Ohio

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Posted by motoman 02/28/2009 @ 13:41

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News headlines
Behind enemy lines, UM alumni club meets in mid Ohio - Detroit Free Press
Golfers at the Muirfield Village Golf Club in Dublin, Ohio, may have thought their eyes were playing tricks on them on Thursday, according to the Columbus Dispatch. In the dining room of the course that Ohio State legend Jack Nicklaus calls home,...
Ohio State ousts UK softball in regional - Kentucky.com
COLUMBUS, Ohio — Ohio State scored all their runs on homers and sent Kentucky packing with a 7-2 home victory Saturday in the NCAA regional tournament. It was UK's first appearance in NCAA play, and the Cats had won two straight after dropping their...
Ohio elections spat involves Turkish history - The Associated Press
COLUMBUS, Ohio (AP) — The state Elections Commission agreed Thursday to hear a case far outside the typical realm of Ohio politics, one involving claims of genocide, Turkish history, US foreign policy and a growing and personal political rivalry....
AG raises workers' comp worries tied to Chrysler sale - Bizjournals.com
The state's top lawyer is objecting to Chrysler LLC's pending sale in federal bankruptcy court over worries that the Ohio workers' compensation system could be saddled with the burden of the automaker's self-insured claims under a new owner....
Chrysler dealers in Ohio react to closures - WTOL
AP - May 15, 2009 5:55 AM ET Chrysler's decision to close about a quarter of its 3200 US dealerships by early next month will affect communities all over Ohio. The car company's announcement yesterday included 47 of its dealerships in Ohio....
President Garfield statue at NE Ohio's Hiram College decapitated - WKYC-TV
HIRAM, Ohio -- Hiram police are looking for the vandals who decapitated a 95-year-old sandstone statue of locally born President James A. Garfield overnight Thursday. The statue of the 20th US president was intact Thursday during the dedication of the...
Unpaid leave for autoworkers at Honda's Ohio plants - Business Management Daily
By HR Specialist: Ohio Employment Law Ohio hits employers with more record-keeping requirements and fewer rights than other states. Aggressive attorneys don't stop with federal laws like FMLA, ADA and FLSA: they use state and local living-wage statutes...
Ohio State sports evening news roundup - The Plain Dealer - cleveland.com
by Starting Blocks, The Plain Dealer Ohio State has had a successful run of men's basketball with Thad Matta as coach. Thomas Ondrey, The Plain Dealer Ohio State men's basketball coach Thad Matta. With the number of high-profile recruits making the...
Illinois prison chief: Gov. Pat Quinn appoints Ohio official - Chicago Tribune
A longtime Ohio prison official will head the Illinois Department of Corrections, replacing an appointee of ex-Gov. Rod Blagojevich. Gov. Pat Quinn on Thursday said Michael P. Randle will oversee the state's prison system starting in June....
Fellow mayors support Ohio official facing recall - Dayton Daily News
AP 10:25 AM Sunday, May 17, 2009 AKRON, Ohio — Fifteen mayors from northeast Ohio are urging voters to fight an effort for a recall vote on another mayor in their county. Critics of Akron Mayor Don Plusquellic (pluhs-KWEHL'-ihk) have collected...

United States congressional delegations from Ohio

These are complete tables of congressional delegations from Ohio to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.

After statehood, Ohio had one representative, elected state-wide at-large.

Six seats were apportioned by districts.

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Ohio

Flag of Ohio

Ohio ( /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ (help·info)) is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads in North America. At the time of European contact, and in the years that followed, Native Americans in the current territory of Ohio included the Shawnee, Iroquois, Miamis, and Wyandots. Starting in the 1700s, the area was settled by people from New England, the Mid-Atlantic States, Appalachia, and the Upper South.

Prior to 1984, the United States Census Bureau classified Ohio as part of the North Central Region. That region was subsequently renamed as "Midwest" and divided into two divisions. Ohio is now in the East North Central States division. Ohio has the highest population density of any state outside of the Eastern Seaboard, and it is the seventh-largest U.S. state according to population.

Ohio was the first state admitted to the Union under the Northwest Ordinance. Its U.S. postal abbreviation is OH; its old-style abbreviation was O. Natives of Ohio are known as Ohioans or Buckeyes, after the buckeye tree.

The name "Ohio" is derived from the Seneca word ohi:yo’, which has been interpreted to mean "beautiful river" (French mistranslation) or "large creek". The name was originally applied to both the Ohio River and Allegheny River.

Archeological evidence suggests that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 B.C. These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 B.C., "but their material culture provided a base for those who followed them". Between 1,000 and 800 B.C., the sedentary Adena culture emerged. As Ohio historian George W. Knepper notes, this sophisticated culture was "so named because evidences of their culture were excavated in 1902 on the grounds of Adena, Thomas Worthington's estate located near Chillicothe". The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because, apart from hunting and gathering, they domesticated plants that included squash, sunflowers, and perhaps corn. The most spectacular remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio.

Around 100 B.C., the Adena were joined in Ohio Country by the Hopewell people, who were named for Captain M. C. Hopewell, on whose farm evidence of their unique culture was discovered. Like the Adena, the Hopewell people participated in a mound-building culture, and their impressive earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville. The Hopewell, however, disappeared from the Ohio Valley in about 600 A.D., and little is known about the people who replaced them. Researchers have identified two distinct prehistoric cultures: the Fort Ancient people and the Whittlesey Focus people. Both cultures evidently disappeared in the 17th century, but some scholars believe that the Fort Ancient people "were ancestors of the historic Shawnee people, or that, at the very least, the historic Shawnees absorbed remnants of these older peoples".

The Ohio Valley was deeply affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York. After the so-called Beaver Wars in the mid-1600s, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-1600s, which had largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late seventeenth century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian-speaking descendants of its ancient inhabitants, that is, descendants of the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian cultures. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic and sometimes multi-linguistic societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and the subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were very much part of a larger global economy brought about by the fur trade.

The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period (most clearly after 1700) included the Miamis (a large confederation), Wyandots (made up of refugees, especially from the fractured Huron confederacy), Delawares (pushed west from their historic homeland in New Jersey), Shawnees (also pushed west, although they may be descended from the Fort Ancient people of Ohio), Ottawas (more commonly associated with the upper Great Lakes region), Mingos (like the Wyandot, a recently formed composite of refugees from Iroquois and other societies), and Eries (gradually absorbed into the new, multi-ethnic "republics," namely the Wyandot). Ohio country was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre and Gnadenhutten.

During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. In 1754, France and Great Britain fought a war known in the United States as the French and Indian War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the rest of the Old Northwest to Great Britain. Pontiac's Rebellion in the 1760s challenged British military control, which ended with the American victory in the American Revolution. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783 Britain ceded all claims to Ohio to the United States.

The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio. The old Northwest Territory originally included areas that had previously been known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country. As Ohio prepared for statehood, Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula.

Under the Northwest Ordinance, any of the states to be formed out of the Northwest Territory would be admitted as a state once the population exceeded 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood with the assumption that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it would become a state.

On February 19, 1803, President Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed an act that officially declared March 1, 1803 the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.

In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Congress intervened and, as a condition for admittance as a state of the Union, Michigan was forced to accept the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third that was already part of the state, in exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip.

Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War, and the Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. Ohio also contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio alone suffered 2,000 casualties. Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod was able to secure 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service. Ohio historian Andrew R. L. Cayton writes that almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, "and some thirty thousand carried battle scars with them for the rest of their lives." By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals were all from Ohio: Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan.

In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result, which reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era, introduced the initiative and the referendum. In addition, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. The question asks whether a new convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.

Eight U.S. presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to the nickname "Mother of Presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia. Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight, but Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by William's father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding.

Ohio's capital is Columbus, located close to the center of the state. The executive branch is made up of six officers: Governor and lieutenant governor, Secretary of state, Attorney general, Auditor, and Treasurer. Governor Ted Strickland took office as governor in January 2007. The legislative branch of Ohio government, the Ohio General Assembly, is made up of two houses--the senate, which has 33 members, and the house of representatives, which has 99 members. The judicial branch is headed by the supreme court, which has one chief justice and six associate justices.

In the United States federal government, Ohio has 18 seats (see congressional districts map) in the United States House of Representatives.

Note that Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which, at that time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.

The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.

Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.

Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and then the Mississippi. The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.

Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km²), was the largest artificial lake in the world. It should be noted that Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa) throughout most of the state except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate and Upland South region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the State, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornadoes in Ohio than in states located in the so-called Tornado Alley. Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt.

Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna does reach well into Ohio. For instance, a number of trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the State. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.

The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45 °C), near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934. The lowest recorded temperature was -39 °F (-39 °C), at Milligan on February 10, 1899.

Earthquakes are rare, but not unheard of, in Ohio. More than 30 earthquakes occurred in Ohio between 2002 and 2007, and more than 200 quakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred since 1776.

The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake, which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.

Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884; one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901; and one of 5.0 in northeast Ohio on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.

The most recent earthquake in Ohio of any appreciable magnitude occurred on January 8, 2008, at 8:34:46 PM local time. It had a magnitude of 3.1, and its epicenter was under Lake Erie, northeast of Cleveland, approximately 9.7 km (6 mi) west of Mentor-on-the-Lake.

The Ohio Seismic Network (OhioSeis), a group of seismograph stations at several colleges, universities, and other institutions, and coordinated by the Division of Geological Survey of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, maintains an extensive catalog of Ohio earthquakes from 1776 to the present day, as well as earthquakes located in other states whose effects were felt in Ohio.

Columbus (home of The Ohio State University, Franklin University, Capital University, and Ohio Dominican University) is the capital of Ohio, near the geographic center of the state.

Note: The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.

Skyline of Columbus.

View of downtown Cleveland.

View of downtown Cincinnati.

View of downtown Toledo.

View of downtown Akron.

View of downtown Dayton.

View of downtown Canton.

Ohio is a major producer of machines, tires and rubber products, steel, processed foods, tools, and other manufactured goods. This is not immediately obvious because Ohio specializes in capital goods (goods used to make other goods, such as machine tools, automobile parts, industrial chemicals, and plastic moldings). Nevertheless, there are well known Ohio consumer items including some Procter & Gamble products, Smuckers jams and jellies, and Day-Glo paints.

There are also numerous automobile plants in Ohio that manufacture cars, most notably the Jeep plant in Toledo, where the vehicles have been made since their initial release in World War II. Honda, Ford, and General Motors also have or had automobile plants in Ohio; in the case of the latter, one of their plants in Ohio (Lordstown Assembly, near Youngstown) is located right off the Ohio Turnpike with its own exit.

Ohio is the site of the invention of the airplane, resulting from the experiments of the Wright brothers in Dayton. (Wright State University located in Dayton is named in their honor.) Production of aircraft in the USA is now centered elsewhere, but a large experimental and design facility, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base has been located near Dayton and serves in the co-ordination of production of US military aircraft. On the base are located Wright Hill and Huffman Prairie, where many of the earliest aerodynamic experiments of the Wright brothers were performed. Ohio today also has many aerospace, defense, and NASA parts and systems suppliers scattered throughout the state.

As part of the Corn Belt, agriculture also plays an important role in the state's economy. There is also a small commercial fishing sector on Lake Erie, and the principal catch is yellow perch. In addition, Ohio's historical attractions, varying landscapes, and recreational opportunities are the basis for a thriving tourist industry. Over 2,500 lakes and 43,000 miles (70,000 km) of river landscapes are a paradise for boaters, fishermen, and swimmers. Of special historical interest are the Native American archaeological sites—including grave mounds and other sites. According to the Ohio Department of Agriculture Ohio in 2001 ranked as 1st in Swiss cheese, 2nd in eggs, 3rd in tomatoes, 5th in milk, 6th in corn, 6th in soybean, 8th in grapes, 9th in hogs, 9th in floriculture, and 11th in apples.

Two major amusement parks, Cedar Point, and Kings Island, are also important to the tourism industry. Ohio's Amish country is also a major pull for the State's tourism industry. Though still forming itself, tourism is becoming a major industry in Cleveland, especially medical tourism.

Ohio's budget could face a deficit as high as $1.9 billion in fiscal year 2009.

Ohio is recognized for its health care, due to several flagship hospitals that operate in the northeast region of the state. The Cleveland Clinic, ranked among the three leading hospitals in the U.S., has its world headquarters and main campus in Cleveland. Its partner, the University Hospitals of Cleveland health system, includes the Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, ranked among the top ten children's hospitals in the country. Cincinnati Children's Hospital is the leading center for research into childhood diseases in the state.

As of 2006, Ohio has an estimated population of 11,478,006, which is an increase of 7,321 from the prior year and an increase of 124,861 since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 263,004 people (that is 938,169 births minus 675,165 deaths) and a decrease from net migration of -145,718. Immigration from outside the United States contributed to a growth of 92,101 people, most coming from southeast and south Asia, yet net migration within the country resulted in a decrease of 237,819 people. Ohio has witnessed an increase in the Laotian American and Thai American populations, as well as Asian Indians and Latin Americans.

The center of population of Ohio is also located in Morrow County, in the county seat of Mount Gilead.

As of 2004, Ohio's population included about 390,000 foreign-born (3.4%).

The largest ancestry groups in Ohio are German (25.2%), Irish (12.7%), African American (11.5%), English (9.2%), American (8.5%), and Italian (6.0%).

German is the largest reported ancestry in most of the counties in Ohio, especially in the northwest, central, and the extreme southwest. Ohioans who cited American and British ancestry are present throughout the state as well, particularly in the south-central part of the state. Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Dayton have large African American communities. Cleveland and Toledo have sizable Hispanic populations, while the Cleveland and Columbus areas have the largest Asian populations. Greater Cleveland is home to a notably large Jewish community. Other Ohio cities, such as Cincinnati, also have sizable Hungarian and Jewish populations.

6.6% of Ohio's population were reported as under 5, 25.4% under 18, and 13.3% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.4% of the population.

The first religious settlement in Ohio was founded in 1751 among the Huron Indians in what is now the Sandusky area. Shortly afterward, Moravian missionaries converted some Delaware Indians to Christianity; the first Protestant church was founded by Congregationalist ministers at Marietta in 1788. Dissident religious sects such as the Shakers, Amish, and Quakers moved into Ohio from the early 18th century onward, but the majority of settlers in the early 19th century were Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Disciples of Christ, and Episcopalians.

The largest Protestant denominations and their adherents in 2000 were the United Methodist Church, 566,084; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, 301,749; the Southern Baptist Convention, 200,232; the Presbyterian Church USA, 160,800; the United Church of Christ, 157,180; Christian Churches and Churches of Christ, 142,571; and the American Baptist Churches USA, 117,757. About 6.2 million people (55.1% of the population) declined to be counted as members of any religious organization.

The mixture of urban and rural areas, and the presence of both large blue-collar industries and significant white-collar commercial districts leads to a balance of conservative and liberal population that (together with the state's 20 electoral votes, more than most swing states) makes the state very important to the outcome of national elections. Ohio was a deciding state in the 2004 presidential election between George W. Bush and John Kerry. Bush narrowly won the state's 20 electoral votes by a margin of 2 percentage points and 50.8% of the vote. The state supported Democrat Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, but supported Republican George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004. Democrat Barack Obama won the state in 2008. Ohio was also a deciding factor in the 1948 presidential election when Democrat Harry S. Truman defeated Republican Thomas Dewey (who had won the state four years earlier) and in the 1976 presidential election when Democrat Jimmy Carter defeated Republican Gerald Ford by a slim margin in Ohio and took the election.

Ohio's demographics cause many to consider the state as a microcosm of the nation as a whole. A Republican presidential candidate has never won the White House without winning Ohio, and Ohio has gone to the winner of the election in all but two contests since 1892, backing only losers Thomas E. Dewey in 1944 (Ohio's John Bricker was his running mate) and Richard M. Nixon in 1960. Consequently, the state is very important to the campaigns of both major parties. Ohio had 20 electoral votes in the Electoral College in 2004.

Many political analysts divide the state into five distinct regions: a central region and one in each corner. These regions are as different from each other as most states, and the largest (northeast) is only twice the size of the smallest (southeast). The northeast, including Cleveland, Youngstown, Lorain/Elyria, and other industrial areas, votes solidly Democrat largely due to its traditionally strong unions. The northwest is largely farmland with a few small manufacturing cities such as Toledo and Lima, and leans slightly Republican. The southwest is the most heavily Republican part of the state, especially in the suburbs in between Dayton and Cincinnati. Libertarian candidates also run surprisingly strongly in this area. The Appalachian regions in the Southeast are a swing bloc, tending to favor the candidates who have strong economic agendas. The central part of the state, consisting of Columbus and its suburbs, is typical of many newly large cities: a poor urban Democratic core surrounded by a rich suburban Republican ring.

Ohio is known as the "Modern Mother of Presidents", having sent seven of its native sons to the White House, all of them Republicans. Virginia native William Henry Harrison resided in Ohio when he was the first member of the Whig Party to be elected president.

Ohio's system of public education is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of over 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.

Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranking public libraries. The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison. For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.

The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.

Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials in other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers access to books and other media that might not otherwise be available.

The first openly all-professional sports team called Ohio home: The Cincinnati Red Stockings of Major League Baseball formed in 1869. Today, Ohio is home to several professional sports teams, including seven major professional sports league franchises.

Ohio State is the 5th winningest program in NCAA history and has 7 National Championships and 7 Heisman Trophy winners. Akron, Cincinnati, Bowling Green, Kent State, Miami University, Ohio and Toledo all also compete in Division I-A Football Bowl Subdivision, the highest level of College Football. Toledo holds one of the nation's longest Division I football winning streaks, winning 35 consecutive games from 1969 to 1971 under quarterback Chuck Ealey. Youngstown State is a perennial power in Division I-AA Football Championship Subdivision having won 4 I-AA Championships under Jim Tressel (now OSU Head Coach). Mount Union College is the dynasty of Division III college football with 11 National Championships and a record 62 game winning streak at one point.

Many major east-west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 1900s as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Mansfield, Wooster, Lima, and Van Wert. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Highway 30.

Ohio also is home to 228 miles (367 km) of the Historic National Road, now U.S. Route 40.

Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike (I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to Pennsylvania, I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (Ohio 32) running from West Virginia to Cincinnati. Major north-south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky, and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta down into West Virginia. Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio.

Air travel includes Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, which is a major hub for Continental Airlines, as well as Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (located in the state of Kentucky), which is a major hub for Delta Air Lines. Other major airports are located in Dayton, Toledo, Columbus, and Akron-Canton.

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Sandusky, Ohio

Sandusky Ohio aerial view.jpg

Sandusky is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. The municipality is located in northern Ohio and is situated on the shores of Lake Erie, almost exactly half-way between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east.

The population was 27,844 at the 2000 census. In 2007 Sandusky had an estimated population of 25,861. According to the US Census 2007 estimate, the Sandusky, Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 77,323 residents.

Sandusky is one of Ohio's most popular tourist destinations. The city is home to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, an amusement park and entertainment management company, as well as its flagship amusement park, Cedar Point. Cedar Point features the largest collection of roller coasters in the world as well as many former record holders. Like most Ohio cities, Sandusky's population has decreased since the late 1970s.

The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Sandusky as a Tree City USA.

Fort Sandusky was a British trading and military outpost established around 1794. The Native Americans that inhabited the immediate surrounding area were the Seneca, displaced at the outset of the American Revolution. The generally accepted theory is that the name "Sandusky" is an Anglicization of the phrase "San Too Chee", meaning "cold water." A less accepted theory is that the that the city was named after a Polish fur trader by the name of Antoni Sadowski or Jacob Sodowsky.

The Greater Sandusky area was a safe haven and a new start for refugees of the Firelands refugees of the Revolutionary War in Connecticut. Norwalk, the Huron County seat (just south of Erie County) is named for Norwalk, Connecticut, as is New London, a small town south of Norwalk.

Established as Portland in 1816, the name was changed two years later to Sandusky. Norwalk was also established in 1816; at the time, both were growing towns of a unified Huron County. Not long after, thanks to the growth of both towns, Erie County, Ohio's second smallest (in land area), came into being. The county encompassed newly-rechristened Sandusky's far west side, Vermilion to the east, and Norwalk's northern line to the south.

Prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States, Sandusky was a major stop on the Underground Railroad. As depicted in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, many slaves seeking to reach freedom in Canada made their way to Sandusky, where they boarded boats crossing Lake Erie to the port of Amherstburg in Ontario.

Downtown Sandusky was designed according a modified grid plan known as the Kilbourne Plat after its designer. The original street pattern featured a grid overlaid with streets resembling the symbols of Freemasonry. Hector Kilbourne was a surveyor who laid out this grid in downtown Sandusky. He was the first Worshipful Master of the Sandusky Masonic Lodge.

Sandusky was the site of groundbreaking for the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad on September 17, 1835. Currently, Battery Park Marina is located on original site of the MR&LE Railroad. The tracks that ran through downtown Sandusky have since been removed due to most of the downtown industrial area being re-used for other purposes including mainly marina dockage. The coal docks located west of downtown still use a portion of the original MR&LE lines.

As of the census of 2000, there were 27,844 people, 11,851 households, and 7,039 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,770.5 people per square mile (1,069.7/km²). There were 13,323 housing units at an average density of 1,325.7/sq mi (511.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.50% White, 21.08% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, and 2.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.09% of the population.

There were 11,851 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.7% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.6% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,133, and the median income for a family was $37,749. Males had a median income of $31,269 versus $21,926 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,111. About 12.2% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over.

Sandusky has a very prominent tourism industry fueled by the world-renowned attraction of Cedar Point, and more recently by its many indoor and outdoor water parks.

In 1870, Louis Zistel, a local businessman opened a beer garden, bathhouse, and dance floor on the Cedar Point Peninsula. Over the years, the area became a more and more popular destination for relaxation and leisure. In 1892, the park's first roller coaster, the Switchback Railway, was built. A hotel called the Bay Shore Hotel was opened in 1899. Cedar Point's second roller coaster, the Figure-Eight Roller Toboggan opened in 1902. As the years went on, more and more rides and attractions were added to the park including midway games. Before 1914, the park could only be reached by steamboat, but in that year a roadway was opened connecting the park to the mainland and Sandusky's major roadways. The Cedar Point Marina, one of the largest on the Great Lakes was completed in 1959.

In 1964, the Blue Streak a wooden roller coaster was built and named for the local high school's mascot. It is currently the park's oldest operating roller coaster. In the latter half of the twentieth century, Cedar Point shattered countless roller coaster records with rides like the Corkscrew (first coaster with three or more inversions), the Gemini (tallest and fastest roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1978), the Magnum XL-200 (tallest and fastest roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1989), the Mean Streak (tallest and fastest wooden roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1991), the Raptor (tallest and fastest inverted roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1994), and the Mantis (tallest and fastest stand-up roller coaster in the world when constructed in 1996).

Sandusky is located at 41°26′48″N 82°42′33″W / 41.44667°N 82.70917°W / 41.44667; -82.70917 (41.446741, -82.709092).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.0 square miles (57.0 km²), of which, 10.1 square miles (26.0 km²) of it is land and 11.9 square miles (30.9 km²) of it (54.30%) is water.

Sandusky has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), typical of much of the central United States, with very warm, humid summers and cold winters. Winters tend to be cold, with a average January high temperature of 32°F (0°C), and a average January low temperature of 19°F (–7°C), with considerable variation in temperatures. Sandusky averages 28.4 inches (721.4 mm) of snow per winter. Summers tend to be warm, sometimes hot, with a average July high temperature of 82°F (28°C), and a average July low temperature of 66° (19°C). Summer weather is more stable, generally humid with thunderstorms fairly common. Fall usually is the dryest season with many clear warm days and cool nights.

The highest recorded temperature in Sandusky of 105°F (41°C) was set on July 14, 1936, and the lowest recorded temperature of –20°F (–29°C) was set on January 19, 1994.

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Sandusky.

A Greyhound Lines bus station is located on Route 250 south of Sandusky in Perkins Township.

Auto ferry and passenger/bicycle ferry boats (M/V Jiimaan and M/V Pelee Islander) owned by the Owen Sound Transportation Company run on a regularly-scheduled seasonal basis from Sandusky to Pelee Island to Leamington, Ontario and Kingsville, Ontario.

Sandusky Public Schools enroll 3,775 students in public primary and secondary schools. The district administers 10 public schools including six elementary schools, two middle schools, and two high schools. Other than public schools, the city is home to one private catholic school, St. Mary Central Catholic High School. Both Sandusky High School and St. Mary Central Catholic High School participate in varsity and junior varsity sports; their teams are called the Blue Streaks and Panthers respectively. Sandusky High's colors are navy and white; SMCC's are blue and gold.

Sandusky is served by a daily newspaper, The Sandusky Register, and several local radio stations. BAS Broadcasting owns and operates WCPZ 102.7 FM, which features a hot adult contemporary format, WMJK 100.9 FM (licensed to Clyde, Ohio), which plays classic rock, and WLEC 1450 AM which plays standards. There are several options for Christian radio in the area, including WVMS 89.5 FM, run by the Moody Bible Institute as a relay of WCRF in Cleveland; WGGN 97.7 FM in Castalia, which plays contemporary Christian music and is co-owned with religious WGGN-TV 52; and a translator for the Bible Broadcasting Network at 88.3 FM. Elyria-Lorain Broadcasting operates several stations serving the Sandusky area, including WKFM 96.1 FM (country music) and WLKR-FM 95.3 FM (modern adult/adult alternative) and WLKR 1510 AM (sports talk). Stations from the Toledo, Cleveland, Detroit, Windsor and Fremont areas also reach the Sandusky area.

Perkins Township is a township that lies south of Perkins Avenue, which bisects what is informally considered the Sandusky Metropolitan Area. The Sandusky Mall and the Sandusky Speedway are located south of Perkins Avenue, and therefore lie in Perkins Township. Perkins Township does not have its own main post office, so the township uses Sandusky city's ZIP code of 44870.

Bellevue‡ | Huron | Sandusky | Vermilion‡

Bay View | Berlin Heights | Castalia | Kelleys Island | Milan‡

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Toledo, Ohio

Location in the state of Ohio

Toledo is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Lucas County. Named after Toledo, Spain, it is located on the western end of Lake Erie, on the Michigan border. It is the principal city in the Toledo Metropolitan Statistical Area. In the 2000 census, the city proper had a population of 313,619, fourth-largest in the state. According to the US Census, the metropolitan area had a population of 650,955, while the Combined Statistical Area had a population of 711,952. Residents of Toledo are usually referred to as Toledoans. Toledo is known as the Glass City because of its long history of innovation in all aspects of the glass industry: windows, bottles, windshields, construction materials, and glass art, of which the Toledo Museum of Art has a large collection. Several large glass companies have their origins here. Owens-Illinois, Owens Corning, Libbey Glass, Pilkington North America (formerly Libbey Owens Ford), and Therma-Tru have long been a staple of Toledo's economy. Other off-shoots and spinoffs of these companies also continue to play important roles in Toledo's economy. Fiberglass giant Johns Manville's two plants in the metro area were originally built by a subsidiary of Libbey Owens Ford. Many other companies that service the glass industry also began in Toledo, such as Toledo Engineering and Glasstech.

Toledo had also been known as "The Auto Parts Capital of the World". Several large, Fortune 500 automotive related companies had their headquarters in Toledo. Electric AutoLite, Sheller-Globe Corporation, Champion Spark Plug, Questor, and Dana Corporation are examples of large auto parts companies that began in Toledo. Only Dana Corporation is still in existence as an independent entity. The Jeep vehicle has been manufactured in Toledo since 1941 as well. Willys-Overland was a major automaker headquartered in Toledo until 1953.

The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Toledo as a Tree City USA.

An almost bloodless conflict between Ohio and the Michigan Territory, called the Toledo War (1835-1836), was "fought" over a narrow strip of land from the Indiana border to Lake Erie, now containing the city and the suburbs of Sylvania and Oregon. The strip—which varied between five and eight miles (13 km) in width—was claimed by the state of Ohio and the Michigan Territory due to old conflicting legislation about where the Ohio-Michigan state line should be. Militias from both states were sent but never engaged. The only casualty of the conflict was a Michigan deputy sheriff—stabbed in the leg by Two Stickney during the arrest of his elder brother, One Stickney—and the loss of two horses, two pigs and a few chickens stolen from an Ohio farm by lost members of the Michigan militia.

In the end, the state of Ohio was awarded the land after the state of Michigan was given the Upper Peninsula in exchange. Stickney Avenue in Toledo is named for One and Two Stickney.

Adams Township was a township in Lucas County until it was incorporated into the city of Toledo in the 1960s. The area is now part of west Toledo, and is just east of Springfield Township, north of the city of Maumee, and included the town of Ottawa Hills as its eastern border.

The area that would become Adams Township was settled around 1833, a few years before Toledo became a city. It had been chartered as Carey Township in 1856, but the name was changed to Adams in 1860. With a growing population, there was a desire by the residents to incorporate the township under the name "Adams Heights", but the area would eventually become part of Toledo in the 1960s. Toledo Rogers High School is located in what was Adams Township and was a member of the GLL for athletics until the area became incorporated into Toledo, and then it became a member of the City League.

Toledo is located at 41°39′56″N 83°34′31″W / 41.66556°N 83.57528°W / 41.66556; -83.57528 (41.665682, -83.575337). The city sits astride the Maumee River at the southern end of Maumee Bay, which is the westernmost inlet of Lake Erie. Toledo is north of what was formerly the Great Black Swamp, giving rise to another nickname, Frog Town. An important ecological site, a sandy oak savanna called the Oak Openings region, lies just west.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 84.1 square miles (217.8 km²), of which, 80.6 square miles (208.8 km²) of it is land and 3.5 square miles (8.9 km²) of it (4.10%) is water.

Toledo, like several other cities in the Great Lakes region, experiences a lake-moderated continental climate, characterized by four distinct seasons varying significantly in temperature and precipitation. Lake Erie moderates its climate somewhat, especially in late spring and fall, when air and water temperature differences are maximal. However, this effect is tempered in the winter by the fact that Lake Erie freezes over much more readily than the other Great Lakes, coupled with prevailing winds that are often westerly. Southerly and westerly prevailing winds combined with warm surface waters of Lake Erie in summer also negate the lake's cooling ability on the city, however the lake's presence increases humidity.

The warmest month of the year is July, when high temperatures average 87 °F (30 °C), and overnight low temperatures average 66 °F (19 °C), the warmest of any Great Lakes city. January is the coldest month, when high temperatures average 33 °F (1 °C), and low temperatures average 20 °F (-7 °C). The wettest month of the year is June, when 3.84 inches (97.5 mm) of precipitation falls. The driest month is January, when 2.00 inches (50.8 mm) of precipitation falls, mostly as snowfall. The warmest temperature ever recorded in Toledo was 105 °F (41 °C) on July 14, 1936. The coldest temperature ever recorded was -20 °F (-29 °C), on January 21, 1984. The record high in the month of January in Toledo was set January 7, 2008 with the high temperature at 68 °F (20 °C) which was broken at Toledo Express Airport.

As of the census of 2000, there were 313,619 people, 128,925 households, and 77,355 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,890.2 people per square mile (1,502.0/km²). There were 139,871 housing units at an average density of 1,734.9/sq mi (669.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.23% White, 23.55% African American, 0.31% Native American, 1.03% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.28% from other races, and 2.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.47% of the population. The top 5 largest ancestries include German (23.4%), Irish (10.8%), Polish (10.1%), English (6.0%), and French (4.6%).

In 2000 there were 128,925 households in Toledo, out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.0% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. There was a total of 139,871 housing units in the city, of which 10,946 (7.8%) were vacant.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,546, and the median income for a family was $41,175. Males had a median income of $35,407 versus $25,023 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,388. About 14.2% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.9% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over.

The U.S. Census Bureau estimated Toledo's population as 297,806 in 2006 and 295,029 in 2007. In response to an appeal by the City of Toledo, the Census Bureau's July 2007 estimate was revised to 316,851, slightly more than in 2000 .

Historically, before the industrial revolution, Toledo was a port city on the Great Lakes. But with the advent of the automobile, the city became best known for industrial manufacturing, although these industries have declined considerably in past decades. Both General Motors and Chrysler have factories in metropolitan Toledo, and automobile manufacturing has been important at least since Kirk began operations early in the 20th Century. The city is home to two Fortune 500 companies: Dana Corporation and Owens Corning. Another Fortune 500 company, formerly located at One SeaGate, is Owens-Illinois. O-I has recently relocated to suburban Perrysburg. One SeaGate is currently the location of Fifth-Third Banks Northwest Ohio headquarters. HCR Manor Care is an up and coming Fortune 1000 company headquartered in Toledo. Though the largest employer in Toledo was Jeep for much of the 20th century, this honor has recently gone to the University of Toledo. Manufacturing as a whole now employs fewer Toledoans than does the healthcare industry, now the city's biggest employer. In 2001, a taxpayer lawsuit was filed against Toledo that challenged the constitutionality of tax incentives it extended to DaimlerChrysler for the expansion of its Jeep plant. The case was won by the city on a technical issue after it reached the U.S. Supreme Court in DaimlerChrysler Corp. v. Cuno, 547 U.S. ___ (2006).

Toledo is home to several other large companies. Faurecia Exhaust Systems, which is a $2 billion subsidiary to France's Faurecia SA, and Pilkington North America, which is a $900 million subsidiary to Britain's Pilkington Ltd., are located in Toledo.

Toledo is the primary market city for northwest Ohio, a region of nine counties with a population in excess of one million. As such there is a high concentration of retail establishments and medical facilities in Toledo. The city's location near the intersection of I-80/I-90 and I-75 (i.e. "The Crossroads of America") has made it a popular hub location for transportation companies such as UPS and BAX Global. Toledo is also the nation's third busiest rail hub, 15th-busiest air cargo hub, and one of the busiest ports on the Great Lakes.

Toledo Public Schools operates public schools within much of the city limits, along with the Washington Local School District in northern Toledo.

Additionally, several private and parochial primary and secondary schools are present within the Toledo area. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Toledo operates Roman Catholic primary and secondary schools.

Private high schools in Toledo include Maumee Valley Country Day School, Central Catholic High School, St. Francis de Sales High School, St. John's Jesuit High School and Academy, Notre Dame Academy, St. Ursula Academy (Ottawa Hills), Cardinal Stritch High School (Oregon), the Toledo Islamic Academy, Freedom Christian Academy, Toledo Christian Schools, Emmanuel Christian, the David S. Stone Hebrew Academy (Sylvania),Apostolic Christian Academy and Toledo School for the Arts.

The following are media outlets located in the city of Toledo. Also serving the city are a number of other radio and television stations, and newspapers located outside the city limits, including many such media outlets in the Detroit, Michigan, area. Some of these newspapers and broadcasting stations are listed below, with the city of publication or license noted when occurring outside of Toledo.

The Blade, a daily newspaper, is the primary newspaper in Toledo and was founded in 1835. It considers itself to be one of the best local newspapers in the United States. Page one of each issue asserts "One of America's Great Newspapers." The city's arts and entertainment weekly is the Toledo City Paper. In March 2005, the weekly newspaper Toledo Free Press began publication, and it has a focus on news and sports. Other weeklies include the "West Toledo Herald," "El Tiempo", La Prensa, Sojourner's Truth, "Toledo Journal, and now Midwesturban Newspaperas well as type A magazine, a quarterly publication focused on Toledo's anarchist community. Toledo Tales provides satire and parody of life in the Glass City.

The Midwest Uran Newspaper and Toledo Journal are African-American owned newspapers. It is published weekly, and normally focuses on African-American issues.

The Toledo Mud Hens are one of minor league baseball's oldest teams, having first played in 1896. Fifth Third Field, however, is a new stadium, having been completed in 2002. In 2005, the Mud Hens won the International League Governor's Cup Championship by beating the Indianapolis Indians and again in 2006 by defeating the Rochester Red Wings. Fifth Third Field also made record-breaking attendance in 2007 with over 590,000 fans, the most in franchise history. The Mud Hens are the AAA affiliate of the Detroit Tigers.

The Toledo Walleye is an ECHL hockey team scheduled to play at the Lucas County Arena in 2009. The Walleye is a farm team for American Hockey League affiliate Grand Rapids Griffins and Rockford Icehogs. They are also affiliated with the Detroit Red Wings and Chicago Blackhawks of the NHL.

The Toledo Bullfrogs are an af2 arena football team scheduled to begin play at the Lucas County Arena in 2010. The name in an homage to Toledo's old nickname of "Frog Town," a result of their location by the former Great Black Swamp.

The University of Toledo fields teams in many intercollegiate sports, quite a number of which enjoy loyal followings by Toledo sports fans. The Toledo Rockets football team plays at the Glass Bowl, while the basketball teams compete at Savage Hall.

Inverness Club is a golf club in Toledo. It is known for hosting six major USGA events, including the 2003 U.S. Senior Open. Highland Meadows Golf Club is home to LPGA's Jamie Farr Owens Corning Classic presented by Kroger. The 2011 U.S. Senior Open will be hosted at Inverness July 25 - 31, 2011.

Toledo Speedway is a local auto racetrack that features, among other events, stock car racing and concerts.

Toledo Express Airport serves the city. For international flights and expanded destinations, the Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport is a 50 minute drive north.

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Toledo under the Capitol Limited and the Lake Shore Limited. Both lines stop at Martin Luther King, Jr. Plaza (Toledo) which is the train station in Toledo.

Freight rail service in Toledo is operated by the Norfolk Southern Railway, CSX Transportation, Canadian National Railway, Ann Arbor Railroad, and Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway. All except the Wheeling have local terminals; The Wheeling operates into Toledo from the east through trackage rights on Norfolk Southern to connect with the Ann Arbor and the CN.

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Source : Wikipedia