Newfoundland and Labrador

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Posted by motoman 04/10/2009 @ 10:12

Tags : newfoundland and labrador, counties, canada, world

News headlines
Talks break off, pickets inevitable, NL nurses say - CBC.ca
Nurses union president Debbie Forward blames the Newfoundland and Labrador government for the failure of last-ditch weekend talks. (CBC) Talks aimed at finding a breakthrough to a long-running dispute between the Newfoundland and Labrador government...
Newfoundland and Labrador nurses poised to hit picket lines May 20 - The Amherst Daily News
JOHN'S, NL — About 5000 unionized nurses in Newfoundland and Labrador are poised to go on strike next Wednesday. The Newfoundland and Labrador Nurses' Union has rejected the provincial government's final contract offer, saying it would allow the...
RUM plans barrel of fun in Newfoundland and Labrador - Filing Services Canada (press release)
This beautiful western Newfoundland city is nestled at the mouth of the world famous Humber River. "It is an acknowledgement of the initial and continuing support of investors from Newfoundland and Labrador in this Western Canada enterprise," said...
Danny just wants to bust nurses' union - TheChronicleHerald.ca
For anyone who has had the displeasure of needing the services of the Newfoundland and Labrador health system, the truth is, the system has been in crisis for a long time. Health Minister Ross Wiseman's denials to the contrary are met with laughter and...
Letter writer isn't difficult to please - Western Star
This is certainly an issue in Newfoundland and Labrador as well as in the rest of Canada. It was when I read a letter from the same Mr. Beckett in the Ottawa Citizen that I became amused and realized this man was on a mission, that mission being to...
Turning the map upside down - Southern Gazette
To say that it's the same in most parts of rural Newfoundland and Labrador is not news. What is news is what I had been watching on television. The government of the United States of America is buying huge chunks of banks....
Worker shortage? A thing of the past, contractor says - CBC.ca
(CBC) The severe crunch in finding skilled labour in Newfoundland and Labrador has dissolved in less than a year, a contractor says. Elvis Feltham, who operates a paving company in the Glovertown area, said the dire shortage of trades workers seen in...
Newfoundland's exports cut in half in 2009, says EDC - Canada NewsWire (press release)
JOHN'S, May 19 /CNW Telbec/ - Newfoundland and Labrador's international exports will drop by half in 2009, resulting in the largest decline in the country according to a provincial export outlook by Export Development Canada (EDC)....
Made point by parking equipment on soccer pitches: airport authority - CBC.ca
The Newfoundland and Labrador Soccer Association relocated to other areas. Airport authority president Keith Collins said the move was necessary because groups using the field do not ask for permission, and have not signed liability agreements....
Report echoes nape's youth protection concerns - National Union of Public and General Employees
St. John's (20 May 2009) - The Newfoundland and Labrador Association of Public and Private Employees (NAPE/NUPGE) says an initial review of a report on child and youth protection - released last week - contains no surprises....

Newfoundland and Labrador

Map of Canada with Newfoundland and Labrador highlighted

Newfoundland and Labrador (IPA: /ˈnuːfɨn(d)lænd ən(d) ˈlæbrədɔr/) (French: Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador) is a province of Canada, on the country's Atlantic coast in northeastern North America. This easternmost Canadian province comprises two main parts: the island of Newfoundland off the country's eastern coast, and Labrador on the mainland to the northwest of the island.

A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, it became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on 31 March 1949, named simply as Newfoundland. Since 1964, the province's government has referred to itself as the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, and on 6 December 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to Newfoundland and Labrador. In day-to-day conversation, however, Canadians generally still refer to the province itself as Newfoundland and to the region on the Canadian mainland as Labrador.

As of January 2009, the province's population is estimated to be 508,990. Approximately 94% of the province's population resides on the Island of Newfoundland (including its associated smaller islands). The Island of Newfoundland has its own dialects of the English, French, and Irish languages. The English dialect in Labrador shares much with that of Newfoundland. Labrador also has its own dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuit.

While the name Newfoundland is derived from English as "New Found Land" (a translation from the Latin Terra Nova), Labrador comes from the Portuguese lavrador, a title meaning "landholder/ploughman" held by Portuguese explorer of the region João Fernandes Lavrador.

Human inhabitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back over 9,000 years to the people of the Maritime Archaic Tradition. They were gradually displaced by people of the Dorset Culture (paleoeskimos and finally by the Innu and Inuit in Labrador and the Beothuks on the island. The oldest known European contact was made over a thousand years ago when the Vikings briefly settled in L'Anse aux Meadows. Five hundred years later, European explorers (John Cabot, Gaspar Corte-Real, Jacques Cartier, and others), fishermen from England, Ireland, Portugal, France and Spain and Basque whalers (the remains of several whaling stations have been found at Red Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador) began exploration and exploitation of the area.

The overseas expansion of British Empire began when Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession of Newfoundland in the name of England in 1583. Apart from St.John's, which was already established, early settlements were started at Cupids, Ferryland and other places.

During its history Newfoundland and Labrador have had many forms of government, including a time as the Dominion of Newfoundland, equivalent in status to Canada and Australia. Newfoundland and Labrador became the tenth province of Canada on 31 March 1949.

Newfoundland has been a battleground in numerous early wars among Great Britain, France, Spain and even the United States. The Royal Newfoundland Regiment fought with distinction in World War I. Numerous bases were built in Newfoundland and Labrador by Canada and the United States during World War II, particularly to safeguard the Atlantic convoys to Europe.

Politics of the province were dominated by the Liberal Party, led by Joseph R. Smallwood, from confederation until 1972. In 1972, the Smallwood government was replaced by the Progressive Conservative administration of Frank Moores. In 1979, Brian Peckford, another Progressive Conservative, became Premier. During this time, Newfoundland was involved in a dispute with the federal government for control of offshore oil resources. In the end, the dispute was decided by compromise. In 1989, Clyde Wells and the Liberal Party returned to power ending 17 years of Conservative government.

In the late 1980s, the federal government, along with its Crown corporation Petro-Canada and other private sector petroleum exploration companies, committed to developing the oil and gas resources of the Hibernia oil field on the northeast portion of the Grand Banks. Throughout the mid-1990s, thousands of Newfoundlanders were employed in the oil industry.

The pressure of the oil and gas industry to explore offshore in Atlantic Canada saw Newfoundland and Nova Scotia submit to a federal arbitration to decide on a disputed offshore boundary between the two provinces in the Laurentian Basin. The 2003 settlement rewrote an existing boundary in Newfoundland's favour, opening this area up to energy exploration.

In 1992 and again in 2003, the federal government declared moratoriums on the Atlantic cod fishery due to declining catches, which deeply affected the economy of Newfoundland.

From late October 2004 to early January 2006, Premier Williams argued that then Prime Minister Paul Martin had not held up his promises for a new deal on the "Atlantic Accord". The issue is the royalties from oil. Toward the end of 2004, Williams ordered the Canadian flag to be removed from all provincial buildings as a protest against federal policies, and asked for municipal councils to consider doing the same. The flags went back up in January 2005 after much controversy nationwide. At the end of January, the federal government signed a deal to allow 100% of oil revenues to go to the province.

Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical divisions, Labrador and island of Newfoundland. The province also includes over 7000 small islands.

Newfoundland is roughly triangular, with each side being approximately 400 km (250 mi), and has an area of 108,860 km² (41,700 sq mi). Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 km² (43,008 sq mi). Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36'N and 51°38'N.

Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belong to Quebec. Labrador’s extreme northern tip, at 60°22'N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador’s area (including associated small islands) is 294,330 km² (113,641 sq mi). Together, Newfoundland and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada’s area.

Labrador is the most eastern part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, and as such has been designated a World Heritage Site. The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains.

The north-south extent of the province (46°36'N to 60°22'N), prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador is considered to be a subarctic climate while most of Newfoundland would be considered to have a humid continental climate, Dfb: Cool summer subtype.

According to the 2001 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Newfoundland and Labrador is English (39.4%), followed by Irish (19.7%), Scottish (6.0%), French (5.5%), and First Nations (3.2%). While half of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian," 38% report their ethnicity as "Newfoundlander" in a 2003 StatsCan Ethnic Diversity Survey.

Figures shown above are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. There were also 435 responses of both English and a 'non-official language'; 30 of both French and a 'non-official language'; 295 of both English and French; 10 of English, French and a 'non-official language'; and about 14,305 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave some other unenumerated response.

The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 187,405 (37 %); the Anglican Church of Canada with 132,680 (26 %); and the United Church of Canada with 86,420 (17 %).

All currency is in Canadian dollars.

In 2005 the gross domestic product (GDP) of Newfoundland and Labrador was approximately fourteen billion dollars. Service industries accounted for over $8 billion with financial services, health care and public administration being the top three contributors. Other significant industries are mining, oil production and manufacturing. The total workforce in 2005 was 215,000 persons. Per capita GDP in 2006 was 47,520, higher than the national average and second only to Alberta out of Canadian provinces. It is interesting to note that the GDP in Newfoundland and Labrador surged 9.1 per cent in 2007, nearly three times the rate of its growth in 2006. Without solid numbers verified for 2008 it is expected that Alberta will see a 3.2 per cent economic growth and regain the provincial lead it lost to Newfoundland in 2007, who are expected to see a 2.2 per cent growth.

Traditional industries include mining, logging, fishery and forest-based industries (sawmills and paper mills).

Mines in Labrador, the iron ore mine at Wabush/Labrador City, and the new nickel mine in Voisey's Bay produced a total of $2.5 billion worth of ore in 2006. A new mine at Duck Pond (30 kilometers (18 mi) south of the now-closed mine at Buchans), started producing copper, zinc, silver and gold in 2007 and prospecting for new ore bodies continues. Mining accounted for 3.5% of the provincial GDP in 2006. The province produces 55% of Canada’s total iron ore. Quarries producing dimension stone such as slate and granite, account for less than $10 million worth of material per year.

Oil production from offshore oil platforms on Hibernia, White Rose Terra Nova oil fields on the Grand Banks was 110 million barrels which contributed 15% of the provinces GDP in 2006. Total production from the Hibernia field from 1997 to 2006 was 733 million barrels with an estimated value of $36 billion. This will increase with the inclusion of the latest project, Hebron. Remaining reserves are estimated at almost 2 billion barrels as of December 31, 2006. Exploration for new reserves is ongoing.

On April 8, 2009 another oil discovery was announced. StatoilHydro announced that they were making plans to make an application for a Significant Discovery License over the coming months, it revealed that during deepwater drilling in an area about 500 kilometres east-northeast of St. John's "hydrocarbons were encountered".

The fishing industry remains an important part of the provincial economy, employing 26,000 and contributing over $440 million to the GDP. The combined harvest of fish such as cod, haddock, halibut, herring and mackerel was 150,000 tonnes (165,000 tons) valued at about $130 million in 2006. Shellfish, such as crab, shrimp and clams, accounted for 195,000 tonnes (215,000 tons) with a value of $316 million in the same year. The value of products from the seal hunt was $55 million.

Aquaculture is a new industry for the province, which in 2006 produced over 10,000 tonnes of Atlantic salmon, mussels and steelhead trout worth over $50 million.

Newsprint is produced by two paper mills, one in Grand Falls with a capacity of 210,000 tonnes (230,000 tons) per year currently operated by Abitibi - Bowater, which announced in December 2008 that it would close the mill in March 2009. Kruger operates a mill in Corner Brook with a capacity of 420,000 tonnes (462,000 tons) per year The value of newsprint exports varies greatly from year to year, depending on the global market price. Lumber is produced by numerous mills in Newfoundland.

Apart from seafood processing, paper manufacture and oil refining, manufacturing in the province consists of smaller industries producing food, brewing and other beverage production, and footwear.

Agriculture in Newfoundland is limited to areas south of St. John's, near Deer Lake and in the Codroy Valley. Potatoes, rutabagas, known locally as "turnips", carrots and cabbage are grown for local consumption. Poultry, eggs and pork are also produced. Wild blueberries, partridgeberries (lingonberries) and bakeapples (cloudberries) are harvested commercially and used in jams and wine making.

Tourism is a significant part of the economy. In 2006 nearly 500,000 non-resident tourists visited Newfoundland and Labrador, spending an estimated $366 million.

The celtic band "Great Big Sea" has strong roots from Newfoundland.

Master Printmaker David Blackwood, born in Wesleyville NL. 1941, portrays his childhood memories of Newfoundland through a large portion of his work.

1 1975 is the date of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, the independence of East Timor was recognized by Portugal and the rest of the world.

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Argentia, Newfoundland and Labrador

Argentia is located in Newfoundland

Argentia is a community on the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is situated on a flat headland located along the southwest coast of the Avalon Peninsula on Placentia Bay.

Originally settled by the French in the late 1600's, this small fishing village called Petit Plaisance, was subsequently renamed Little Placentia when the French lost control of the area following the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The community adopted its present name in 1904 after silver ore was discovered nearby. Little Placentia saw its name change when the name Argentia was coined in 1904 by local parish priest Father John St. John. The "Silver Cliff Mine" operated until the early 1920s but was never profitable. Through most of the 1800s, the fishery was the lifeblood of the community; a herring factory was built in 1936.

The first church and school were established in the village in 1835 by Father Pelagius Nowlan, an Irish priest; the 1836 population was 484 people in 76 houses. The community's 2001 population was 450.

Construction started on a branch line to nearby Placentia from the Harbour Grace Railway mainline near Whitbourne (what would later become part of the Newfoundland Railway) on October 14, 1886 and the 26 miles of track were completed by October 1888. This became known as the "Placentia Branch" and it served as a key route to Placentia and the nearby port and anchorage of Little Placentia where coastal ferries would run to outports along the south coast of the island.

The Newfoundland Railway chose Port aux Basques to be its western terminus in 1893 and a new ferry intended for service to North Sydney, Nova Scotia was built in Scotland. In October, 1897 the new vessel named the SS Bruce arrived but the docks at Port aux Basques had not been completed. As a result, from October until June, 1898 (when it reverted to Port aux Basques), the Bruce operated from Little Placentia to North Sydney.

War between Britain and Nazi Germany was declared on September 3, 1939 in the aftermath of Hitler's invasion of Poland.

Argentia was selected in 1940 to be the location of a United States Navy base being built under the U.S.-British lend-lease program which saw US warships loaned to Britain in exchange for selected British military bases (or land for new bases) in the Western Hemisphere. The reason for preferring the Argentia site was due to the secure deepwater anchorage offered by the adjoining Ship Harbour and Fox Harbour, as well as the local topography for an airfield and an existing railway line.

The base was urgently needed as part of the trans-Atlantic supply line which joined North America to Britain, in order to provide anti-submarine patrols to protect shipping from the German U-boat fleet.

In exercise of the powers conferred upon me by the Defense (requisition of land) Regulations, made under the Emergency Powers Defence Act 1940, on the 28th day of December AD 1940, I do authorize all persons who shall be engaged by the United States Government or its agents and contractors on the construction for that government of any naval, military or air works at Argentia to do any work on any land or place any thing in, on, or over any land upon the Argentia Peninsula, insofar as it shall be necessary for any such person so to do for the carrying out of any such work of construction including any preliminary work in relation thereto.

Provided, however, that this present authority shall not be valid to authorize the demolition, pulling down or destruction of any building or erection upon any such land, or the doing of any act which renders any such building or erection intangible.

I have to notify you that the lands and buildings lately belonging to and occupied by you at Argentia, for which said lands and buildings payment has been awarded, are required for occupation by the Government of Newfoundland not later than ________. Take notice, therefore, that the said premesis must be completely vacated by you and peaceably yielded up to the Government of Newfoundland, its servants, agents, on or before the date mentioned.

Most people relocated to the nearby villages of Freshwater or Placentia, however what little had been paid as compensation (usually no more than a few thousand dollars for homeowners in Argentia) proved inadequate for building equivalent new homes due to severe wartime shortages of labour and materials.

Those buried in the three local graveyards were exhumed and reburied in a new cemetery constructed by the US forces at the insistence of the local parish priest, Father A.J. Dee, who had also raised objections to the wartime delays in finding new housing for Argentia's living residents who were being forced to leave the village. The abandoned homes were ultimately burned or levelled by bulldozers.

The US flag was raised in Argentia on February 13, 1941.

Throughout 1940-1941 the U.S. Navy constructed an airfield and navy base and built an extension to the Newfoundland Railway to service their facilities, owing to the condition of local roads. The navy base construction in particular was a priority with Navy Operating Base Argentia being officially commissioned on July 15, 1941.

The reason for the rush was made clear on August 7, 1941 when the heavy cruiser USS Augusta (CA-31) carrying U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt arrived in the Ship Harbour anchorage. Roosevelt inspected the base construction progress and did some fishing from Augusta over the next few days. Augusta was joined by the British warship HMS Prince of Wales carrying British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on August 10, 1941. While in the Ship Harbour anchorage from August 10-12, the two leaders and their delegations managed to negotiate what became known as the Atlantic Charter which established the basis for UK-US military cooperation and objectives. This often referenced history-altering statement was never signed by either Roosevelt or Churchill. The Joint Statement was publicly announced in a press release on August 14, presumably after the Prince of Wales had returned safely to UK waters. The contents of the Joint Statement press release was later termed the "Atlantic Charter" by a Socialist London newspaper on about Aug. 19, 1941.

On August 28, 1941 Naval Station Argentia was officially commissioned by the US Navy. Argentia would prove to be an important base in the US war effort; by 1943 with the U.S. fully involved in the Second World War, Argentia saw upwards of 10,000 U.S. personnel passing through on the way to the European Theatre. An adjoining United States Army base was established as Fort McAndrew to provide anti-aircraft artillery protection for the navy base and naval air station. In 1946 Fort McAndrew became part of the United States Army Air Forces and was renamed McAndrew Air Force Base in 1948.

With VE in 1945, Argentia saw a drop in personnel but by the start of the Cold War in 1947-1948, personnel numbers rose to 7,000. By the end of the Korean War in 1953, Argentia saw a total of 8,500 personnel posted in the area.

In 1955 McAndrew AFB was deactivated and turned over to the US Navy as the US Air Force moved its personnel to more remote and northern locations along the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador to build radar stations which would become part of the Pinetree Line and DEW Line systems. In the 1960s Naval Station Argentia became a key "node" in the U.S. Navy's SOSUS underwater hydrophone system. As such, the base was the target for several espionage attempts by the Soviet Union. By 1969 the total U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine contingents had dropped to 3,000 and to 1,000 by 1971.

As facilities and structures closed, assets were transferred to the Government of Canada under the terms of the U.S.-Britain lend-lease program; Newfoundland having become a Canadian province in 1949. In 1973 Naval Air Station Argentia was closed and by 1975 the entire north side of the base was out of U.S. hands. In 1994 Naval Operating Base Argentia, one of the US Navy's most modern facilities, was officially decommissioned and the entire site was transferred to the Government of Canada, and in turn to private sector and the provincial government.

Its military base now closed, Argentia has all but become a ghost town. None of the original pre-war buildings remain as they were demolished to construct the base. But some empty military buildings are being reused as the beginning of what is hoped to become an industrial park in Argentia.

Along with Freshwater, Dunnville, and Jerseyside, Argentia became part of Placentia in 1991.

In June 2002, Inco announced that an agreement had been reached with the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador on a three phase plan to develop the Voisey's Bay nickel deposit. The $1 billion initial phase of the Voisey's Bay agreement provided for infrastructure development at Voisey's Bay, a research and development program in hydrometallurgical processing, including a demonstration plant to be built at Argentia. It was ready to test concentrate by November 2005 to coincide with the first shipment from Voisey's Bay.

The demonstration plant was an initial step toward the ultimate development of a commercial hydrometallurgical processing facility to be constructed and operated in Long Harbour, Newfoundland. The commissioning of a 110-million pounds per annum processing facility was expected to occur in late 2011.

The airfield remained abandoned until 2008. With the announcement that the INCO development would not be using the airfield, the Air Cadet Gliding Program once again started using the airfield for gliding operations in May, 2008.

By the mid-1960s roads were upgraded between Argentia and the newly-opened Trans-Canada Highway at Whitbourne. In 1967 a new ferry terminal was opened by Canadian National Railway and the Ambrose Shea became the first seasonal ferry to call at the port, largely carrying tourists bound for the Avalon Peninsula (19 hours crossing time) from North Sydney, Nova Scotia. In the 1980s the terminal was upgraded by CN Marine and in 1989 the company's successor, Marine Atlantic, welcomed the MV Joseph and Clara Smallwood superferry (14 hours crossing time) on the Argentia summer run.

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Grand Falls-Windsor, Newfoundland and Labrador

Official seal of Grand Falls-Windsor

Grand Falls-Windsor is a town of 13,558 people located in the central region of the island of Newfoundland in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The town is the largest in the central region, the second-largest town in the province, behind Conception Bay South, and is home of the annual Exploits Valley Salmon Festival. Grand Falls-Windsor was incorporated in 1991 when the two former towns of Grand Falls and Windsor amalgamated.

In 1768, Lieutenant John Cartwright while following the Exploits River through the Exploits Valley named the waterfall he found, "Grand Falls", however it took until 1905 before the town of Grand Falls was established. Worried about the impending war in Europe, Alfred Harmsworth (Baron Northcliffe) began looking for an alternative source of newsprint for his family's newspaper and publishing business. During their search for a suitable location to build and operate a pulp and paper mill, Harold Harmsworth and Mayson Beeton, son of Mrs Beeton the famed author of Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, found Grand Falls. The site had great potential due to access to lumber, the possibility of hydroelectricity and a deep-water port was available in nearby Botwood. On January 7, 1905, the Harmsworth's and Robert Gillespie Reid, owner of the Newfoundland Railway, formed the Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company, the mill was constructed and opened on October 9, 1909. The first roll of saleable newsprint was not produced until December 22, 1909. Workers came from all over the colony and the world to help develop the new area and more and more people were coming with hope that they would find work at the mill. At that time, only employees of the mill and workers from private businesses were permitted to live in Grand Falls. Other people settled north of the railway in a (shacktown) known as the Grand Falls station, which served as a bedroom community for people that worked in Grand Falls.

The Anglo Newfoundland Development Company, the owners of the town, catered to the social and athletic needs of the people living there. The Grand Falls Athletic Club was formed in 1907. Sports such as hockey c.1912, boxing, golf 1930's, soccer and baseball c.1909 were played in the area. Increasing interest in music and the arts reflected in the creation of several clubs, including The Andophians, The Exploits Amature Theatre Comapny, the Northcliffe Drama Club(1951)and Another Newfoundland Drama Company Inc. (A.N.D. Company Inc.) (1998) As well, several musical groups were formed. From 1905-1906, the religious needs of the residents were filled by visitng clergy. However, because of the increasing population of Grand Falls, several churches were built.

Due to its continued growth, Grand Falls Station became a vibrant town. Main Street, in what is now the former town of Windsor, featured lines of small business that catered to the needs of the residents and the town was officially incorporated on November 1, 1938. During the incorporation, Grand Falls Station changed its name to Windsor in honour of the British Royal Family, the House of Windsor.

In 1961, Price Brothers and Company Limited acquired a large amount of A.N.D. Company stock. An election for the first municipal government was soon held which eventually led to the incorporation of the town of Grand Falls. Thirty years later, in 1991, the towns of Grand Falls and Windsor amalgamated to become the current town of Grand Falls-Windsor.

Today the 2nd Battalion of the The Royal Newfoundland Regiment, part of the Land Force Atlantic Area is stationed in the town.

Grand Falls-Windsor is centrally located on the island of Newfoundland. It is approximately an hour west of Gander, two and a half hours west of Clarenville and about four hours west of St. John's. On the other hand, the town is slightly over two hours east of Deer Lake, two hours and forty-five minutes east of Corner Brook and close to five hours east of Port Aux Basques, when traveling on the Newfoundland and Labrador Route 1, part of the Trans-Canada Highway.

The town itself consists of the former towns of Grand Falls and Windsor. The Newfoundland and Labrador Route 1 runs through the middle of town, with exits for Main Street, Station Road, Cromer Avenue, Union Street, Grenfell Heights and New Bay Road. Main throughfares in the town include Lincoln Road, Cromer Avenue, Main Street and Scott Avenue, though this list isn't extensive.

As highlighted in the history section, the economy of Grand Falls-Windsor primarily revolves around the pulp and paper mill - Abitibi-Bowater, the town's largest employer, though the tertiary sector is also strong in the town with many small businesses and public services. Like most other communities in Newfoundland and Labrador, Grand Falls-Windsor has suffered from outmigration though the town's economy still remains strong.

On December 4, 2008, Abitibi Bowater released a statement concerning imminent closure of the pulp and paper mill in Grand Falls-Windsor, representing a cutback of 205 000 tons of paper. The mill produced its last roll of newsprint on February 12, 2009. The closure was effected due to exchange rate volatility, energy and fiber pricing, as well as structural challenges in the North American newsprint industry.

The town is part of the Nova Central School District and is served by Woodland Primary (Kindergarten to Grade 3), Sprucewood Academy (Kindergarten to Grade 6), Millcrest Academy (Grade 4 to Grade 6), Exploits Valley Intermediate (Grade 7 to Grade 9) and Exploits Valley High (Grade 10 to Grade 12).

For higher education education there is a campus of the College of the North Atlantic, a community college formed in 1977, along with Keyin College and Corona College, both of which are private colleges.

The town is within the Health and Community Services Central Region.

Although there is no airport in Grand Falls-Windsor, the nearest is Exploits Valley (Botwood) Airport in Botwood, there is a public heliport, Grand Falls-Windsor Heliport, operated by the town. The nearest national airport is Gander International Airport, approximately 100km east in Gander.

Communication services are provided by AT&T Canada, Primus Canada and Aliant, formerly NewTel Communications. The companies provide mobile phones, high speed Internet and digital television, including CJON-TV (NTV), the only privately owned television station in Newfoundland and Labrador, and other services.

Private radio stations in the town include CKXG-FM, CKCM, a VOCM affiliate, both owned by Newcap Broadcasting and CHOZ-FM owned by Geoff Stirling. The other private radio station is VOAR, which is part of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has CBT, CBC Radio One and CBN-FM, CBC Radio 2.

CBNAT is the call sign for the local CBC rebroadcaster of CBNT from St. John's. Rogers TV which provides a community channel that includes a local talk show focused on community events called Grand Central.

The town has two hockey teams, the senior team, Grand Falls-Windsor Cataracts and the Central Junior Cataracts of the Central/West Junior Hockey League winners of the 2007 Central West Junior Hockey League championship. The town also belongs to the Newfoundland Hockey League.

Data from Statistics Canada 2006 census shows that at the time there were 13,558 residents in Grand Falls-Windsor, a change of -1.6% from 13,340 in 2001. There were a total of 5,564 private dwellings. The town's land area is 54.48 km² (21 sq mi) and has a population density of 248.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (645 /sq mi).

As of 2006, there are 6,420 (47.35%) male residents and 7,140 (52.66%) female residents with the median age of male residents at 42.4 and the median age of female residents at 42.8. The median age of the town's population is getting older, from 36.2 at the 1996 census to 40.2 in the 2001 census and to 42.6 in 2006, compared to the province as a whole at 41.7.

Of the population in 2006, 790 (5.83%) people were in a common-law relationship, 3,160 (23.31%) were single, 650 (4.79%) divorced, 830 (6.12%) were widowed, 315 (2.32%) separated and the rest, 6,455 (47.54) were married. Visible minority groups in the town are Aboriginal people (225 or 1.66%) followed by Chinese Canadians (70 or 0.52%), Arab Canadians (35 or 0.26%), Indo-Canadians (South Asian Canadian) (30 or 0.22%) and Filipino Canadians (15 or 0.11%).

In 2001 the majority of the residents - 8,405 (63.01%) of them - were Protestant, 4,420 (33.13%) were Catholic, 10 (0.07%) were Christian Orthodox, 35 (0.26%) were Christian, 10 (0.07%) were Hindu and 285 (2.14%) residents had no religious affiliation.

Unemployment in the town in 2006 was 17.0% slightly down from 17.7% in 2001 and below the provincial average of 18.6%. In 2000 the average annual earnings of part-time working residents was $26,671, compared to the provincial average of $24,165. The average earnings of full-time workers was $38,665, again slightly above the provincial average of $37,910.

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History of Newfoundland and Labrador

1897 Newfoundland postage stamp, the first in the world to feature mining.

The History of Newfoundland and Labrador starts with two separate regions, the Colony of Newfoundland and the region of Labrador, then converge after 1949, with the creation of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Human inhabitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back over 9000 years to the people of the Maritime Archaic Tradition. They were gradually displaced by people of the Dorset Culture (paleoeskimos and finally by the Innu and Inuit in Labrador and the Beothuks on the island. The oldest known European contact was made over a thousand years ago when the Vikings briefly settled in L'Anse aux Meadows. Five hundred years later, European explorers (John Cabot, Gaspar Corte-Real, Jacques Cartier and others), fishermen from England, Portugal, France and Spain and Basque whalers (the remains of several whaling stations have been found at Red Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador) began exploration and exploitation of the area.

The overseas expansion of British Empire began when Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession of Newfoundland in the name of England in 1583. Apart from St.John's, which was already established, early settlements were started at Cupids, Ferryland and other places.

During its history Newfoundland and Labrador have had many forms of government, including a time as the Dominion of Newfoundland, equivalent in status to Canada and Australia. Newfoundland and Labrador became the tenth province of Canada on March 31, 1949.

Newfoundland has been a battleground in numerous early wars among Great Britain, France, Spain and even the United States. The Royal Newfoundland Regiment fought with distinction in World War I. Numerous bases were built in Newfoundland and Labrador by Canada and the United States during World War II, particularly to safeguard the Atlantic convoys to Europe.

The first transatlantic telegraph cable between Valentia Island, in western Ireland and Heart's Content, in eastern Newfoundland was completed in 1866. The first transatlantic radio message was received by Guglielmo Marconi at Cabot Tower (Newfoundland) in St. John's. The first non-stop transatlantic flight was made from St. John's in 1919 by Alcock and Brown.

Newfoundland has a number of historical firsts. The oldest known European settlement anywhere in The Americas outside Greenland built by Vikings is located at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. It was founded circa AD 1000 by Leif Ericson's Vikings. Remnants and artifacts of the occupation can still be seen at L'Anse aux Meadows, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The island was inhabited by the Beothuks and later the Mi'kmaq.

John Cabot became the first European since the Vikings to discover Newfoundland (but see João Vaz Corte-Real), landing at Bonavista on June 24, 1497. On August 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert formally claimed Newfoundland as England's first overseas colony under Royal Prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I.

From 1610 to 1728, Proprietary Governors were appointed to establish colonial settlements on the island. John Guy was governor of the first settlement at Cuper's Cove. Other settlements were Bristol's Hope, Renews, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon which became a province in 1623. The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638. The island of Newfoundland was nearly conquered by New France explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in the 1690s.

Newfoundland received a colonial assembly in 1832, which was and still is referred to as the House of Assembly, after a fight led by reformers William Carson, Patrick Morris and John Kent. The new government was unstable as the electorate was divided along religious and ethnic lines between the Catholic Irish and Protestant West Country populations of the colony. Indeed so vigorous was the strife that The Times held up Newfoundland as an awful example of what Ireland might become. To obviate this problem in 1842, the elected House of Assembly was amalgamated with the appointed Legislative Council. This was changed back after some agitation in 1848 to two separate chambers. After this, a movement for responsible government began.

In 1854, Newfoundland was granted responsible government by the British government. In an 1855 election, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a majority over Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. In 1861 in doubtful circumstances Governor Bannerman dismissed the Liberals and the ensuing election was marked by riot and disorder with both the Anglican (Feild) and Catholic bishops (Mullock) taking partisan stances. However when Hugh Hoyles was elected as the Conservative Prime Minister he worked to defuse tensions. Catholics were invited to share power, and all jobs and patronage were shared out between the various religious bodies on a per capita basis. This 'denominational compromise' was further extended to education when all religious schools were put on the basis which the Catholics had enjoyed since the 1840's. Alone in North America Newfoundland had a state funded system of denominational schools. The compromise worked and politics ceased to be about religion and became concerned with purely political and economic issues. By the 1890's St John's was no longer regarded in England as akin to Belfast, and Blackwood's Magazine was using developments there as an argument for Home Rule for Ireland. Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election.

As part of the Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of 1904, France abandoned the `French Shore', or the west coast of the island, to which it had had rights since the Peace of Utrecht of 1713. Possession of Labrador was disputed by Quebec and Newfoundland until 1927, when the British privy council demarcated the western boundary, enlarged Labrador's land area, and confirmed Newfoundland's title to it.

Newfoundland remained a colony until acquiring dominion status on September 26, 1907, along with New Zealand. It successfully negotiated a trade agreement with the United States but the British government blocked it after objections from Canada. The Dominion of Newfoundland reached its golden age under Prime Minister Sir Robert Bond of the Liberal Party.

In 1934, the Dominion gave up its self-governing status as the Commission of Government took its place. Following World War II, the Commission held elections for the Newfoundland National Convention which debated the dominion's future in 1946 and 1947. Two referendums resulted in which Newfoundlanders decided to end the commission, and joined the Canadian Confederation in 1949.

In 1946, an election was held for the Newfoundland National Convention to decide the future of Newfoundland. The mechanism of the Convention was established by the British Government to make recommendations as to the constitutional options to be presented to the people of Newfoundland to be voted upon in a national referendum. Many members only wished to decide between continuing the Commission of Government or restoring Responsible Government. Joseph R. Smallwood, the leader of the confederates, moved that a third option of confederation with Canada should be included. His motion was defeated by the convention. But he did not give up, instead gathering more than 50,000 petitions from the people within a fortnight which he sent to London through the Governor.

The UK, having already insisted that if Newfoundland chose Confederation or a return to Responsible Government, it would not give Newfoundland any further financial assistance, added the third option of having Newfoundland join Canada to the ballot. The option of joining the US was not offered. After much debate, the first referendum was held on June 3, 1948 to decide between continuing with the Commission of Government, returning to Responsible Government, or joining the Canadian Confederation. The result was inconclusive, with 44.6% supporting the restoration of Responsible Government, 41.1% for confederation with Canada, and 14.3% for continuing the Commission of Government. No option had won a clear majority; so under the rules of the referendum, the option which won the fewest votes was dropped and a new run-off referendum was scheduled for late July 1948. Between the first and second referendums, rumours were spread that Roman Catholics had been instructed to vote by their bishops for Responsible Government. (This was not accurate; on the west coast of Newfoundland, in the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. George's, Bishop Michael O'Reilly and his congregation were strong supporters of confederation.) Prompted by the Confederate Association, the Orange Order was incensed and called on all its members to vote for confederation. The Protestants of Newfoundland outnumbered the Catholics at a ratio of 2:1. This was believed to have greatly influenced the outcome of the second referendum. A second referendum on July 22, 1948, which asked Newfoundlanders to choose between confederation and dominion status, was decided by a vote of 51% to 49% for confederation with Canada. Newfoundland joined Canada (just before the expiry) on March 31, 1949.

Not everyone was satisfied with the results, however. Peter Cashin, an outspoken anti-Confederate, questioned the validity of the votes. He claimed that it was the 'unholy union between London and Ottawa' that brought about confederation.

In 1959, a local controversy arose when the provincial government pressured the Moravian Church to abandon its mission station at Hebron, Labrador, resulting in the relocation southward of the area's Inuit population, who had lived there since the mission was established in 1831.

In the 1960s, Newfoundland developed the Churchill Falls hydro-electric facility in order to sell electricity to the United States. An agreement with Quebec was required to secure permission to transport the electricity across Quebec territory. Quebec drove a hard bargain with Newfoundland, resulting in a 75-year deal that Newfoundlanders now believe to be unfair to the province because of the low and unchangeable rate that Newfoundland and Labrador receives for the electricity.

Politics of the province were dominated by the Liberal Party, led by Joseph R. Smallwood, from confederation until 1972. In 1972, the Smallwood government was replaced by the Progressive Conservative administration of Frank Moores. In 1979, Brian Peckford, another Progressive Conservative, became Premier. During this time, Newfoundland was involved in a dispute with the federal government for control of offshore oil resources. In the end, the dispute was decided by compromise. In 1989, Clyde Wells and the Liberal Party returned to power ending 17 years of Conservative government.

In 1992, the federal government declared a moratorium on the Atlantic cod fishery, because of severely declining catches in the late 1980s. The consequences of this decision reverberated throughout the provincial economy of Newfoundland in the 1990s, particularly as once-vibrant rural communities faced a sudden exodus. The economic impact of the closure of the Atlantic cod fishery on Newfoundland has been compared to the effect of closing every manufacturing plant in Ontario. The cod fishery which had provided Newfoundlanders on the south and east coasts with a livelihood for over 200 years was gone, although the federal government helped fishermen and fish plant workers make the adjustment with a multi-billion dollar program named "The Atlantic Groundfish Strategy" (TAGS).

In the late 1980s, the federal government, along with its Crown corporation Petro-Canada and other private sector petroleum exploration companies, committed to developing the oil and gas resources of the Hibernia oil field on the northeast portion of the Grand Banks. Throughout the mid-1990s, thousands of Newfoundlanders were employed on offshore exploration platforms, as well as in the construction of the Hibernia Gravity Base Structure (GBS) and Hibernia topsides.

In 1996, the former federal minister of fisheries, Brian Tobin, was successful in winning the leadership of the provincial Liberal Party following the retirement of premier Clyde Wells. Tobin rode the waves of economic good fortune as the downtrodden provincial economy was undergoing a fundamental shift, largely as a result of the oil and gas industry's financial stimulus, although the effects of this were mainly felt only in communities on the Avalon Peninsula.

Good fortune also fell on Tobin following the discovery of a world class nickel deposit at Voisey's Bay, Labrador. Tobin committed to negotiating a better royalty deal for the province with private sector mining interests than previous governments had done with the Churchill Falls hydroelectric development deal in the 1970s. Following Tobin's return to federal politics in 2000, the provincial Liberal Party devolved into internal battling for the leadership, leaving its new leader, Roger Grimes, in a weakened position as premier.

The pressure of the oil and gas industry to explore offshore in Atlantic Canada saw Newfoundland and Nova Scotia submit to a federal arbitration to decide on a disputed offshore boundary between the two provinces in the Laurentian Basin. The 2003 settlement rewrote an existing boundary in Newfoundland's favour, opening this area up to energy exploration.

In 2003, the federal government declared a moratorium on the last remaining cod fishery in Atlantic Canada - in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. While Newfoundland was again the most directly affected province by this decision, communities on Quebec's North Shore and in other parts of Atlantic Canada also faced difficulties.

In October 2003, the Liberals lost the provincial election to the Progressive Conservative Party, led by Danny Williams.

From late October 2004 to the present, Premier Williams has argued that Prime Minister Paul Martin has not held up his promises for a new deal on the "Atlantic Accord". The issue is the royalties from oil: currently, 70 cents on each royalty dollar are sent back to the federal government through reductions in payments by the federal government with respect to its "equalization program". The province wants 100% of the royalties to allow the province to pull itself out of poverty on a long-term basis.

Toward the end of 2004, Williams ordered the Canadian flag to be removed from all provincial buildings as a protest against federal policies, and asked for municipal councils to consider doing the same. The issue, dubbed the "Flag Flap" in the media, sparked debate across the province and the rest of Canada. The flags went back up in January 2005 after much controversy nationwide and Paul Martin stating that he would not negotiate with the province if the flags were not flying. At the end of January, the federal government signed a deal to allow 100% of oil revenues to go to the province, resulting in an extra $2 billion over eight years for the province. However, this agreement has led other provinces such as Ontario and Quebec to try to negotiate their own special deals as they too claim that the federal government is taking advantage of them financially.

As of 2005, 4 of the 10 amendments to the Constitution of Canada since the 1982 patriation have been concerned with Canada's tenth province.

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Source : Wikipedia