Passions

3.4508426966195 (1424)
Posted by bender 03/06/2009 @ 00:11

Tags : passions, soap operas, tv, entertainment

News headlines
Grand passions - WA today
SLEEK designer hotels are fascinating places; their inventive interiors, throbbing bars and minimalist rooms are a thrill to be in. But when we want to relax completely, the only space that will truly suffice is a stylish, sumptuous, well-serviced...
Monday | Film: `Passions Just Like Mine' - MiamiHerald.com
The Miami Herald is pleased to provide this opportunity to share information, experiences and observations about what's in the news. Some of the comments may be reprinted elsewhere in the site or in the newspaper. We encourage lively, open debate on...
Correspondent tells Dickinson graduates to better world - The Patriot-News - PennLive.com
Christiane Amanpour told 578 Dickinson College graduates on Sunday to use their skills and passions to better the world. "God gave gifts and talents to everyone," the CNN chief international correspondent said during her commencement speech in front of...
Passions of the billionaires - BusinessDay.com.au
Like many of his fellow billionaires, those riches have allowed him to indulge his passion on a scale few can dream of. Bertarelli now owns one of the world's great sailing teams, Alinghi, which captured the last two America's Cups at a likely cost of...
Flying, music are passions of a lifetime - SmartBrief
Marya Giesy still plays the violin, one of the two passions in her life. At age 79, she can no longer fly, but she fondly recalls the days when she and her late husband trained together for their pilots licenses, eventually earning both their...
SUNY grads urged to pursue passions - Rochester Democrat and Chronicle
Margaret Preska told them to pursue a job or life interest motivated by their passion. Preska — a 1957 graduate who entered SUNY Brockport at age 15 — said some friends laughed at her aspirations to become a college president. Preska was the president...
Daily Buzz: NBA Playoff Passions - Woman's Day
I'm not a huge basketball fan, but a few of my friends are so I've been watching some of the playoff games--especially during the 4th quarter when things really get exciting. The team I'm most familiar with right now are the Boston Celtics and I'm...
Text of Obama's Notre Dame speech - The Associated Press
It should temper our passions, cause us to be wary of too much self-righteousness. It should compel us to remain open and curious and eager to continue the spiritual and moral debate that began for so many of you within the walls of Notre Dame....
Partisan Passions Dominate Interrogation Hearings - TIME
By Bobby Ghosh / Washington Wednesday, May. 13, 2009 Any hope that Congress could have a truly nonpartisan discussion about the CIA's interrogation techniques were dashed just minutes into the first formal hearing since the recent release of the...
Purchase College graduates urged to follow their passions - Lower Hudson Journal news
In a speech that touched on the first moonwalk and the election of President Barack Obama, college President Thomas Schwartz urged graduates to use the tough job market as an excuse to follow their passions - whether teaching in India or cleaning up a...

Passions

Original cast of Passions

Passions is an American television soap opera created by veteran writer James E. Reilly. Produced by NBC Studios, the series debuted July 5, 1999, on NBC (replacing Another World), and its last airdate on that network was September 7, 2007. DirecTV picked up the series with new episodes airing on DirecTV-exclusive channel The 101 starting September 17, 2007. In December 2007, DirecTV decided not to renew its contract for the series, and the studio was unable to sell the show elsewhere. The final episode aired on DirecTV on August 7, 2008.

Passions follows the various romantic and paranormal adventures of the residents of Harmony, a fictional New England hamlet. Storylines center around the interactions among members of its multi-racial core families — the African American Russells, Caucasian Cranes and Bennetts, and half-Mexican half-Irish Lopez-Fitzgeralds — as well as the supernatural including town witch Tabitha Lenox.

During its NBC run, Passions ran for 60 minutes every weekday (excluding some holidays). After the move to DirecTV, the schedule was shortened to four days a week (Monday through Thursday) plus weekend marathon encores, then later three days a week (Monday through Wednesday) starting in January 2008 until the finale. The series was also available via online paid subscription from NBC within the United States and on the paid cable Super Channel in Canada.

Passions debuted in 1999 with major fanfare. Creator Reilly had been credited for a large surge in the ratings for Days of our Lives years before, thanks to innovative storylines like that of heroine Dr. Marlena Evans being possessed by Satan that drew new viewers, but also tended to alienate stalwart fans. With Passions, Reilly was able to start with a blank slate and no pre-existing fan base to please.

In the early days of the show, Passions heroine Sheridan Crane is identified as a close friend of the late Diana, Princess of Wales; soon Sheridan recalls speaking to Diana on the phone immediately prior to the 1997 car accident which took the Princess' life. Sheridan also has a similar accident in the same Paris tunnel, and speaks to a "guardian Angel Diana" who urges her to fight to survive, which drew considerable controversy. Sheridan later adopts the name Diana after a boating accident that results in amnesia.

The opening days of the show also introduced the Gwen/Theresa/Ethan love triangle that persisted as an ongoing main storyline to the very last episode of the series.

For much of the first three to four years of the series, supernatural elements such as witches, warlocks and closet doors leading to Hell were major plot points, many surrounding the machinations of the centuries-old witch Tabitha Lenox and her doll-brought-to-life sidekick, Timmy — named by Entertainment Weekly as one of their "17 Great Soap Supercouples" in 2008. In 2001, HarperEntertainment released Hidden Passions, a tie-in novelization presented as Tabitha's diary, exposing the secrets and pasts of the town's residents. Passions featured a storyline involving Tabitha and Timmy promoting the book, which reached #4 on the real-life New York Times Best Seller list and garnered the series two alternate covers of TV Guide in July 2001.

Our ruling is based on the belief that the Academy must draw a line of distinction between animal characters that aren't capable of speaking parts and human actors whose personal interpretation in character portrayal creates nuance and audience engagement that uniquely qualifies those performers for consideration of television's highest honor.

During the summer of 2005, the prominent character Simone Russell came out as a lesbian; Passions made daytime history by being the first serial to show two women — Simone and love interest Rae Thomas — in bed making love. In 2007, it was revealed that longtime hero Chad Harris-Crane was cheating on his wife with another man. This was also a daytime first, with the men portrayed in bed together. Passions also broke new ground in 2007 with its portrayal of Vincent as an intersexual who becomes pregnant with his own father's son.

Nearly seven years after the debut of Passions on July 5, 1999, the NBC-owned Sci Fi Channel began airing the series from its first episode starting February 13, 2006; the reruns had originally been announced to begin on February 6. Due to low ratings, the reruns were taken off the air as of May 25, 2006. On August 15, 2006, Passions became the first daytime drama to make full episodes available for download and purchase from the popular online music store iTunes. On November 6, 2006, the show also became the first daytime drama to make full episodes available for free viewing via streaming on NBC.com.

Though plagued since its inception by low overall Nielsen Ratings, Passions was historically top-rated in key demographics. The series was not renewed by NBC for a full ninth season in 2007 as a result of the network's decision to extend its morning news and talk show Today to a fourth hour. Satellite provider DirecTV soon picked up Passions — with most principal cast members staying on — and began airing new episodes on its original-programming channel The 101 on September 17, 2007. The series ran Monday to Thursday at 2 pm ET/11 am PT, with repeats airing later in the day and on weekends.

On July 3, 2007, it was reported that new Canadian premium television service Super Channel would air Passions in Canada when the channel launched in October 2007, and the series premiered on Super Channel on October 8, 2007. Though Passions episodes were no longer available via iTunes or for free on NBC.com once the series left NBC Daytime, DirecTV announced on September 27, 2007 that new episodes of Passions would be made available online at NBC.com for a monthly fee. This service began on October 1, 2007 for $19.99 a month then reduced to $14.99 a month when Passions' schedule was cut from four episodes a week to three episodes a week.

On December 10, 2007, Variety magazine and various cast members confirmed that DirecTV had decided not to renew Passions for another season, but ordered 52 additional episodes to be taped through March 2008. New episodes of the series were broadcast until August 7, 2008, with DirecTV airing three new episodes per week starting January 2008. Universal Media Studios wrapped up production of Passions on March 28, 2008. The cast and crew were told at the wrap party that efforts to find a new outlet had failed and that the cancellation was final. Cast member McKenzie Westmore confirmed the news. Though Passions had been the highest-rated original program on DirecTV, it was reported that the network had failed to meet the projected number of new subscribers they had hoped to attract with the series.

On August 11, 2008, Super Channel began to air Passions from the premiere episode.

Over its run, Passions has become widely known for its numerous parodies of pop culture. One fan favorite was the 2003 spoof of the 2002 film Chicago, in which character Edna Wallace fantasized that she, her demented daughter Beth, Charlie, and her orangutan caretaker Precious had been incarcerated for the kidnapping of Sheridan Lopez-Fitzgerald and her unborn son, Marty. In this fantasy, the three women sang "I Ain't Sorry", a parody of "Cell Block Tango". The song received a 2004 Daytime Emmy award for Outstanding Original Song.

One of Passions' most notorious trademarks is the false "dream sequence" or fakeout. Often, the show will play out an outlandish event, or explode a huge secret viewers have longtime been waiting to see, only to immediately after go back and reveal it all to be a day dream. This dream sequence can last anywhere from a few scenes to a few episodes, typically beginning without warning. On Passions, often a dream sequence will begin with no visual cues of any sort what so ever, often going as far as to include contradictory elements to give the dream sequence credence. (For instance, another character may show up within the dream wearing an outfit, or revealing information that the daydreamer had no possible way of knowing about beforehand.) While a veteran viewer can usually spot a fake dream sequence once it has neared its climax, the fake dream sequence tends to cause confusion amongst the more casual viewer who may not get to catch the revelation that it was all a dream.

Characters on the show have flashbacks to earlier events quite often, so much so that a significant portion of an episode may be repeated scenes.

Roman Catholicism and its principles figure greatly into the show's themes. Several characters, including Grace Bennett and Pilar Lopez-Fitzgerald, are portrayed as being particularly devout Catholics, often praying with a rosary. Father Lonigan, the blind priest, has the ability to sense evil, causing lots of trouble for Tabitha over the years. Many theological debates on the importance of Catholic marriage vows have arisen over the years as well, as various characters attempt to divorce or remarry.

Another trademark of the serial is its pre-occupation with the concepts of fate and soulmates. For the run of the series, the show established a few couples as "fated", and, with few short-lived exceptions, never mixed up any of the relationships. Some of the early "fated" couples were considered to be those of Luis and Sheridan, Ethan and Theresa, Miguel and Charity, and Chad and Whitney. Common indications of a couple's status as "fated" include (but are not necessarily limited to) Tabitha's desire to split said couple up, an unshakeable love that survives numerous break-ups and relationships with third parties, and/or an ability of one character, or perhaps both characters, to "sense" when his/her "soulmate" is in danger, as well as having shared past lives together in the case of Luis and Sheridan. However, despite the fact that each of these couples has existed as a storyline since the first episodes, the show seems to have given up on the "fated" angle as it approached its end. Ethan and Theresa are still in love and marry in the final episode, but Miguel is now in love with and marries Kay (not Charity), Luis falls in love with and marries Fancy while Sheridan's formerly presumed dead husband Antonio returns to Harmony alive and well. Whitney recently left Chad after finding out about his affair with Vincent. Chad later was shot dead by his father, Alistair.

Likely due to Passions' school-aged target audience, the show often cooks up large, wild storylines for the summer, which often, but not always, take place in a city outside of Harmony. In 1999, a carnival came to town as characters were introduced; 2000 saw Luis and Sheridan traveling to New Mexico in search of his then-missing father, Martin Fitzgerald, and 2001 witnessed the failed double-wedding of popular couples Luis and Sheridan and Ethan and Theresa, and their subsequent journey to Bermuda, where Sheridan apparently perished in a boat explosion and Theresa wound up married to Ethan's ex-stepfather, Julian Crane. In 2002, Julian and Timmy set out on a journey in the magical land of Oz as Theresa was "executed" for Julian's "murder"; 2003 saw six characters (Chad, Whitney, Fox, Theresa, Ethan, and Gwen) travel to Los Angeles for the summer (and into October), while, in 2004, Luis and Sheridan traveled to Puerto Arena, Mexico, to retrieve his younger sister, Paloma (and ended up finding his missing father, Martin, and her "dead" mother, Katherine). The plot of the summer in 2005 was a deadly earthquake and tsunami, which destroyed much of Harmony and resulted in the death of James' mother, Maureen, while 2006 saw the extravagant Passions Vendetta plot, in which Alistair lured seventeen people (Whitney, Simone, Paloma, Chad, Ethan, Theresa, Gwen, Lena, Spike, Jessica, Maya, Noah, Esme, Fancy, Luis, Beth, and Marty) to Rome, where he planned to take over the world with a chalice stolen from the Pope's private chambers; the plot saw the death of Lena, Maya, Alistair, Beth, and Marty.

Summer 2007 saw the resolution of the "blackmailer" storyline as Vincent Clarkson was revealed to be the half-man/half-woman blackmailer, and Luis Lopez-Fitzgerald was saved from execution for Vincent's crimes by Endora's spell that turned back time in the execution chamber. In 2008, the show spent its final summer on the air wrapping up its plotlines at a rapid pace, with Alistair Crane being killed once and for all, the final showdowns between the main characters and the newly introduced villains Viki, Juanita, Pretty, and Vincent, the Tabitha's redemption as a born again Christian who sacrifices her powers to save the residents of Harmony, the return of Antonio and his reunion with Sheridan, the mass weddings of Fancy and Luis, Paloma and Noah, Miguel and Kay, and Edna and Norma (the first gay couple ever to go down the aisle on a soap opera), and Gwen and Rebecca being exposed for their crimes as Theresa and Ethan finally married, once and for all.

Another recurring theme on Passions is sexual violence. Many storylines, especially since 2005, have included rape as a plot point.

In 2005, so many plotlines came to involve an element of rape that fans began to refer to that year as the "Year of the Rapes". Early that year, Paloma Lopez-Fitzgerald was sexually assaulted and nearly raped during a club raid. The show then carried a plotline over whether they should do a rape test while Paloma was in a coma (at the time she was a virgin) and Jessica Bennett was also raped a few weeks later while at a club. Also early in the year, Alistair Crane repeatedly raped his wife, Katherine Crane, while at the Crane Compound. Late in May, heiress Fancy Crane was nearly raped by a man in Las Vegas who demanded "payment" for letting her into a party after she lost her invitation. During the tsunami and later in November, Liz Sanbourne attempted to rape Julian Crane at knifepoint. In August, Theresa Lopez-Fitzgerald was raped by Alistair Crane when she refused to pay him (with sex) for helping her with visitation of her infant daughter, Jane; Theresa later married Alistair, and he continued to rape her throughout their marriage. Also in August or September, Kay Bennett was attacked by a gang of men while walking through the park at night, though Fox Crane soon arrived and the two defeated the group. Liz Sanbourne also revealed during the tsunami that Julian Crane had raped her in Boston many years previously (she later revealed that it had been Alistair who had done the deed, thus producing a son, Chad Harris-Crane).

The most prominent rape storyline began in December 2006, when Crane heiress and police cadet Fancy Crane was raped during a sting operation designed to catch a peeping tom. The brutal attack left Fancy in a brief coma and emotionally traumatized the young woman. Fancy was also the show's first rape victim to visibly experience prolonged effects; her bubbly demeanor disappeared, and she became extremely nervous and could not stand to be touched for several months. Fancy was eventually raped for a second time in January 2007, and her boyfriend, Luis Lopez-Fitzgerald, was framed for the crimes; the rapist was later revealed to be Vincent Clarkson, Fancy's biological half-brother through their father.

Rape also played prominently into the 2007—2008 storyline involving Mexican drug cartel leader Juanita Vasquez. Sometime between the births of Pilar's second and third children, the Lopez-Fitzgerald matriarch returned to her native Mexico to visit with her childhood best friend, Juanita Vasquez. There, she discovered that Juanita's husband, Carlos, was still involved with his family's drug cartel and was planning a hit on a rival family; when Pilar confronted Carlos, he raped her, and she accidentally killed him in self-defense. Pilar then called the police in an attempt to stop the hit, but the police ended up murdering the entire Vasquez family, including Juanita and Carlos' young children, except for Juanita. Juanita refused to believe that her husband had raped Pilar and made it her life's mission to murder Pilar's entire family, eventually murdering Pilar's sister and two nephews.

Men on the show were equally as likely to be violated as women. Fox Crane, Julian Crane, Luis Lopez-Fitzgerald, Miguel Lopez-Fitzgerald, and Ethan Winthrop have all been victims of sexual assault.

One unfortunate trademark for Passions has been eerie deaths. In 2002, Josh Ryan Evans, who played Tabitha's extremely popular doll sidekick Timmy, died while on medical leave, just as scenes were airing where Timmy died in the hospital and went to Heaven. Passions had planned to revive the character in a few months once Evans returned from his own surgery, but instead had to write Timmy out. After five years of evil Crane patriarch Alistair being heard but never having his face seen (voiced by Alan Oppenheimer), Passions finally cast the role with longtime daytime vet David Bailey. Bailey was a hit with the cast as well as the fans, but on Thanksgiving Day 2004, he drowned in his pool, just as scenes were airing where various characters tried to kill Alistair, who actually suffered clinical death before being magically revived by Tabitha. Again, the viewers and the producers were stunned, but the show had no choice but to recast the pivotal role (with John Reilly).

With its humor and occasional tongue-in-cheek tone, Passions has been known to "break the fourth wall," or somehow call attention to the fact that the show is fictional. In an early episode, Kay, Simone and Zombie Charity were seen actually watching Passions, and when the television in the Bennett's kitchen covered what would have been Theresa's execution, the news report actually pre-empted Passions, cutting in during the theme song just after the appearance of the logo. In a 2002 episode Theresa was giving birth while stuck in a cabin with Ethan and Gwen; she had a hallucination in which the three of them did a dance together and sang the show's theme song "Breathe." In 2004, TC made a reference to "that crazy soap after Days of our Lives", which in most areas airs before Passions. In one episode Fancy Crane used a magazine to hide her face from Noah; the magazine had an image of the then-unseen Rachel Barrett with the sentence "Who is she?" under the Passions logo. Fancy later commented that serials "are just like life; you never know what's going to happen!" In an early 2006 episode, Ivy and assistant Valerie were searching on the internet for Miguel to bring him back to Harmony and interfere with Fox and Kay's relationship. They couldn't find him, but Valerie tracked down his last place of employment: he was last seen working as a gardener in some suburban town on a street called Wisteria Lane. At that time, Jesse Metcalfe (ex-Miguel) was playing a gardener on the prime-time serial Desperate Housewives, which takes place on a street called Wisteria Lane. In the March 30, 2006 episode, while Passions reruns were airing on the Sci-Fi Channel, Simone compared life in Harmony to living in a show on the Sci-Fi Channel. Similarly, in the August 10, 2006 episode, Theresa commented that her office wasn't like a NBC daytime serial, and that she wouldn't hire somebody just because he looked like Jesse Metcalfe (who had portrayed her brother Miguel from 1999-2004). A similar inside joke occurred when the character Fancy had a dream that she was a cheerleader; in real life, Fancy's portrayer Emily Harper was a "Laker Girl" (cheerleader for the Los Angeles Lakers) from 2000-2003.

In April 2007, Kay was watching the sixth hour of The Today Show (an apparent jab at NBC's decision to extend it at the expense of the Passions timeslot) when it was interrupted with a news report that Luis had been arrested. In one August 2007 episode, Tabitha said that a certain soap opera was starting on DirecTV and she would have to tell her friends not to call her between the hours of two and three PM, blatantly referring to Passions itself. At the beginning of the show's final week on NBC, as Whitney was preparing to move to New Orleans, Theresa asked if she was sure she wanted to go, and Whitney commented that she had already arranged to have her DirecTV hooked up in Louisiana so she could "keep up on everything happening in Harmony." And also in 2007, Endora flat-out made a reference to the "audience" in one of her thought balloons, prompting Norma to look in the camera and respond, "Audience? What audience?" Endora also pointed out in one of her thought balloons that when Miguel returned to Passions, he looked nothing like Jesse Metcalfe ("Nope, not even close!"). In May 2008 while Juanita was looking for clues in a book store as to where Pilar was, the bargain shelf was full of copies of Hidden Passions. In June 2008, Tabitha mentions the fourth hour of Today being a ratings-grabber, poking fun as to how they canceled the soap making way for this fourth hour trying to bring the ratings on NBC up. In the June 30, 2008, episode, Sheridan mentions Pretty's fake scar with references to her real family the Westmores. Michael Westmore did make up for Star Trek. In the July 30, 2008, episode, Tabitha tells Endora about the volcano in Harmony referring to it as how Passions was canceled at the last moment and the actors not knowing. She tells Endora to look in the bowl and Endora says she sees a man sitting a desk with the initials J. Z. this is referring to NBC President Jeff Zucker. Tabitha looks at the audience mentioning Universal forces and Direct Intervention. This is a nod at both Universal Studios and Direct TV for canceling the series twice in one year.

During its NBC run, Passions was known to "promote" other NBC programming within its storylines, and to incorporate commercial products into the plot in a promotional tactic known as product placement.

Shortly after Passions debuted, Campbell tomato soup was featured as an ingredient in Grace Bennett's tomato soup cake. Also, Nestlé Purina Dog Chow was used to feed Tabitha Lenox's pet cat Fluffy.

In a 2004 episode, TC watched an NBC ad for Days of our Lives on his TV, and went on to praise the writers of Days of our Lives for coming up with such good storylines; Days, at that time, was under the helm of James E. Reilly, head writer of Passions. In the September 4, 2006, episode, Fox was sucked into a black hole; he then told Tabitha that it was the kind of black hole that one gets sucked into on the Sci Fi Channel, which was the channel on which Passions repeats aired in 2006. Tabitha then told him stick with NBC (Passions' network). In an episode later in September 2006, Siren tried to get Miguel into bed by singing her Siren's song. Miguel told her that she should not audition for America's Got Talent, which airs on NBC. In another episode, Tabitha talked about The Biggest Loser season finale, which was also aired on NBC. A more recent episode featured characters watching a trailer for the 2007 Diane Keaton film Because I Said So (produced by Universal Studios, which, like NBC, is owned by General Electric).

For a time, Jessica Bennett was an Avon mark saleswoman, and more recently the show featured Johnson & Johnson's K-Y Jelly personal lubricant, and characters were seen drinking from Brita water pitchers. Both Jessica and Theresa were seen using Clearblue Easy pregnancy test products. After Kay and Miguel's wedding in 2008, Norma gave Miguel the 2 in 1 K-Y Jelly personal lubricant by Johnson & Johnson telling him how it is so great for her and Edna and that Miguel and Kay will find great enjoyment in it.

In July 2007, Passions began to promote its own move to DirecTV the following September. Several characters' homes were seen sporting DirecTV dishes on their roofs, and characters began to make frequent references to switching to DirecTV.

Another trademark of Passions is its unusual handling of the passage of time. A single story day can take weeks of episodes to play out, with simple conversations sometimes taking days to complete on-screen. On the other hand, events that should take many hours, such as international travel, can take place in just a few minutes of story time.

The theme song for Passions is titled "Breathe" performed by Jane French and written by French and John Henry Kreitler. A long version of this theme was also released but was never used on the show.

The opening title sequence used since the show's premiere in 1999, features shots of the city of Harmony and its landmarks (actually the real-life town of Camden, Maine). The sequence opens and closes with the show's logo in an italic typeface and in an Arial Black typeface in generic caps posted in front of the cursive form of the title. From time to time, the opening theme is shortened to the last two verses to fit in extra scene time.

Passions is one of the few long-running American serials that, with the exception of occasional abbreviated versions of the intro, never changed its opening theme from the series debut through its cancellation.

Essentially a replacement for the canceled long-running serial Another World, Passions claimed Another World's time slot in many US markets for its run on NBC from July 5, 1999 until September 7, 2007. Passions then moved exclusively to DirecTV's The 101, premiering with new episodes on September 17, 2007. The final episode of the series aired on August 7, 2008.

Passions debuted on NBC ahead of fellow NBC soap Sunset Beach with a 2.1 rating (1.9 million viewers) and remained there after Sunset Beach was canceled in December 1999. From January 2000 until early May the show remained dead last among all 10 soaps. During May Sweeps 2000, Passions was gaining in popularity and pulled ahead of ABC's Port Charles. Passions remained ahead of Port Charles until its cancellation in October 2003. Passions once again was dead last, and would stay there for virtually the rest of its run. It did top Guiding Light on occasion, but never for more than one week at a time. During 2001-2003 when Passions was at the peak of its popularity, it averaged a weekly 2.1-2.3 rating (which at that time equaled roughly 2.4 million viewers). However, the ratings slowly declined with each passing year, to the point that the show averaged a 1.5 weekly rating (about 1.9 million viewers) throughout much of the 2006—2007 season. The final episode on NBC had a household rating of 1.3/4 (1.68 million viewers).

While Passions was never a big hit in household ratings, the show was a powerhouse in the younger-skewing demographics. For its entire NBC run it ranked as the #1 soap in Girls 12-17, Women 18-24 and Girls 12-24. The show also ranked #2 in Women 18-34 and even overtook fellow NBC soap Days of our Lives for a short period during the 2004-2005 season. In the crucial 18-49 demographic, Passions usually ranked #7, ahead of the long running CBS soaps As The World Turns, and Guiding Light. The highest ranking Passions ever achieved in 18-49 demographic was 4th place in November 2002 and once again in January 2007.

Passions aired in Canada for its entire NBC run, first on CTV in 1999 and then on Global TV in 2000. The series lasted there until its final airdate on NBC in September 2007, at which time it was then succeeded by Guiding Light in the same time slot. NTV in Newfoundland and Labrador also aired Passions for almost its entire NBC run and was replaced by As the World Turns just before the series ended on NBC. Beginning on October 8, 2007, Super Channel began airing the DirecTV episodes until the series finale on August 7, 2008. On August 11, 2008, Super Channel began airing Passions from the very first episode. Re-runs air Monday through Friday at 2 and 4 PM ET.

Passions has been shown on African Independent Television, Lagos since 2001.

1040 episodes of Passions aired in South Africa on e.tv from 4:40 to 5:30 PM Monday to Friday from September 24, 2004 to September 12, 2008. The series was stopped due to the the music copyright fees to African countries. Starting on September 15, 2008 it was replaced by Real TV in the same time slot.

Passions aired in Croatia for two seasons on Nova TV, which broadcast 520 episodes until the 2005 cancellation of international licensing.

The first 260 episodes of Passions aired in Bulgaria on TV 7 days from 2001 to 2002.

Passions aired in France for 2 months on TF1 starting July 31, 2001, at 5:10pm CET after the end of Sunset Beach. The soap ended on October 8, 2001.

Passions has been honored with numerous awards and nominations during its run, including Daytime Emmy Awards, Imagen Foundation Awards, and a GLAAD Media Award.

In 2001, HarperEntertainment released Hidden Passions: Secrets from the Diaries of Tabitha Lenox, a tie-in novelization presented as Tabitha's diary, exposing the secrets and pasts of the town's residents. Passions featured a storyline involving Tabitha and Timmy promoting the book, which reached #4 on the real-life New York Times Best Seller list and garnered the series two alternate covers of TV Guide in July 2001. The novel was billed as being canonical, but the televised canon has diverged significantly from the novel since its publication.

To the top



AFI's 100 Years... 100 Passions

Part of the AFI 100 Years... series, AFI's 100 Years... 100 Passions is a list of the top 100 love stories in American cinema. The list was unveiled by the American Film Institute on June 11, 2002 in a CBS television special hosted by American film/TV actress Candice Bergen.

Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant star in six films each, followed by another Hepburn, Audrey, with five, and by Humphrey Bogart and James Stewart in 4 films each. Several other actors appeared in 2 or 3 films each (see below: Multiple roles). Top directors were William Wyler and George Cukor, credited with four movies apiece.

Other actors may have appeared again, in supporting roles in other films in the list.

The selection of the top movies varied depending on the applicable criteria and the group of voters for the particular list.

The counts could run higher when including supporting roles.

To the top



Stoic Passions

Stoic Passions refers to various forms of emotional suffering in Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy.

Numerous subdivisions of the same class are brought under the head of the separate passions. The definitions are those of the translation of Cicero's Tusculan Disputations by J. E. King.

To the top



World (theology)

World is a key concept in theology.

In Christianity, the concept connotes the fallen and corrupt world order of human society. The world is frequently cited alongside the flesh and the Devil as a source of temptation that Christians should flee. Monks speak of striving to be "in this world, but not of this world", and the term "worldhood" has been distinguished from "monkhood", the former being the status of merchants, princes, and others who deal with "worldly" things.

Although Hebrew and Greek words meaning "world" are used in Scripture with the normal variety of senses, many examples of its use in this particular sense can be found in the teachings of Jesus according to the Gospel of John, eg. 7:7, 8:23, 12:25, 14:17, 15:18-19, 17:6-25, 18:36. For contrast, a relatively newer concept is Catholic imagination.

The World, the Flesh and the Devil is a common figure of speech in the Church which reflects these sentiments.

During the Second Vatican Council, there was a novel attempt to develop a positive theological view of the World, which is illustrated by the pastoral optimism of the constitutions Gaudium et Spes, Lumen Gentium, Unitatis Redintegratio and Dignitatis Humanae.

In Eastern Christian monasticism or asceticism the world of mankind is driven by passions. Each of these passions are a link to the world of mankind or order of human society. Each of these passions must be overcome in order for a person to receive salvation. This process of a personal relationship with (persons of) God is called theosis. These passions are also referred to in Eastern asceticism as the world. This understanding is taught within the works of ascetics like Evagrius Ponticus, and the most seminal ascetic works read most widely by Eastern Christians, the Philokalia and the Ladder of Divine Ascent (the works of Evagrius and John Climacus are also contained within the Philokalia). At the highest level of world transcendence is hesychasm which culminates into the Vision of God.

Orbis Catholicus is a latin phrase meaning Catholic World, per the epxression Urbi et Orbi, and refers to that area of Christendom under papal supremacy. It is somewhat similar to the phrases Secular world, Jewish world and Islamic world.

To the top



Johannes Passion

The Johannes Passion (English: St John Passion) is a musical composition by Johann Sebastian Bach. During the first winter that Bach worked at Leipzig he composed the St. John Passion. He wrote it for the Good Friday vespers of 1724.

Originally the St. John Passion was meant to be performed for the first time in the St Thomas church in Leipzig, but due to a last-minute change by a music council, the St John Passion was first performed in 1724 in the St Nicholas Church. Bach quickly agreed to have the concert at St Thomas church, “but pointed out that the booklet was already printed, that there was no room available and that the harpsichord needed some repair, all of which, however, could be attended to at little cost; but he requested that a little additional room be provided in the choir loft of St Nicholas' Church, where he planned to place the musicians needed to perform the music. He also asked that the harpsichord be repaired.” The council agreed and sent a flyer announcing the new location to all the people around Leipzig. Then they made the necessary arrangements regarding the harpsichord and the space that was needed for the choir.

The St. John Passion is presented in many ways. It is constructed out of dramatically presented recitatives, chorales, arioso and aria movements, a few combinations of these forms, and choruses. The St Matthew Passion is usually more familiar to people because Mendelssohn’s 1829 performance of it marked the beginning of much of the public discovery of J.S. Bach. It is longer than the St. John Passion, and researchers have discovered that Bach revised the latter work several times before producing a final version in the 1740s. Alternate numbers that Bach introduced in 1725 but later removed can be found in the appendix to scores of the work, such as that of the Neue Bach Ausgabe (and heard in the recording by Emmanuel Music directed by Craig Smith, cited below).

While writing the St. John Passion, Bach had every intention of retaining the congregational spirit of the worship service. The text for the body of the work is taken from the Gospel of John chapters 18 and 19. To augment these chapters that are summarized in the music, Bach used an elaborate body of commentary consisting of hymns that were often called chorales and arias. He used Martin Luther's translation of the Bible with only slight modifications.

Bach proved that the sacred opera as a musical genre did not have to become shallow in liturgical use by remaining loyal to the cantus firmus and the scriptural word. He did not want anyone to think of the Passion as just a lesser sacred concert. The text for the opening prayer Herr, unser Herrscher, dessen Ruhm as well as the arias, chorales and the penultimate chorus Ruht wohl, ihr heiligen Gebeine come from various other sources. The first part of the score, which makes up about one-third of the entire piece, dramatically takes us through Peter’s walk and his betrayal of Jesus. It is interesting to note also that the two recitative passages, dealing with Peter crying after his betrayal and the temple veil ripping during the crucifixion, do not appear in the Gospel of John, but of Matthew. In the "Passion", one hears Peter deny Jesus three times, and at the third time, John tells us that the cock crew immediately. The "St. John Passion" is by far the most extravagant in line and harmony.

The St. John Passion was not Bach’s first passion. While he was working as organist in 1708 and Concertmeister in 1714 in Weimar, Bach possibly wrote a Passion, but it is now lost. Sometimes while listening to the St. John Passion today one can sense an older feel to some of the music, and some scholars believe that those portions are the surviving parts of the Weimar Passion. Unlike the St Matthew Passion, to which Bach made very few and insignificant changes, the St John Passion was subject to several major revisions. The original version from 1724 is the one most familiar to us today.

In 1725, Bach replaced the opening and closing choruses and added three arias (BWV 245a-c) while cutting one (Ach Mein Sinn) from the original version. The opening chorus was replaced by O Mensch bewein dein Sünde groß, which was later transposed and reused at the end of part one of the St Matthew Passion. The closing chorale was replaced by a setting of Christe, Du Lamm Gottes, taken from the cantata BWV 23. The three new arias are not known to have been reused.

In the 1730s, Bach revised the St John Passion again, restoring the original opening chorus and final chorale, and removing the three new arias. He also excised the two interpolations from the Gospel of Matthew that appeared in the work, probably due to objections by the ecclesiastical authorities. The first of these he simply removed; he composed a new instrumental sinfonia in lieu of the second. He also inserted an aria to replace the still-missing Ach, Mein sinn. Neither the aria nor the sinfonia have been preserved. Overall, Bach chose to keep the biblical text, and inserted Lutheran hymn verses so that he could return the work to its liturgical substance.

We can infer, because the Passion has no parts for trumpets, kettledrums, or second violas, that Bach had in mind an orchestra composed of no more than 15 to 17 musicians. In 1749, he reverted more or less to the original of 1724, making only slight changes to the orchestration, most notably replacing the by-then almost obsolete violas d'amore with muted violins. Also, Bach’s orchestra for this piece would have been very delicate in nature because he called for many gamba strings.

In the summer of 1815, Bach's Passions began to be studied once again. Parts of the St. John Passion were being rehearsed and the St Matthew Passion was soon to follow. Fred Wolle, with his Choral Union of 1888 at the Moravian town of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, was the first to allow a performance of the St. John Passion in the Americas. This spurred a revival of Bach’s choral music in the New World.

The text Bach set to music has been criticized as anti-Semitic. This accusation is closely connected to a wider controversy regarding the tone of the Christian New Testament's Gospel of John with regards to Judaism. Sometimes it will arouse protest from people. To counter this, Lukas Foss after coming to America in 1937 as a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany, changed the text from “Juden” to “Leute”(People). This caused many of the protests to stop. Michael Marissen's Lutheranism, Anti-Judaism, and Bach's "St. John's Passion" examines the controversy in balanced detail. He concludes that Bach's St John Passion and St Matthew Passion contain fewer statements derogatory toward Jews than many other contemporary musical settings of the Passion.The St. John Passion does not always give blame to the Jews in a negative way. In fact, the different commenting arias and hymns seem to shift the blame for the death of Jesus to the congregation of Christians also. Defenders of Bach also point out that his works must be considered in their historical context.

To the top



Martyrology

A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs (or, more precisely, of saints), arranged in the calendar order of their anniversaries or feasts. Local martyrologies record exclusively the custom of a particular Church. Local lists were enriched by names borrowed from neighbouring Churches. Consolidation occurred, by the combination of several local martyrologies, with or without borrowings from literary sources.

This is the now accepted meaning in the Latin Church. In the Greek Church the nearest equivalent to the martyrology is the Synaxarium. As regards form, one should distinguish between simple martyrologies, which consist merely of an enumeration of names, and historical martyrologies, which also include stories or biographical details.

We still possess the martyrology, or ferial, of the Roman Church of the middle of the fourth century, comprising two distinct lists, the Depositio martyrum and the Depositio episcoporum, lists which are elsewhere most frequently found united.

Among the Roman martyrs mention is already made in the Ferial of some African martyrs (March 7, Perpetua and Felicitas; September 14, Cyprian). The calendar of Carthage, which belongs to the sixth century, contains a larger portion of foreign martyrs and even of confessors not belonging to that Church.

The major representative of the class of Local martyrologies is the martyrology commonly called Hieronymian, because it is (erroneously) attributed to St. Jerome. It was drawn up in Italy in the second half of the fifth century, and underwent recension in Gaul, probably at Auxerre, about A.D. 600. All known manuscripts of this Hieronymian Martyrology spring from this Gallican recension.

Setting aside the additions which it later received, the chief sources of the Hieronymian are a general martyrology of the Churches of the East, the local martyrology of the Church of Rome, a general martyrology of Italy, a general martyrology of Africa, and some literary sources, among them Eusebius. The manuscript tradition of the document is in confusion, and the idea of restoring the text in its integrity must be abandoned.

The Hieronymian Martyrology and those resembling it in form show signs of hurried compilation. The notices consist mostly of a topographical rubric preceding the name of the saint, e. g. "III id. ian. Romæ, in cymiterio Callisti, via Appia, depositio Miltiadis episcopi".

There is another type of martyrology in which the name is followed by a short history of the saint. These are the historical martyrologies. There exists a large number of them, from the ninth century. It may be said that their chief sources are, besides the Hieronymian, accounts derived from the Acts of the martyrs and some ecclesiastical authors.

The most famous of all is that of Usuard (c. 875), Martyrology of Usuard, on which the Roman martyrology was based.

The first edition of the Roman martyrology appeared at Rome in 1583 The third edition, which appeared in 1584, was approved by Gregory XIII, who imposed the Roman martyrology upon the whole Church. In 1586 Baronius published his annotated edition, which in spite of its omissions and inaccuracies is a mine of valuable information.

The critical study of martyrologies is rendered difficult by the multitude and the disparate character of the elements which compose them. Early researches dealt with the historical martyrologies.

The chief works on the martyrologies are those of Heribert Rosweyde, who in 1613 published at Antwerp the martyrology of Ado ; of Sollerius, to whom we owe a learned edition of Usuard ; and of Fiorentini, who published in 1688 an annotated edition of the Martyrology of St Jerome. The critical edition of the latter by J. B. de Rossi and Louis Duchesne, was published in 1894.

Although some have criticized Du Sollier for his text of Usuard, the edition surpasses anything of the kind previously attempted. Henri Quentin (Les Martyrologes historiques du moyen âge, Paris, 1908) took up the general question and succeeded in giving a reasonable solution, thanks to careful study of the manuscripts.

As regards documents, the most important distinction is between local and general martyrologies. The former give a list of the festivals of some particular Church; the latter are the result of a combination of several local martyrologies. We may add certain compilations of a factitious character, to which the name of martyrology is given by analogy, e.g. the Martyrologe universel of Chatelain (1709). As types of local martyrologies we may quote that of Rome, formed from the Depositio martyrum and the Depositio episcoporum of the chronograph of 354; the Gothic calendar of IJililas Bible, the calendar of Carthage published by Mabillon, the calendar of fasts and vigils of the Church of Tours, going back as far as Bishop Perpetuus (d. 490), and preserved in the Historia Francorum (xi. 31) of Gregory of Tours. The Syriac martyrology discovered by Wright (Journal of Sacred Literature, 1866) gives the idea of a general martyrology.

Liturgically, the Martyrology is read in the Divine Office at Prime, always anticipated, that is, the reading for the following day is read. With the suppression of Prime in the Liturgy of the Hours following Vatican II, the book is not used liturgically in the new rite, although the custom exists in some places, including the United States, of reading the entry for the birth of Jesus before midnight Mass on Christmas.

The Roman Martyrology is directly derived from the historical martyrologies. It is in sum the Martyrology of Usuard, completed by the "Dialogues" of Pope Gregory I and the works of some of the Fathers, and for the Greek saints by the catalogue which is known as the Menologion of Sirlet. The editio princeps appeared at Rome in 1583, under the title: Martyrologium romanum ad novam kalendarii rationem et ecclesiasticæ historiæ veritatem restitutum, Gregorii XIII pont. max. iussu editum. It bears no approbation. A second edition also appeared at Rome in the same year. This was soon replaced by the edition of 1584, which was approved and imposed on the entire Roman rite of the Church by Pope Gregory XIII. Baronius revised and corrected this work and republished it in 1586, with the Notationes and the Tractatio de Martyrologio Romano. The Antwerp edition of 1589 was corrected in some places by Baronius himself. A new edition of the text and the notes took place under Pope Urban VIII and was published in 1630. Pope Benedict XIV was also interested in the Roman Martyrology: his Bull of 1748 addressed to John V, King of Portugal, long prefaced printings of the Roman Martyrology.

The most important ancient martyrology preserved to the present day is the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, a compilation falsely attributed to Jerome, which in its present form goes back to the end of the sixth century. It is the result of the combination of a general martyrology of the Eastern Churches, a local martyrology of the Church of Rome, some general martyrologies of Italy and Africa, and a series of local martyrologies of Gaul. The task of critics is to distinguish between its various constituent elements. Unfortunately, this document has reached us in a lamentable condition. The proper flames are distorted, repeated or misplaced, and in many places the text is so corrupt that it is impossible to understand it. With the exception of a few traces of borrowings from the Passions of the martyrs, the compilation is in the form of a simple martyrology.

For a long time the study of the Hieronymian Martyrology yielded few results, and the edition of F. M. Fiorentini (Vetustius occidentalis ecclesiæ martyrologium, Lucca, 1668), accompanied by a very erudite historical commentary, caused it to make no notable progress. It was the publication of the Syriac Martyrology discovered by Wright (Journal of Sacred Literature, 1866, 45 sqq.), which gave the impetus to a series of researches which still continue. Father Victor De Buck ("Acta SS.", Octobris, XII, 185, and elsewhere) signalizes the relationship of this martyrology to the Hieronymian Martyrology. This fact, which escaped the first editor, is of assistance in recognizing the existence of a general martyrology of the Orient, written in Greek at Nicomedia, and which served as a source for the Hieronymian. In 1885 De Rossi and Duchesne published a memoir entitled Les sources du martyrologe hiéronymien (in Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire, V), which became the starting-point of a critical edition of the martyrology, published through their efforts in Vol. II for November of the "Acta SS." in 1894. But little criticism has been devoted to the Roman Martyrology which has become an official book, its revision being reserved to the Roman Curia. Every effort devoted to the study of the Hieronymian, the historical martyrologies, and the Greek "Synaxaria" helps the study of this compilation, which is derived from them. Attention may be called to the large commentary on the Roman Martyrology, by Alexander Politi (Florence, 1751). Only the first volume, containing the month of January, has appeared.

To the top



Passion music

Testimony (in parallel fifths!) of the false witnesses from Guerrero's responsorial Matthew's Passion (1585).

Passion music are musical compositions reflecting the suffering of Jesus leading up to the Crucifixion.

The reading of the Passion during Holy Week dates back at least to the fourth century and is described by Egeria. In the fifth century Pope Leo the Great specified that the gospel of Matthew be used on Palm Sunday and the following Wednesday and that of John on Good Friday; by the tenth century Luke replaced Matthew on Wednesday and Mark was added on Tuesday.

In the sixteenth century many settings, chiefly of the responsorial type, were written by William Byrd (St. John, 3vv), Jacobus Gallus, Francisco Guerrero (five including second St. John, mostly 5vv), Orlando di Lasso (all four, 4vv), Cypriano de Rore (St John) and Victoria.

Martin Luther wrote, "The Passion of Christ should not be acted out in words and pretense, but in real life." Despite this, sung Passion performances were common in Lutheran churches right from the start, in both Latin and German, beginning as early as Laetare Sunday (three weeks before Easter) and continuing through Holy Week. Luther’s friend and collaborator Johann Walther wrote responsorial Passions which were used as models by Lutheran composers for centuries, and “summa Passionis” versions continued to circulate, despite Luther’s express disapproval. Later sixteenth-century passions included choral “exordium” (introduction) and “conclusio” sections with additional texts. In the seventeenth century came the development of “oratorio” passions which led to J.S. Bach’s passions, accompanied by instruments, with interpolated texts (then called “madrigal” movements) such as sinfonias, other Scripture passages, Latin motets, chorale arias, and more. Such settings were created by Bartholomeus Gesius and Heinrich Schütz. Thomas Strutz wrote a passion (1664) with arias for Jesus himself, pointing to the standard oratorio tradition of Schütz, Carissimi, and (later) Handel, although these composers seem to have thought that putting words in Jesus’ mouth was beyond the pale. The practice of using recitative for the Evangelist (rather than plainsong) was a development of court composers in northern Germany and only crept into church compositions at the end of the 17th century.

The best known Protestant musical settings of the Passion are by Johann Sebastian Bach, who wrote two Passions which have survived intact to the present day, one based on the Gospel of John (the St John Passion), the other on the Gospel of Matthew (the St Matthew Passion). The Passion continued to be very popular in Protestant Germany in the 18th century, with Bach's second son Carl Philipp Emanuel composing over twenty settings. In the nineteenth century, with the exception of John Stainer's" The Crucifixion" (1887), Passion settings were less popular, but in the twentieth century, they have again come into fashion. Two notable settings are the St. Luke Passion (1965) by Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki and the St. John Passion (1982) by Estonian composer Arvo Pärt.

Recent examples include "The Passion According to St. Matthew" (1997), by Mark Alburger, and "The Passion According to the Four Evangelists," by Scott King. Andrew Lloyd Webber's "Jesus Christ Superstar" (book and lyrics by Tim Rice), and Stephen Schwartz's "Godspell" both contain elements of the traditional passion accounts. See also Passion cantata.

A relative of the musical Passion is the custom of setting the text of Stabat Mater to music.

To the top



Source : Wikipedia