act of the Indiana state legislature passed on December 21, 1822, which defined the county's boundaries and provided for the organization of its government. The county was named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed on December 31, 1775, while attempting to capture Quebec City in the Battle of Quebec. The first county election was held on March 1, 1823, with 61 voters participating to elect the first three county commissioners — William Offield, James Blevins and John McCollough — who then ordered that the first jail and courthouse be built.

Beginning on December 24, 1824, a large land sale was held for several days at the United States Land Office on North Water Street in Crawfordsville during which a large number of the area's tracts were sold at auction. The money raised from the sale, mostly in the form of gold and silver, was packed into kegs, hauled by wagon to Louisville, carried by boat up the Ohio River, and eventually to Washington, D.C. Settlement increased substantially during the subsequent year.

Montgomery County's first courthouse was ordered on June 28, 1823, to be made "of good hewed logs... to be twenty-six feet long; two stories high, lower story nine feet from floor to joist; upper to be seven feet to roof". Eliakam Ashton won the contract to construct the building and completed it on a lot along Main Street on August 9, 1824, at a cost of $295. In 1825 a contract was issued to Henry Ristine to cut trees and pick up chips from under the courthouse so that "hogs would not find a comfortable place in which to make their beds".

A second, more substantial structure was ordered in 1831, the contract for its construction being awarded to John Hughes for $3,420. The result, completed in 1833, was a two-story, 40x40 foot brick building surmounted by a cupola, later supplemented by separate one-story buildings erected to the north and east as wings of the main structure. The building stood on the current public square for over forty years until being torn down in 1875.

The third and current Montgomery County courthouse was the first courthouse designed by George W. Bunting of Indianapolis; it is one of six of his Indiana courthouses still standing. Bunting had served as a colonel in the Confederacy during the Civil War before establishing himself in Indianapolis; General Lew Wallace, who was on the Union side during the War and was a resident of Montgomery County, spoke at the dedication of the cornerstone in 1875. The building was constructed by McCormack and Sweeney of Columbus at a cost of $150,000, and was completed in 1876.

The cornerstone contains an embedded copper box of memorable items, including the key to the old courthouse and a Henry VIII coin.

The county government is a constitutional body, and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, and by the Indiana Code.

County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes, and service taxes.

Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, and each serves a four year term. One of the commissioners, typically the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, the collection of revenue, and managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.

Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is also elected to terms of four years. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.

County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, and circuit court clerk. Each of these elected officers serve terms of four years and oversee different parts of the county government. Members elected to any county government position are required to declare a party affiliation and be a resident of the county.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 505 square miles (1,309 km²), of which 505 square miles (1,307 km²) is land and 1 square mile (2 km²) (0.16%) is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 37,629 people, 14,595 households, and 10,245 families residing in the county. The population density was 75 people per square mile (29/km²). There were 15,678 housing units at an average density of 31 per square mile (12/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 96.77% White, 0.77% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, and 0.71% from two or more races. 1.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23.2% were of German, 22.4% American, 12.9% English and 12.7% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 14,595 households out of which 33.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 8.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.80% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the county the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, and 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $41,297, and the median income for a family was $48,779. Males had a median income of $36,612 versus $23,010 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,938. About 6.10% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.20% of those under age 18 and 7.00% of those age 65 or over.

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Montgomery County, Texas

Map of Texas highlighting Montgomery County

Montgomery County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown Metropolitan Area. The county was created by an act of the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 14, 1837. The county was named for the town of Montgomery, Texas. In 2000, its population was 293,768. In 2007, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated Montgomery County's population to be 412,638, a 40% growth rate in the seven years from the last U.S. Census. The seat of the county is Conroe.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,077 square miles (2,789 km²), of which, 1,044 square miles (2,704 km²) of it is land and 33 square miles (85 km²) of it (3.04%) is water.

See List of Highways in Montgomery County for more roadways in Montgomery County.

As of the census of 2000, there were 293,768 people, 103,296 households, and 80,157 families residing in the county. The population density was 281 people per square mile (109/km²). There were 112,770 housing units at an average density of 108 per square mile (42/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 88.25% White, 3.49% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 1.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.86% from other races, and 1.79% from two or more races. 12.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 103,296 households out of which 40.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.20% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.40% were non-families. 18.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.21.

In the county, the population was spread out with 29.50% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 23.10% from 45 to 64, and 8.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 98.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $50,864, and the median income for a family was $58,983. Males had a median income of $42,400 versus $28,270 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,544. About 7.10% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.90% of those under age 18 and 10.10% of those age 65 or over.

Montgomery County is one of the most heavily Republican counties in Texas, giving 76% of its vote to John McCain in 2008. The county has not been won by any Democratic presidential candidate since 1964, and was one of the few counties in Texas to be won by segregationist candidate George Wallace in 1968.

The county also is home to two campuses of the Lone Star College System: Montgomery College and The University Center. The county operates the Montgomery County Memorial Library System.

Lone Star Executive Airport, a general aviation airport, is located in Conroe.

The closest airport with regularly scheduled commercial service is George Bush Intercontinental Airport in Houston in Harris County. William P. Hobby Airport in Houston in Harris County also operates regular commercial service.

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Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

Map of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania with Municipal Labels showing Boroughs (red), Townships (white), and Census-designated places (blue).

Montgomery County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, in the United States. As of 2000, the population was 750,097. A 2005 U.S. Census estimate placed the population at 795,618, making it the third most populous county in Pennsylvania (after Philadelphia and Allegheny counties), and the 69th most populous county in the United States. The county seat is Norristown.

The county was created on September 10, 1784, out of land originally part of Philadelphia County. It is believed to have been either named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada, or for the Welsh county of Montgomeryshire (which was named after one of William the Conqueror's main counselors, Roger de Montgomerie), as it was part of the Welsh Tract -- an area of Pennsylvania settled by Quakers from Wales. Early histories of the county indicate the origin of the county's name as uncertain.

Montgomery County is a suburban county northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is part of the Delaware Valley and marks the region's northern border with the Lehigh Valley region of the state.

It is the 20th wealthiest county in the country and was named the 9th Best Place to Raise a Family by Forbes.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 487 square miles (1,262 km²), of which, 483 square miles (1,251 km²) of it is land and 4 square miles (11 km²) of it (0.89%) is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 750,097 people, 286,098 households, and 197,693 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,553 people per square mile (599/km²). There were 297,434 housing units at an average density of 238 units/km² (616 units/sq mi). The racial makeup of the county was 86.46% White, 7.46% Black or African American, 0.11% Native American, 4.02% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.75% from other races, and 1.16% from two or more races. 2.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.5% were of German, 16.7% Irish, 14.3% Italian, 6.5% English and 5.0% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 90.5% spoke English, 2.0% Spanish, 1.1% Korean and 1.0% Italian as their first language.

Montgomery County is home to large and growing African American, Korean, Puerto Rican and Indian populations. The county has the second largest foreign-born population in the region.

There were 286,098 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.90% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.09.

In the county, the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 30.50% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, and 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $60,829, and the median income for a family was $72,183 (these figures had risen to $73,701 and $89,219 respectively as of a 2007 estimate). Males had a median income of $48,698 versus $35,089 for females. The per capita income for the county was $30,898. About 2.80% of families and 4.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.60% of those under age 18 and 5.10% of those age 65 or over.

Montgomery County is a suburb of Philadelphia and consequently, many of its residents work in the city. However, Montco is also a major employment center with large business parks in Blue Bell, Lansdale, Fort Washington, Horsham and King of Prussia which attract thousands of workers from all over the region. The strong job base and taxes generated by those jobs have resulted in Montgomery County receiving the highest credit rating of 'AAA' from Standard & Poor's, one of fewer than 30 counties in the nation with such a rating.

Montgomery County's population grew about 10.6% as of the 2000 census with much of the growth in the western part of the county. Much of the growth is attributable to population shifts in the region. The county especially saw an increase of Asian American immigrants.Also, Montgomery County receives a large amount of immigrants, and many migrants from other urban areas, looking for cheaper real estate compared to their areas. Montgomery County provides many expressways to Philadelphia, New Jersey, and many other places in Pennsylvania.

As of November 2008, there are 585,146 registered voters in Montgomery County .

While Republicans have dominated county politics, the Democratic Party has made substantial gains in the county over the last 20 years and gained the registration edge early in 2008. After voting for the Republican Presidential nominee for six consective elections from 1968 to 1988, the Democratic Presidential nominee has carried Montgomery for the past five consecutive elections by progressively-increasing margins. Most county-level offices were held by Republicans until after the 2007 election, when Democrats picked up control of five row offices. Democrats have also won significant elections for the Pennsylvania General Assembly in recent years, including two GOP-leaning State House districts in 2004, the 148th with Mike Gerber and the 153rd with Josh Shapiro.

In the 2004 US Senate election, Republican Arlen Specter won the county over Montco resident Joe Hoeffel, but Democrat Bob Casey, Jr. outpolled Rick Santorum in the 2006 Senate election. In 2006, Democrat Rick Taylor unseated incumbent Republican Eugene McGill in the 151st and, in 2008, Democrat Matthew Bradford unseated incumbent Republican Jay Moyer in the 70th. Six out of twelve of the 12 Montgomery State Representative seats are now held by Democrats, but Daylin Leach is the only Democrat in a Montgomery State Senate seat, the 17th. All four statewide Democratic candidates carried Montgomery in 2008, with Barack Obama receiving 60% of the county's vote.

Montgomery County is governed by a three-person County Commission. The current composition is two Republicans and one Democrat. By law, the County Commission must have one member of the minority party represented.

The new officials took office in January 2008.

Montgomery County contains parts of six Congressional Districts: the 2nd, 6th, 7th, 8th, 13th, and 15th. The Montgomery-based 13th district, which also includes most of Northeast Philadelphia, is represented by Democrat Allyson Schwartz.

Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U.S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data. They are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well.

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Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein

Montgomery in a Grant tank in North Africa, November 1942. His aide (shown behind him looking through binoculars) was killed in action in 1945.

Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC, (IPA: /məntˈgʌmərɪ əv ˈæləmeɪn/; 17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), often referred to as "Monty", was an Anglo-Irish British Army officer. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign during World War II, and troops under his command played a major role in the expulsion of Axis forces from North Africa. He was later a prominent commander in Italy and North-West Europe, where he was in command of all Allied ground forces during Operation Overlord until after the Battle of Normandy.

The family returned home once for the Lambeth Conference in 1897, and Bernard and his brother Harold were educated for a term at The King's School, Canterbury. In 1901, Bishop Montgomery became secretary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the family returned to London. Montgomery went to St Paul's School and then the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, from which he was almost expelled for setting fire to a fellow cadet during a fight with pokers. He joined the 1st Battalion, The Royal Warwickshire Regiment in 1908, first seeing service in India until 1913.

The First World War began in August 1914 and Montgomery moved to France with his regiment that month. He saw service during the retreat from Mons, during which half the men in his battalion became casualties or prisoners. At Meteren, near the Belgian border at Bailleul on 13 October 1914, during an allied counter-offensive, he was shot through the right lung by a sniper and was injured seriously enough for his grave to be dug in preparation for his death. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for gallant leadership.

After recovering in early 1915, he was appointed to be brigade-major training Kitchener's New Army and returned to the Western Front in early 1916 as an operations staff officer during the battles of the Somme, Arras, and Passchendaele. During this time he came under IX Corps, part of General Sir Herbert Plumer's Second Army. Through his training, rehearsal, and integration of the infantry with artillery and engineers, the troops of Plumer's Second Army were able to achieve their objectives efficiently and without unnecessary casualties.

Montgomery served at the battles of the Lys and Chemin-des-Dames before finishing the war as General Staff Officer 1 and effectively chief of staff of the 47th (2nd London) Division, with the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel. A photograph of October 1918 shows the then unknown Lt-Col Montgomery standing in front of Winston Churchill (Minister of Munitions) at the victory parade at Lille.

In 1923 Montgomery was posted to the Territorial 49th Division, eschewing the usual amounts of drill for tactical training. He returned to the 1st Royal Warwickshires in 1925 as a company commander and captain, before becoming an instructor at the Staff College, Camberley and a major (brevet lieutenant-colonel).

In 1927, he met and married Elizabeth Carver, a widow, and a son, David, was born in August 1928. Elizabeth was the sister of Percy Hobart, WWII commander.

Montgomery became lieutenant-colonel of the 1st Battalion of The Royal Warwickshire Regiment in 1931, and saw service in Palestine, Egypt, and India. He was promoted to full colonel and became an instructor at the Indian Army Staff College in Quetta, India. As was usual, Montgomery maintained links with the Royal Warwickshires, taking up the honorary position of Colonel-of-the-Regiment in 1947. Montgomery stirred up the resentment of his superiors for his arrogance and dictatorial ways, and also for his disregard of convention when it obstructed military effectiveness. For example, he set up a battalion brothel in Tripoli, Libya during World War II, regularly inspected by the medical officer, for the 'horizontal refreshment' of his soldiers rather than forcing them to take chances in unregulated establishments. He was quoted as saying that his men "deserved it".

He became commanding officer of the 9th Infantry Brigade in 1937, with the rank of brigadier, but that year also saw tragedy for him; his wife was bitten by an insect while on holiday in Burnham-on-Sea. The bite became infected, and his wife died in his arms from septicaemia following an amputation. The loss devastated Montgomery, but he insisted on throwing himself back into his work immediately after the funeral.

In 1938, he organised an amphibious combined operations landing exercise that impressed the new commander-in-chief, Southern Command, General Wavell. He was promoted to major-general and took command of the 8th Infantry Division in Palestine. There he quashed an Arab revolt before returning in July 1939 to Britain, suffering a serious illness on the way, to command the 3rd (Iron) Infantry Division.

Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939. The 3rd Division was deployed to Belgium as part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Montgomery predicted a disaster similar to that in 1914, and so spent the Phony War training his troops for tactical retreat rather than offensive operations. During this time, Montgomery faced serious trouble from his superiors after again taking a very pragmatic attitude towards the sexual health of his soldiers - outraging the clergy by stating openly in a memo that in his opinion "when a man wanted a woman, he should have one" - but was defended from dismissal by his superior Alan Brooke, commander of II Corps. Montgomery's training paid off when the Germans began their invasion of the Low Countries on 10 May 1940 and the 3rd Division advanced to the River Dijle and then withdrew to Dunkirk with great professionalism, returning to Britain intact with minimal casualties. During Operation Dynamo — the evacuation of 330,000 BEF and French troops to Britain — Montgomery had assumed command of the II Corps after Alan Brooke had taken acting command of the whole BEF.

On his return Montgomery antagonised the War Office with trenchant criticisms of the command of the BEF and was briefly relegated to divisional command and only made a Companion of the Order of the Bath. In July 1940, he was promoted to lieutenant-general, placed in command of V Corps and started a long-running feud with the new commander-in-chief, Southern Command, Claude Auchinleck. In April 1941 he became commander of XII Corps and in December 1941 South-Eastern Command which he renamed the South-Eastern Army to promote offensive spirit. During this time he developed and rehearsed his ideas and trained his soldiers, culminating in Exercise Tiger in May 1942, a combined forces exercise involving 100,000 troops.

In 1942 a new field commander was required in the Middle East, where Auchinleck was commander-in-chief. He had stabilised the allied position at Alamein, but after a visit in August 1942, the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, replaced him with Alexander, and was persuaded by Alan Brooke to appoint Montgomery commander of the British Eighth Army in the North African campaign after Churchill's own preferred candidate, William Gott, was killed flying back to Cairo.

Montgomery made a great effort to appear before troops as often as possible, frequently visiting various units and making himself known to the men, often arranging for cigarettes to be distributed. Although he still wore a standard British officer's cap on arrival in the desert, he briefly wore an Australian broad-brimmed hat before switching to wearing the black beret (with the badge of the Royal Tank Regiment next to the British General Officer's badge) for which he became famous. The black beret had been offered to him by a soldier upon climbing into a tank to get a closer look at the front lines. Both Brooke and Alexander were astonished by the transformation in atmosphere when they visited on 19 August, less than a week after Montgomery had taken command.

Rommel attempted to encircle the Eighth Army at the Battle of Alam Halfa from 31 August 1942. The German/Italian armoured infantry attack was stopped in very heavy fighting. Rommel's forces had to retreat hastily lest they be cut off from behind. Montgomery was criticised for not counter-attacking the retreating forces immediately, but he felt strongly that his methodical build-up of British forces was not yet ready. A hasty counter-attack risked ruining his strategy for an offensive on his own terms in October, planning for which had begun soon after he took command.

The reconquest of North Africa was essential for airfields to support Malta and for Operation Torch. Rejecting demands for quicker action from Churchill and the British war cabinet, Montgomery prepared meticulously for the new offensive. He was determined not to fight until he thought there had been sufficient preparation for a decisive victory, and put into action his beliefs with the gathering of resources, detailed planning, the training of troops - especially in night fighting - and in the use of over 300 of the latest American-built Sherman tanks, 90 M7 Priests, and making a personal visit to every unit involved in the offensive. By the time the offensive was ready in late October, Allied forces numbered nearly 200,000 men including British, Australian, South African, Indian, Greek and Free French units.

The Battle of El Alamein began on 23 October 1942, and ended 12 days later with the first large-scale, decisive allied land victory of the war. Montgomery correctly predicted both the length of the battle and the number of casualties (13,500). He has been criticized for failing to capitalize immediately on his victory at El Alamein. However, soon after British armoured units and infantry broke through the German and Italian lines and were pursuing the enemy forces at speed along the coast road, a violent, unseasonable rainstorm burst over the region making rapid pursuit impossible, the tanks and support trucks bogged down in the desert mud. Montgomery had to call off the chase. Standing before his officers at headquarters, he was close to tears. Yet, the Battle of El Alamein had been a great success. Over 30,000 prisoners were taken including the German commander, von Thoma (Rommel was away), and eight other general officers.

Montgomery was knighted and promoted to full general. The Eighth Army's subsequent advance as the Germans retreated hundreds of miles towards their bases in Tunisia used the logistical and firepower advantages of the British Army while avoiding unnecessary risks. It also gave the Allies an indication that the tide of war had genuinely turned in North Africa. Montgomery kept the initiative, applying superior strength when it suited him, forcing Rommel out of each successive defensive position. On 6 March 1943 Rommel's attack on the over-extended Eighth Army at Medenine (Operation Capri) with the largest concentration of German armour in North Africa was successfully repulsed. At the Mareth Line, 20 to 27 March, when Montgomery encountered fiercer frontal opposition than he had anticipated, he switched his major effort into an outflanking inland pincer, backed by low-flying RAF fighter-bomber support.

This campaign demonstrated the battle-winning ingredients of morale (sickness and absenteeism were virtually eliminated in the Eighth Army), co-operation of all arms including the air forces, first-class logistical back-up and clear-cut orders. For his role in North Africa he was awarded the Legion of Merit by the United States government in the rank of Chief Commander.

The next major Allied attack was the Allied invasion of Sicily (Operation Husky). It was in Sicily that Montgomery's famous tensions with US commanders really began. Montgomery managed to recast plans for the Allied invasion, having Patton's Seventh US Army land in the Gulf of Gela (on the left flank of Eighth Army, which landed around Syracuse in the south-east of Sicily) rather than at Palermo in the west of Sicily as Patton had wished. Inter-allied tensions grew as the American commanders Patton and Bradley (then commanding II US Corps under Patton), took umbrage at what they perceived as Montgomery's attitudes and boastfulness. They resented him, while accepting his skills as a general.

During the autumn of 1943 Montgomery continued to command Eighth Army during the landings on the mainland of Italy itself. In conjunction with the Anglo-American landings at Salerno (near Naples) by Mark Clark's Fifth Army and seaborne landings by British paratroops in the heel of Italy (including the key port of Taranto, where they disembarked without resistance directly into the port), Montgomery led Eighth Army up the toe of Italy. Some criticism was made of the slowness of Montgomery's advance. The Eighth Army, responsible for the eastern side of the Allied front, from the central Apennine mountain spine to the Adriatic coast, fought a succession of engagements alternating between opposed crossings of the rivers running across their line of advance and attacks against the cleverly constructed defensive positions the Germans had fashioned on the ridges in between. Eighth Army crossed the Sangro river in mid-November and penetrated the German's strongest position at the Gustav Line but as the winter weather deteriorated the advance ground to a halt as transport bogged down and air support operations became impossible. Montgomery abhorred the lack of coordination, the dispersion of effort, and the strategic muddle and opportunism he perceived in the Allied effort in Italy and was glad to leave the "dog's breakfast" on 23 December.

Montgomery returned to Britain to take command of the 21st Army Group which consisted of all Allied ground forces that would take part in Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy. Preliminary planning for the invasion had been taking place for two years, most recently by COSSAC staff (Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander). Montgomery quickly concluded that the COSSAC plan was too limited, and strongly advocated expanding the plan from a three-division to a five-division assault. As with his takeover of the Eighth Army, Montgomery travelled frequently to his units, raising morale and ensuring training was progressing. At St Paul's School on 7 April and 15 May he presented his strategy for the invasion. He envisaged a ninety day battle, ending when all the forces reached the Seine, pivoting on an Allied-held Caen, with British and Canadian armies forming a shoulder and the US armies wheeling on the right.

During the hard fought two and a half month Battle of Normandy that followed, the impact of a series of unfavourable autumnal weather conditions disrupted the Normandy landing areas and seriously hampered the tactical delivery of planned transportation of personnel and supplies which were being carried across the English Channel. Consequently, Montgomery argues in his literary account (WIP) that he was unable to follow his pre-battle plan precisely to the timescales planned outside of battle. It should be noted that the extension of the battle plan by one month was the cause of significant retrospective criticisms of Montgomery by some of his American peers, including the much respected Bradley and equally controversial Patton. However, it can be shown that this may well have been embitterment relating to Montgomery's Bulge press statement above.

Montgomery's plan in its early brief, was an aggressive British and Canadian presence in the east to attract the bulk of the German armour, combined with a building up of American forces in the west as preparation to a southern breakout, followed by a pincer east originally towards the Seine, where all bridges west of Paris were destroyed. Correctly the American pincers turned north for an entrapment at Falaise. Montgomery significantly adapted and strategically planned the Normandy landings to the extent that it was the significant structure which attracted, trapped and destroyed the bulk of the German attacking forces from north western France, that is from the Point de Calais to Le Havre, and beyond. (WIP).

The increasing preponderance of American troops in the European theatre (from five out of ten divisions at D-Day to 72 out of 85 in 1945) made it a political impossibility for the Ground Forces Commander to be British. After the end of the Normandy campaign, General Eisenhower himself took over Ground Forces Command while continuing as Supreme Commander, with Montgomery continuing to command the 21st Army Group, now consisting mainly of British and Canadian units. Montgomery bitterly resented this change, even though it had been agreed before the D-Day invasion. Winston Churchill had Montgomery promoted to field marshal by way of compensation.

Montgomery was able to persuade Eisenhower to adopt his strategy of a single thrust to the Ruhr with Operation Market Garden in September 1944. It was the most uncharacteristic of Montgomery's battles: the offensive was strategically bold, but poorly planned. Moreover, Montgomery ignored ULTRA intelligence which warned of the presence of German armoured units near the site of the attack. As a result, the operation ended in an unmitigated disaster with the destruction of the British 1st Airborne Division at Arnhem and the loss of any hopes of invading Germany by the end of 1944. Montgomery's preoccupation with the push to the Ruhr had also distracted him from the essential task of clearing the Scheldt during the capture of Antwerp, and so after Arnhem, Montgomery's group were instructed to concentrate on doing this so that the port of Antwerp could be opened.

Eisenhower had then wanted Montgomery to go on the offensive on 1 January to meet Patton's army that had started advancing from the south on 19 December and in doing so, trap the Germans. However, Montgomery refused to commit infantry he considered underprepared into a snowstorm and for a strategically unimportant piece of land. He did not launch the attack until 3 January, by which point the German forces had been able to escape. A large part of American military opinion thought that he should not have held back, though it was characteristic of him to use drawn-out preparations for his attack. After the battle the U.S. First Army was restored to the 12th Army Group; the U.S. Ninth Army remained under 21st Army Group until it crossed the Rhine.

Montgomery's 21st Army Group advanced to the Rhine with operations Veritable and Grenade in February 1945. After a meticulously-planned Rhine crossing on 24 March and the subsequent encirclement of the German Army Group B in the Ruhr, Montgomery's role was initially to guard the flank of the American advance. This was altered, however, to forestall any chance of a Red Army advance into Denmark, and the 21st Army Group occupied Hamburg and Rostock and sealed off the Danish peninsula.

On 4 May 1945, on Lüneburg Heath, Montgomery accepted the surrender of German forces in northern Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands. This was done plainly in a tent without any ceremony. In the same year he was awarded the Order of the Elephant, the highest order in Denmark.

On 26 October 1945 he was made a Freeman of Huddersfield.

After the war, Montgomery was created 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein in 1946. He was Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1946 until 1948, but was largely a failure as it required strategic and political skills he did not possess. He clashed particularly with his old rival Arthur Tedder, who as Deputy Supreme Commander had intrigued for Montgomery's dismissal during the Battle of Normandy, and who was by now Chief of the Air Staff. When Montgomery's term of office expired, the Prime Minister Clement Attlee appointed General (later Field-Marshal) William Slim as his successor; when Montgomery protested that he had already promised the job to his protege General Crocker, a former corps commander from the 1944-5 campaign, Attlee is said to have given the memorable retort "Untell him".

Montgomery was then Chairman of the Western European Union's commanders-in-chief committee. Volume 3 of Nigel Hamilton's Life of Montgomery of Alamein gives a good account of the bickering between Montgomery and his land forces chief, a French general, which created splits through the Union headquarters. He was thus pleased to become Eisenhower's deputy in creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's European forces in 1951. He was an effective inspector-general and mounted good exercises, but out of his depth politically, and his exacting manner and emphasis on efficiency created ill-feeling. He continued to serve under Eisenhower's successors Matthew Ridgway and Al Gruenther until his retirement, aged seventy-one, in 1958. His mother died in 1949; Montgomery did not attend the funeral, claiming he was "too busy".

Montgomery was chairman of the governing body of St John's School, Leatherhead, Surrey from 1951 to 1966 and a generous supporter.

In 1953, the Hamilton Board of Education in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, wrote to Montgomery and asked permission to name a new school in the city's east end after him. Viscount Montgomery Elementary was billed as "the most modern school in North America" and the largest single-storey school in Hamilton, when the sod was turned on 14 March 1951. The school officially opened on 18 April 1953, with Montgomery in attendance among almost 10,000 well-wishers. At the opening, he gave the motto "Gardez Bien" from his own family's coat of arms.

Let's make Viscount Montgomery School the best in Hamilton, the best in Ontario, the best in Canada. I don't associate myself with anything that is not good. It is up to you to see that everything about this school is good. It is up to the students to not only be their best in school but in their behaviour outside of Viscount. Education is not just something that will help you pass your exams and get you a job, it is to develop your brain to teach you to marshal facts and do things.

Ironically, a number of Montgomery's biographers, including Chalfont (1976) (who found something "disturbingly equivocal" in "his relations with boys and young men") and Nigel Hamilton (2002) have suggested that he may himself have been a repressed homosexual; in the late 1940s he conducted an affectionate friendship with a 12-year-old Swiss boy.

Montgomery's memoirs (1958) were broadly judged to be tactless and arrogant. He criticised many of his wartime comrades in harsh terms, including Eisenhower (whom he accused, among other things, of prolonging the war by a year through poor leadership — allegations which ended their friendship, not least as Eisenhower was still US President at the time). He was stripped of his honorary citizenship of Montgomery, Alabama, and was challenged to a duel by an Italian officer. He was threatened with legal action by Field-Marshal Auchinleck for suggesting that Auchinleck had intended to retreat from the Alamein position if attacked again, and had to give a radio broadcast (20 November 1958) expressing his gratitude to Auchinleck for having stabilised the front at the First Battle of Alamein. The 1960 edition of his memoirs contains a publishers' note (opposite page 15) drawing attention to that broadcast, and stating that in the publishers' view the reader might assume from Montgomery's text that Auchinleck had been planning to retreat and pointing out that this was in fact not the case.

Perhaps at least in part because of these controversies, Montgomery was never raised to an earldom, although unlike his wartime contemporaries Harold Alexander, Louis Mountbatten and even Archibald Wavell, he had never been a Theatre Supreme Commander or held high political office. An official task he insisted on performing in his later years was bearing the Sword of State during the State Opening of Parliament. His increasing frailty, however, raised concerns about his ability to stand for long periods while carrying the heavy weapon. Ultimately, those fears were borne out when he collapsed in mid-ceremony in 1968 and did not perform this function again.

A favourite pastime of the British press during these years was to photograph Montgomery cashing his old age pension cheque at the local social security office. Due to his eminence, many assumed Montgomery was wealthy and did not need the money. In fact, he had always been a man of modest means and it caused him great anguish that many believed he was taking taxpayer money he did not need.

Another blow was a break-in at his home. Despite making a televised appeal for the return of his possessions, the items were never recovered.

Montgomery died in 1976 at his home in Alton, Hampshire aged 88 years.

After a funeral ceremony at St George's Chapel, Windsor, he was interred in the Holy Cross Churchyard, Binsted.

His portrait (by Frank O. Salisbury, 1945) hangs in the National Portrait Gallery. A statue of Viscount Montgomery can be found outside the Defence Ministry in Whitehall, alongside those of William Slim and Alan Brooke. Another statue of Viscount Montgomery can be found in Brussels, Belgium, watching a Montgomery Square.

The Imperial War Museum holds a variety of material relating to Montgomery in its collections. These include Montgomery's Grant command tank (on display in the atrium at the Museum's London branch), his command caravans as used in North West Europe (on display at IWM Duxford), and his papers are held by the Museum's Department of Documents. The Museum maintains a permanent exhibition about Montgomery titled Monty: Master of the Battlefield.

Montgomery was a complex person. On the one hand, though far from flawless, he was a great and successful general through hard work, a refusal to conform to dead tradition, and an open, clear and alert mind. He was a humane man and was capable of inspiring great loyalty among his staff and his troops. Montgomery believed that in the 20th century it was essential to explain to troops why they were fighting and that orders and plans must be clear. He therefore tended to appeal more to the common soldiers under his command than to many of the officers who had more direct dealings with him. These men defended him with great passion even after the war, as the British historian Richard Holmes discovered when he was critical of Montgomery.

On the other hand, he was personally a difficult man. Montgomery did not get on with his contemporaries and mostly associated with junior officers. He was insensitive, conceited, and boastful. He was not an easy man to know socially and not loyal to the staff officers serving immediately under him. His dismissive and occasionally insulting attitude to others often soured opinions about his abilities and personality. His failures happened when he allowed his desire for personal glory to taint his planning, causing him to abandon his usual caution.

In stark contrast to his counterpart in East Asia, Field Marshal William Slim, Montgomery rarely if ever admitted to making a single mistake during the Second World War. Slim was far more candid about his own mistakes, even in his wartime memoirs, than Montgomery.

Often it was Montgomery's statements about battles, as much as his actual conduct of them, that formed the basis of controversy. In his career, Montgomery's orders to his subordinates were clear and complete, yet with his superiors his communications would be opaque and incomplete. So, in Normandy, he gave the impression to Eisenhower and others that he was attempting a breakout, while playing down this possibility in his actual orders to his subordinates. For example, shortly before Operation Goodwood he removed Falaise as an objective, but did not forward these new orders to SHAEF. Throughout his career, he enraged his superiors and colleagues, partly because he would not allow convention to disrupt military effectiveness, partly because of a contempt for authority and an unwillingness to be in a situation where he was not in control, and partly because he could be quite a strange person. Walter Bedell Smith once said to him "You may be great to serve under, difficult to serve alongside, but you sure are hell to serve over!". He also found it difficult to publicly admit his operations had not gone to plan, irrespective of whether they were ultimately successful (Normandy) or unsuccessful (Market Garden, where he claimed that it had been a 90% success).

In the United Kingdom, Montgomery is remembered particularly for his victorious campaign in North Africa, which, with the Battle of Stalingrad, was very much seen as the turning point of World War II. The different nature of the war for the United States means that his reputation there is very much coloured by the controversies in the later stages of the war in Europe, especially around the Battle of the Bulge. These brought into relief both his virtues and failings.

At the end of 1944, there was tension between the Allies owing to a campaign by the British press for Eisenhower to appoint a deputy and for Montgomery to be made the overall Allied ground commander. Immediately after the Battle of the Bulge, on 7 January 1945, Montgomery held a press conference in which he downplayed the role of the American generals, especially Patton, in the Allied victory at the Battle of the Bulge and focused on his own generalship. Many of his comments were ill-judged, particularly his statement that when the situation "began to deteriorate", Eisenhower had placed him in command in the north, and they were inflammatory to Patton, implying that he needed to be rescued by Montgomery "with a bang". In the press conference Montgomery said that he thought the counter-offensive had gone very well and did not explain his delayed attack on 3 January. According to Churchill, the attack from the south under Patton was steady but slow and involved heavy losses, and Montgomery claimed to be trying to avoid this situation. Montgomery also gave the impression that substantial British forces had been involved in the fighting that repelled the German attack (an impression explicitly corrected by Churchill in the House of Commons). A slanted version inserted by Germany within an Allied radio broadcast added to American resentment.

In a memo to Eisenhower, Montgomery proposed that he should again be made Commander Ground Forces and implicitly criticised recent conduct of the war while American confidence had been shaken and nerves were raw. Eisenhower, encouraged by the Deputy Supreme Commander, Air Marshal Tedder (another person with a long running feud with Montgomery), was on the point of dismissing Montgomery, when Bedell Smith and Montgomery's chief-of-staff, Major-General Freddie de Guingand, pointed that it would be both politically unwise and difficult to justify removing a general who had just won a battle, over generals who had come so close to losing one. De Guingand was able to convince Montgomery of the impact of his words (of which he was apparently unaware) and Montgomery wrote an apology to Eisenhower. The moment passed. Eisenhower commented in his memoirs: "I doubt if Montgomery ever came to realise how resentful some American commanders were. They believed he had belittled them — and they were not slow to voice reciprocal scorn and contempt".

I first saw him in battle in Sicily and I formed a very high opinion of him. I saw him again in Italy. He is a very brave fighting man, steady under fire and with that tenacity in battle which marks the first-class fighting soldier. I have a great affection and admiration for the American soldier. I salute the brave fighting men of America. I never want to fight alongside better soldiers. I have tried to feel that I am almost an American soldier myself so that I might take no unsuitable action or offend them in any way ... Rundstedt was really beaten by the good fighting qualities of the American soldier and by the team work of the Allies.

Montgomery was not critical of all American commanders. He thought General Douglas MacArthur to be the best United States' soldier of World War II.

The captain of our team is Eisenhower. I am absolutely devoted to Ike; we are the greatest of friends. It grieves me when I see uncomplimentary articles about him in the British press; he bears a great burden, he needs our fullest support, he has the right to expect it and it is up to all of us to see that he gets it.

I think now that I should never have held that press conference. So great were the feelings against me on the part of the American generals that whatever I said was bound to be wrong. I should therefore have said nothing.

He is probably the finest tactical general we have had since Wellington. But on some of his strategy, and especially on his relations with the Americans, he is almost a disaster.

Any assessment of Montgomery is immediately entangled in his sometimes difficult, boastful personality, harshness towards those he felt did not measure up, and issues of Anglo-American national pride. Nevertheless this section attempts a balanced summing up of his general leadership from a military perspective. Was he primarily a ponderous set-piece general or was he indeed one of the most brilliant commanders of recent history, a true heir to Marlborough, at least from the British perspective? The truth lies somewhere in between. It is helpful to analyse Montgomery's generalship by looking at some central aspects of his successes and failures.

Montgomery deserves his due as an outstanding trainer of men. His record in Palestine, North Africa, Sicily and Northern Europe shows this. His meticulous preparation of his troops, ranging from the usual physical necessities, to painstaking explanation of his vision and plans down to relatively low levels, to well articulated exercises and drills, to his insistence that formations like divisions "should fight as divisions" (i.e. gain proficiency in "big picture" coordination and integration) show the mind and skill of a keen organiser. None of this is earth-shattering for any competent military commander (though many of his contemporaries, including many remembered better by history, showed great deficiencies in this regard), but Montgomery demonstrated a great level of proficiency and made it one of his special trademarks.

Montgomery was a keen advocate of physical fitness and hard training: in the desert he had all ranks from brigadier down doing daily physical training; any man, no matter what rank, was expected to be fit to fight, and if any officer could not keep up on daily runs, he was sent home - Montgomery once observed that if a middle-aged officer was going to have a heart attack, better for it to happen on a training run than in action. Montgomery was also a critic of Battle Drill Training, which he felt was a crutch used by unit commanders. His personal view, put into action during the Phony War and afterwards, was that company and battalion training in the phases of war—relief in place, passage of obstacles, hasty attack, etc.—was ignored in favour of simple drilling at the section and platoon level.

Montgomery had a deep technical understanding of how the Army operated, at all levels from the infantry company to the Army Group. He helped to shape the Canadian army through assisting the formation of the fledgling First Canadian Army while they were under his command in South-Eastern Army. Montgomery personally visited most Canadian units, down to the battalion level, and assisted Canadian Army commander Harry Crerar in weeding out poor officers, giving direct criticism of battalion commanders, company commanders, and even regimental sergeants-major. Montgomery indirectly shaped the Canadian Army that saw action in Italy and NW Europe.

Montgomery's hallmark as a strategist was a detailed analysis of his enemy and development of a clear vision as to how that enemy was to be fought and defeated. Two words sum up the approach of the British commander: clarity and organisation. These were put into practice through careful preparation of what he termed a "master plan", to which all subsequent effort was to be subordinated. The "master plan" embodied the vision, and the strategic and tactical approaches that would be used. Far from being rigid, Montgomery held that the flexibility or "balance" was one of the keys to his overarching structure. He regarded the German Army as one of hard-core professionalism, and held that wishful thinking and foggy concepts against such an opponent was a recipe for dismal failure.

Montgomery sought changes along these lines in the plan for the Allied invasion of Sicily. His influence however was more limited and his own less-than-spectacular gains in the difficult terrain, were unfavorably compared by some to the thrusting mobility of US General George Patton — a foreshadowing of controversies to come. Operation Husky was a success, but the Germans were able to extract tens of thousands of troops from Sicily to fight elsewhere, indicating that Montgomery's concerns about concepts, planning and execution were not totally off the mark.

His approach can be seen in his insistence on recasting or adjusting the invasion plans of Normandy, generally strengthening initial shock forces and insisting on a clear vision and method of how subsequent battles were to be fought. The success of the D-Day landings owed a great debt to Montgomery's planning. After the war, Eisenhower and his chief of staff, Lieutenant-General Walter Bedell Smith told the American military correspondent, Drew Middleton that "No one else could have got us across the Channel and into Normandy... Whatever they say about him, he got us there".

Montgomery felt his approach vindicated at the Second Battle of El Alamein. His strategic vision ushered in much needed clarity, and his defensive preparations (drawing in part on the prior work of his predecessor Auchinleck) also envisioned a decisive counterattack. During the most critical point of the battle his concept of "balance" or flexibility within the confines of a master plan held, and the British were able to shift forces to see off Rommel's thrust, and mount their own riposte that shattered the back of the Axis formations.

The Battle of Normandy saw similar success. He insisted on more forces for the initial landing and a clear vision for the further campaign against some planners who were primarily concerned with just getting on the beach. Despite the failure of all but the Canadians to gain the ambitious targets on D-Day, and the subsequent improvisations, his strategy of attritional battle on the left drawing in German forces and allowing a breakthrough on the right was successful. This approach could not be broadcast on the nightly news and the public perception of the struggle was typically one that saw both Allies equally attempting to break out of the beachhead, with progress being "slow." Montgomery however persisted, and deflecting pressure from his superiors (who remained in England) for quicker results, retained mastery of the developing battle. Overall, he achieved victory well within the originally planned ninety days. Normandy and El Alamein cement Montgomery's place as one of the greatest of the modern British generals in the view of some historians, and vindicate his concept of "balance" within the overall structure of a dominant "master plan".

Montgomery also deserves credit as a builder of morale, both that of his soldiers and that of the general public. A large part of his reputation has been sustained by the people who served under him. After his experiences in the First World War he had determined not to waste soldiers' lives: as Haig persisted in attritional battles, Montgomery wrote to his brother Donald, on seeing Canadians sent to assault Passchendaele Ridge that they were 'magnificent', but 'they forget that the whole art of war is to gain your objective with as little loss as possible', which was a doctrine that Montgomery subsequently lived by.

Further to this, he also displayed a genuine concern for the welfare of the men serving under him: for example, at one time he jeopardised his career by illegally hiring out land to a fair to raise welfare funds; he arranged for female nurses at forward casualty clearing centres in the desert war in 1943; he took a very pragmatic view towards sexual health; directly after the Battle of Medenine he was lobbying Brooke to allow long-serving soldiers to return to England. Coupled with this was his belief that soldiers must actually understand why they were fighting, and that they deserve to have things properly explained to them. Montgomery thought that one of the most important roles for a military commander was to motivate his men to fight, that military command is "a great human problem". In addition, Montgomery's experiences in the First World War led him to despise generals who led from the rear, well away from any fighting, and so was visible in his campaigns.

The early years of World War II saw a series of humiliating defeats and military reverses for Britain. Montgomery was not the first to unequivocally reverse. His experiences in Ireland had shown him the importance of public support in a war. Montgomery was sometimes ungracious, but he was able to painstakingly articulate a vision for victory and couple with it a good sense for publicity (the use of his distinctive black beret with two badges, for example). He continued these same methods in England prior to the invasion, insisting on a clear concept of battle beyond the beaches, all united under a powerful master plan. Later on, Montgomery was not the only leader who struck a distinctive chord for morale prior to the great invasion, but he was certainly one of the most influential, ensuring not only the troops that stepped ashore on 6 June, were thus men confident in their leaders, their plans, their equipment and their cause, but so were the public. His speaking tour of British munitions factories before D-Day had made Churchill worry that he would be "filling The Mall" with adoring crowds if he was allowed to receive his field marshal's baton at Buckingham Palace.

Montgomery's record also has been extensively criticised. The criticism of his actions tends to be bound up with his difficult personality and relationships with superiors (see "Character and controversy" above) but generally two areas in particular can be separated out, which are summarised here.

Montgomery was often accused of being slow and overcautious. Examples cited include before El Alamein, afterwards in the pursuit of Rommel, the Battle of Normandy, and in the counter-offensive in the Ardennes. In North Africa, prior to Montgomery taking command, the history of the campaign in North Africa had see-sawed as each offensive outran its supply lines: both sides won battles but neither gained a decisive advantage.

Similarly, during the Battle of Normandy, the fear of stalemate made the supreme command in Britain pressure Montgomery to push harder. At one point in July 1944, it was thought that Churchill was flying to France to personally sack Montgomery at Eisenhower's request. Air Marshal Tedder complained that Montgomery had not captured suitable airfields from which to operate. Much is made of the fact that many of Montgomery's initial targets were not met, especially the failure to capture Caen on the first day or even for weeks after D-Day (criticism that was compounded after the war when Montgomery insisted that all elements had gone "according to plan", which clearly was not the case, although it should be noted in fairness that the bulk of the German panzer divisions, including SS units, were stationed on the Caen sector). However his predictions, the so called "phase lines" on the maps, were never intended to be a rigid guarantee but a guide, as would be clear from previous opposed landings at Salerno and Anzio. Much of the criticism resulted from Montgomery giving his superiors and the press the impression that he was trying to achieve large-scale breakouts while actually fighting an attritional campaign. However, in the end Montgomery's success was achieved in less time than planned.

Montgomery was not a dashing general, and deliberately methodical, usually not willing to sacrifice military effectiveness for other people's agenda. The realities of the wartime Britain must also be remembered. It had seen severe early defeats, an economy almost crippled, shortages caused by constant German U-boat attacks, and dwindling supplies of manpower to fight on fronts ranging from the Far East to the Mediterranean. There simply were no more big armies to commit wholesale in Normandy or elsewhere. Montgomery thus carefully husbanded the troops he had left. Furthermore, much of his apparent caution sprang from his regard for human life and a desire not to throw the lives of his troops away in the manner of the generals of the First World War. Therefore, for El Alamein, Normandy and the Ardennes, he was not prepared to go into an offensive until there was complete readiness of both men, equipment, and logistics. This approach sometimes exasperated his superiors, but it generally brought success, and ensured his popularity with his men.

The criticism of slowness and caution has been taken further with Montgomery being called primarily a "general of matériel": one who emerged at the right time and place to take advantage of the massive outpouring of American and British war production, ensuring the Allies local material superiority against their opponents. But this charge is hard to maintain in a war during which material weight counted above almost all factors. It was a mass production war in every theatre, and the same "matériel" criticism of Montgomery must then need to apply to the great Russian commanders of the Eastern Front like Zhukov or Konev, as well as to the American effort. Equally, it ignores the successful improvised actions in North Africa, Normandy, and the Ardennes, and yet as stated above, Montgomery did not have the man power or equipment to achieve those scale victories; so in essence one could say he was doing more with what he had, than any other general in Europe.

The conception of such a plan was impossible for a man of Montgomery's innate caution... In fact, Montgomery's decision to mount the operation aimed at the Zuider Zee was as startling as it would have been for an elderly and saintly Bishop suddenly to take up safe-cracking and begin on the Bank of England.

Field Marshal Montgomery almost never paid so much as lip service to the dictum that the destruction of the enemy forces is the object of military strategy. ... Montgomery's aggressiveness was that of the energetic fencer, not that of the general who annihilates enemy armies, of Napoleon, of Grant, or of Moltke.

A cautious, thorough strategist, Montgomery largely eschewed military innovation. Instead he insisted on complete readiness of both men and material before attempting a strike, a policy that exasperated his superiors, but produced several successes in battle, and his ensured popularity with the men.

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