NRG Energy

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Posted by pompos 04/13/2009 @ 17:13

Tags : nrg energy, nrg energy inc., electric power, energy and water, business

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NRG Energy (NRG) PriceWatch Alert Up To 22.85% Return - Market Intelligence Center
NRG Energy (NYSE: NRG) ended the last trading session at $22.26. So far the stock has hit a 52-week low of $14.39 and 52-week high of $44.40. NRG Energy stock has been showing support around 21.60 and resistance in the 23.36 range....
NRG Energy Shares May Charge Up - Barron's
($21.39, June 2, 2009) WE ARE UPGRADING NRG Energy (ticker: NRG) to Buy from Hold based on stand-alone value of the company and on our analysis that investors have two ways to win. First, if the deal breaks with Exelon (EXC), our open-earnings before...
Reliant Energy Selects Grey as Its Branding and Advertising Agency - SYS-CON Media (press release)
Reliant Energy, one of the leading competitive retail electric energy companies in Texas , was acquired on May 1 by NRG Energy, the second largest energy producer in the state. The alliance promises improved service, lower environmental impact and...
NRG Energy annual meet set; Exelon to press case - Forbes
AP , 06.05.09, 01:18 PM EDT PRINCETON, NJ -- NRG Energy Inc. said Friday it will hold its annual meeting on July 21, when Exelon Corp. is expected to push for a revised board of directors as part of a takeover bid. Chicago-based Exelon ( EXC - news...
NRG Energy (NRG) PriceWatch Alert Targets 16.83% Downside Protection - Market Intelligence Center
NRG Energy (NYSE: NRG) closed yesterday at $21.39. So far the stock has hit a 52-week low of $14.39 and 52-week high of $44.40. NRG Energy stock has been showing support around 19.28 and resistance in the 24.46 range. Technical indicators for the stock...
NRG Energy (NRG) PriceWatch Alert At $19.92 Break Even - Market Intelligence Center
NRG Energy (NYSE: NRG) closed yesterday at $23.72. So far the stock has hit a 52-week low of $14.39 and 52-week high of $44.40. NRG Energy stock has been showing support around 22.16 and resistance in the 24.50 range. Technical indicators for the stock...
FERC Authorizes Acquisition Of NRG Energy By Exelon - CNNMoney.com
By Mark Peters NEW YORK -(Dow Jones)- The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission on Thursday authorized the acquisition of NRG Energy Inc. (NRG) by Exelon Corp. as the latter continues to push its unsolicited offer for the power plant operator....
NRG Energy (NRG) NewsBite - NRG Upgraded By Jefferies & Co. - Market Intelligence Center
NRG Energy (NRG) was upgraded today by analysts at Jefferies & Co. and the stock is now at $22.33, up $0.94 (4.39%) on volume of 1772338 shares traded. The analysts upped the stock to Buy from Hold. Over the last 52 weeks the stock has ranged from a...
Business news in brief - Philadelphia Inquirer
AP NRG Energy Inc. said it would hold its annual meeting July 21, when Exelon Corp., Chicago, is expected to push for a revised board of directors as part of a takeover bid. Exelon, which owns Peco Energy Co. of Philadelphia, is attempting to take over...
New Issue-NRG Energy sells $700 mln in 10-yr snr notes - Reuters
June 2 (Reuters) - NRG Energy (NRG.N) on Tuesday sold $700 million of 10-year senior notes, said market sources. Morgan Stanley and Citigroup were the joint bookrunning managers for the sale. BORROWER: NRG ENERGY AMT $700 MLN COUPON 8.50 PCT MATURITY...

NRG Energy

NRG Energy, Inc. (NRG), headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey, is a wholesale power generation company founded in 1989, which has an ownership interest in 47 power generating facilities around the world. The diverse portfolio of facilities, are primarily in the Northeast, South Central and Western regions of the United States but, they have locations in Europe, Australia and Latin America. The company's operations include baseload, intermediate, peaking, and cogeneration facilities, thermal energy production and energy resource recovery facilities. NRG also has ownership interests in generating facilities in Australia and Germany.

David Crane, who holds an undergraduate degree from Princeton University and a Harvard Law School graduate, is the CEO.

In late 2005, NRG Energy bought Texas-based Texas Genco from a group of private equity firms for a price of roughly $5.9 billion.

On June 19, 2006 NRG Energy filed a Letter Of Intent with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to build two 1358-MWe ABWRs at the South Texas Project site. This was the first nuclear plant license application filed in the United States in 29 years.

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District heating

A cancelled Russian nuclear district heating plant in Fedyakovo, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

District heating (less commonly called teleheating) is a system for distributing heat generated in a centralized location for residential and commercial heating requirements such as space heating and water heating. The heat is often obtained from a cogeneration plant burning fossil fuels but increasingly biomass, although heat-only boiler stations, geothermal heating and central solar heating are also used, as well as nuclear power. District heating plants can provide higher efficiencies and better pollution control than localized boilers.

The core element of a district heating system is usually a cogeneration plant (also called combined heat and power, CHP) or a heat-only boiler station. Both have in common that they are typically based on combustion of primary energy carriers. The difference between the two systems is that, in a cogeneration plant, heat and electricity are generated simultaneously, whereas in heat-only boiler stations - as the name suggests - only heat is generated.

The combination of cogeneration and district heating is very energy efficient. A thermal power station which generates only electricity can convert less than approximately 50 % of the fuel input into electricity. The major part of the energy is wasted in form of heat and dissipated to the environment. A cogeneration plant recovers that heat and can reach total energy efficiency beyond 90 %.

Other heat sources for district heating systems can be geothermal heat, solar power, surplus heat from industrial processes, and nuclear power.

Nuclear energy can be used for district heating. The principals for a conventional combination of cogeneration and district heating applies the same for nuclear as it does for a thermal power station. One use of nuclear heat generation was with the Ågesta Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden. In Switzerland, the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant provides heat to about 20,000 people. Russia has several cogeneration nuclear plants which together provided 11.4 PJ of district heat in 2005. Russian nuclear district heating is planned to nearly triple within a decade as new plants are built.

After generation, the heat is distributed to the customer via a network of insulated pipes. District heating systems consists of feed and return lines. Usually the pipes are installed underground but there are also systems with overground pipes. Within the system heat storages may be installed to even out peak load demands.

The common medium used for heat distribution is water, but also steam is used. The advantage of steam is that in addition to heating purposes it can be used in industrial processes due to its higher temperature. The disadvantage of steam is a higher heat loss due to the high temperature. Also, the thermal efficiency of cogeneration plants is significantly lower if the cooling medium is high temperature steam, causing smaller electric power generation.

At customer level the heat network is connected to the central heating of the dwellings by heat exchangers (heat substations). The water (or the steam) used in the district heating system is not mixed with the water of the central heating system of the dwelling.

For the Norwegian district heating systems the yearly heat losses from distribution are about 10% of the total heat generated.

District heating has various advantages compared to individual heating systems. Usually district heating is more energy efficient, due to simultaneous production of heat and electricity in combined heat and power generation plants. The larger combustion units also have a more advanced flue gas cleaning than single boiler systems. In the case of surplus heat from industries, district heating systems do not use additional fuel because they use heat (termed heat recovery) which would be disbursed to the environment.

District heating is a long-term commitment that fits poorly with a focus on short-term returns on investment. Benefits to the community include avoided costs of energy, through the use of surplus and wasted heat energy, and reduced investment in individual household or building heating equipment. District heating network, heat-only boiler stations, and cogeneration plants require high initial capital expenditure and financing. Only if considered as long-term investments these may translate into profitable operations for the owners of district heating systems, or combined heat and power plant operators. District heating is less attractive for areas with low population densities, as the investment per household is considerably higher.

Since conditions from city to city differ, every district heating system is uniquely constructed. In addition, nations have different access to primary energy carriers and so they have a different approach how to address the heating market within their borders. This leads not only to a different degree of diffusion but also to different district heating systems in general throughout the world.

Since 1954, district heating has been promoted in Europe by Euroheat & Power. They have compiled an analysis of district heating and cooling markets in Europe within their Ecoheatcool project supported by the European Commission. The legal framework in the member states of the European Union is currently influenced by the EU-CHP Directive.

The largest district heating system in Austria is in Vienna (Fernwärme Wien) - with many smaller systems distributed over the whole country.

District heating in Vienna is run by Wien Energie. In the business year of 2004/2005 a total of 5.163 GWh was sold, 1.602 GWh to 251.224 private apartments and houses and 3.561 GWh to 5211 major customers.

The three large municipal waste incinerators provide 22 % of the total in producing 116 GWh electric power and 1.220 GWh heat. Waste heat from municipal power plants and large industrial plants account for 72 % of the total. The remaining 6 % is produced by peak heating boilers from fossil fuel.

In Denmark, district heating covers more than 60% of space heating and water heating. In 2007, 80.5% of this heat was produced on combined heat and power plants. Heat recovered from waste incineration accounted for 20.4% of the total Danish district heat production. Most major cities in Denmark have big district heating networks including transmission networks operation with up to 125°C and 25 bar pressure and distribution networks operating with up to 95°C and between 6 and 10 bar pressure. The largest district heating system in Denmark is in the Copenhagen area operated by CTR I/S and VEKS I/S. In central Copenhagen, the CTR network serves 275,000 households (90-95% of the area's population) through one network of 54-kilometer double district heating distribution pipes providing a peak delivery of 663 MW. The consumer price of heat from CTR is approximately €49 per MWh plus taxes (2009).

In Finland district heating accounts for about 50 per cent of the total heating market , 4/5 of which being produced from combined heat and power plants. Over 90 per cent of apartment blocks, more than half of all terraced houses, and the bulk of public buildings and business premises are connected to a district heating network. Natural Gas is mostly used in areas to the south east gas pipeline network, imported coal is used in areas close to ports, and peat is used in northern areas where peat is a natural resource. However, other renewables such as wood chips and other paper industry combustible by-products are also used, as is the energy recovered by the incineration of municipal solid waste. Industrial units which generate heat as an industrial by-product may sell otherwise waste heat to the network rather than release it to the environment. In some towns, waste incineration can contribute as much as 8% of the district heating heat requirement. Availability is 99.98% and disruptions when they do occur usually reduce temperatures by only a few degrees.

In Germany district heating has a market share of around 14 % in the residential buildings sector. The connected heat load is around 52.729 MW. The heat comes mainly from cogeneration plants (83 %). Heat-only boilers supply 16 % and 1 % is surplus heat from industry. The cogeneration plants use natural gas (42 %), coal (39 %), lignite (12 %) and waste/others (7 %) as fuel.

The largest district heating network is located in Berlin whereas the highest diffusion of district heating occurs in Flensburg with around 90% market share.

District heating has rather little legal framework in Germany. There is no law on it as most elements of district heating are regulated in governmental or regional orders. There is no governmental support for district heating networks but a law to support cogeneration plants. As in the European Union the CHP Directive will come effective, this law probably needs some adjustment.

With 95% of all housing (mostly in the capital of Reykjavik) enjoying district heating services - mainly from geothermal energy, Iceland is the country with the highest penetration of district heating.

In Italy, district heating is used in some cities (Bergamo, Brescia, Bolzano, Ferrara, Reggio Emilia, Terlano, Torino).

In Norway district heating only constitutes approx. 2 % of energy needs for heating. This is a very low number compared to similar countries. One of the main reasons district heating has a low penetration in Norway is access to cheap hydro based electricity. However, there is district heating in the major cities.

In most Russian cities, district-level combined heat and power plants (Russian: ТЭЦ, теплоэлектроцентраль) produce more than 50 % of the nation's electricity and simultaneously provide hot water for neighbouring city blocks. They mostly use coal and oil-powered steam turbines for cogeneration of heat. Now, gas turbines and combined cycle designs are beginning to be widely used as well. A Soviet-era approach of using very large central stations to heat large districts of a big city or entire small cities is fading away as due to inefficiency, much heat is lost in the piping network because of leakages and lack of proper thermal insulation .

In Serbia, district heating was used throughout the main cities, particularly in the capital, Belgrade. NATO targeted one of the main DH plants, the District Heating Plant of New Belgrade (JKP "Beogradske elektrane") during the Kosovo War . This plant was deemed the beginning of the centralized heating supply to Belgrade, built in 1961 as a means to provide effective heating to the newly built suburbs of Novi Beograd. The district heating system of Belgrade possesses 112 heat sources of 2,454 MW capacity and by way of the pipelines more than 500 km long and 4365 connection stations, providing district heating to 240,000 apartments and 7,500 office/commercial buildings of the total floor area exceeding 17,000,000 square meters.

90% of the energy in Swedish district heating system are usually produced with renewable sources. The remaining 10 % are only used when the weather are really cold and there is a very high energy demand. The law against landfill have made waste to a well used fuel.

In the United Kingdom, district heating also became popular after World War II, but on a restricted scale, to heat the large residential estates that replaced areas devastated by the Blitz. The photo (right) shows the accumulator at the Pimlico District Heating Undertaking (PDHU), just north of the River Thames. The PDHU first became operational in 1950 and continued to expand up till about 1960. The PDHU once relied on waste heat from the now-disused Battersea Power Station on the South side of the River Thames. It is still in operation, the water now being heated locally by a new energy centre which incorporates 3.1 MWe /4.0 MWTh of CHP engines and 3 x 8 MW gas fired boilers.

One of the United Kingdom's largest district heating schemes is EnviroEnergy in Nottingham. Plant initially built by Boots is now used to heat 4,600 homes, and a wide variety of business premises, including the Concert Hall, the Nottingham Arena, the Victoria Baths, the Broadmarsh Shopping Centre, the Victoria Centre and others. The heat source is a Waste-to-energy incinerator.

Many other such heating plants still operate on estates across Britain. Though they are said to be efficient, a frequent complaint of residents is that the heating levels are often set too high - the original designs did not allow for individual users to have their own thermostats.

In North America, district heating systems fall into two general categories. Those that are owned by and serve the buildings of a single entity are considered institutional systems. All others fall into the commercial category.

Many Canadian universities operate central campus heating plants.

Consolidated Edison of New York (Con Ed) operates Con Edison Steam Operations, the largest commercial district heating system in the world. The system has operated continuously since March 1882 and serves Manhattan Island from the Battery through 96th Street. While operating smoothly for most of its time in service, incidents have occurred, On July 18, 2007, one person was killed and numerous others injured when a steam pipe exploded on 41st Street and Lexington . In 1989 also, three people were killed in a similar event . In addition to providing space and water heating, steam from the system is used in numerous restaurants for food preparation, process heat in laundries and dry cleaners, as well as to power absorption chillers for air conditioning. NRG Energy also operates district systems in major cities of San Francisco, Harrisburg, Minneapolis, Pittsburgh and San Diego . Seattle Steam Company operates a district system in Seattle. Detroit Edison operates a district system in Detroit.

District heating is also used on many college campuses most notably the University of Notre Dame which produces over half its own electricity and all of its heating needs from the same plant.

Tokyo Electric operates a district cogeneration facility that provides power and steam to many of the office buildings in the Shinjuku area of Tokyo.

District heating traces its roots to the hot water-heated baths and greenhouses of the ancient Roman Empire. District systems gained prominence in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, with one system in France in continuous operation since the 14th century. The U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis began steam district heating service in 1853.

Although these and numerous other systems have operated over the centuries, the first commercially successful district heating system was launched in Lockport, New York, in 1877 by American hydraulic engineer Birdsill Holly, considered the founder of modern district heating.

The future of many of these systems are in doubt. The same kind of problems many district heating operations in former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have today, many North American steam district heating systems began to experience in the 1960s and 1970s. In North America, the owners (in many cases power utilities) lost interest in the district heating business and provided insufficient funding for maintenance, and the systems and service to customers started to deteriorate. The result was that the systems started losing customers. The reliability decreased and finally the whole system closed down. For example, in Minnesota in the 1950s there were about 40 district steam systems, but today only a few remain.

Paris has been using geothermal heating from a 55-70 °C source 1-2 km below the surface since the 1970s for domestic heating.

In the 1980s Southampton began utilising combined heat and power district heating, taking advantage of geothermal heat "trapped" in the area. The geothermal heat provided by the well works in conjunction with the Combined Heat and Power scheme. Geothermal energy provides 15-20 %, fuel oil 10 %, and natural gas 70 % of the total heat input for this scheme and the combined heat and power generators use conventional fuels to make electricity. "Waste heat" from this process is recovered for distribution through the 11 km mains network.

Penetration of district heating (DH) into the heat market varies by country. Penetration is influenced by different factors, including environmental conditions, availability of heat sources and economic and legal framework.

In Iceland the prevailing positive influence on DH is availability of easily captured geothermal heat. In most East European countries energy planning included development of cogeneration and district heating. Negative influence in The Netherlands and UK can be attributed partially to milder climate and also competition from natural gas supply.

According to Helsingin Energia, consumption of energy by district heating in Helsinki since 1970 peaked in 1971, at 67 kWh/m³/year, falling to 43 kWh/m³/year in 1997, since when it has not fluctuated greatly.

Figures for Sweden suggest that the average Swede using district heating receives 4500 kWh/year from the system.

The opposite of district heating is district cooling. Working on broadly similar principles to district heating, district cooling delivers chilled water to buildings like offices and factories needing cooling. In winter, the source for the cooling can often be sea water, so it is a cheaper resource than using electricity to run compressors for cooling.

The Helsinki district cooling system uses otherwise wasted heat from summer time CHP power generation units to run absorption refrigerators for cooling during summer time, greatly reducing electricity usage. In winter time, cooling is achieved more directly using sea water. The adoption of district cooling is estimated to reduce the consumption of electricity for cooling purposes by as much as 90 per cent and an exponential growth in usage is forecast. The idea is now being adopted in other Finnish cities. The use of district cooling grow also rapidly in Sweden in a similary way .

Cornell University's Lake Source Cooling System uses Cayuga Lake as a heat sink to operate the central chilled water system for its campus and to also provide cooling to the Ithaca City School District. The system has operated since the summer of 2000 and was built at a cost of $55-60 million. It cools a 14,500 tons load.

In August 2004, Enwave Energy Corporation, a district energy company based in Toronto, Canada, started operating system that uses water from Lake Ontario to cool downtown buildings, including office towers, the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, a small brewery and a telecommunications centre. The process has become known as Deep Lake Water Cooling (DLWC). It will provide for over 40,000 tons (140 megawatts) of cooling—a significantly larger system than has been installed elsewhere. Another feature of the Enwave system is that it is integrated with Toronto’s drinking water supply.

In January 2006, PAL technology is one of the emerging project management companies in UAE involved in the diversified business of desalination plant, sewerage plant to district cooling system. More than 400,000 Tons of district cooling projects are already in the pipe line whilst negotiating other key projects in the region.

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Xcel Energy

Xcel Energy, Inc. (NYSE: XEL) is a public utility company based in Minneapolis, Minnesota, serving customers in Colorado, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin. Primary services are electricity and natural gas. Subsidiaries include Northern States Power Company, Public Service Company of Colorado, and Southwestern Public Service Co.

The Prairie Island plant has been controversial due to the above-ground on-site storage of radioactive waste in large steel casks. This storage is necessary because the United States federal government facility at Yucca Mountain is not yet open (and opposition to the facility is heavy). In 2000, Xcel was one of eight American energy companies to request the opening of a temporary facility in Utah that could store 4,000 casks, but the state's governor Mike Leavitt said he would use all of his power to stop construction and use of such a site. At the time, the Prairie Island facility was limited to storing 17 casks, a limit that has since been increased, although Xcel is required by the Minnesota Legislature to pay the local American Indian tribe $1–2 million each year and explore renewable energy.

Xcel Energy utilizes a transmission systems with lines that carry 115,000 volts, 230,000 volts, and 345,000 volts. Xcel also has a 500,000 volt transmission line that runs from Winnipeg, Manitoba in Canada to Chisago County just north of St. Paul, Minnesota.

Xcel Energy customers in Colorado, Minnesota, and New Mexico can purchase wind power through a program known as "Windsource". Customers can elect to pay an extra amount on their monthly utility bills, directing the company to use or purchase more energy from wind farms. This can be done in "blocks" of 100 kilowatt-hours ($2–3 per), or the entire amount of energy can come from wind. As of May 1, 2004, the company had 829 megawatts of generating capacity from wind power spread across five states. This is about 5% of the company's total generating capacity, which is roughly 15,500 megawatts.

Several coal-fired generating plants owned by Xcel Energy are being converted to run on natural gas, which produces fewer emissions.

Xcel Energy was formed as a holding company to own three formerly independent companies: Northern States Power (Minnesota), Wisconsin Electric Power (Wisconsin), and New Century Energies. New Century Energies itself was the result of a prior merger between Public Service Company of Colorado (Denver, CO) and Southwestern Public Service (Amarillo, TX).

Some of NSP's predecessors include: North Dakota - Northwestern Power & Light Co. (now the Minot division), Red River Power Co. (now the Grand Forks division), and Union Heat Light & Power Co. (now the Fargo division). Minnesota - St. Cloud Public Service Corporation (encompassing the general area around St. Cloud).

Xcel briefly owned the then-financially troubled NRG Energy in the early 2000s, roughly doubling the size of the company in terms of employees and generating capacity. NRG went through bankruptcy and soon became independent again.

On January 21, 2005, Xcel Energy announced the completion of the sale of its Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power Company electricity and natural gas operations to South Dakota-based Black Hills Corporation.

The company sponsors a sports arena, the Xcel Energy Center in St. Paul, Minnesota. The 2008 Republican National Convention was held at the Xcel Energy Center.

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Energy policy of the United States

Compact fluorescent light bulb

The energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities in the United States, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption, such as building codes and gas mileage standards. Energy policy may include legislation, international treaties, subsidies and incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques. Several mandates have been proposed over the years, such as gasoline will never exceed $1.00/gallon (Nixon), and the United States will never again import as much oil as it did in 1977 (Carter), but no comprehensive long-term energy policy has been proposed, although there has been concern over this failure. Three Energy Policy Acts have been passed, in 1992, 2005, and 2007, which include many provisions for conservation, such as the Energy Star program, and energy development, with grants and tax incentives for both renewable and non-renewable energy. State-specific energy-efficiency incentive programs also play a significant role in the overall energy policy of the United States. The United States had resisted endorsing the Kyoto Protocol, preferring to let the market drive CO2 reductions to mitigate global warming, which will require CO2 emission taxation. The administration of Barack Obama has proposed an aggressive energy policy reform, including the need for a reduction of CO2 emissions, with a cap and trade program, which could help encourage more clean renewable, sustainable energy development.

In the Colonial era the energy policy of the United States was for free use of standing timber for heating and industry. In the 19th century, it was access to coal and its use for transport, heating and industry. Whales were rendered into lamp oil. Later, coal gas was fractionated for use as lighting and town gas. Natural gas was first used in America for lighting in 1816., it has grown in importance for use in homes, industry, and power plants, but natural gas production reached its U.S. peak in 1973, and the price has risen significantly since then.

Coal provided the bulk of the US energy needs well into the 20th century. Most urban homes had a coal bin and a coal fired furnace. Over the years these were replaced with oil furnaces, not because of it being cheaper but because it was easier and safer. Coal remains far cheaper than oil. The biggest use of oil has come from the development of the automobile.

By 1950, oil consumption exceeded that of coal. The abundance of oil in California, Texas, Oklahoma, as well as in Canada and Mexico, coupled with its low cost, ease of transportation, high energy density, and use in internal combustion engines, lead to its increasing use. Following World War II, oil heating boilers took over from coal burners along the Eastern Seaboard; diesel locomotives took over from coal-fired steam engines under dieselisation; oil-fired electricity plants were built; petroleum-burning buses replaced electric streetcars in a GM driven conspiracy, for which they were found guilty, and citizens bought gasoline powered cars. Interstate Highways helped make cars the major means of personal transportation. As oil imports increased, US foreign policy was inexorably drawn into Middle East politics, supporting oil-producing Saudi Arabia and patrolling the sea lanes of the Persian Gulf.

Hydroelectricity was the basis of Nikola Tesla's introduction of the U.S. electricity grid, starting at Niagara Falls, NY in 1883. Electricity generated by major dams like the Jensen Dam, TVA Project, Grand Coulee Dam and Hoover Dam still produce some of the lowest-priced ($0.08/kWh), clean electricity in America. Rural electrification strung power lines to many more areas.

The 1973 oil crisis made energy a popular topic of discussion in the US. The Federal Department of Energy was started with steps planned toward energy conservation and more modern energy producers. A National Maximum Speed Limit of 55 mph (88 km/h) was imposed to help reduce consumption, and Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards were enacted to downsize automobile categories. Year-round Daylight Saving Time was imposed, the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created and the National Energy Act of 1978 was introduced. Alternate forms of energy and diversified oil supply resulted.

The United States receives approximately 84% of its energy from fossil fuels. This energy is used for transport, industry, and domestic use. The remaining portion comes primarily from Hydro and Nuclear stations. Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population, but consumes 26% of the world's energy to produce 26% of the world's industrial output. They account for about 25% of the world's petroleum consumption, while producing only 6% of the world's annual petroleum supply and having only 3% of the world’s known oil reserves.

In the United States, oil is primarily consumed as fuel for cars, buses, trucks and airplanes (in the form of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Two-thirds of U.S. oil consumption is due to the transportation sector. The US - an important export country for food stocks - will convert 18% of its grain output to ethanol in 2008. Across the US, 25% of the whole corn crop went to ethanol in 2007. The percentage of corn going to biofuel is expected to go up. In 2006, U.S. Senators introduced the BioFuels Security Act.

The proposal has been made for a hydrogen economy, where cars and factories are powered by fuel cells, although the hydrogen would still have to be produced at an energy cost, and hydrogen cars have been called one of the least efficient, most expensive ways to reduce greenhouse gases. Other plans include making society carbon neutral and using renewable energy, including solar, wind and methane sources.

Automobiles, on the other hand, possibly could be powered 60% by grid electricity, 20% by biofuels and 20% direct solar. Re-design of cities, telecommuting, transit, higher housing density and walking could also reduce automobile fuel consumption and obesity. Carpooling, flexcars, Smart cars, and shorter commutes could all reduce fuel use.

It should be noted that between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fueled irrigation. The peaking of world hydrocarbon production (Peak oil) may test Malthus' critics.

The close relationship the United States has with Saudi Arabia, the world's single largest oil producer, may best be understood as a symbiotic relationship: America's energy needs in lieu of Saudi Arabia's needs for capital. The Saudi's wish to modernize and beautify their country into a western-style paradise, as well as create long-term investments throughout the world for use once their oil reserves become depleted. Successive American presidents have provided "red carpet" treatment to the Saudis. The American posture toward Saudi Arabia and many other OPEC counties, has been touted as a "special relationship" in the media. This relationship was shaken by the rise of Islamic militancy, and most acutely by the events of September 11, 2001. For the first time in close to a century, the leadership of the United States as well as many of the American people, began to weigh the benefits versus costs of those relationships, and reliance upon an energy source that was costly, easily interruptible, polluting, and which would eventually run out.

The Saudis alone invested approximately 70 billion dollars around the globe, 60% of which was invested in the United States. Saudi Arabian investments in the United States have traditionally been a welcome counterweight to the systemic U.S. trade deficit with the Kingdom. As American demand for Saudi oil continues at 1.5 million barrels (240,000 m3) per day, U.S. service and merchandise exports revenues to the Kingdom cover nowhere near the level of expenditures for petroleum. One enabler of U.S. consumption has been the historic Saudi Arabian willingness to finance this trade deficit by investing in the United States. This relationship, while symbiotic, and necessary to a U.S. economy addicted to consumption, is viewed by many as "golden hand-cuffs" voluntarily worn by the United States.

The current account is the broadest measure of a nation’s balance of income payments with the rest of the world, and it is the difference between a nation’s receipts (exports and returns on domestic holdings of foreign investment) and its payments (imports and returns on foreign holdings of domestic investment). Just like a household that spends more than it earns, a nation must finance its current account deficit through borrowing. The balance of payments is one reflection of a nation's financial economic stability. The U.S. account balance is a 'negative value.' As of 2004, the account balance in the U.S. was minus (-) 665.5 billion dollars. This borrowing on the part of the United States has, predictably, led to an enormous foreign debt. In contrast, Saudi affluence is soaring, with a record 70 billion dollar budget surplus for 2006.

In 2008 the U.S. House Financial Services Committee considered legislation that would require all U.S.-listed oil, natural-gas and mining companies to publicly disclose payments to governments where they are exploring and producing.

Andy Grove argues that energy independence is a flawed and infeasible objective, particularly in a network of integrated global exchange. He suggests instead that the objective should be energy resilience: resilience goes hand in hand with adaptability, and it also is reflected in important market ideas like substitutability. In fact, resilience is one of the best features of market processes; the information transmission function of prices means that individual buyers and sellers can adapt to changes in supply and demand conditions in a decentralized way. His suggestion for how to increase the resilience of the U.S. energy economy is to shift use from petroleum to electricity (electrification), which can be produced using multiple sources of energy, including renewables.

The plan of Repower America is to generate 100% of electricity by 2020 using renewable resources, plus the current mix of 17% nuclear power, minus a 28% efficiency increase, clean plug-in electric cars, and a unified national grid.

Buildings and their construction consume more energy than transportation or industrial applications, and because buildings are responsible for the largest portion of greenhouse emissions, they have the largest impact on man-made climate change. The AIA has proposed making buildings carbon neutral by 2030, meaning that the construction and operation of buildings will not require fossil fuel energy or emit greenhouse gases, and having the U.S. reduce CO2 emissions to 40 to 60% below 1990 levels by 2050.

When President Carter created the U.S. Department of Energy in 1977, one of their first successful projects was the Weatherization Assistance Program. During the last 30 years, this program has provided services to more than 5.5 million low-income families. On average, low-cost weatherization reduces heating bills by 31% and overall energy bills by $358 per year at current prices. Increased energy efficiency and weatherization spending has a high return on investment.

The “Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007” has a significant impact on U.S. Energy Policy. It includes funding to help improve building codes, and will make it illegal to sell incandescent light bulbs, as they are less efficient than fluorescents and LEDs.

Technologies such as passive solar building design and zero energy buildings (ZEB) have demonstrated significant new-construction energy bill reductions. The “Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007” includes funding to increase the popularity of ZEBs, photovoltaics, and even a new solar air conditioning program. Many energy-saving measures can be added to existing buildings as retrofits, but others are only cost-effective in new construction, which is why building code improvements are being encouraged. The solution requires both improved incentives for energy conservation, and new energy sources.

The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 increases average gas mileage to 35 mpg by 2020. The current administration and 2007 legislation are encouraging the near-term use of plug-in electric cars, and hydrogen cars by 2020. Toyota has suggested that their third-generation 2009 Prius may cost much less than the current model. Larger advanced-technology batteries have been suggested to make it plug-in rechargeable. Photovoltaics are an option being discussed to extend its daytime electric driving range. Improving solar cell efficiency factors will continue to make this a progressively more-cost-effective option.

About 86% of all types of energy used in the United States is derived from fossil fuels. In 2007, the largest source of the country's energy came from petroleum (40%), followed by natural gas (24%) and coal (23%). The remaining 15% was supplied by nuclear power, hydroelectric dams, and miscellaneous renewable sources.

The US consumes 20.8 million barrels (3,310,000 m3) of petroleum a day, of which 9 million barrels (1,400,000 m3) is motor gasoline. Transportation has the highest consumption rates, accounting for approximately 68.9% of the oil used in the United States in 2006, and 55% of oil use worldwide as documented in the Hirsch report. Automobiles are the single largest consumer of oil, consuming 40%, and are also the source of 20% of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions.

The USA has about 22 billion barrels (3.5×109 m3) reserves while consuming about 7.6 billion barrels (1.21×109 m3) per year. This has created pressure for additional drilling. New oilfields would not solve the oil crisis however, but only delay it. A far simpler solution is to reduce demand. The average U.S. car gets 20.4 mpg., while the average European car gets 40 mpg. Improving fuel economy is seen as a superior route to energy security. In a memo to the EPA, Obama has asked the EPA to reconsider denying an exception to California, and also asked that updated fuel standards for 2011 be published by March 30, 2009. European gasoline prices were artificially raised to $4 per gallon through taxation long before they reached $4/gallon in the U.S., leading to better fuel economy.

Problems associated with oil supply include volatile oil prices, increasing world and domestic petroleum product demand, dependence on unstable imported foreign oil, falling domestic production (peak oil), and declining infrastructure, like the Alaska pipeline and oil refineries.

American dependence on imports grew from 10% in 1970 to 65% by the end of 2004. At the current rate of unchecked import growth, the US would be 70% to 75% reliant on foreign oil by the middle of the next decade.

America is self sufficient in coal. Indeed, it has several hundred years supply of it. The United states trend in coal use has been rising for decades. From 1950 through 2006, both coal production and coal consumption in the United States have more than doubled. The population of the US has almost doubled in this time period as well, while the per capita energy use has been declining since 1978.

Most electricity (52% in 2000) in the country is generated from coal-fired power plants: in 2006, more than 90% of coal consumed was used to generate electricity. In 1950, about 19% percent of the coal consumed was for electricity generation.

In terms of the production of energy from domestic sources, from 1885 through 1951, coal was the leading source of energy in the United States. Crude oil and natural gas then vied for that role until 1982. Coal regained the position of the top domestic resource that year and again in 1984, and has retained it since. The US burns 1 billion tons of coal every year.

Concern for global warming has led to a call for a moratorium on all coal consumption, unless carbon capture is utilized. Coal is the largest potential source of CO2 emissions. The simplest, most stable form of carbon sequestration is to simply leave the coal in the ground.

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is the cleanest currently-operational coal-fired electricity generation technology. FutureGen is an experimental U.S. research project to investigate the possibility of sequestering IGCC CO2 emissions underground.

In 2004 in the United States, there were 104 (69 pressurized water reactors and 35 boiling water reactors) commercial nuclear generating units licensed to operate, producing a total of 97,400 megawatts (electric), which is approximately 20% of the nation's total electric energy consumption. Nuclear power has been used in this country for over 50 years: the first practical power reactor EBR-1 was a test reactor built to power a handful of incandescent bulbs in 1951 at Idaho National Laboratory near Atomic City, Idaho. By the 1960s and 1970s, the US built dozens of commercial reactors, mainly in the east, south and midwest. The United States is the world's largest supplier of commercial nuclear power.

Although expensive to build, nuclear power plants can yield large quantities of electricity with relatively low operating costs, and with the emission of low levels of greenhouse gases. With political intervention, a larger percentage of the nation's electricity production could be generated by nuclear power, as in France, where nuclear power provides about 78% of the electricity.

As of March 9, 2009, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission had received 26 applications for permission to construct new nuclear power reactors with at least another 7 expected. Six of these reactors have actually been ordered. In addition, the Tennessee Valley Authority petitioned to restart construction on the first two units at Bellefonte.

Nuclear power plants produce large quantities of water vapor which is exhausted through their tall cooling towers. Collocation of plants that can take advantage of this thermal energy has been suggested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as a way to exploit process synergy for added energy efficiency. One example would be to use the power plant steam to produce hydrogen from water. The hydrogen would cost less, and the nuclear power plant would exhaust less heat and water vapor into the atmosphere.

Renewable energy accounted for more than 10 percent of the domestically-produced energy used in the United States in the first half of 2008. The United States' hydroelectric plants produce 300,000 MW, making the largest contribution to the country's renewable energy. However, wind power in the United States is a growing industry. Increases in wind, solar, and geothermal power are expected to allow renewable energy production to double in the three year period from 2009 to 2012, an increase from 7% to 14% of total consumption. Most of the increase is expected to come from wind power.

At the end of December 2008, the US wind power capacity was 25,170 MW, which is enough to serve 7 million average households. American wind farms generated an estimated 48 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of wind energy in 2008, just over 1% of U.S. electricity supply. Texas is firmly established as the leader in wind power development in the U.S., followed by Iowa and California. The Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center in Texas is the world's largest wind farm at 735.5 MW capacity. Available wind resources exceed 1 Million GWh/year in each of five states.

Several solar thermal power stations, including the new 64 MW Nevada Solar One, have also been built. Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) is the name given to nine solar power plants in the Mojave Desert, which were commissioned between 1984 and 1991. The SEGS installation uses parabolic trough solar thermal technology along with natural gas to generate electricity. The plants have a total generating capacity of 354 MW, making the system the largest solar plant of any kind in the world.

Utilities in the southwestern United States are planning to build or buy power from several large new concentrating solar power plants. In 2009, Southern California Edison reached an agreement with BrightSource Energy for 1,300 MW of solar power, to be supplied using solar power tower technology. NRG Energy also signed an agreement with eSolar to develop three solar projects totaling up to 500 MW, also using solar power towers.

With 2,957 MW of installed geothermal capacity, the United States remains the world leader with 30% of the online capacity total. As of August 2008, 103 new projects are underway in 13 U.S. states. When developed, these projects could potentially supply up to 3,979 MW of power, meeting the needs of about 4 million homes. At this rate of development, geothermal production in the United States could exceed 15,000 MW by 2025.

President Barack Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 includes more than $70 billion in direct spending and tax credits for clean energy and associated transportation programs. This policy-stimulus combination represents the largest federal commitment in U.S. history for renewable energy, advanced transportation, and energy conservation initiatives. As a result of these new initiatives, many more utilities are expected to strengthen their clean energy programs.

In recent years there has been an increased interest in biofuels - bioethanol and biodiesel - derived from common agricultural staples or waste. Increased domestic production of these fuels could reduce US expenditure on foreign oil and improve energy security if methods of producing and transporting the fuels do not involve heavy inputs of fossil fuels, as current agriculture does.

Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends. Portland, Oregon, recently became the first city in the United States to require all gasoline sold within city limits to contain at least 10% ethanol. Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and GM are among the automobile companies that sell “flexible-fuel” cars, trucks, and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol (E85). By mid-2006, there were approximately six million E85-compatible vehicles on U.S. roads.

The Renewable Fuels Association counts 113 U.S. ethanol distilleries in operation and another 78 under construction, with capacity to produce 11.8 billion gallons within the next few years. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicts in its Annual Energy Outlook 2007 that ethanol consumption will reach 11.2 billion gallons by 2012, outstripping the 7.5 billion gallons required in the Renewable Fuel Standard that was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

Expanding ethanol fuel (and biodiesel) industries provide jobs in plant construction, operations, and maintenance, mostly in rural communities. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, the ethanol industry created almost 154,000 U.S. jobs in 2005 alone, boosting household income by $5.7 billion. It also contributed about $3.5 billion in tax revenues at the local, state, and federal levels.

In recent years, there has been criticism about the production of ethanol fuel from food crops. However, second generation biofuels are now being produced from a much broader range of feedstocks including the cellulose in dedicated energy crops (perennial grasses such as switchgrass and Miscanthus giganteus), forestry materials, the co-products from food production, and domestic vegetable waste. Produced responsibly they are sustainable energy sources that need not divert any land from growing food, nor damage the environment.

There are many different types of energy efficiency innovations and these include: efficient water heaters; improved refrigerators and freezers; advanced building control technologies and advances in heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC); smart windows that adapt to maintain a comfortable interior environment; a steady stream of new building codes to reduce needless energy use, and compact fluorescent lights. Improvements in buildings alone, where over sixty-percent of all energy is used, save tens of billions of dollars per year.

Several states, including California, New York, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin, have consistently deployed energy efficiency innovations. Their state planners officials, citizens, and industry leaders, have found these to be very cost-effective, often providing greater service at lower personal and social cost than simply adding more fossil-fuel based supply technologies. This is the case for several reasons. Energy efficient technologies often represent upgrades in service through superior performance (e.g. higher quality lighting, heating and cooling with greater controls, or improved reliability of service through greater ability of utilities to respond to time of peak demand). So these innovations can provide a better, less expensive, service.

A wide range of energy efficient technologies have ancillary benefits of improved quality of life, such as advanced windows that not only save on heating and cooling expenses, but also make the work-place or home more comfortable. Another example is more efficient vehicles, which not only save immediately on fuel purchases, but also emit less pollutants, improving health and saving on medical costs to the individual and to society.

In March 2009, Vice President Joe Biden announced plans to invest $3.2 billion in energy efficiency and energy conservation projects in the United States. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program, funded by President Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, will provide grants for projects that reduce total energy use and fossil fuel emissions, and improve energy efficiency nationwide.

DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have released an updated version of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency "Vision for 2025: A Framework for Change", which lays out a proposed energy efficiency action plan for state policy makers. If implemented by all states, the plan could lower energy demand across the country by 50%, achieve more than $500 billion in net savings over the next 20 years, and reduce annual greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to those from 90 million vehicles. The report, which was released under the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency initiative, was produced by more than 60 energy, environmental, and state policy leaders from across the country. The updated action plan encourages investment in low-cost energy efficiency programs and shows the progress that the states are making toward their goals, while identifying areas for additional progress. The report is accompanied by two technical assistance documents that offer cost-effectiveness tests for energy efficiency programs and best practices for providing data to businesses.

An incentive resulting from US energy policy is a factor that provides motive for a specific course of action regarding the use of energy. In the U.S. most energy policy incentives take the form of financial incentives. Examples of these include tax breaks, tax reductions, tax exemptions, rebates, loans and specific funding. Throughout US history there have been many incentives created through U.S. energy policy. Most recently the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, each promote various energy efficiency improvements and encourage development of specific energy sources. U.S. Energy policy incentives can serve as a strategic manner to develop certain industries that plan to reduce America’s dependence on foreign petroleum products and create jobs and industries that boost the national economy. The ability to do this depends upon which industries and products the government chooses to subsidize.

Consumers who purchase hybrid vehicles are eligible for a tax credit that depends upon the type of vehicle and the difference in fuel economy in comparison to vehicles of similar weights. These credits range from several hundred dollars to a few thousand dollars. Homeowners can receive a tax credit up to $500 for energy efficient products like insulation, windows, doors, as well as heating and cooling equipment. Homeowners who install solar electric systems can receive a 30% tax credit and homeowners who install small wind systems can receive a tax credit up to $4000. Geothermal heat pumps also qualify for tax credits up to $2,000.

Recent energy policy incentives have provided, among other things, billions of dollars in tax reductions for nuclear power, fossil fuel production, clean coal technologies,renewable electricity production, and conservation and efficiency improvements.

Although possibly exceeded by China, the United States has historically been the world's largest producer of greenhouse gases. Some states, however, are much more prolific polluters than others. The state of Texas produces approximately 1.5 trillion pounds of carbon dioxide yearly, more than every nation in the world except five (and the United States): China, Russia, Japan, India, and Germany.

Despite signing the Kyoto Protocol, the United States has neither ratified nor withdrawn from it. In the absence of ratification it remains non-binding on the US. Many cities, however, have adopted Kyoto. As of March 11, 2007, 418 US cities in 50 states, representing more than 60 million Americans adopted Kyoto after Mayor Greg Nickels of Seattle started a nationwide effort to get cities to agree to the protocol.

The Obama Administration has promised to take specific action towards mitigation of climate change. In addition, at state and local levels, there are currently a number of initiatives. As of January 18, 2007, eight Northeastern US states are involved in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), a state level emissions capping and trading program.

On August 31, 2006, the California Legislature reached an agreement with Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to reduce the state's greenhouse-gas emissions, which rank at 12th-largest carbon emitter in the world, by 25 percent by the year 2020. This resulted in the Global Warming Solutions Act which effectively puts California in line with the Kyoto limitations, but at a date later than the 2008–2012 Kyoto commitment period.

In the non-binding 'Washington Declaration' agreed on February 16, 2007, the United States, together with Presidents or Prime Ministers from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa agreed in principle on the outline of a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. They envisage a global cap-and-trade system that would apply to both industrialized nations and developing countries, and hoped that this would be in place by 2009.

Chemistry Professor Nathan Lewis at Caltech estimates that to keep atmospheric carbon levels below 750 ppm, a level at which serious climate change would occur, by the year 2050, the United States would need to generate twice as much energy from renewable sources as is generated by all power sources combined today. However, current research indicates that even carbon dioxide concentrations in excess of 450 ppm would result in irreversible global climate change.

The book, Carbon-Free and Nuclear-Free, A Roadmap for U.S. Energy Policy, by Arjun Makhijani, argues that in order to meet goals of limiting global warming to 2 °C, the world will need to reduce CO2 emissions by 85% and the U.S. will need to reduce emissions by 95%, which can be extended to within a few percent plus or minus of carbon free with little additional change. The book calls for phasing out use of oil, natural gas, and coal which does not use carbon sequestration by the year 2050. Effective delivered energy is projected to increase from about 75 Quadrillion Btu in 2005 to about 125 Quadrillion in 2050, but due to efficiency increases, the actual energy input is projected to increase from about 99 Quadrillion Btu in 2005 to about 103 Quadrillion in 2010 and then to decrease to about 77 Quadrillion in 2050. Petroleum use is projected to increase until 2010 and then linearly decrease to zero by 2050. The roadmap calls for nuclear power to decrease to zero at the same time, with the reduction also beginning in 2010.

Texas Billionaire T. Boone Pickens has promoted the Pickens Plan with a television advertisement campaign questioning the current state of energy in the US. He is an advocate of renewable energy sources and proposed building a 4000 MW wind farm in the state of Texas. Even Indiana, estimated to have a potential for developing only 30 MW of wind power in 1991 using 50 m high wind turbines, was in 2006 estimated as having the potential for 40,000 MW of wind power, using higher, 70 m turbines, and possibly twice that with modern 100 m high turbines.

Long distance electric power transmission results in energy loss, through electrical resistance, heat generation, electromagnetic induction and less-than-perfect electrical insulation. In 1995, these losses were estimated at 7.2%. Energy generation and distribution can be more efficient the closer it is to the point of use, if conducted in a high-efficiency generator, such as a CHP. In the generation and delivery of electrical power, system losses along the delivery chain are pronounced. Of five units of energy going into most large power plants, only about one unit of energy is delivered to the consumer in a usable form. A similar situation exists in gas transport, where compressor stations along pipelines use energy to keep the gas moving, or where gas liquefaction/cooling/regasification in the liquiefied natural gas supply chain uses a substantial amount of energy, even though the scale of the loss is not as pronounced as it is in electricity.

Distributed generation is a means of reducing total and transmission losses.

The public is also quite clear on its priorities when it comes to promoting energy conservation versus increasing the supply of oil, coal, and natural gas. When asked which of these should be the higher priority, the public chooses energy conservation by a very wide 68 percent-to-21 percent margin.

The public also predominantly believes that the need to cut down on energy consumption and protect the environment means increased energy efficiency should be mandated for certain products. Ninety-two percent of Americans now support such requirements.

The Obama administration includes Dr. Steven Chu, to head the U.S. Department of Energy.

Former Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson has said the United States and China have a strong mutual interest in avoiding energy supply disruptions.

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Lawrence S. Coben

Lawrence S."Larry" Coben is an archaeologist focused upon the Inca. His most recent work focuses on Inca imperial strategy and the archaeology of performance, and he was director of a project at the monumental site of Incallajta in Bolivia. With Takeshi Inomata, he co-authored the book Archaeology of Performance: Theater, Power and Community (Altmira Press, 2006), as well as several articles on the Inca, archaeological site museums, and the role of performance and spectacle in ancient society. He also chairs the Archaeological Institute of America's Site Preservation Task Force, which conserves sites and monuments around the world.

Coben has started and run numerous energy companies. He is presently Chairman and CEO of Tremisis Energy Corporation and a member of the board of NRG Energy and the Chilean utility SAESA, and was a director of Prisma Energy. He is also an advisor to several politicians and groups on energy policy. Ambassador Dick Swett and he wrote the national energy policy for Senator Joseph Lieberman's 2004 Presidential Campaign, and he was a member of Cleantech and Green Business for Obama. He writes the Larry Coben energy policy blog for the Huffington Post, and his own blog Energizing America, both of which discuss major energy policy issues and comment on energy news from around the globe.

Archaeology of Performance: Theater, Power and Community. Volume co-edited with Takeshi Inomata, published by Altamira Press (2006). Various personal contributions in this volume, including “Other Cuzcos: Replicated Theaters of Inka Power”.

Real Solutions, not Environmental Fantasies: Coal, LNG and Nuclear Energy, in Opening Argument, Yale University Law School, May 2006.

Tiwanaku: Where’s the State (in press). To be published in Contending Visions of Tiwanaku, Alexei Vranich and Charles Stanish eds.

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CenterPoint Energy

A CenterPoint Energy facility in Downtown Houston.

CenterPoint Energy (NYSE: CNP) is an electric and natural gas utility serving several markets in the U.S. states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas. It was formerly known as Reliant Energy (from which it is now separated), NorAm Energy, and Houston Industries. The company is headquartered in the CenterPoint Energy Tower at 1111 Louisiana Street at 1100 Milam Street in Downtown Houston.

In late 2004, four private equity firms—the Texas Pacific Group, the Blackstone Group, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, and Hellman & Friedman—combined forces to purchase Texas Genco from Centerpoint. Later in 2006, Texas Genco was sold to NRG Energy of Princeton, N.J.

In September 2008, CenterPoint Energy suffered great disruption of service in the Greater Houston Area, wiping out 2.1 million of CenterPoint Energy's 2.26 million clients' electricity. This was the largest power outage in the company's 130 year history, as well as the largest in the state's history.

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Enfield Power Station

Enfield Power Station is a 408 MW gas-fired station, opened on part of the original Brimsdown Power Station site on Brancroft Way at Brimsdown in the North London Borough of Enfield. It is near the A1055 and Lee Valley Park.

Known as Enfield Power Station (originally Enfield Energy Centre) this has been operated by E.ON UK since May 6, 2005, being bought for £109 million and became E.ON's fifth gas power station in the United Kingdom. Construction was started in September 1997. It was commissioned in December 1999. It employs twenty seven people.

It was opened as the Enfield Energy Centre Ltd, being owned by Indeck Energy Services and Enfield Holdings BV, itself jointly owned by NRG Energy Services and El Paso Energy.

It is a CCGT type natural gas power station. Using an Alstom GT26B2.2 gas turbine. , to drive an electrical generator rated at 500 MVA and with a terminal voltage of 21 kV. Waste heat is recovered by a Combustion Engineering heat recovery steam generator to drive an Alstom Steam Turbine unit connected via a SSS clutch to the main powertrain. It connects to the National Grid via a transformer at 132 kV.

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Source : Wikipedia