3.3826913456431 (1999)
Posted by r2d2 03/23/2009 @ 10:11

Tags : muscat, oman, arabian peninsula, world

News headlines
Newcomers North Queensland Fury have Kevin Muscat on top of most ... - Fox Sports
Not content with securing arguably the A-League's biggest coup, newcomers North Queensland Fury admit they have former Socceroos star Kevin Muscat in their sights. While already boasting the signature of Liverpool legend Robbie Fowler, the Fury will...
Investments in "clean tech" plummet - Seattle Times
"Despite the intense challenges of raising capital during the past four months, government initiatives and corporate commitments are points of light for clean-tech companies," said Joseph Muscat, Americas director of clean tech at Ernst & Young....
Muscat says power station tendering allegations 'a cause for concern' - Times of Malta
Labour leader Joseph Muscat said today that allegations made in a letter by an Israeli company which had submitted a bid for an extension of the Delimara power station should be of concern to taxpayers and all those who held the environment dear....
Muscat queries on immigrant landing in Gozo - Malta Independent Online
Labour Party (PL) leader Joseph Muscat queried the recent landing of 33 immigrants in Qbajjar, Gozo, hinting that the boat on which the immigrants were sailing was redirected to Malta after going close to Sicily. Speaking at a party activity in Gozo,...
Knowledge Oasis Muscat's green foundation - Construction Week Online
by Gerhard Hope May 18, 2009 The recent laying of the foundation stone for the expansion of Knowledge Oasis Muscat (KOM) is not just good news for the development of technology and the creation of related jobs in the sultanate, it also shows the...
Oman LNG in $200 mln LNG maintenance deal - Reuters
MUSCAT, May 17 (Reuters) - Oman LNG and General Electric (GE.N) on Sunday signed a 16-year agreement worth $200 million for the maintenance of gas turbines used in the production of liquefied natural gas, according to a statement....
Grand Hyatt Muscat named Best Business Hotel in Muscat - AME Info
Grand Hyatt Muscat is proud to have won the Business Traveler Middle East Award 2009 for 'Best Business Hotel in Muscat'. Business Traveller Middle East Awards 2009 This prestigious award ceremony was held during the Arabian Travel Market in Dubai....
Muscat: MCCP Celebrates Anniversary - Suraj Rebello New President -
Muscat, May 17: Suraj Rebello, a prominent and multi-talented personality in the Mangalorean community has taken the charge as the new president of the Mangalorean Catholic Centre of the Parish (MCCP - Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Ruwi) for the year...
Cleantech VC Drops, But Confidence Remains in Rebound - Reuters
The weak economy has caused the demand for energy in general to go down," said Joseph Muscat of Ernst and Young. Economic effects have also been compounded by the reduced availability of bank funding, and on the global investment scale, by solar leader...

Muscat and Oman

The flag of the Imamate of Oman (1856-1970). This was a white flag with the Omani Khanjar coat-of-arms on the top left corner. The Khanjar is still used today in the flag of the Sultanate of Oman.

Muscat and Oman (Arabic: مسقط وعمان‎) was a country that encompassed the present day Sultanate of Oman and parts of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It existed from about 1856 until about 1970. The country is not to be confused with either the Trucial States or Trucial Oman.

Historical differences always existed between the more secular, rich, seafaring coastal Sultanate of Muscat and the interior Imamate of Oman, whose rulers were leaders of the Ibadi sect of Islam and were highly conservative.

The Sultanate of Muscat possessed a powerful naval force, which enabled the creation of a short-lived empire, encompassing modern Oman, the United Arab Emirates, southern Baluchistan, and Zanzibar and the adjacent coasts of Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique. The Sultanate of Muscat also engaged in a very lucrative slave trade across east Africa. Recently, a claim was made by an Omani minister, suggesting that the Sultanate controlled the distant Mascarene Islands as early as the 15th century.

In the early 1820s, the Sultanate lost most of its territories in the Persian Gulf, which later became the Trucial States under British protection. The fifth Sultan of the Al Said line of rulers, Said bin Sultan, consolidated the Sultanate's territorial holdings and economic interests and Oman prospered. However, the Omani fleet was unable to compete with the more technically advanced European fleets and the Sultanate lost much of the trade with India. Pressure by the British to abandon the slave trade further led to the loss of political and economic clout of the Sultanate.

On June 4, 1856, the Sultan died without appointing a heir to the throne and the Al Said clan could not agree on a ruler. Through British mediation, two rulers were appointed from the Al Said clan; one, distinctly for the interior (influenced by the Imam of Oman) and the other for the Sultanate of Muscat. This led to the country being called Muscat and Oman. Zanzibar became independent.

The Sultanate of Muscat was regularly under attack from the devout Ibadi tribes who resented the influence of the more secular coastal people. The Sultanate was however, able to defend itself with British help.

This historical split continued throughout much of the twentieth century with Sultan Said bin Taimur granting limited autonomy to the Imamate of Oman.

The discovery of oil in the Persian Gulf exacerbated the dispute of territory between the Sultanate of Muscat and the Imamate of Oman. Most of the oil fields lay in the Imamate and the Sultan granted licences to European oil companies in that area, although the Imam claimed sovereignty over the area. The oil companies therefore encouraged the British government to extend their support to the Sultan. The Seeb treaty recognised the pre-eminence of the Sultan over the Imam.

With British assistance, the Sultan was able to establish pre-eminence over most of Oman. In 1957, the Sultan's forces captured the town of Nizwa, but the Sultan took little interest in the stability of the nation after that. The last overseas possession, the port of Gwadar, was ceded to Pakistan in 1958. The frequency of uprisings such as the Dhofar Rebellion aided by the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen motivated the British to supplant the Sultan. The British chose the Western-educated son of the Sultan, Qaboos bin Said who was locked up in the palace, because his father feared a coup. On his release, Qaboos bin Said, with the help of the British, staged a successful military coup d'état and was proclaimed Sultan of Muscat.

Shortly thereafter, again with British help and fierce army fighters from Baluchistan, the Sultan consolidated his hold over the entire interior and suppressed the Dhofar rebellion in 1976. The Imamate of Oman fell and the newly consolidated territories along with the territory of Muscat, became the Sultanate of Oman.

The Sohar Sultanate lasted from 1920 until about 1932. In 1920, Sheik Ali Banu Bu Ali, a relative of Sultan Taimur bin Faisal, rebelled in the northern town of Sohar and proclaimed himself Sultan but was deposed by the British in 1932.

To the top

Muscat International Airport


Muscat International Airport (formerly Seeb International Airport) (IATA: MCT, ICAO: OOMS) is the main airport in Muscat, Oman. It is the hub for the national carrier Oman Air. The distance from Old Muscat is 30 km and it is 15km from the main residential localities. At the moment the airport is being expanded and modernized. The airport will be upgraded to 12 million-passenger capacity during the initial stage and subsequently to 48 million. The initial stage is scheduled for completion in 2011. The airport was renamed on February 1, 2008 from the previous name, Seeb, to Muscat International Airport.

To the top

Kevin Muscat

Kevin Vincent Shaun Muscat (born 7 August 1973 in Crawley, England) is an Australian soccer player, who currently plays for, and is captain of, Melbourne Victory in the Australian Hyundai A-League. He is of Maltese descent.

Muscat made his international debut for Australia on the 24 September 1994 against Kuwait. He represented Australia in the U/23 football competition in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. He also represented Australia in the U/20 1993 World Youth Cup Finals in Australia. When playing for Australia in 2001, they faced Uruguay in a playoff for a spot in the 2002 FIFA World Cup. In the first leg in Melbourne, Australia won 1-0 thanks to a penalty from Kevin Muscat. However Australia went down 3-0 in Montevideo to miss out on qualifying for the World Cup.

Despite being a regular in the Australian national team, Muscat found himself dropped from the squad when coach Guus Hiddink took over in 2005. He played no part in Australia's qualification for the 2006 World Cup.

In August 2006, Muscat was given a lifeline back into the national team. Lacking experienced players for the Asian Cup qualifier against Kuwait, coach Graham Arnold recalled Kevin Muscat and handed him the captaincy. Australia won the match 2-0 to qualify for the 2007 Asian Cup.

On January 2, 2008, when Muscat's international career appeared all but over, newly appointed Socceroos coach Pim Verbeek selected Muscat in a squad of 22 A-League based players to train at Marconi Stadium in preparation for Australia's 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification campaign.

Muscat was branded a “lowlife” and a “nobody” by ex-England striker Ian Wright, then of Nottingham Forest, in September 1999. Wright claimed he was about to shoot when he heard Dougie Freedman, Forest's other striker, shout "leave it". Wright stepped over the ball to allow Freedman to hit it, but instead Muscat (who had, according to Wright, merely impersonated Freedman) appeared to clear the ball.

Muscat has a reputation as a football 'hard man', and was dubbed the "most hated man in football" by then Birmingham City player Martin Grainger in 2000. This was due to his many encounters with opposing players with the view being that he was unnecessarily physical and dirty in his play. He has previously seriously injured both Craig Bellamy and Christophe Dugarry, the latter in a friendly international between Australia and France in 2001 with a sliding tackle from behind. The French manager Roger Lemerre dubbed the tackle "an act of brutality", particularly given the friendly status of the match which was designed to prepare Australia for the two-legged playoff against Uruguay. Dugarry was sidelined with a serious knee ligament injury for several months. Many people then suggested that Kevin Muscat must be banned for the period Dugarry was out for, however this was rejected by FIFA tribunal.

In 2003 Kevin Muscat was targeted for his rough, physical and "unfair" attitude towards other players. It was recommended by Martin Grainger that he ease up on some of his "stupid" challenges. Muscat ignored these comments and had an outstanding season. Only receiving 2 red cards and 8 yellows. His best since 1996.

In 2004, a lawsuit on Muscat brought by former Charlton player Matty Holmes resulted in a settlement of £250,000 plus costs in favour of Holmes, bringing the estimated settlement to around £750,000. Holmes had to have four operations on his leg following a tackle by Muscat in 1998, and there were initial fears that his leg might have to be amputated. The claim was settled at the High Court without any admission of liability.

In December 2005, he was banned for three matches by the A-league disciplinary panel on grounds of "violent conduct", the first player to be suspended in such a manner.

During his time at Rangers, he was never selected for inclusion in an Old Firm encounter, due to the tense and aggressive nature of the match.

In September 2006, Iwan Roberts admitted in his book All I Want For Christmas that he had deliberately stamped on Muscat as an act of revenge in a match against Norwich City over his attempt to seriously injure Craig Bellamy back in 1999. Like the Roy Keane scandal over Alf-Inge Haaland, Roberts was charged by the FA for bringing the game into disrepute.

On Sunday the 15 October 2006 Muscat was involved in an incident with then Adelaide United coach John Kosmina. Muscat entered Adelaide's technical area and knocked Kosmina over while he was retrieving the ball from under his chair. Kosmina responded by grabbing Muscat by the throat. Kosmina was sent to the stands and Muscat received a yellow card. Kosmina was later suspended for a further four matches.

As of November 2006, Muscat has been suspended twice in the A-League 2006-07 season for four yellow cards and a red card. His dominant personality and aggressive style has equally won him admirers and detractors back home in the A-League.

To the top

Muscat (grape and wine)

Some grapes of vitis vinifera

The muscat family of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. Their color ranges from white to near black. Muscat almost always has a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat grapes are grown around the world in Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Serbia, Israel, France, Germany, Portugal, Greece, Spain, Australia, California, Oregon, Hungary, Canada, Italy, Albania, Turkey, Slovenia, and other places. The breadth and number of varieties of muscat suggest that it is perhaps the oldest domesticated grape variety, and there are theories that most families within the Vitis vinifera grape family are descended from the Muscat family. Indeed, scientists from the University of Pennsylvania have analyzed pots from King Midas's burial mound and determined that Muscat grapes were a key component of the alcoholic beverage served at his funeral feast.

Muscat grapes are one of the major varieties grown for table wine in Chile, and is a minor variety in California and Italy. Muscat Ottonel is also successfully grown by a few vineyards in the Finger Lakes region of New York State. Currently it is produced into an Alsatian styled wine by McGregor Vineyard Winery on Keuka Lake.

In Italy, it is widely used in sweeter sparkling wines like Asti. Their 'grapey' quality makes many wines made from Muscat easy to identify. Moscato d'Asti is a lightly sparkling (frizzante) variety of Muscat, made from the Moscato Bianco (Muscato Canelli) grape of the Piedmont region of Italy. This region has a DOCG designation, and is also known for the production of Barbera d'Asti, Dolcetto d’Asti, and Asti Spumante. In Lithuania, it is also used for making a sparkling wine called Alita.

Muscat grapes are used to make a variety of sweet dessert wines in various parts of the world. Typically, these are fortified wines, though some sweet late harvest and noble rot wines are also made from Muscat grapes.

Muscat is widely grown in Portugal and Spain, where the grape and the wines produced from it are known as Moscatel or Muscatel. Moscatels made in these countries are typically sweet and fortified. Among these wines is Moscatel de Setubal a sweet fortified wine from the Setúbal Peninsula in Portugal. Moscatel de Favaios is a Moscatel from the Douro Region. A Moscatel Madeira wine has also been produced on the island of Madeira, although Moscatel has become increasingly rare there over the last century.

In Spain, sweet fortified Moscatels are produced in a number of regions, notably Malaga and Jerez, and are sometimes made using the solera system. A variety of muscat is one of the varietals used in the production of sherry and according to Spanish law, it is one of only three grapes varietals allowed for this purpose.

Muscat is most successfully grown in California's east-central San Joaquin Valley, where orange muscat and black muscat varieties form the basis of premium dessert wines.

France also produces a number of sweet fortified vins doux naturels from muscat grapes, such as Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de Lunel, Muscat de Mireval, and Muscat de St-Jean Minervois.

In Australia, sweet fortified muscat wines are produced in the Rutherglen region, with older wines made according to the solera system.

Muscat wine is also the basis for Pisco, a brandy-like drink made in Peru and Chile, and Metaxa, a brandy-like drink made in Greece.

Muscat grapes contain a number of distinct compounds that give muscat wines their distinct "muscaty" flavor.

Muscat grapes have been found to have high concentrations of antioxidant flavonoids, in quantities as high as many varieties of red grapes. This means that the possible beneficial effects of red wine consumption may also be present in muscat wines.

Brown Muscat has pride of place in north-east Victoria's Rutherglen district, and is generally regarded to be one of the world's greatest fortified wines. High quality Muscats are also produced in other mainland states. Riverina producer Miranda makes a raisined Muscat in passito style.

In both Austria and Hungary, Muscat wines ranging from dry to very sweet are produced. Muscat is one of the varieties grown in the Tokaj region of Hungary.

Muscat Ottonel is grown in the Black Sea region and in the Danubian Plain, while Muscatel is a well-known style in the Rose Valley.

Muscat dessert wines are also produced in Cyprus, analogous to those produced in Greece.

Moravian Muscat is mostly grown in the region of South Moravia.

Muscat dessert wines (moschato) are produced on Samos, Rhodes, Patras and Cephalonia. Dry Muscat table wine is produced on Lemnos.

A number of towns are named Moschaton (Μοσχάτο) after the Greek name for the grapes.

Muscat (Moscato) grows throughout Italy in various forms. In dessert form it is either passito or fortified, but it also appears in sparkling wines (Asti spumante and Moscato d'Asti) . One of the best is the Moscato di Trani, made on Adriatic in the town of the same name in Apulia.

Muscat is used for dessert wines.

Fortified Muscat wines are produced in Tunisia and Morocco.

Muscat (Moscatel) makes the much-revered Moscatel de Setubal and Moscatel de Favaios among others.

Romania has Muscat plantings for various dry and sweet styles.

Moldova wine producers offer various dry and sweet Muscat wines.

Known locally as Tamnjanika, sweet muscat wines have been popular in Serbia since the middle ages. They are grown mainly in the Zupa region of western Serbia, near Mount Kopaonik and also in the Negotin region in the Danubian basin.

Fortified Muscat (Moscatel) is produced in Andalusia, the Valencian Community, Navarre, Catalonia, and the Canary Islands.

It is also used to produce some dry white wines - sometimes blended with other grape varieties.

Muscat is known as Muscadel or Hanepoot (Literally: Cockerel's Foot, reputedly from the shape of the vine's leaves, although there is a theory that it is a corruption of hanekloot which means: Cockerel's Testicle from the shape of the grapes themselves), and can be either red or white. Like Australian Muscats, these can be high-quality fortified wines while Constantia is known for late-harvest Muscat of great standing.

Muscat grapes are produced in Ankara and Central Anatolian Region.

The Crimea region is home to dessert wines of reverence, with white, pink and black Muscat being given pride of place.

There are muscat dessert wines from the black muscat and orange muscat varietals that are produced by one premium winery in California's Stanislaus County, an area better known for the production of inexpensive bulk wine. Muscat wines are also produced in California include the Muscat de Beaulieu, a fortified wine from the Napa Valley; the Conundrum wine, which is a blend of Muscat, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay; and Vin de Glaciere, which is an artificial icewine made from late harvest Muscat grapes. Carlo Rossi, a popular brand of wine produced by Gallo Family Vineyards, produces its own Red Muscat Wine. In Oregon, Muscat Ottonel is used by Purple Cow Vineyards of Forest Grove, Oregon, which creates a dry, fruity, aromatic white wine similar to those found in Alsace. In New York's Finger Lakes Region Cayuga Ridge Estate Winery produces an Orange Muscat dessert wine. A state that is not as widely known to grow and bottle the muscat grape is Texas. Messina Hoff Vineyards in Bryan Texas bottles an excellent late harvest Muscat Canelli.

Darjeeling tea is often said to have a flavour reminiscent of muscatel, although the similarity is purely coincidental as the tea contains no grape products.

To the top

Source : Wikipedia