Pervez Musharraf

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Posted by motoman 04/12/2009 @ 08:11

Tags : pervez musharraf, pakistan, asia, world

News headlines
Pak police registers murder, kidnapping case against Musharraf - Indian Express
The Abbottabad Police has registered a case against former President General Pervez Musharraf on charges of murder, attempt to murder and kidnapping. The case has been filed on the orders of the district and sessions judge, 'The Daily Times' reports....
Politically-unstable Pakistan poses the greatest threat to world peace - Lancaster Eagle Gazette
In the early 1990s, Nawaz Sharif was president, and Pervez Musharraf was head of the army. When Musharraf was out of the country, Sharif ousted Musharraf and took direct control of the army. In exile, Musharraf planned a successful coup d'etat and...
Balochistan decides to abolish Musharraf-era police system - Daily Times
QUETTA: The Balochistan government and the top bureaucracy in the province have decided to abolish the police system introduced by former president Pervez Musharraf and return to the centuries-old Levies system. “The federal as well as the provincial...
Control Taliban in Afghanistan not Pak: Musharraf - Indian Express
In a TV interview, Musharraf claimed that half of Afghanistan was under the control of Taliban. Claiming that half of Afghanistan was under the control of Taliban, Pakistan's former president Pervez Musharraf has said that extremist forces,...
Hillary trashes 30 years of US policy on Pak, including husband's - Times of India
Clinton also took a crack at former Pakistan dictator Pervez Musharraf when a journalist asked if he (Musharraf) did not prosecute the war on terror because of the lack of aid. "I can't speculate on why former President Musharraf did what he did while...
Containing Madrasas - Saudi Gazette
The 9/11 attacks forced then Pakistan president Pervez Musharraf to choose between continued support for the Taleban or cooperation with the US of president George W. Bush, against the Taleban. He chose the US. It was a brave decision that put his life...
Forget 1971, says Pakistan - The Daily Star
To be sure, Pakistanis will tell you in their turn that Pervez Musharraf once expressed his regret over any crimes that may have been committed in Bangladesh in 1971. When they do that, you might as well inform them that there is a huge difference...
A neo-con Yankee in Karzai's court - Asia Times Online
Arguably, Zal had a personality problem at that time with president General Pervez Musharraf and that doesn't have to necessarily extend to General Parvez Kiani, the present chief of the army. But then, Zal's problem with Musharraf was about the...
Musharraf unlikely to return to Pak in the near future - Hindu
Islamabad (PTI): As Pakistan is gripped by a volatile situation following a crackdown ion Taliban, question marks hang over whether former President Pervez Musharraf, no on a trip to Europe, will return back home or not. Mr. Musharraf is not expected...
Still missing - The News International
Meanwhile, former president Pervez Musharraf's curious comment as to how these persons were in fact not missing at all but had gone off on their own to wage 'jihad' has been termed absurd by the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan....

Pervez Musharraf


General (ret) Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرویز مشرف) (born 11 August 1943), NI(M), TBt is a former President of Pakistan and a former Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army,.

He took power on 12 October 1999, ousting Nawaz Sharif, the elected Prime Minister, by effecting a military coup d'état. He dismissed the national and provincial legislative assemblies, assumed the title of Chief Executive and became Pakistan's de facto head of government, thereby becoming the fourth Army chief of Pakistan to have assumed executive control. Later, in 2001, Musharraf appointed himself to the office of President. After Musharraf announced his intention to combat extremists, Western countries (including the United States and the United Kingdom) switched from a policy of sanctions to active support through military and monetary aid.

On 3 November 2007, only days before a panel of the Supreme Court of Pakistan was to decide on a petition challenging the constitutional validity of his re-election as president in the controversial October 2007 elections, he, as Chief of Army Staff, suspended the constitution, jailed several justices and lawyers of the supreme court including Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, ordered the arrest of political dissidents and human rights activists, and shut down all private television channels. On 3 November 2007, Musharraf declared a state of emergency in Pakistan which lasted until 15 December 2007. During this time, the constitution of the country was suspended.

On 24 November 2007, the Pakistan Election Commission confirmed his re-election as President.

On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharraf resigned from the post of President under impeachment pressure from the coalition government. Consequently, his website was removed since he was no longer President. He was succeeded on 6 September 2008 by Asif Ali Zardari, duly elected as Pakistan's 11th President since 1956.

Pervez Musharraf was born on 11 August 1943 in Nahr wali Haveli, situated in Kacha Saad Ullah Mohallah, Daryaganj in Delhi, British India. He is from a family of civil servants. After Musharraf's grandfather, Qazi Mohtashimuddin, retired as the commissioner of undivided Punjab he bought Neharwali Haveli in the old walled city of Delhi where Musharraf was born. The haveli, with its high roofs and arches, is believed to have been the home of a "Wazir" (Minister) in the court of Bahadur Shah Zafar — the last Mughal emperor of the 19th century. After partition, Musharraf's family migrated to Pakistan where his father, Syed Musharraf Uddin — a graduate of Aligarh University — joined the Pakistan foreign service and later retired as Secretary of foreign affairs. Musharraf's mother, Zarin, received her master's degree from the University of Lucknow in 1944. She recently retired from the UNO agency in ISB.

He revealed in his memoirs that he was critically injured after falling from a mango tree as a teenager, and he considers this his first direct experience with death.

Musharraf attended Saint Patrick's School, Karachi, graduating in 1958, later attending Forman Christian College in Lahore. He is said to have been good in mathematics during his student days.

Musharraf is married to Sehba, who is from Okara. They have a son, Bilal, who was a graduate student at Stanford University and currently works in Silicon Valley, and a daughter, Ayla Raza, who works as an architect in Karachi.

In 1961, he entered the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul, graduating 11th in his class. He was commissioned on April 19, 1964 in the Artillery Regiment. Later he joined the Special Services Group and was posted to Field Artillery Regiments. A graduate of the Command and Staff College, Quetta, and the National Defence College, Rawalpindi, Musharraf is also a graduate of the Royal College of Defence Studies of the United Kingdom. Musharraf revealed in his memoirs that in 1965 he was charged with taking unauthorized leave and was about to be court-martialed for it, but was excused due to the war with India.

Musharraf participated in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 16 (SP) Field Artillery Regiment. His regiment saw action as part of the First Armoured Division’s offensive in the Khemkaran sector; as part of a major offensive against the Indian Army, the Pakistani army advanced 15 miles (24 km) into India and it was in the town of Khem Karan that Musharraf wrote his first letter to his mother during the war "proudly saying that I was writing from India". However, despite the initial success and even though possessing a quantitative advantage and significant superiority in armour, the 1st armoured division (labelled "Pride of the Pakistan Army") suffered a "crushing defeat" at Khemkaran, which became known as "Patton Nagar" or graveyard of Pakistani tanks. By all accounts the vital advance failed at the Battle of Asal Uttar, as Pakistan lost a golden opportunity to make major strategic gains; this was a turning point in the war. His regiment was later moved to the Lahore front, which was threatened by the Indian Army. According to Musharraf, "Having stabilized the Lahore front, we were ordered to move again to the Sialkot front. This was where the famous tank battles of Chawinda were fought. At the end of the war this sector was to become a graveyard of Indian tanks.". During the war Musharraf was noted for sticking to his post under shellfire. Towards the end of the war an Indian shell hit one of the artillery guns of Musharraf's unit and set it on fire. According to Musharraf, whilst everyone else took cover, he, followed by a soldier, "dashed to the blazing gun" and removed the "hot shells" one by one and "threw them to safety on the ground". For this he received an award for gallantry and was promoted to the rank of captain.

Later, in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, he served as a Company Commander in the Special Service Group (SSG) Commando Battalion. Originally scheduled to be flown to East Pakistan along with other SSG troops, he was redeployed in Punjab as war broke out and all flights over India were cancelled. He later admitted that he "broke down and wept" when he heard the "disgusting" news of Pakistan's unconditional surrender to India. Later he commanded regiments of artillery, an Artillery Brigade and then an infantry division. In September 1987, he was instrumental in giving orders to a newly formed SSG at Khapalu base (Kashmir), which launched an assault and successfully captured two intermediate posts, Bilafond La in Siachen Glacier, before being pushed back.

On promotion to the rank of Major General on 15 January 1991, he was assigned the command of an infantry Division. Later, on promotion to Lieutenant General on 21 October 1995 he took over command of 1 Corps, the elite strike corps. In 1998, following the resignation of General Jehangir Karamat, he was personally promoted over other senior officers by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and took over as the Army Chief of Staff and Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.

From May to July 1999, Pakistan and India were involved in the Kargil Conflict, an armed conflict between the two countries in the Kargil district of Kashmir. It was planned and executed during General Musharraf's term as the Pakistani Army Chief of Staff under Prime Minister Sharif.

Sharif has claimed that Musharraf was solely responsible for the Kargil attacks. On the other hand, Musharraf claims that the decision was made by Sharif, who was under United States pressure. Ex-CENTCOM Commander Anthony Zinni, and Sharif, have stated that Musharraf requested that the Prime Minister withdraw Pakistani troops from Kashmir.

Casualties on both sides had been particularly heavy in Kargil. Musharraf had good relations with Jehangir Karamat from whom he took over the command. Soon after the coup, one of the first to be appointed as minister was journalist Maleeha Lodhi who was close to Jehangir Karamat. Also recruited was Shaukat Aziz (who served as the country's Prime Minister later) who volunteered to improve the economy. Western banks rescheduled Pakistani loans, which had been subjected to economic sanctions since Pakistan conducted atomic testing.

Pervez Musharraf resigned from the Army on 28 November 2007 in an attempt to regularize his position as President.

Musharraf became de facto Head of Government (using the title Chief Executive and assuming extensive powers) of Pakistan following a bloodless coup d'état on 12 October 1999. That day, Sharif attempted to dismiss Musharraf and install Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) Director Ziauddin Butt in his place. Musharraf, who was out of the country, boarded a commercial airliner to return to Pakistan. Senior army generals refused to accept Musharraf's dismissal, which was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Sharif ordered the Karachi airport closed to prevent the landing of the airliner, which then circled the skies over Karachi. In the coup, the Generals ousted Sharif's administration and took over the airport. The plane landed, allegedly with only a few minutes of fuel to spare, and Musharraf assumed control of the government. Sharif was put under house arrest and later exiled to Saudia Arabia, where he resided until he returned again to Pakistan on 25 November 2007.

He and other leaders have subsequently been prevented from entering Pakistan. Although the disagreement between Musharraf and Sharif started from the day Nawaz Sharif ordered withdrawal of troops from Kargil it reportedly centred around the Prime Minister's desire to find a diplomatic resolution to the conflict with India in the Kashmir region.

The existing President of Pakistan, Rafiq Tarar, remained in office until June 2001. Musharraf formally appointed himself President on 20 June 2001, just days before his scheduled visit to Agra for talks with India.

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Musharraf sided with the United States against the Taliban government in Afghanistan after an ultimatum by U.S. President George W. Bush. Musharraf agreed to give the United States the use of three airbases for Operation Enduring Freedom. Secretary of State Colin Powell and other administration officials met with Musharraf. On 19 September 2001, Musharraf addressed the people of Pakistan and stated that, while he opposed military tactics against the Taliban, Pakistan risked being endangered by an alliance of India and the U.S. if it did not cooperate. In 2006, Musharraf testified that this stance was pressured by threats from the U.S., and revealed in his memoirs that he had "war-gamed" the United States as an adversary and decided that it would end in a loss for Pakistan.

The leadership in Pakistan war-gamed the USA and NATO as an enemy and realized that it was worthless committing suicide over the obstinate Taliban. Pakistan’s stagnated economy had only slightly started recovering, after being tagged as one of the highest indebted countries. Galvanizing the whole nation into agreeing to fight the USA and NATO was another impossible task. Indian eagerness to join the War on Terror was an alarming condition that Pakistan could not have over-looked. Indian jets flying over Pakistan’s space, with the Strategic assets’ lying below were a suicidal recipe. An accidental Indian bomb dropped on the Kahuta plant would have created disaster.. Pakistan drew up plans to secure its NWFP border along Afghanistan. Around 80,000 troops were placed to patrol and were assigned specific targets.

Musharraf was Chief of Army Staff at the time of Mujahideen incursions into India from Pakistan-administered Kashmir in the summer of 1999. Although Pakistan claimed that these were Kashmiri freedom fighters based in Indian-controlled Kashmir, later developments showed that they were Pakistani paramilitary soldiers backing up the separatists on the mountain top. After fierce fighting, Pakistani soldiers were pulled back due to pressure from the international community.

However, in Battle Ready, a book co-authored by ex-CENTCOM Commander in Chief Anthony Zinni and novelist Tom Clancy, the former alleges that Musharraf was the one who pushed Sharif to withdraw the Pakistani troops after being caught in a losing scenario. According to an ex-official of the Musharraf government, Hassan Abbas, Musharraf planned the whole operation and sold the idea to Sharif. The view that Musharraf wanted to attempt the Kargil infiltrations much earlier was also revealed by Bhutto in an interview with a leading daily newspaper, where he had supposedly boasted that "he would hoist the flag of Pakistan atop the Srinagar Assembly" if his plan was executed. Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (PML(N)), a leading Pakistan party added that Musharraf had planned the Kargil intrusions but panicked when the conflict broke out with India and decided to alert Sharif. Since the Kargil incident occurred just after the Lahore Peace Summit earlier that year, Musharraf is often regarded with scepticism in India.

In the middle of 2004, Musharraf began a series of talks with India to solve the Kashmir dispute. Both leaders also discussed the following issues: Wullar Barrage and Kishangaga power project, Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River being built by India in Jammu and Kashmir, disputed Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch, Siachin glacier, issues of Gurdaspur and Ferozepur's status, minority rights, Indian contentions that Pakistan is sponsoring "cross-border" terrorism.

During a 24 September 2006 interview with Steve Kroft on 60 Minutes, Musharraf said that then-U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage had called Musharraf's intelligence director shortly following the 9/11 attacks and threatened military action if Pakistan did not support the U.S.-led "war on terror". According to Musharraf, Armitage warned: "Be prepared to be bombed. Be prepared to go back to the Stone Age." Furthermore, during an interview with Jon Stewart of The Daily Show on 26 September 2006, Musharraf stated that then-Secretary of State Colin Powell also contacted him with a similar message: "You are with us or against us." Musharraf refused to elaborate further, citing the then-upcoming release of his book, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir (ISBN 0-7432-8344-9). Armitage has, however, categorically denied that the U.S. used such harsh words to threaten Pakistan, whereas President Bush has refrained from publicly acknowledging the possibility of the exact wordings being used.

One of the most widely-reported controversies during Musharraf's administration arose as a consequence of the disclosure of nuclear proliferation by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, the metallurgist known as the father of Pakistan's bomb. Musharraf has denied knowledge of or participation by Pakistan's government or army in this proliferation and has faced bitter domestic criticism for singularly vilifying Khan, a former national hero. Khan has been pardoned in exchange for cooperation in the investigation, but is still under house arrest.

Musharraf accused Western leaders and media of politicizing the 2008 Summer Olympics by criticizing China's human rights record and its policy in Tibet. He also said he would cooperate with China, which is a historical ally to Pakistan, in the fight against terrorism..

Pakistan’s relationship with Saudi Arabia continues to grow. After his coup in October 1999, Riyadh was the first foreign capital General Pervez Musharraf visited, to signify the importance he gave to PAK-Saudi relations.

King Abdullah's first visit to Pakistan in 2006 as ruler, he was welcomed at the airport by both President Pervez Musharraf and Prime Minister Shawkat Aziz, a reflection of the strong ties between the two nations. Hundreds of thousands of Pakistanis lined the road from the airport to welcome the Saudi King. President Musharraf and the Saudi King, take a common stand on the war on terror and expanding trade ties, as well as international issues such as Kashmir, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Iraq, Iran’s nuclear program, Afghanistan and reform of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). President Musharraf honored King Abdullah by conferring upon him Pakistan’s highest civil award, Nishan-e-Pakistan, in a colorful investiture ceremony at the presidential palace.

On 21 Jan 2007, the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah conferred the King Abdul Aziz Medallion, the Kingdom’s top honor, on Pakistani President Gen. Pervez Musharraf during a ceremony at his palace in Riyadh.. The first Pakistani leader ever to receive this highest Saudi honor.

Shortly after Musharraf's takeover, several people filed court petitions challenging his assumption of power. However, he got The Oath of Judges Order 2000 issued. It required the judges to take a fresh oath of office swearing allegiance to military rule and to state they would make no decisions against the military. Many judges refused and resigned in protest. On 12 May 2000, the Supreme Court asked Musharraf to hold national elections by 12 October 2002; elections for local governments took place in 2001.

In an attempt to legitimize his presidency and assure its continuance after the approaching restoration of democracy, he held a referendum on 30 April 2002 to extend his term to five years after the October elections. The voter turnout was 80 percent by most estimates, amidst claims of irregularities. A few weeks later, Musharraf went on TV and apologized to the nation for "irregularities" in the referendum.

In August 2002, he passed the Legal Framework Order which provided for the general elections of 2002 and the revival of the 1973 Constitution, but added numerous amendments to the Constitution. The Supreme Court rejected part of the Order.

General elections were held in October 2002 and a plurality of the seats in the Parliament was won by the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q), a pro-Musharraf party. It formed a majority coalition with independents and allies such as the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM). However, parties opposed to Musharraf effectively paralysed the National Assembly for over a year. The following month, Musharraf handed over certain powers to the newly elected Parliament. The National Assembly elected Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali as Prime Minister, who in turn appointed his own cabinet.

In December 2003, Musharraf made a deal with Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, a six-member coalition of Islamic parties, agreeing to leave the army by 31 December 2004. With that party's support, pro-Musharraf legislators were able to muster the two-thirds supermajority required to pass the Seventeenth Amendment, which retroactively legalized Musharraf's 1999 coup and many of his decrees. In late 2004, Musharraf went back on his agreement with the MMA and pro-Musharraf legislators in the Parliament passed a bill allowing Musharraf to keep both offices. Constitution Article 63 clause (1) paragraph (d), read with proviso to Article 41 clause (7) paragraph (b), allows the President to hold dual office.

On 12 January 2002, Musharraf gave a landmark speech against Islamic extremism, a few months after September 11. He unequivocally condemned all acts of terrorism and pledged to combat Islamic extremism and lawlessness within Pakistan itself.

At the same time as banning foreign funding of Islamic educational institutions, he made it compulsory for them to teach a whole host of additional subjects such as computing. This meant that many had to close due to the halt of funds from Pakistanis working abroad resulting in not being able to teach the additional subjects that he had made compulsory. Musharraf also instituted prohibitions on foreign students' access to studying Islam within Pakistan, an effort which began as an outright ban but was later reduced to restrictions on obtaining visas.

In 2004, he proposed "Enlightened Moderation" as an alternative to Islamic fundamentalism. On 18 September 2005, Musharraf made a historic speech before a broad based audience of Jewish leadership, sponsored by the American Jewish Congress's Council for World Jewry, in New York City. In the speech, he denounced terrorism and opened the door to relationships between Pakistan and Israel, as well as between the Muslim world and Jews worldwide. He was widely criticized by Middle Eastern Arab leaders and Muslim clerics, but was met with some praise among Jewish leadership.

On 13 September 2007, 300 Pakistani troops were captured by Islamic militants. Terrorists then bombed Musharraf's own SSG unit, killing 16, and launched rocket attacks in the North-West Frontier province and Tribal areas.

In 2000 Kamram Atif, allegedly a member of Harkat-ul Mujahideen al-Alami, tried to assassinate Musharraf. Atif was sentenced to death in 2006 by an Anti Terrorism Court.

On 14 December 2003, Musharraf survived an assassination attempt when a powerful bomb went off minutes after his highly-guarded convoy crossed a bridge in Rawalpindi. It was the third such attempt during his four-year rule. On 25 December 2003, two suicide bombers tried to assassinate Musharraf, but their car bombs failed to kill him; 16 others nearby died instead. Musharraf escaped with only a cracked windscreen on his car. Militant Amjad Farooqi was apparently suspected of being the mastermind behind these attempts, and was killed by Pakistani forces in 2004 after an extensive manhunt.

On 6 July 2007, there was another attempted assassination, when an unknown group fired a 7.62 submachine gun at Musharraf's plane as it took off from a runway in Rawalpindi. Security also recovered 2 anti-aircraft guns, from which no shots had been fired. On 17 July 2007, Pakistani police detained 39 people in relation to the attempted assassination of Musharraf. They were detained at an undisclosed location by a joint team of Punjab Police, the Federal Investigation Agency and other Pakistani intelligence agencies.

PML-Q led government with the help of the religious parties the MMA, secured 2/3 majority in National assembly and Senate and constitionally validated Musharraf's election.

On 1 January 2004 Musharraf had won a confidence vote in the Electoral College of Pakistan, consisting of both houses of Parliament and the four provincial assemblies. Musharraf received 658 out of 1170 votes, a 56 percent majority, but many opposition and Islamic members of parliament walked out to protest the vote. As a result of this vote, according to Article 41(8) of the Constitution of Pakistan, Musharraf was "deemed to be elected" to the office of President. His term was extended to 2007.

Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigned on 26 June 2004, after losing the support of the PML(Q). His resignation was at least partly due to his public differences with the party chairman Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, and was rumoured to have happened at Musharraf's command, although neither man has confirmed this. Jamali had been appointed with the support of Musharraf's and the pro-Musharraf PML(Q). Most PML(Q) parliamentarians formerly belonged to the Pakistan Muslim League party led by Sharif, and most ministers of the cabinet were formerly senior members of other parties, joining the PML(Q) after the elections upon being offered powerful offices. It is believed that Musharraf replaced Jamali due to his poor performance and in his place Musharraf nominated Shaukat Aziz, the minister for finance and a former employee of Citibank and head of Citibank Private Banking as the new prime minister.

In 1999, under Nawaz Sharif, Revenue generation of around Rs.308 billion could not meet the growing expenditure requirements; with only an average of Rs.80 billion being spent on Public sector development programs (PSDP) annually, and no visible project to boast about. From this Rs.308 billion around 65% was being utilized for debt servicing. In 1988 Pakistan’s foreign debt was $18 billion, but at the end of 1999 it had accumulated to become $38 billion. A 100% increased burden on the already crippled economy. Public and external debt exceeded 300% of Foreign exchange earnings.

President Musharraf’s vision and policies helped Pakistan come out of the list of Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) while setting it on path of prosperity, growth and economic reforms. The world financial institutions like the World Bank & , IMF and ADB have been praising Pakistan for its reforms, fiscal policies and macro-economic achievements.

Pakistan show tremendous reduction in poverty during the period 2000 - 2007. According official figures, the poverty level dropped from 34% to 24% and the overall living standard improves dramatically.

Under Musharraf's tenure, Pakistan saw exceptional setup of 47 universities, including Virtual University, under the supervision of Higher Education Commission. Most of the universities were of international standards.

Pakistan now has a total of 245,682 educational institutions in all categories, including 164,579 (i.e. 67 per cent) in the public sector and 81,103 (i.e. 100 per cent) in the private sector, reports the National Education Census (NEC-2005). The census — jointly conducted by the Ministry of Education, the Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) and the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) — reveals that the number of private-sector institutions has increased from 36,096 in 1999-2000 to 81,103 in 2005, i.e. by 100 per cent. 45,007 Educational Institutions have increased in Musharraf Era.

The credit for amending the Hudood ordinance goes entirely to President Musharraf. He is the only leader who had shown tremendous courage and determination to amend a piece of legislation that had been a bane for women since 1979. A parliamentary bill becomes a law when it receives the presidential assent under Article 75 of the 1973 Constitution. The National Assembly voted in favor of the “Protection of Women bill” on 15 Nov 2006 and the Senate approved it on 23 Nov 2006. President General Pervez Musharraf signed into law the “Protection of Women Bill”, on 1 December 2006. The bill places rape laws under the penal code and does away with harsh conditions that previously required victims to produce four male witnesses and exposed them to prosecution for adultery if they were unable to prove the crime.

Increased reserved seats for women in assemblies, to increase women's representation and make their presence more effective. Previously there were 20 seats reserved for women in national assembly now there are 60 seats for them. In provincial assemblies there were collectively seats 23 for women and now this figure is 128. This situation has brought out increase participation of women for 2002 and 2008 elections.

General Pervez Musharraf upon assuming power promised protection of the rights of religious minorities and an end to the culture of religious intolerance. A Christian, Derick Cyprian, was appointed as a federal minister and the government undertook to repeal all discriminatory laws. There have been some positive developments in according basic rights to religious minorities, although in real terms their impact has been nullified by the growth of extremism and intolerance within the fabric of the society. General Musharraf has continued with his promise that religious minorities will be protected, and there are limited signs that Christians, Hindus (and, to a lesser extent, the Ahmaddiyas) are not being overtly discriminated against with regard to public positions. In August 2005, Justice Rana Bhagwandas (a Hindu) was sworn in as acting Chief Justice. Among noticeable positive steps taken by the military government are the declaration of the abolition of separate electorates, apparent curbs on extremist and sectarian groups, and a sense of inclusivity of all religious communities. The thaw in the relations with India allowed greater influx of Hindu and Sikh pilgrims and, during 2004-5, the Punjab government allocated funds to renovate the Krishna Mandir temple in Lahore. In addition, the Pakistani Constitution reserves 10 national assembly seats for religious minorities.

When Musharraf came to power, he claimed that the corruption in the government bureaucracy would be cleaned up.. According to Transparency International, Pakistan has improved its ratings under Musharraf's regime, from being the 11th most corrupt country to fall down to 41st.

In 2002, according to a survey by Transparency International, Pakistan’s rating improved from 11th most corrupt country in 2001 to 24th, according to a TI press release .

In 2007, according to Transparency International, Pakistan is clearly ranked 138th out of 179 countries. That places Pakistan as the 41st most corrupt country in 2007 .

The Steel Mills case is one of the biggest FALSE controversies surrounding Musharraf and Shaukat Aziz. Steels Mills case had been hyped by the opposition parties to gain political advantage in 2008 elections. The worth of Steels Mills in 1999 as calculated in Nawaz Sharif government was $0.294 billion. . The worth of Steels Mills GREW under Shaukat Aziz government to become $349 million and while a Saudi group Tuwairqi agreed to pay $362 million for Steels Mills .

The Shaukat Aziz government was privatizing Steels Mills in profit of $13 million and had NOT sold the access 14,500 acres of land of Pakistan Steel Mills and negotiations were on with the Sindh government to set up an Industrial Park on that land.

On 9 March 2007, Musharraf suspended the Chief Justice of Pakistan, Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, pressing corruption charges against him and filed a reference against the Chief Justice, in the Supreme Judicial Council according to Article 209(2) and Article 209(5)(b) of the Constitution of Pakistan. Thus on 13 March 2007, when the Supreme Judicial Council met, it was headed by Acting Chief Justice Javed Iqbal.

1- There are complaints of orders being verbally announced in open court in favour of one party and subsequently a written order at variance from the order announced in court being delivered. Two such cases have acquired particular notoriety. In one of these two cases it is alleged that amounts as large as Rs.55million may have been involved.

2- Chief Justice had intimidated civil servants, including pressuring an administrator, to influence by his position to gain undue advantage by "insisting" on an increase and enhancement in his entitlements or in securing the relaxation of the rules in that respect.

3- Chief Justice influenced government offices to promote his son's career. On 22 June 2005 Dr. Arsalan Iftikhar was appointed as Medical Officer/Demonstrator in the Institute of Public Health, Quetta.

4- Chief Justice Chaudhry had received hundreds of thousands of rupees for reimbursement of gasoline for his car. The receipts he submitted were for a pump that only sold diesel fuel. Chief Justice had claimed reimbursement for airfare for his wife and children when he was not entitled to claim it.

5- Chief Justice had arranged for the allotment of a plot of land in Karachi to which he was not entitled.

Musharraf's moves sparked protests among Pakistani lawyers. On 12 March 2007, lawyers started Judicial Activism across Pakistan and began boycotting all court procedures in protest against the suspension. In Islamabad, as well as other cities such as Lahore, Karachi and Quetta, hundreds of lawyers dressed in black suits attended rallies, condemning the suspension as unconstitutional. Slowly the expressions of support for the ousted Chief Justice gathered momentum and by May, protesters and opposition parties took out huge rallies against Musharraf and his tenure as army chief was also challenged in the courts.

PPP Co-chairman Asif Ali Zardari also has reportedly refused to reinstate the sacked chief justice of Pakistan (CJP) Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, apparently due to the fear that the latter, if reinstated, might reopen for adjudication cases on the National Reconciliation Order. During a meeting of leaders of the ruling coalition in Lahore on 23 July 2008, Zardari repeatedly insisted on not reinstating Chaudhry, reported the Daily Times.

The Musharraf government was forced to act against the Lal Masjid militants, after they formally announced the establishment of a parallel judicial system. The pro-Taliban Lal Masjid administration vowed to enforce Islamic laws in the federal capital and threatened to unleash a wave of suicide bombers if the government took any action to counter it. “Our youth will commit suicide attacks, if the government impedes the enforcement of the Sharia and attacks Lal Masjid and its sister seminaries,” Maulana Abdul Aziz, the in-charge of the mosque said in his Friday sermon.

The standoff between the Pakistani government and the clerics of the Lal Masjid in Islamabad finally broke down on the morning of 8 July 2007, when the official government delegation led by Shujaat Hussain declared that the negotiations with the militants holed up in the mosque have reached an agreement. However, the clerics refused to release the hostages as promised by them in the agreement. Musharraf had given the militants some six months to lay down arms and abide the law of country.

The government managed to recover 1,300 men, women and children during the operation. Some of these women, who were recovered safely on the last day of the operation, had their written death wishes with them. . Six hundred suicide bombers are present in Karachi revealed Qasim Toori and Danish alias Talha during interrogations by law-enforcement agencies. Most of the suicide bombers are also former students of Islamabad’s Lal Masjid.

Also on 8 August 2007, Benazir Bhutto spoke about her secret meeting with Musharraf on 27 July, in an interview on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

On 17 September 2007, Bhutto accused Musharraf's allies of pushing Pakistan to crisis by refusal to restore democracy and share power. Sheikh Rashid Ahmed stated that officials had agreed to grant Benazir Bhutto amnesty in pending corruption charges.

On 2 October 2007, Musharraf named Lt. Gen. Ashfaq Kayani as vice chief of the army starting 8 October. When Musharraf resigned from military on 28 November 2007, Kayani became Chief of Army Staff.

Sharif returned to Pakistan in September 2007, and was immediately arrested and taken into custody at the airport.

On arrival in Saudi Arabia, Nawaz Sharif was received by Prince Muqrin bin Abdul Aziz, the Saudi intelligence chief, who had met Musharraf in Islamabad the previous day. That meeting had been followed by a rare press conference, at which he had warned that Sharif should not violate the terms of King Abdullah's agreement of staying out of politics for 10 years.

In an interview in March 2007, Musharraf said that he intends to stay in the office for another five years.

A nine-member panel of Supreme Court judges deliberated on six petitions (including Jamaat-e-Islami's, Pakistan's largest Islamic group) for disqualification of Musharraf as presidential candidate. Bhutto stated that her party may join other opposition groups, including Sharif's. Attorney-general Malik Mohammed Qayyum stated that, pendente lite, the Election Commission was "reluctant" to announce the schedule for the presidential vote.

On 24 September 2007, the president of the Supreme Court bar association, Munir Malik, announced that former Supreme Court judge Wajihuddin Ahmed would challenge Musharraf in Pakistan's October presidential election. Ahmad had little chance of defeating Musharraf (since the president is elected by parliament and provincial assemblies).

On 28 September 2007, in a 6-3 vote, the court presided by Judge Rana Bhagwandas ruled: "These petitions are held to be non-maintainable." The judgment removed obstacles to Musharraf's election bid.

1- PML-Q government passed a constitutional amendment in National Assembly, with 2/3 majority, also approved by Senate that allowed President Musharraf to hold dual offices.

2- Constitution of Pakistan - Article 63 clause (1) paragraph (d), read with proviso to Article 41 clause (7) paragraph (b), allows the President to hold dual office.

3- Supreme Court of Pakistan on 28 September 2007, allowed President Musharraf to stand for elections in October 2007.

4- President Musharraf was elected President of Pakistan, on 6 October 2007, by a combined electoral of the Senate, National Assembly and the FOUR Provincial Assembles.

5- President Musharraf won by 58% votes declared in November 2007, as the constitutional President of Pakistan!

On 3 November 2007 Musharraf declared emergency rule across Pakistan. He suspended the Constitution, imposed State of Emergency, and fired the chief justice of the Supreme Court. While addressing the nation on State Television, Musharraf declared that the state of emergency was imposed in the country. In Islamabad, troops entered the Supreme Court building, arrested the judges and kept them under detention in their homes. Troops were deployed inside state-run TV and radio stations, while independent channels went off air.

On 23 March 2008, President Musharraf said an "era of democracy" has begun in Pakistan. He has put the country "on the track of development and progress." On 22 March, the Pakistan Peoples Party named former parliament speaker Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani as its candidate for the country's next prime minister, to lead a coalition government united against him. A confirmation vote is scheduled for 24 March 2008 in parliament, and the prime minister would be sworn in by Musharraf 25 March 2008.

The statistics of the Election Commission, showed party position as follows, in the February 2008 elecions.

On 7 August 2008, the Pakistan Peoples Party and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) agreed to force Musharraf to step down and begin his impeachment. Asif Ali Zardari and Nawaz Sharif announced sending a formal request or joint charge sheet that he step down, and impeach him through parliamentary process upon refusal. Musharraf, however, said: “I will defeat those who try to push me to the wall. If they use their right to oust me, I have the right to defend myself." Musharraf, accordingly delayed his departure for the Beijing Olympics, by a day. A senior coalition official told Reuters: "Yes, we have agreed in principle to impeach him." The draft of the ruling coalition’s joint statement had been finalized by the draft Committee, and Musharraf would have to obtain vote of confidence from the National Assembly and 4 provincial assemblies. The government summoned the national assembly, or lower house of parliament, to sit on 11 August. Capt. Wasif Syed, spokesman for the Pakistan People's Party -- confirmed: "A decision has been made that he has to go now, and all the parties have agreed on this point.". It is speculated that Pervez Musharraf would have had to face corruption and even murder charges if he had kept refusing a graceful exit from the president house.

In early 2007, Musharraf was extremely popular. According to a US survey, IRI President General Pervez Musharraf was more popular in Pakistan than opposition leaders Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. Around 37 per cent of the respondents were of the view that Musharraf's supported PML-Q deserved to be re-elected.

But by August 2007, after the lawyers Judicial Activism started, Musharraf became slightly unpopular in Pakistan due to persistent media efforts and anti-Musharraf talk shows. An International Republican Institute survey, taken of 3000 people, showed that 64 percent of the population did not want another term to be granted to Musharraf as the president of Pakistan.

Musharraf's popularity grew after his resignation and several pro-Musharraf websites and groups on Facebook emerged.

After resignation, Musharraf went for an expected pilgrimage to Mecca. He may also continue his travelling on a lucrative speaking tour through Middle East, Europe and United States. Chicago-based Embark LLC is one of the international public-relations firms trying to land Musharraf as a highly paid keynote speaker. Public-relations executives say the articulate and brash 44-year army veteran's earning power could approach that of former U.S. President Bill Clinton, who famously snubbed him during a lightning visit to Islamabad in his 2000 Pakistan tour. According to Embark President David B. Wheeler, the speaking fee for Musharraf would be in the $150,000-200,000 range for a day plus jet and other V.I.P. arrangements on the ground. Embark president has also booked speeches for former U.S. President George H.W. Bush and former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell.

Recently in an interview, he disclosed that he has planned to jump back into full time politics but not until he moves into his newly constructed house in Chak Shahzad in Rawalpindi/Islamabad as he does not want to misuse the army house for political purposes..

His speech at the Amway Grand Plaza Hotel marked his first U.S. appearance since he left office last year, as he embarks on a international speaking tour. The former president of Pakistan pleaded for understanding in his country's fight against terrorism, in a region deemed central to the outcome of that battle. "Pakistan has confronted terrorism and extremism for more than two decades now," Pervez Musharraf said in a speech to about 500 people at the World Affairs Council of Western Michigan event.

Musharraf characterizes himself as a moderate leader with liberal, progressive ideas, and has expressed admiration for Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Turkish Republic.

President Musharraf led a great team of economists and professionals with ex-PM Shaukat Aziz, to mark their achievements. Their achievements caused Pakistan to emerge as a geo-strategic important country with a 100% better economy. His effectiveness shall be measured by the results produced - Economic Achievements. In 2006, Pakistan was the 3rd fastest growing economy of the world and world’s preferred destination for Investment. President Musharraf’s Vision and Policies helped Pakistan come out of the list of Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) while setting it on path of prosperity, growth and economic reforms. His era ushered in an era of Multi-National Corporations Musharraf Era Ushers in MNC's.

President Musharraf moved aggressively to privatize the economy, reduce poverty and Pakistan's foreign debt, and allow the press more freedom. . Statements issued by the government suggest significant improvement in the economy. Pakistan's Economy boomed from a mere worth of $75 billion in 1999 to become $170 billion in 2008. Debt servicing in ratio to GDP decreased significantly due to Musharraf's economic planning.

It was under Musharraf's liberal policies that led to freedom of media and from one state run television PTV, above 50 channels were given license to operate. It was under his rule that media rights were relaxed and prosperity of digital media came about. Pakistan saw an era of huge influx of television and radio channels.

Dr. Mahjabeen Islam says, "The vibrancy of Pakistan’s press is proven by the fact that many an expatriate obtains their news from Pakistan’s news sources rather than the post-9/11 throttled and slanted media bytes that one gets in the United States. And to give credit where it’s due, media freedom will remain as General Musharraf’s positive legacy".

Xenia Dormandy, Executive Director for Research at Harvard University's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, says Pervez Musharraf is in a difficult situation, given Pakistan's political turmoil, its war on terror and its relations with its neighbors and the United States. "He is squeezed between his relationship with the U.S. and our desires, the improving relationship with India, the historical relationship with Afghanistan and, at the same time, domestic political constraints, and the long-term tribal interests of much of his population," says Dormandy. Some experts who view the General in a sympathetic light agree. Among them is analyst Michael Krepon, co-founder of the non-profit Henry L. Stimson Center in Washington, who adds that the complexities of Pakistani society must be taken into account when looking at Pervez Musharraf.

The Brookings Institution's Steven Cohen says, "He's going to have a difficult time leaving a permanent imprint on Pakistan, partly because the material he is dealing with is so intractable. He'd like to get an agreement on Kashmir. But India is not into compromising much more, if at all, even though Musharraf has come a long way in terms of Pakistan's position. He'd like to reform Pakistani politics and the Pakistan economy. But that's very, very hard to do, in part, because politics can't be reformed from the top and, in part, because the economy has been so badly abused over the decades and it's in a really serious shape." Even those who would like to see Pervez Musharraf's "enlightened" vision for Pakistan succeed warn that there is no telling what next year's election may bring.

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Movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf

The movement to impeach Pervez Musharraf was an August 2008 attempt by the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), the Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML-N), Awami National Party (ANP), and Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam to force Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf out of office.

On November 3, 2007, President and then-Chief of the Army Staff Pervez Musharraf declared a state of emergency, postponing indefinitely the elections for the National Assembly of Pakistan that were initially scheduled to take place on January 8, The emergency announcement also contained news of the dismissal of Chief Justice of Pakistan Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, widely considered to have been motivated by a prediction that the Supreme Court was about to invalidate Musharraf's October reelection as President of Pakistan in uniform. This action, combined with a broad-based pro-democracy movement occurring in Pakistan at the time, led to a precipitous fall in Musharraf's popularity. Following the assassination of Benazir Bhutto, the Pakistani Election Commission announced that the election would occur on February 18. The elections were won by the PPP and the PML-N, two parties hostile to Musharraf and his Pakistan Muslim League (Q) party.

On August 7, 2008, the Pakistan Peoples Party and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) agreed to ask Musharraf to get the Vote of Confidence from the National and Provisional Assemblies or step down, and began his impeachment. Asif Ali Zardari and Nawaz Sharif announced that the two parties would be sending a joint request asking that Musharraf step down, and that they would impeach him through the parliamentary process if he refused. Musharraf, however, said, "I will defeat those who try to push me to the wall. If they use their right to oust me, I have the right to defend myself." Upon hearing the news, Musharraf delayed his departure for the Beijing Olympics by a day, and it was later announced that he would be replaced at the opening ceremonies by Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani. The government summoned the National Assembly for a session on August 11 to begin the impeachment proceedings. Capt. Wasif Syed, spokesman for the Pakistan People's Party, confirmed the announcement, saying, "A decision has been made that he has to go now, and all the parties have agreed on this point." To impeach Musharraf, the ruling coalition will need a two-thirds majority in the National Assembly, and it is not certain that they control the required number of votes. Musharraf still has the option to fight his impeachment by dissolving parliament, although doing so could cause a backlash, and he would likely need the support of Pakistan's army to be successful.

On August 18, 2008, in a speech defending his record, Musharraf announced that he will resign In the August 18 negotiations which failed over the legal technicalities, he sought immunity from prosecution if he resigns before the impeachment proceedings. On asylum, Condoleezza Rice on "Fox News Sunday" said that "Musharraf would not be going to the United States. This is an issue that is not on the table." Musharraf stated he will stay in Pakistan in a house he is building in an exclusive enclave in Islamabad near a golf club.

Musharraf, 65, announced his resignation, in a 1 p.m. televised address to avoid impeachment: "After viewing the situation and consulting legal advisers and political allies, with their advice I have decided to resign. I leave my future in the hands of people. Not a single charge in the impeachment can stand against me. No charge can be proved against me because I never did anything for myself, it was all for Pakistan. On the map of the world, Pakistan is now an important country, by the grace of Allah. Whether I win or lose the impeachment, the nation will lose. They don’t realize they can succeed against me but the country will undergo irreparable damage. My resignation will go to the speaker of the National Assembly today." In an emotional 1 hour speech, Musharraf raised his clenched fists to chest height, and said, "Long live Pakistan!" Nasir Ali Khan, a senior member of the Pakistan Muslim League-N, said Musharraf will stay in Pakistan, a request he had insisted on. Meanwhile, the Constitution provides that a new president must be chosen within 30 days. The resignation permits the 4-month-old coalition government to choose a new president by a vote of the Parliament and provincial assemblies. US-based Newsweek magazine reported that "the president would 'fly into exile in Saudi Arabia, where he is to remain for the next three months." The British Daily Telegraph reported an unnamed Western diplomat as saying that, after a pilgrimage to Mecca, Musharraf might settle in London.

As of 6 September 2008 President (retd) Musharraf remains in Pakistan receiving the many well wishers who have come to pay their respects to a man the middles classes believe fought for a progressive, democratic Pakistan. Despite his well meaning mistakes President Musharraf remains a hero to many Patriotic Pakistanis.

President Musharraf has the distinction of being the only Pakistani leader of modern times not to have been involved in any corruption, nepotism or jobbery. President Musharraf is currently completing his retirement home in Islamabad, the architect of this property has recently been quoted as stating that he has had to scale down his plans as President Musharraf has requested this as he only has his Army Pension to rely upon. This honest behaviour compares very well to Nawaz Sharif's 1,000-acre (4.0 km2) Raiwand Estate in Punjab and Asif Zardari's 23 properties around the world.

Pakistan's Election Commission on August 22 announced that Presidential elections will be held on September 6, and the nomination papers can be filed from August 26. The president is elected by the 2 houses of parliament and the 4 provincial assemblies.

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Pakistan Army

From left, US Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Navy Adm. Mike Mullen and Rear Adm. Scott Van Buskirk, commander of Carrier Strike Group 9, speak with Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army Gen. Ashfaq Kayani and Pakistani Maj. Gen. Ahmad Shuja Pasha, director general of military operations, on the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72) while under way in the North Arabian Sea, Aug. 27, 2008.

The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations.

The Pakistan Army, combined with the Navy and Air Force, makes Pakistan's armed forces the sixth largest military in the world. The Army is modelled on the United Kingdom armed forces and came into existence after the independence in 1947. It has an active force of 700,000 personnel and 528,000 men in reserve that continue to serve until the age of 45 and several other groups functioning under its many umbrella organisations. The Pakistani Army is a volunteer force and has been involved in many conflicts with India. Combined with this rich combat experience, the Army is also actively involved in contributing to United Nations peacekeeping efforts. Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani Army personnel as advisers in many African, South Asian and Arab countries. The Pakistani Army maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and the first Gulf War to help the Coalition. The Pakistani Army is led by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani.

Pakistan Army has a doctrine of limited "offensive-defense" which it has tried to refine consistently ever since 1989 when it was pushed out to the formations during "Exercise Zarb-e-Momin". The main purpose of this strategy is to launch a sizeable offensive into enemy territory rather than wait to be hit from the enemy's offensive attack. The doctrine is based on the premise that while on the offensive, the enemy can be kept off-balance while allowing Pakistani Army to be able to seize enemy territory of strategic importance which can be used as a bargaining chip on the negotiating table. In order to do this, currently Pakistani Army maintains two sizable Strike Corps which will be backed up by Defensive Corps forming the defensive tier behind the strike corps. By pushing the offensive into enemy territory, the Pakistani Army hopes to consolidate its gains inside the enemy's territory. The Pakistan Army will attempt to keep the enemy off of the border rather than giving ground on the Pakistani side.

In the 1990s, the Army created a strong centralized corps of reserves for its formations in the critical semi-desert and desert sectors in southern Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new formations were rapidly equipped with assets needed for mechanized capability. These reserve formations are dual-capable, meaning they can be used for offensive as well as defensive (holding) purposes.

The motto of the Pakistani Army reads: "Iman, Taqwa, Jihad fi Sabilillah". Translated into English, it means "Faith, Piety, to strive in the path of Allah putting aside all your physical needs".

The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), formerly called the Commander in Chief (C in C), is challenged with the responsibility of commanding the Pakistani Army. The COAS operates from army headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO's) assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant General level include a Chief of General Staff (CGS), under whom the Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function; the Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS); the Adjutant General (AG); the Quarter-Master General (QMG); the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation (IGT&E); and the Military Secretary (MS). A major reorganization in GHQ was done in September 2008 under General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus raising the number of PSO's to eight..

The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Chief of the Corps of Engineers (E-in-C) who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff.

There are 10 Corps including the newly formed strategic corps (2004) and Army Air Defence Command located at various garrisons all over Pakistan.

The Pakistani Army was created on 30 June 1947 with the division of the British Indian Army and Pakistan received six armoured, eight artillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the forty armoured, forty artillery and twenty one infantry regiments that went to India. Fearing that India would take over the disputed region of Kashmir, the newly created Pakistani Army sent in irregulars and tribal groups in 1947 which lead to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Regular army units joined the invasion later on but were stopped on UK pressure but not before occupying the northwestern part of Kashmir. During the 1950s, the Pakistani Army received large amounts of economic and military aid from United States and Great Britain after signing two Mutual Defense Treaties, Central Treaty Organization, (Cento) also known as the Baghdad Pact and SEATO, (South East Asian Treaty Organization) in 1954. This aid greatly expanded the Army from its modest beginnings.

The sole division HQ that went to Pakistan was the 7th. 8th and 9th Divisions were raised in 1947; 10, 12 and 14 Divs were raised in 1948. 15 Div was raised in 1950. At some point before 1954, 6 Div was raised and 9 Div disbanded. 6 Div was disbanded at some point after 1954 as US assistance was available only for 1 armd and 6 inf divs. 1st Armoured Div was raised in 1956.

The Army seized control of Pakistan for the first time when General Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. Tensions with India continued in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was fought near the Rann of Kutch area during April 1965, in which the Indian Army was repulsed with moderate casualties. Emboldened, the Pakistan Army leaders carried out Operation Gibraltar(which was a failure), an attempt to take Kashmir, that was launched later in the year, resulting in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, after the Pakistani infiltrators were discovered, India counter-attacked. The 3-week war ended in a U.N. mandated ceasefire culminating in the Tashkent Declaration. However, the military generally considers the 1965 war as a victory over a rival that outnumbered it by almost 3 to 1 in all military aspects. In that regard, the valour of Major Raja Aziz Bhatti of thwarting an entire Indian Brigade planning to break into Lahore and the Battle Of Chawinda are considered to be one of the most courageous feats in the army. At Chawinda the Pakistan Army was vastly outnumbered in terms of personnel and equipment but it is said that victory was achieved when Pakistani East Bengal Regiment soldiers tied bombs to their bellies in order to stop the advancing Indian tanks. An uprising against General Ayub Khan, during 1968 and 1969 resulted in Ayub Khan relinquishing his office as President and Chief of Pakistan Army in favor of General Yahya Khan who assumed power in 1969.6 Armoured and 11 Infantry Divisions were raised in adhoc form 1964-65. 16, 18 and 23 Divisions were raised at some point between 1966-69; and 9 Division was re-raised in this period.

During the rule of General Yahya Khan, the Bengalis protested their poor conditions and civil unrest broke out in East Pakistan amidst incidents of massive human rights abuses carried out and genocide by the Pakistani Army and military. India joined the war on the side of Bangladesh following seven months of civil war in November 1971, and on the 16th of December, 1971, over 90,000 Pakistani Armed forces personnel (army, air force and navy) around 40,000 government and civil employees surrendered to the Indian forces and Bangladesh became a republic. Consequently, the Pakistan army was modernized at a faster pace than ever before. After the war, General Yahya Khan resigned and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto took over the reins.

In 1977 the Pakistan Army took over the government of Pakistan after a coup by General Zia ul-Haq, which saw the end of another democratically elected government leading to the hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after he was tried and found guilty of conspiracy of murdering a politician named Kasuri. General Zia ul-Haq ruled as a military dictator until his mysterious explosion aircraft death in 1988.

Pakistani army also helped the Saudi Arabian Government in regaining the control of the Kaaba with the help of French Commandos. Pakistani and French security forces retook the Kaaba in a battle which left approximately 250 dead, and 600 wounded. The Pakistanis and French were called in after poor results from assaults by the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG). 127 were reported to have been killed.

In the mid-1970s the Pakistani Army was involved in fighting an uprising in Balochistan. Various Balochi factions, some with the oblique support of the USSR, wanted independence or at least greater provincial rights. The rebellion was put down but the Army suffered heavy casualties.

With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the United States began to provide large scale military and economic aid to Pakistan to modernize its conventional military capability and, ostensibly at least, prevent any Soviet attacks on it. This aid was also intended as an incentive for Pakistan to aid guerrilla forces (called "Army of GOD") in Afghanistan. The SSG created a unit called the Black Storks in which SSG commandos were dressed up as Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet-Afghan war. They were then flown into Afghanistan and provided the Mujahideen with support. The United States allocated about 40% of its assistance package to non-reimbursable credits for military purchases, the fourth largest program after Israel, Egypt and Turkey. The remainder of the aid program was devoted to economic assistance.

The Army fought a brief border skirmish with India in Kargil 1999 after the Pakistan Army sent in their para-military NLI troops dressed as mujahiddin into Indian territory. There was a danger of the war spiraling out of control when Nawaz Sharif, under immense pressure from Washington, eventually ordered a withdrawal. This decision and the resulting Pakistani casualties created great resentment in the Army against the Prime Minister and is rumored to have contributed to his eventual over throwing by the COAS.

In October 1999 the Pakistan Army for the fourth time, with popular support, overthrew a democratically elected government which resulted in additional sanctions being placed against Pakistan, resulting in General Pervez Musharraf coming to power in a bloodless coup. Musharraf stepped down as President in August 2008.

Since the 9/11 incident, Pakistan unrecognized the Taliban and has become a key ally of the United States in the fight against terrorism. As part of the U.S.'s War on Terrorism, the army has moved over 100,000 troops to the Pakistan-Afghan border to patrol against extreme elements cross border infiltration.

The Pakistan Army commenced operations in Balochistan during 2006, resulting in the killing of the leader of the Balochis, Nawab Akbar Bugti and has resulted in the crushing of a rebellion by the Balochistan Liberation Army.

In the wake of the new world power equilibrium a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterized by growing national power politics and state implosions which have necessitated involvement of the United Nations peace keeping forces for conflict resolution.

The United Nations has been undertaking peace keeping operations since its inception, but the need for employment of peace keeping forces has increased manifold since the Gulf War. In 1992 there were 11000 Blue Berets deployed around the world, by the end of the year the figure rose to 52000. Presently it exceeds a staggering figure of 80,000 troops.

The Pakistani army has always played an integral part of the Pakistan government since its inception. It has virtually acted as a third party that has repeatedly seized power in the name of stabilizing Pakistan. General Ayub Khan came to power in 1956 due to political turmoil within the ruling party. The situation was so dire that the speaker of the National Assembly was beaten to death right in front of the assembly hall. Ayub Khan reluctantly agreed to take power as a favour to the nation. Later on, General Yahya Khan would assume power in 1969. After the 1971 war, democracy was restored only to be cut short in 1977 after a coup which saw the hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani Premier. General Zia ul-Haq ruled as a dictator virtually unopposed until his death in 1988. Despite the exit of the army from mainstream politics, the political muscle of the military is everpresent. The former President, General (ret) Pervez Musharraf, came to power in a bloodless coup in October 1999 overthrowing the last democratically elected government led by Nawaz Sharif.

Fauji Foundation (established in 1954) is a charitable trust, operating on a completely self sustaining basis, channeling approximately 80% of the profits from commercial ventures into social protection programmes that serve a beneficiary population representing approximately 7% of the country’s population.

Spending more than Rs. 21 billion since inception on welfare, the Foundation provides services in the areas of healthcare, education, educational stipends, technical and vocational training.

Considered the most sustainable social protection mechanism in the country, Fauji Foundation provides welfare services to approximately 10 million individuals on a completely sustainable basis. Running autonomously for over 50 years, the foundation has been providing healthcare, education, vocational and technical training to over 7% of the country’s population through 294 welfare projects.

Most enlisted personnel used to come from rural families, and many have only rudimentary literacy skills, but with the increase in the litracy level the requirements have been raised to Matriculate level (10th Grade). Recruits are processed gradually through a paternalistically run regimental training center, taught the official language, Urdu, if necessary, and given a period of elementary education before their military training actually starts.

In the thirty-six-week training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remain with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pakistani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village. Enlisted men usually serve for eighteen years, during which they participate in regular training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance.

About 320 men enter the army bi-annually through the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul in Abbottabad in the North West Frontier Province; a small number--especially physicians and technical specialists--are directly recruited, and these persons are part of the heart of the officer corps. The product of a highly competitive selection process, members of the officer corps have completed twelve years of education and spend two years at the Pakistan Military Academy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes English-language skills.

The army has twelve other training establishments, including schools concentrating on specific skills such as infantry, artillery, intelligence, or mountain warfare. A National University of Science and Technology (NUST) has been established which has absorbed the existing colleges of engineering, signals, electrical engineering and medicine. At the apex of the army training system is the Command and Staff College at Quetta, one of the few institutions inherited from the colonial period. The college offers a ten-month course in tactics, staff duties, administration, and command functions through the division level. Students from foreign countries, including the United States, have attended the school but reportedly have been critical of its narrow focus and failure to encourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous subjects, such as logistics.

The senior training institution for all service branches is the National Defence University. Originally established in 1971 at Rawalpindi, to provide training in higher military strategy for senior officers, the school house was relocated to Islamabad in 1995. It also offers courses that allow civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security. In a program begun in the 1980s to upgrade the intellectual standards of the officer corps and increase awareness of the wider world, a small group of officers, has been detailed to academic training, achieving master's degrees and even doctorates at universities in Pakistan and abroad.

Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and especially to the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armored and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions. After 1961 this training was coordinated under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, but numbers varied along with vicissitudes in the United States-Pakistan military relationship. Of some 200 officers being sent abroad annually in the 1980s, over two-thirds went to the United States, but the cessation of United States aid in 1990 entailed suspension of the IMET program. In 1994 virtually all foreign training was in Commonwealth countries. However, after the 9/11 attacks, Pakistan again has begun sending officers to US Army schools. Today there are more than 400 officers serving in foreign countries.

Officers retire between the ages of fifty-two and sixty, depending on their rank.

In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods of 1992 or the October 2005 devastating earthquake, army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringing relief and supplies.

The army also engaged in extensive economic activities. Most of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the army's own use, but others performed functions beneficial to the local civilian economy. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass castings and sold them to civilian consumers.

Several army organizations performed functions that were important to the civilian sector across the country. For example, the National Logistics Cell was responsible for trucking food and other goods across the country; the Frontier Works Organization built the Karakoram Highway to China; and the Special Communication Organization maintained communications networks in remote parts of Pakistan. Pakistan Army is involved in relief activities not only in Pakistan but also in many other countries of the world, like they went for relief activities after Bangladesh was recently hit by floods. The Pak Army also went to Indonesia, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka after they were hit by tsunami. Pakistan Army and Navy sent ships and helicopters to the friendly nations for the tsunami relief operation.

Women have served in the Pakistani Army since its foundation. Currently, there is a sizable number of Women serving in the army. Most women are recruited in the regular Army to perform medical and educational work. There is also a Women's Guard section of Pakistan's National Guard where women are trained in nursing, welfare and clerical work and there are also women recruited in very limited numbers for the Janbaz Force. Only recently has Pakistan began to recruit women for combat positions and the Elite Anti-Terrorist Force In 2007, several female graduates were nominated to be Sky Marshalls for Pakistan based airlines. In addition recently eight of the 41 cadets from the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul became the first women guards of honour. Pakistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have female Major Generals in the Army.

Recruitment is nationwide and the army attempts to maintain an ethnic balance but most enlisted recruits, as in British times, come from a few districts in northern Punjab Province and the adjacent Azad Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province. Pakistan's Officer Corps are also mostly from Punjab and the North West Frontier Province and of middle-class, rural backgrounds.

Minorities in Pakistan are allowed to sit in all examinations, including the one conducted by Inter Services Selection Board however the proportion of religious minorities in the Pakistan army is still considerably very less. The army sees itself as a national institution although not many minorities have seen high ranks.

The Nishan-e-Haider (Urdu: نشان حیدر) (Sign of the Lion), is the highest military award given by Pakistan.

Recipients Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients.

Two Pakistani pilots belonging to the army aviation branch of Pakistan army who carried out a daring rescue of a mountaineer are to be given Slovenia's top award for bravery. Slovenian, Tomaz Humar got stranded on the western end of the 8,125m Nanga Parbat mountain were he remained for around a week on top of the world's ninth-highest peak. The helicopter pilots plucked the 38-year-old from an icy ledge 6,000m up the peak known as "killer mountain".

The Slovenian president has presented Lt Col Rashid Ullah Beg and Lt Col Khalid Amir Rana with the Golden Order for Services in the country's capital, Ljubljana, "for risking their lives during the rescue mission", a Pakistan army statement said.

Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force similar to the United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) and the British Army's SAS.

Official numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 Battalions; however the actual strength is classified. It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the eventual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions).

Below is the list of all missiles in service of Pakistan's Armed Forces. This includes missiles produced indigenously, missiles produced under license and missiles procured from other countries.

It has been recently reported by the Pakistani Press (Daily Jang) that Pakistan has the ability to use MIRVs on its missiles. This has been seen as possibly the greatest Pakistani Military achievement to date. It has also been reported that Pakistan would likely use MIRVs on its Shaheen-II missiles.Pakistan is likley to be building a babur-2,with a range of 1000-2000 km range.

Throughout the International Defence Exhibition & Seminar (IDEAS) at Karachi in November 2006, Pakistani firms have signed joint development, production and marketing agreements with defence firms from South Korea, France and Ukraine. These agreements include new reactive armour bricks, 155 mm artillery shells, and other developments in armour and land weaponry. These agreements all relate to the Pakistan Army's AFFDP-2019 modernization program of its armour, artillery and infantry.

A few months prior to IDEAS 2006, the Pakistan Army and Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) announced the development of the Al Khalid II Main Battle Tank (MBT). The Al Khalid II is poised to become the Pakistan Army's backbone main battle tank from 2012; thus replacing 1200 obsolete Chinese T-59 and 300 T-85IIAP. Not much is known about this tank, but it is reported that the Al Khalid II is a very extensive upgrade of the current Al Khalid. Other reports suggest that it will be an entirely new tank based on Western designs. Turkish press reported that a Pakistani armour firm will participate in the Turkey's new generation tank project. Turkey and Pakistan have signed many memorandums of understanding in various defence-related fields. Given that many Pakistani firms have signed joint agreements with Western firms, it is possible that a considerable part of the Al Khalid II's design will be influenced from the Turkish tank design. Nonetheless, the new generation tank is expected to form the backbone of the Pakistan Army's tank force; in the long-term.

The Pakistan Army will standardize its artillery capability to 155 mm by 2019. This can be seen by the acquisition of 115 M109A5 self-propelled howitzers from the United States, and joint production deals of 155 mm shells with French and South Korean firms. It is expected that the army will procure a range of light, medium and heavy towed and self-propelled howitzer artillery from China, Europe and the United States. These will replace all non-155 mm and older systems. The Army reportedly ordered and procured an undisclosed number of WS-1B Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (MLRS). As part of the artillery modernization program, the Army will likely procure a fair number of new MLRS systems of various ranges and shell sizes.

Modernization of the Army Aviation is underway with the procurement of new transport and attack helicopters from the United States, Russia and Europe. Finalized acquisitions include 26 Bell 412EP and at least a dozen Mi-17 medium-lift transport helicopters from the U.S and Russia, respectively. Forty Bell 407 and an unknown number of Fennec light helicopters from the U.S. and Eurocopter have also been ordered, respectively. Plans are underway to begin replacing the IAR 330 Puma, older Mil Mi-8/17, Bell Jet Rangers and older Huey helicopters; options include the Eurocopter NH-90 Tactical Transport Helicopter and UH-60M Blackhawk. The Pakistan Army has procured dozens of excess AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters since 2002; at least 20 have been brought into service to supplement the serving 18. These gunships are expected to add muscle to current counterterrorist support operations in NWFP.The army reportedly has upgraded its entire fleet with AH-1Z King Cobra avionics and new weapon systems such as the TOW-2 and Hellfire missiles. Up to 30 new-generation attack helicopters will be procured to further enhance the Army's attack aviation arm; options include the Eurocopter Tiger, South African AH-2 Rooivalk and Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow. It is likley that Pakistan ordered 6 AH-64D Apache Longbows.ICBM missile are also planned by Pakistan Army.

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Pakistan Peoples Party

Coat of arms of Pakistan.svg

The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) (Urdu: پاکستان پیپلز پارٹی): is a centre-left political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan. To date, its leader has always been a member of the Bhutto family. The Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP) is a party formed in 2002 by the PPP for the purpose of complying with electoral rules governing Pakistani parties.

Although its center lies in the southern province of Sindh, it also has considerable support in the more densely populated province of Punjab.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the founder and first chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party. His wife, Nusrat Bhutto, succeeded him as chairperson and held the position into the 1980s. In 1982, Nusrat Bhutto, ill with cancer, was given permission to leave Pakistan for medical treatment and remained abroad for several years. At that point her daughter, Benazir Bhutto, became acting head of the party while Nusrat technically remained its chairman and was referred to as such as late as September 1983. By January 1984, Benazir was being referred to as the party's chairman. She had been proclaimed chairperson for life, and as such was chair until her assassination on December 27, 2007. Her nineteen-year old son, Bilawal Bhutto Zardari and his father Asif Ali Zardari were appointed party co-chairmen on December 30, 2007.

After the assassination of PPP leader Benazir Bhutto on December 27, 2007, the 2008 General Elections which were scheduled to be held in January were postponed until February 18. The PPP won the most seats, gaining a total of 84 seats in the National Parliament. Co-chairman Asif Ali Zardari said that "Pakistan was on its way of ridding dictatorships for ever", and appealed to the Pakistan Muslim League (N) leader, former Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, to form a coalition controlling over half the seats in Pakistan's 342 seat parliament.

On March 9, 2008 in a press conference held in Muree, Punjab, PML-N Leader Nawaz Sharif and PPP Co-Leader Asif Ali Zardari officially signed an agreement to form a coalition government. Titled the PPP-PML summit declaration, the joint declaration both parties agreed on the reinstatement of judges deposed during the emergency rule imposed on 3 November 2007 by Pervez Musharraf within 30 days after the new federal government was formed. The nominee for the PM would be fully supported by the coalition parties but the PM nominee should carry forward both party agendas. Sharif stated in the press conference that the Charter of Democracy had been formulated by Benazir Bhutto and Sharif. Speaking at the press conference for the first time Zardari stated that Shaheed Benazir Bhutto's dream of PPP-PML-N uniting was her dream and that today her dream came true. This agreement was to become known as the Bhurban Accord. Zardari also offered the PM slot to Sharif, who happily rejected the offer. The first session of the new government opened up on March 17 2008 where the PPP announced they would confirm who had been chosen as the candidate of Prime Minister, within the next few days, although Nawaz Sharif confirmed with the BBC that the slot for PM had been chosen by the PPP but did not say. Zardari is ineligible to be PM, but will take a seat in the parliament after all his corruption charges were dropped last week. On March 23, 2008 it was announced that the new prime minister of the country would be Yousaf Raza Gilani a former parliament speaker, a fully committed PPP member, it has been confirmed that Gilani would fulfill a full 5 year term, but speculation has been growing that Gilani would complete an interim term as prime minster until Zardari passes the hurdles he needs to overcome to become Prime Minister. Pervez Musharraf has agreed with the decision made by the parliament.

The Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) and the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) on June 27, 2008, won 3 and 2 five by-election seats, respectively, to the national parliament. Polls were postponed for the 6th seat in Lahore due to Nawaz Sharif's eligibility contest. A court ruled he was ineligible due to the old conviction, amid the government appeal in the Supreme Court, which will hear the case on June 30, thus postponing the vote in the constituency. The 2 parties also won 19 of 23 provincial assembly seats where by-elections were held. The results will not affect the February 18 general election results in which Benazir Bhutto's PPP won 123 seats in the 342-seat National Assembly and Sharif's party came second with 91, while Pervez Musharraf's party came a poor third with 54 seats. Sharif's Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) won 8 provincial assembly seats, while the PPP won 7 provincial seats.

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Source : Wikipedia