Ornette Coleman

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Posted by sonny 04/15/2009 @ 06:07

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Cecil and Miles in NYC (and India) - All About Jazz
Frequent readers of this blog know I'm fascinated (not obsessed) with Davis, Taylor and Ornette Coleman, who (as I write in my book published in 2008) opened myriad possibilities for jazz and other forms of music by leaving conventions behind....
Hegarty, Flea and more for Ornette Coleman curated Meltdown - Drowned In Sound
by Luke Slater [Edit this content] ▾ 3 comments 15:09 May 22nd, 2009 There's some wonderful new additions to this year's Meltdown festival, hosted by the Southbank Centre and curated by jazz legend Ornette Coleman. Antony Hegarty of Antony & The...
Win Golden Tickets to Ornette Coleman's Meltdown - guardian.co.uk
Avant-garde icon and free jazz pioneer Ornette Coleman curates this year's Meltdown festival at Southbank Centre, presenting a fantastic line-up that reflects his career and widespread influence. Coleman handpicks an eclectic selection of performers,...
Ending an experiment with its lineup, Yoshi's-San Francisco goes ... - San Jose Mercury News
The fun hits high gear when bassist Charlie Haden, a progressive force in jazz since anchoring Ornette Coleman's epochal quartet in 1959, opens a three-night run June 8 with vibraphone master Bobby Hutcherson and sublime pianist George Cables,...
Ornette Coleman's Meltdown line-up announced - Virtual Festivals
Free jazz pioneer Ornette Coleman has revealed the line-up for this year's Meltdown, which he has curated. Antony Hegarty, from Antony and the Johnsons, will be joining Sean Lennon and Cornelius in Yoko Ono's conceptual rock band Yoko Ono Plastic Ono...
The Beast begins weekend - The Herald-Sun
By Cliff Bellamy : The Herald-Sun Maybe your musical preferences lean toward Ornette Coleman and Sarah Vaughan. Or maybe you prefer Kanye West and Ne-Yo. Either way, musician and poet Pierce Freelon wants you to show up and open your ears when The...
Charlie Haden: Song for Ché - Jazz.com
Haden locates the tonal center of a song regardless of whether it'sa simple traditional country of the Louvin Brothers or the strange non-traditional jazz of Ornette Coleman. His own “Song For Ché” is his heartfelt lament for the iconic Latin American...
Martin Eagle and Friends' Tomorrow - The Independent Weekly
While it would be easy for a technically astute ensemble like this to do a study of that exploratory bop era, as true Ornette Coleman-style free jazz was emerging, this isn't just a cold reading of a form. It radiates the warmth of several men in a...
Uma Noite Livre - Blitz
The plot thickened when Bley moved to California in 1957 and began holding down a steady engagement at the Hillcrest Club in Los Angeles, where he was recorded in 1958 with saxophonist Ornette Coleman , trumpeter Don Cherry , bassist Charlie Haden...
SFJAZZ teases with fall festival artists - Examiner.com
Big names include singer Dee Dee Bridgewater, Indian sitar legend Ravi Shankar, free jazz pioneer Ornette Coleman, banjo liberator Bela Fleck and guitarist John Abercrombie. Other interesting acts include a pairing of New Orleans trumpeter Nicholas...

Ornette Coleman

Ornette Coleman at a concert in October 2005 in Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany

Ornette Coleman (born March 9, 1930) is an American saxophonist, violinist, trumpeter and composer. He was one of the major innovators of the free jazz movement of the 1950s and 1960s.

Coleman's timbre is easily recognized: his keening, crying sound draws heavily on blues music. His album Sound Grammar received the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for music.

Coleman was born and raised in Fort Worth, Texas, where he began performing R&B and bebop initially on tenor saxophone. Seeking a way to work his way out of his home town, he took a job in 1949 with a Silas Green from New Orleans traveling show and then with touring rhythm and blues shows. After a show in Baton Rouge, he was assaulted and his saxophone was destroyed.

He switched to alto, which has remained his primary instrument, first playing it in New Orleans after the Baton Rouge incident. He then joined the band of Pee Wee Crayton and travelled with them to Los Angeles. He worked at various jobs, including as an elevator operator, while pursuing his musical career.

Even from the beginning of Coleman's career, his music and playing were in many ways unorthodox. His approach to harmony and chord progression was far less rigid than that of bebop performers; he was increasingly interested in playing what he heard rather than fitting it into predetermined chorus-structures and harmonies. His raw, highly vocalized sound and penchant for playing "in the cracks" of the scale led many Los Angeles jazz musicians to regard Coleman's playing as out-of-tune; he sometimes had difficulty finding like-minded musicians with whom to perform. Nevertheless, pianist Paul Bley was an early supporter and musical collaborator.

In 1958 Coleman led his first recording session for Contemporary, Something Else!!!!: The Music of Ornette Coleman. The session also featured trumpeter Don Cherry, drummer Billy Higgins, bassist Don Payne and Walter Norris on piano.

1959 found Coleman very busy. He signed a multi-album contract with Atlantic Records and released Tomorrow Is the Question!, a quartet album, with Shelly Manne on drums, and excluding the piano, which he would not use again until the 1990s. Next Coleman brought double bassist Charlie Haden – one of a handful of his most important collaborators – into a regular group with Haden, Cherry, and Higgins. (All four had played with Paul Bley the previous year.) They recorded The Shape of Jazz to Come in 1959. It was, according to critic Steve Huey, "a watershed event in the genesis of avant-garde jazz, profoundly steering its future course and throwing down a gauntlet that some still haven't come to grips with." While definitely – if somewhat loosely – blues-based and often quite melodic, the album's compositions were considered at that time harmonically unusual and unstructured. Some musicians and critics saw Coleman as an iconoclast; others, including conductor Leonard Bernstein and composer Virgil Thomson regarded him as a genius and an innovator.

On the Atlantic recordings, Scott LaFaro sometimes replaces Charlie Haden on double bass and either Billy Higgins or Ed Blackwell features on Drums. These recordings are collected in a boxed set, Beauty Is a Rare Thing.

Part of the uniqueness of Coleman's early sound came from his use of a plastic saxophone. He had first bought a plastic horn in Los Angeles in 1954 because he was unable to afford a metal saxophone, though he didn't like the sound of the plastic instrument at first. Coleman later claimed that it sounded drier, without the pinging sound of metal.

In more recent years, he has played a metal saxophone.

In 1960, Coleman recorded Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation, which featured a double quartet, including Cherry and Freddie Hubbard on trumpet, Eric Dolphy on bass clarinet, Haden and LaFaro on bass, and both Higgins and Blackwell on drums. The record was recorded in stereo, with a reed/brass/bass/Drums quartet isolated in each stereo channel. Free Jazz was, at nearly 40 minutes, the lengthiest recorded continuous jazz performance to date, and was instantly one of Coleman's most controversial albums. The music features a regular but complex pulse, one drummer playing "straight" while the other played double-time; the thematic material is a series of brief, dissonant fanfares; as is conventional in jazz, there are a series of solo features for each member of the band, but the other soloists are free to chime in as they wish, producing some extraordinary passages of collective improvisation by the full octet.

Coleman intended “Free Jazz” simply to be the album title, but his growing reputation placed him at the forefront of jazz innovation, and free jazz was soon considered a new genre, though Coleman has expressed discomfort with the term.

Among the reasons Coleman may not have entirely approved of the term free jazz is that his music contains a considerable amount of composition. His melodic material, although skeletal, strongly recalls the melodies that Charlie Parker wrote over standard harmonies, and in general the music is closer to the bebop that came before it than is sometimes popularly imagined. (Several early tunes of his, for instance, are clearly based on favorite bop chord changes like "Out of Nowhere" and "I Got Rhythm.") Coleman very rarely played standards, concentrating on his own compositions, of which there seems to be an endless flow. There are exceptions, though, including a classic reading (virtually a recomposition) of "Embraceable You" for Atlantic, and an improvisation on Thelonious Monk's "Criss-Cross" recorded with Gunther Schuller.

After the Atlantic period and into the early part of the 1970s, Coleman's music became more angular and engaged fully with the jazz avant-garde which had developed in part around Coleman's innovations.

Between 1965 and 1967 Coleman signed with legendary jazz record label Blue Note Records and released a number of recordings starting with the influential recordings of the trio At the Golden Circle Stockholm.

In 1966, Coleman was criticised for recording The Empty Foxhole, a trio with Haden, and Coleman's son Denardo Coleman – who was ten years old. Some regarded this as perhaps an ill-advised publicity ploy on Coleman's part, and judged the move as a misstep. Others, however, noted that despite his youth, Denardo had studied drumming for several years, his technique – which, though unrefined, was respectable and enthusiastic – owed more to pulse-oriented free jazz drummers like Sunny Murray than to bebop drumming. Denardo has matured into a respected musician, and has been his father's primary drummer since the late 1970s.

Coleman formed another quartet. A number of bassists and drummers (including Haden, Jimmy Garrison and Elvin Jones) appeared, and Dewey Redman joined the group, usually on tenor saxophone.

In 1969, Coleman was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame.

Later, however, Coleman, like Miles Davis before him, took to playing with electrified instruments. Albums like Virgin Beauty and Of Human Feelings used rock and funk rhythms, sometimes called free funk. On the face of it, this could seem to be an adoption of the jazz fusion mode fashionable at the time, but Ornette's first record with the group, which later became known as Prime Time (the 1976 Dancing in Your Head), was sufficiently different to have considerable shock value. Electric guitars were prominent, but the music was, at heart, rather similar to his earlier work. These performances have the same angular melodies and simultaneous group improvisations – what Joe Zawinul referred to as "nobody solos, everybody solos" and what Coleman calls harmolodics—and although the nature of the pulse has altered, Coleman's own rhythmic approach has not.

Some critics have suggested Coleman's frequent use of the vaguely-defined term harmolodics is a musical MacGuffin: a red herring of sorts designed to occupy critics over-focused on Coleman's sometimes unorthodox compositional style.

Jerry Garcia played guitar on three tracks from Coleman's Virgin Beauty (1988) - "Three Wishes," "Singing In The Shower," and "Desert Players." Twice in 1993, Coleman joined the Grateful Dead on stage playing the band's "The Other One," "Wharf Rat," "Stella Blue," and covering Bobby Bland's "Turn On Your Lovelight," among others. Another unexpected association was with guitarist Pat Metheny, with whom Coleman recorded Song X (1985); though released under Metheny's name, Coleman was essentially co-leader (contributing all the compositions).

In 1990 the City of Reggio Emilia in Italy promotes a three days "Portrait of the Artist" where Coleman plays with Prime Time, in quartet with Don Cherry, Charlie Haden and Billy Higgins. The festival presents also performances of his chamber music works and of the symphonic Skyes of America.

In 1991, Coleman played on the soundtrack for David Cronenberg's Naked Lunch; the orchestra was conducted by Howard Shore. It is notable among other things for including a rare sighting of Coleman playing a jazz standard: Thelonious Monk's blues line “Misterioso.” Two 1972 (pre-electric) Coleman recordings, "Happy House" and "Foreigner in a Free Land" were used in Gus Van Sant's 1995 Finding Forrester.

The mid-1990s saw a flurry of activity from Coleman: He released four records between 1995 and 1996, and for the first time in many years worked regularly with piano players (either Geri Allen or Joachim Kühn).

Coleman has rarely performed on other musicians' records. Exceptions include extensive performances on albums by Jackie McLean in 1967 (New and Old Gospel, on which he played trumpet), and James Blood Ulmer in 1978, and cameo appearances on Yoko Ono's Plastic Ono Band album (1970), Jamaaladeen Tacuma's Renaissance Man (1983), Joe Henry's Scar (2001) and Lou Reed's The Raven (2003).

In September 2006 he released a live album titled Sound Grammar with his newest quartet (Denardo drumming and two bassists, Gregory Cohen and Tony Falanga). This is his first album of new material in ten years, and was recorded in Germany in 2005. It won the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for music.

Coleman was performing at the Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival in Manchester, Tennessee on June 17, 2007 when he collapsed due to heat stroke on a day when temperatures peaked at 95 degrees. He was rushed to a nearby hospital where his condition soon stabilized.

Although now an elder statesman of jazz, Coleman continues to push himself into unusual playing situations, often with much younger musicians or musicians from radically different musical cultures, and continues to perform regularly. An increasing number of his compositions, while not ubiquitous, have become minor jazz standards, including "Lonely Woman," "Peace," "Turnaround," "When Will the Blues Leave?" "The Blessing," "Law Years," "What Reason Could I Give" and "I've Waited All My Life", among others. He has influenced virtually every saxophonist of a modern disposition, and nearly every such jazz musician, of the generation that followed him. His songs have proven endlessly malleable: pianists such as Paul Bley and Paul Plimley have managed to turn them to their purposes; John Zorn recorded Spy vs Spy (1989), an album of extremely loud, fast, and abrupt versions of Coleman songs. Finnish jazz singer Carola covered Coleman's "Lonely Woman" and here have even been country-music versions of Coleman tunes (by Richard Greene). Coleman's playing has profoundly influenced, directly or otherwise, countless musicians, trying as he has for five decades to understand and discover the shape of not just jazz, but all music to come.

On February 11, 2007, Ornette Coleman was honored with a Grammy award for lifetime achievement, in recognition of this legacy.

On March 29, 2009, Ornette Coleman was announced as this years director of the 2009 Meltdown Festival (Meltdown (festival)) at London's Southbank Centre to take place in June 09. This will be the 16th year of the event and Ornette follows in the footsteps of previous curators including David Bowie, Patti Smith, John Peel and Lee 'Scratch' Perry.

The line-up is still to be announced.

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Free jazz

Free jazz is an approach to jazz music that was first developed in the 1950s and 1960s.

Though the music produced by free jazz pioneers varied widely, the common feature was a dissatisfaction with the limitations of bebop, hard bop, and modal jazz, which had developed in the 1940s and '50s. Each in their own way, free jazz musicians attempted to alter, extend, or break down the conventions of jazz, often by discarding hitherto invariable features of jazz, such as fixed chord changes or tempos. While usually considered experimental and avant-garde, free jazz has also oppositely been conceived as an attempt to return jazz to its "primitive," often religious roots, and emphasis on collective improvisation.

Free jazz is most strongly associated with the '50s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the later works of saxophonist John Coltrane. Other important pioneers included Eric Dolphy, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, Bill Dixon, and Sun Ra.

Although today "free jazz" is the generally-used term, many other terms were used to describe the loosely-defined movement, including "avant-garde", "energy music" and "The New Thing" . Free jazz players were often said to be playing "outside" or "out" (as opposed to "inside", that is, conventionally).

There is no universally accepted definition of free jazz, and any proposed definition is complicated by many musicians in other styles drawing on free jazz, or free jazz sometimes blending with other genres. Many musicians also tend to reject efforts at classification, regarding them as useless or unduly limiting.

Typically this kind of music is played by small groups of musicians, but some albums like John Coltrane's 1965 album Ascension, use larger groups (said album has 11). Many critics, particularly at the music's inception, suspected that the abandonment of familiar elements of jazz pointed to a lack of technique on the part of the musicians. Many free jazz musicians, notably Pharoah Sanders and John Coltrane, use harsh overblowing techniques or otherwise elicit unconventional sounds from their instruments. Today such views are more marginal, and the music has built up a tradition and a body of accompanying critical writing. It remains less commercially popular than most other forms of jazz.

Beyond this, free jazz is most easily characterized in contrast with what we refer to here as "other forms of jazz", an umbrella which covers ragtime, dixieland, swing, bebop, cool jazz, jazz fusion, and other styles.

Other forms of jazz use clear regular meters and strongly-pulsed rhythms, usually in 4/4 or (less often) 3/4. Free jazz normally retains a general pulsation and often swings but without regular meter, and often with frequent accelerando and ritardando, giving an impression of the rhythm moving in waves. Often players in an ensemble adopt different tempi. Despite all of this, it is still very often possible to tap one's foot to a free jazz performance; rhythm is more freely variable but has not disappeared entirely.

Finally, some forms use composed melodies as the basis for group performance and improvisation. Free jazz practitioners sometimes use such material, and sometimes do not. In some music which is called "free jazz", other compositional structures are employed, some of them very detailed and complex; the music of Anthony Braxton furnishes many examples. It would perhaps be best to call this modern or avant-garde jazz, reserving the term "free jazz" for music with few or no pre-composed elements.

The earliest documented example of free-form improvisation is a pair of 1949 recordings for Capitol by a group led by Lennie Tristano, "Intuition" and "Digression." These do not, however, seem to have had a direct influence on the later free jazz movement.

The mid-1950s recordings of Ornette Coleman for Contemporary (Something Else! and Tomorrow Is the Question) and the first two albums by Cecil Taylor (Jazz Advance and Looking Ahead) mark the beginnings of free jazz, though they still retain a hold on bebop and hard bop languages. The movement received its biggest impetus (and its name), however, when Coleman moved from the West Coast to New York and was signed to Atlantic Records: albums such as The Shape of Jazz to Come and Change of the Century marked a radical step beyond his more conventional early work, and when he released a 1960 recording titled Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation, the name stuck to the movement as a whole.

Much of Sun Ra's music could be classified as free jazz, especially his work from the 1960s, although Sun Ra said repeatedly that his music was written and boasted that what he wrote sounded more free than what "the freedom boys" played.

Some of bassist Charles Mingus' work was also important in establishing free jazz. Of particular note are his early Atlantic albums, such as The Clown, Tijuana Moods, and most notably Pithecanthropus Erectus, the title song of which contained one section that was freely improvised in a style unrelated to the song's melody or chordal structure.

Since the mid-1950s, saxophonist Jackie McLean had been exploring a concept he called "The Big Room", where the often strict rules of bebop could be loosened or abandoned at will. Similarly, Cecil Taylor, the most prominent free jazz pianist, began stretching the bop boundaries as early as 1956.

The Jimmy Giuffre Trio (with Paul Bley and Steve Swallow) received little attention during their original incarnation from 1960-62, but afterwards were regarded as one of the most innovative free jazz ensembles.

Eric Dolphy's work with Charles Mingus, John Coltrane, and Chico Hamilton, along with his solo work, helped to set the stage for free jazz in the music community.

In Europe, free jazz first flowered through the experiments of expatriate Jamaican alto saxophonist Joe Harriott. Beginning in the late 1950s, he worked on his own distinctive concept of what he termed free form. These explorations were parallel to Coleman's in many respects but Harriott's work was barely known outside of England.

Free jazz has primarily been an instrumental genre. However, Jeanne Lee was a notable free jazz vocalist; others such as Sheila Jordan, Linda Sharrock, and Patty Waters also made notable contributions to the genre.

Much of the multi-instrumentalist Anthony Braxton's music could be classified as free jazz. His Ghost Trance Music, which introduces a steady pulse to his music, also allows the simultaneous performance of any piece by the performers. Braxton has recorded with many of the free jazz musicians, including Ornette Coleman and European free improvisers such as Derek Bailey, Evan Parker, and the Globe Unity Orchestra.

The 1960s free jazz ethos was continued in the New York 1970s "loft jazz" scene (in locations such as Sam Rivers' Studio RivBea), and the 1980s "downtown" scene associated with places such as the Knitting Factory. A younger generation of players including David S. Ware, Matthew Shipp, William Parker and Joe Morris continued to play free jazz inspired by the ground-breaking work of the 1960s New Thing. Like other styles of jazz, free jazz also adopted elements of contemporary rock, funk and pop music: Ornette Coleman was a leader in this vein, embracing electric music with his 1970s band Prime Time, and a number of other players including James Blood Ulmer, Sonny Sharrock, and Ronald Shannon Jackson forged styles combining elements of free jazz and fusion.

The 1981 documentary film Imagine the Sound explores free jazz through interviews with and performances by Archie Shepp, Paul Bley, Cecil Taylor and Bill Dixon.

In Europe, beginning in the mid-1960s, players such as guitarist Derek Bailey, saxophonists Peter Brötzmann and Evan Parker and drummer John Stevens developed an idiom that came to be called "free improvisation." It drew sustenance from free jazz while moving much further from jazz tradition (often drawing equally on contemporary composers such as Anton Webern and John Cage for inspiration).

Many musicians are keeping the free jazz style alive in the present day, continuing its development as a jazz idiom. Two major scenes in the United States are based in New York and Chicago. In New York, players include William Parker, Vijay Iyer, Matana Roberts, Chad Taylor, John Zorn, Assif Tsahar, and Tom Abbs. In Chicago, notable performers are Fred Anderson, David Boykin, Nicole Mitchell, Ernest Dawkins, Karl E. H. Seigfried, Aaron Getsug, and Hamid Drake.

The emergence of free jazz, like previous developments in jazz, was largely tied to the African-American experience. This idea can be seen in the approaches of the musicians themselves, as in Ornette Coleman's This Is Our Music (1960). Both these developments, bebop in 1940 and free jazz in 1960, reveal directions that were more intellectual, less danceable, and less marketable to white audiences. Musicians like Shepp, the Art Ensemble of Chicago (the flagship group of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians or AACM), and Sun Ra made Black identity an integral part of their public personae as musicians, more visibly than previous generations of jazz musicians. This is not to say that the music was racially segregated; white bassist Charlie Haden was a member of Ornette Coleman's influential quartet, and free jazz's principles were quickly assimilated into musical developments in all corners of global society.

Many free jazz musicians regard the music as signifying in a broadly religious way, or to have gnostic or mystical connotations, as an aide to meditation or self-reflection, as evidenced by Coltrane's Om album, or Charles Gayle's Repent. Other may emphasize nihilism, determinism and fatalism, as exemplified in the Brötzmann-designed Last Exit album cover showing a smashed, pulverized crow. As traditional mysticism denigrates the significance of transitory reality and the material world, highlighting the meaningless of time and the essentiality of living in the moment, the two outlooks are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Some African-American free jazz artists could also be seen as gnostic, by way of the blues tradition, highlighting the arbitrariness, senselessness and pain of life and phenomenal consciousness, with a subtext of transcendence by way of a higher power. See, for example, Archie Shepp's "Rufus (Swung, his face at last to the wind, then his neck snapped)" which dramatizes the lynching of an African-American slave.

Outside of North America, free jazz scenes have become established in Europe and Japan. Alongside the aforementioned Joe Harriott, saxophonists Peter Brötzmann, Evan Parker, trombonist Conny Bauer, guitarist Derek Bailey and drummer Han Bennink were among the most well-known early European free jazz performers. European free jazz can generally be seen as approaching free improvisation, with an ever more distant relationship to jazz tradition. That being said, specifically Brötzmann has had a significant impact on the free jazz players of the U.S. Also behind iron curtain was relatively active free jazz scene which producted great musicians like Tomasz Stanko, Zbigniew Seifert, Vladimir Chekasin, Vyacheslav Ganelin and Vladimir Tarasov. Japanese guitarist Masayuki Takayanagi and saxophonist Kaoru Abe, among others, took free jazz in another direction, approaching the energy levels of noise. Some international jazz musicians have come to North America and become immersed in free jazz, most notably Ivo Perelman from Brazil and Gato Barbieri of Argentina (this influence is evident in Barbieri's early work, but fades in his later, more commercially oriented efforts). American musicians like Don Cherry, John Coltrane, Milford Graves, and Pharoah Sanders integrated elements of the music of Africa, India, and the Middle East for a sort of World music-influenced free jazz.

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Avant-garde jazz

Avant-garde jazz (also known as avant-jazz) is a style of music and improvisation that combines avant-garde art music and composition with jazz. Avant-jazz often sounds very similar to free jazz, but differs in that, despite its distinct departure from traditional harmony, it has a predetermined structure over which improvisation may take place. This structure may be composed note for note in advance, partially or even completely.

The origins of avant-garde jazz are in the innovations of the immediate acolytes of Charlie Parker. Based in New York City, now-canonical musicians such as Charles Mingus, Miles Davis, and John Coltrane introduced modal improvisation and experimented with atonality and dissonance. Sun Ra, Cecil Taylor, and Ornette Coleman became a new vanguard of controversial jazz innovators, outside the range of what many fans considered listenable.

John Coltrane's increasingly experimental work, and the Impulse! label became the flagbearers of the avant-garde jazz scene. Musicians associated with this high-volume variety of avant-garde jazz (sometimes referred to as "fire music") included Archie Shepp, Albert Ayler, McCoy Tyner, Don Cherry, Pharaoh Sanders and Coltrane's wife Alice. Some of these musicians also began to take on an oppositional relationship to the mainstream music industry, preferring to release records themselves through independent labels such as ESP-Disk. This wing of avant-garde jazz was taken as emblematic of the Black Power movement, and also sometimes had mystical intentions.

Musicians who incorporated the innovations of free and avant-garde jazz, but remained within a more conventional framework, recorded for Blue Note Records. Miles Davis's second quintet (Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, and Tony Williams), as well as others such as Eric Dolphy and Andrew Hill, are the best-remembered representatives of this style.

Meanwhile, in Chicago, the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians began pursuing their own variety of avant-garde jazz, sometimes described as "postmodern" jazz. The AACM musicians (Muhal Richard Abrams, Anthony Braxton, Roscoe Mitchell, and the Art Ensemble of Chicago) tended towards eclecticism, and incorporated developments in 20th century classical music (particularly Karlheinz Stockhausen and John Cage) as well as funk and ska, in addition to Dixieland and other elements of jazz history. Rahsaan Roland Kirk also made use of pastiche.

The 1970s saw the development of jazz fusion. It is questionable whether this can be considered a form of avant-garde jazz, though Miles Davis's recordings of this period, in particular, appear quite innovative and take inspiration from serialism and aleatoric music, just as the AACM did. In any case, hardcore jazz fans tended to regard early jazz fusion as a commercial sell-out move. However, by the early-to-mid-'70s, many free jazz icons, such as Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, and Ornette Coleman were experimenting with rock and funk. Coleman would eventually develop the free funk style, which would be further explored by the M-Base musicians in the 1980s.

Jazz also became considerably more international in the 1970s, as saxophonists Gato Barbieri (Argentine), Kaoru Abe (Japanese), Peter Brötzmann (German), and pianist Sergey Kuryokhin (Russian), attest. European free jazz, in particular, began to develop. Evan Parker and Derek Bailey were pioneers of the new non-idiomatic style. Some veteran avant-garde jazz musicians (Charlie Haden), and much of the new blood, including a number who had played with Miles Davis in the 1970s (Dave Holland, Keith Jarrett, Chick Corea) and several Europeans (Jan Garbarek, among them), began to record for the ECM label. The ECM sound, invariably recorded by Manfred Eicher, tended towards an elegant, refined, polished style that owed a great deal to the history of classical music. ECM also released recordings of minimalist and medieval music, and work by the Art Ensemble of Chicago (who were considerably messier than the ECM stereotype would indicate). A number of the AACM and ECM musicians would collaborate with one another, for example in the group Circle.

Many of the AACM musicians moved to New York City, where they provided the nucleus of the loft jazz scene. The World Saxophone Quartet also emerged from this milieu.

The 1980s saw the pre-eminence of Wynton Marsalis and his classicist approach, and a resulting diminution of the visibility of the avant-garde. However, as avant-garde jazz was a prime influence on no wave, New York City became the center of a new crop of aggressive improvisors: John Zorn, Borbetomagus, the Lounge Lizards, James Chance, James Blood Ulmer, Sonny Sharrock, Diamanda Galás, Bill Laswell (who also worked on Herbie Hancock's funk and electro recordings) and Bill Frisell (who had also recorded with the ECM musicians) among them. This development is referred to as punk jazz.

John Zorn, in particular, became an iconic figure in the "downtown" music scene, performing in free jazz, free improvisation, and a variety of rock and extreme music styles. Many of these musicians actually resided in Brooklyn; Tim Berne is a prominent representative.

The 1990s saw a return in visibility to the Chicago jazz scene, including players with links to the AACM. Most prominent are David Boykin, Aaron Getsug, Nicole Mitchell and Karl E. H. Seigfried - all of who came up through Fred Anderson's Velvet Lounge. Other players include Ken Vandermark, Jeff Parker, and Kevin Drumm; these musicians had connections to the post-rock or noise rock scenes.

Likewise, there was an increase in vitality in the remnants of the loft jazz scene in New York, centered around David S. Ware. Matthew Shipp, Susie Ibarra, and William Parker practised a more traditional variety of avant-garde jazz than the punk jazz-inflected downtown musicians, though some collaboration did occur between the two camps. Matthew Shipp eventually collaborated with illbient and alternative hip hop musicians (DJ Spooky, Anti-Pop Consortium, El-P), and moved towards a distinctive brand of nu jazz comparable to that of Craig Taborn.

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Don Cherry (jazz)

Don (Donald Eugene) Cherry (November 18, 1936 – October 19, 1995) was an innovative African-American jazz trumpeter whose career began with a long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman, and who would go on to live and work with a wide variety of musicians in many parts of the world.

Cherry was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and raised in Los Angeles, California. After learning various brass instruments in high school, by the early 1950s he was playing with jazz musicians in Los Angeles, sometimes acting as pianist in Art Farmer's group. He also toured with saxophonist James Clay.

Cherry also co-led the Avant-Garde session which saw John Coltrane replacing Coleman in the Quartet. He also recorded and toured with Sonny Rollins, co-led the New York Contemporary Five in Manhattan with Archie Shepp, recorded and toured with Albert Ayler and with bandleader and composer George Russell. His first recording as a leader was Complete Communion for Blue Note Records in 1965. The band included Coleman's drummer Ed Blackwell as well as saxophonist Gato Barbieri, whom he had met while touring Europe with Ayler.

After leaving Coleman, Don Cherry eschewed the trend towards funk/fusion and continued to play a sparse jazz often in small groups and duets (many with ex-Coleman drummer Ed Blackwell) during a long sojourn in Scandinavia and other locations.

He would later appear on Coleman's 1971 LP Science Fiction, and from 1976 to 1987 would reunite with Coleman alumni Dewey Redman, Charlie Haden, and Blackwell in the band Old And New Dreams , where his "subtlety of rhythmic expansion and contraction" was noted. That band recording a total of four albums, two for ECM and two for Black Saint. During the 1980s, he recorded again with the original Ornette Coleman Quartet on In All Languages, as well as recording El Corazon, a duet album with Ed Blackwell.

In the 1970s he ventured into the developing genre of world fusion music, Cherry incorporated influences of Middle Eastern, traditional African, and Indian music into his playing and from 1978 to 1982, he recorded three albums for ECM with "world jazz" group Codona, consisting of Cherry, percussionist Nana Vasconcelos and sitar and tabla player Collin Walcott.

Other playing opportunities in his career came with Carla Bley's Escalator Over The Hill project or recordings with Lou Reed, Ian Dury, Rip Rig & Panic and Sun Ra.

Don Cherry was only 58 when he died in Málaga, Spain in 1995 due to liver failure caused by hepatitis.

His stepdaughters Neneh Cherry and Titiyo and his sons David Cherry and Eagle-Eye Cherry are also musicians.

Don Cherry was closely associated with the Pocket trumpet, a smaller version of the regular trumpet. Closer to a cornet, the pocket trumpet helped Cherry produce his distinct sound as well as allowing him to "smear" notes due to its idiosyncratic slotting. He often spoke about changing horns and mouthpiece sizes to constantly keep him in unfamiliar territory when playing and aiding in the avoidance of cliches.

After returning from a musical/cultural journey through Africa, Don Cherry often played a stringed instrument with a gourd body called a dousen'goune. Don also collected a variety of other African instruments on his journey, which he mastered and often played in performances & recording.

He also performed as a percussionist and pianist, often playing the pocket trumpet with one hand while playing the piano with the left. In this respect he has been likened to the great trumpeter Jeany Leaser, who was similarly a multi-instrumentalist.

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Source : Wikipedia