Philippines

3.4163607761377 (1907)
Posted by r2d2 02/25/2009 @ 18:22

Tags : philippines, asia, world

News headlines
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Armed Forces of the Philippines

AFP 3D.png

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) (Filipino: Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas) is composed of the Philippine Army, Philippine Navy and Philippine Air Force. The AFP is a volunteer force and has a total active strength of 113,500 with 131,000 personnel in reserve. The AFP leadership consists of the Chief of Staff (Gen. Alexander B. Yano), Vice Chief of Staff (Lt. Gen. Cardozo M. Luna), and Deputy Chief of Staff (Lt. Gen. Rodrigo F. Maclang).

The official birth of the Armed Forces of the Philippines took place with the passage of the National Defense Act, Commonwealth Act No. 1, on December 21 1935. While the origin of the organization can be traced back to the establishment of the Philippine Constabulary, armed Filipino forces organized in 1901 by the United States to combat the Philippine Revolutionary Forces then led by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, it was the Katipunan that first formed the nucleus of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

The Katipunan, a revolutionary force founded by Andres Bonifacio in 1892 waged war against Spain and the United States for Philippine independence. The Katipunan, officially known as Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan ("Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation") or KKK, was mainly composed of peasants who were attracted by Bonifacio's charisma in demanding independence from Spain. Later, wealthy Filipinos, many of whom were educated in Europe, joined the Katipunan. They held most of the higher military and administrative positions.

Even before the United States arrived in the Philippines, the Katipunan gained many victories against Spanish forces, which were also composed of native Filipinos hired by the Spanish government. When the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, the United States, then preparing for the extension of its territory by acquiring Spanish assets, offered to help the Katipunan fight the Spanish troops in the Philippines. Emilio Aguinaldo — at the time exiled to Hong Kong following the Pact of Biak na Bato— accepted the offer. Spanish troops were weakened within a month and, on June 12, 1898, Philippine Independence was declared. The Philippine Declaration of Independence was signed by ninety-eight individuals, including an American military officer who witnessed the event. This event created the first Republic in Asia. The republic established is now known as the First Philippine Republic, to differentiate it from the Second Philippine Republic, a puppet government of Japan during World War II and the Third Philippine Republic which is the current Republic of the Philippines, which became independent from the United States on July 4, 1946.

Initially, after declaring independence in 1898, the Philippine government took on a dictatorial form. This was replaced by a revolutionary government headed by Emilio Aguinaldo as president on June 23, 1898. The First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899. When it became apparent to the Katipunan that the United States had no intention of recognizing the newly-establish Republic, the Philippine–American War erupted with a declaration of war by the Philippines on the United States. The Philippine Revolutionary Forces, which lacked sufficient armor and ammunition, lost many battles. By 1901, the Filipinos had completely lost the war.

In 1901, the United States established the Philippine Scouts and the Philippine Constabulary for purpose of assisting in combating the remnants of the Katipunan. The AFP was formally organized during the American Commonwealth era through the National Defense Act of 1935 (Commonwealth Act No. 1).

During the Philippine Commonwealth era, President Manuel L. Quezon, the first president of the Commonwealth, renamed the Philippine Army to the Armed Forces of the Philippines and asked Gen. Douglas MacArthur, to be its first commanding officer after the Philippines gained independence from the U.S. MacArthur accepted the offer and became the only person of foreign citizenship to be in the ranks of AFP. MacArthur held the rank of Field Marshal, a rank no other person has since held in the AFP. MacArthur expanded the Philippine armed forces, but they were unready for combat at the start of the Pacific War in December 1941 and unable to defeat the Japanese invasion of the Philippines.

During World War II, all soldiers of the Philippine military were incorporated in the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), with MacArthur appointed as its commander. USAFFE made its last stand on Corregidor Island in the Philippines, after which Japanese forces were able to force all remaining Filipino and American troops to surrender. After Japan was defeated in World War II, the Philippines gained its independence (its second independence – the Philippines recognizes Aguinaldo's declaration of independence in 1898 as its original year of independence). The Philippines and the United States have since maintained a tight and mutual relationship, making the AFP one of the strongest militaries in Asia from the 1950s through the 1970s.

The 1987 Philippine Constitution puts the AFP under the control of a civilian, the President of the Philippines, who acts as its Commander-in-Chief. All of its branches are part of the Department of National Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of National Defense.

The AFP has three major branches: the Philippine Army – Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas, Philippine Navy – Hukbong Dagat ng Pilipinas and Philippine Air Force – Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas. These three major branches are unified under a Chief of Staff who normally holds the rank of General. He is assisted by a Vice Chief of Staff (Lieutenant General) and a Deputy Chief of Staff (Major General). The three major branches are each headed by an officer with the following titles: Commanding General of the Philippine Army (Lieutenant General), Flag Officer in Command of the Philippine Navy (Vice-Admiral), and Commanding General of the Philippine Air Force (Lieutenant General).

These ranks are officially applied in Philippine Army, Air force and Marine Corps in which these pronounciations are actually adaptation from Spanish and English language except, for the words "pangalawang" and "unang" which came from original tagalog pronounciation.

The alternative style of address for the ranks of Lieutanant Junior Grade and Lieutanant Senior Grade in Filipino is simply tenyente because, it is too redundant if you address them fully in Filipino. It is also the same as Second and First Lieutenants in the Army, Air force and Marine Corps.

The ranks of enlisted personnel in Filipino is just the same as its U.S. counterpart but, they never use "Specialist","Sergeant First Class", "First Sergeant"(for Philippine Army and Air Force except Marine Corps),"Lance Corporal","Gunnery Sergeant" "Master Gunnery Sergeant" in Philippine Army and Marine Corps. It is simply they start to address their ranks from Private Second Class up to Sergeant Major.

In Philippine Air Force, they also use Airman Second Class up to Chief Master Sergeant the same as its U.S. counterpart.

In Philippine Navy, they also use enlisted ranks coming from U.S. Navy with its specialization.

For Example: "Master Chief and Boatswain's mate Juan Dela Cruz, PN" (Philippine Navy).

The alternative style to address the non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel in Filipino are: From Private Second Class up to Private First Class it is pribeyt or mga pribeyt for a group of privates that is adaptive in English. Kabo for corporal adaptive from the word "cabo" in Spanish but the most common is korporal (except air force they use airman or airmen and airwoman or airwomen from Airman Second Class up to Senior Airman).Sarhento for sergeants in Army, Air force and Marine Corps also adpative from the word "sargento" in Spanish.

In Navy, the original Filipino alternative style for Seaman or Seawoman Apprentice up to Seaman or Seawoman First Class is mandaragat or mga mandaragat for a group seamen and seawomen. For petty ffficers, they call it P.O.'s and tsip for chief (petty) officers up to Master Chief (Petty) officers.

They are no warrant officers in between officer ranks and enlisted ranks.

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Philippines men's national basketball team

World Map FIBA.svg

The men's national basketball team of the Philippines is one of the best-performing Asian teams in international tournaments, winning a bronze medal in the 1954 FIBA World Championship for men and a fifth-place finish in the 1936 Summer Olympics, the two best finishes of any Asian team in the history of the top two international basketball tournaments. Its national basketball federation is the Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas (SBP).

The current national team, nicknamed "Team Pilipinas" (Team Philippines), is sponsored by the San Miguel Corporation, the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, the Philippine Basketball Association, and the Philippine Basketball League. The coach of the team is Joseller "Yeng" Guiao.

Aside from the bronze medal at the World Championships and the fifth-place Olympic finish, the Philippines has won five FIBA Asian Championships for Men, four Asian Games Men's Basketball gold medals and a consistent winner at the Southeast Asian Games and at the Southeast Asia Basketball Association. The country has also participated in four FIBA World Championships and seven Olympic Basketball Tournaments.

The Philippine national team is one of the most dominant basketball teams in Asia since the 1920s. The Philippines dominated the Far Eastern Games and the Southeast Asian Games but only partially dominate the Asian Games and FIBA Asia Championship with rivals like Israel, South Korea, Lebanon, Japan and especially China. In the 1950s-1960s, the Philippines was among the best in the world, producing world-class players like Carlos Loyzaga, Lauro Mumar, Mariano Tolentino and Edgardo Ocampo. Loyzaga was even a part of the 1954 FIBA World Championship Mythical Team selection, where the Philippines won the Bronze medal.

After 1975, the Philippines only managed to win the 1986 Asian Basketball Confederation (the national team qualified to the 1986 FIBA World Championship in Spain but the team disbanded and failed to participate due to the political crisis in the Philippines) and a bronze medal in the 1986 Asian Games. Both teams were bannered by future PBA stars Allan Caidic, Samboy Lim and Hector Calma.

In 1990, the Philippines sent and all-pro national team, coached by Robert Jaworski, to regain the country's basketball supremacy in the Asian Games but the team lost in the final against China and settled for a silver medal. The team includes 1990 PBA Most Valuable Player Allan Caidic and Samboy Lim, who were both selected in the Asian Games Mythical Five Selections.

In 1998, the PBA formed the celebrated Philippine Centennial Team that captured the 21st William Jones Cup championship but finished with the bronze medal in the Asian Games. While in 1994 and 2002, the PBA-backed national team only managed fourth placed finishes.

In 1963, FIBA suspended the Philippines for its failure to stage the 1963 FIBA World Championship after President Diosdado Macapagal refused to allow players from Yugoslavia and other communist countries to enter the country. Later, the Philippines, despite being the Asian champion, was forced to play in a pre-Olympic tournament in order to qualify in the 1964 Summer Olympics.

The Basketball Association of the Philippines leadership crisis worsened after a lengthy feud between the group of Graham Lim and Tiny Literal and the group of Freddie Jalasco and Lito Puyat which resulted in FIBA's suspension of the basketball NSA.

However, a few months after, FIBA stepped-in and ordered an election that resulted in Literal's victory as the President of the BAP. The suspension was quickly lifted and the Philippines was able to compete in the Southeast Asian Games in Malaysia.

The Philippines was suspended by the International Basketball Federation on July 2005 after a long standing feud between the Philippine Olympic Committee and the BAP.

The story began on April 10, 2005, when the BAP-sponsored Cebuana-Lhuillier Philippine National team (composed of little-known amateur players) lost to a lowly Parañaque Jets team (made up of showbiz personalities) in an NBC Preseason tournament at the Rizal Memorial Coliseum. After hearing the news, POC President Jose "Peping" Cojuangco called for improvements on the national team, most notably, the sending of a new team made up of professionals from the Philippine Basketball Association.

While both parties, with the involvement of the Philippine Basketball Association, the Philippine Basketball League, the UAAP and the NCAA, reportedly agreed on an agreement on the formation of a new national team, things soon returned to the usual verbal war. The POC, through a vote, first suspended, then in a later meeting, expelled the BAP as the official National Sports Association (NSA) member and installed a new member in the Philippine Basketball Federation. The BAP, under new President Joey Lina, said that the expulsion was unconstitutional in the by-laws of the POC.

The situation worsened when both parties still could not agree on who will banner the national team for the Southeast Asian Basketball Association tournament, a qualifier for the FIBA-Asia tournament in Doha, Qatar. FIBA Secretary-General Patrick Baumann, then handed the suspension of the RP team from any FIBA-sanctioned tournament.

In hopes of securing a long-term solution, FIBA, in a memorandum, ordered the PBA, PBL, UAAP, NCAA and Joey Lina (as a person or in Lina's claim, as a representative of the BAP) to form a new constitution or a formation of a new basketball body.

By March 2006, four stakeholders have signed into the propose new basketball body, which later named as Pilipinas Basketball. Lina, however, has refused to sign on the memorandum, citing unbalanced factors that was put in the draft for a new body. After the four stakeholders met with Baumann in South Korea, the suspension was not even lifted nor was the draft for a new body was even accepted since Lina has not signed it.

However, in a significant move by both Pilipinas Basketball and the BAP at the FIBA Congress in Japan, both parties signed an agreement that will pave the way for the formation of a new cage body on or before September 30. The deadline lapsed and no significant moves had been made until February 5, 2007.

After several meetings between FIBA Secretary-General Patrick Baumann, PB, and BAP officials in Geneva and Bangkok, a Unity Congress was held in which BAP, PB and Baumann attended. The BAP and PB agreed to merge to create the Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas (SBP) as the new national federation. The Philippine Olympic Committee recognized the group as the new national governing body for basketball, after which the FIBA finally lifted the almost two-year-old suspension it imposed upon the country.

Futhermore, national coach Yeng Guiao has named a preliminary roster for the FIBA Asia Championship 2009. The final roster would not be announced until a few days prior to the competition.

Johnny Abarrientos: Philippine basketball's and Asia's best point guard of the 1990s. Abarrientos played for the Philippines in the 1991 Southeast Asian Games and the 1994 Asian Games. He was later selected to play for the Philippine Centennial Team to represent the country in the 1998 Asian Games and the 21st William Jones Cup. Abarrientos was named Most Valuable Player in an exhibition game against the FIBA Asia All-Stars team led by compatriot Romel Adducul.

Allan Caidic: Asia's most feared three-point shooter and arguably one of the greatest players ever to play for the Philippines internationally. He is a four-time veteran of the Asian Games (1986, 1990, 1994, 1998) and a two-time William Jones Cup champion (1985, 1998). Early in his career, Caidic played a major role for the Philippines in capturing the 1985 Southeast Asian Games and the 1985-1986 FIBA Asia Championship. In 1990, he and Samboy Lim were named at the Asian Games Mythical Five Selection after leading the Philippines to a silver medal finished. In 1994, he was the Asian Games basketball tournament's leading scorer and was named, for the second time, to the all-tournament Mythical Five selection. In 1998, he represented the country for the final time with the celebrated Philippine Centennial Team.

Robert Jaworski: The world's oldest professional basketball player and arguably the Philippines' most popular basketball player of all time. He represented the country in numerous international tournaments and is one of the last surviving Filipino basketball players to play in the FIBA World Championship and the Summer Olympics.

Samboy Lim: One of the best players ever to play for the Philippine national team. A prolific scorer, he represented the Philippines in the 1982 Asian Youth Championship and in the 1985-1986 FIBA Asia Championship. He was later named alongside Allan Caidic into the 1990 Asian Games Mythical Five selection after leading the national team to the finals.

Carlos Loyzaga: Probably the greatest Filipino international basketball player of all time. He led the Philippines to four consecutive Asian Games gold medals and three Asian championship titles. His biggest achievement was leading the country to a third place finish and the bronze medal in the 1954 FIBA World Championship, the best finish by an Asian country in the history of the quadrennial tournament. He was later named into the all-tournament Mythical Five selection after finishing third leading scorer of that year's tournament. In 1960, he and Carlos Badion were named at the Asian Basketball Confederation Mythical Five Selection after leading the Philippines to the first ever Asian championship crown.

Ambrosio Padilla: One of the greatest Filipino basketball players of the pre-World War II era. He played for the Philippines in the Far Eastern Games before leading the country to a fifth place finish in the 1936 Summer Olympics, the best finish by an Asian country in the history of the Summer Olympics men's basketball tournament.

Luis "Lou" Salvador: One of the most prolific offensive players in Philippine basketball history. Salvador played for the Philippines in several Far Eastern Games tournaments where, in 1923, he set an all-time record for the most points scored by a Filipino in a single international game with 116 points against China to lead the Philippines to the gold medal. That record remains unbroken to this day.

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Battle of the Philippines (1941–42)

Generals Wainwright (left) and MacArthur.

The Battle of the Philippines was the invasion of the Philippines by Japan in 1941–42 and the defense of the islands by Filipino and United States forces. Although the result was a Japanese victory, the perseverance of the defenders delayed Japanese attacks on other areas and assisted Allied counterattacks in the South West Pacific theatre, from late 1942.

The defending forces outnumbered the Japanese invaders by 3:2, but were poorly trained and equipped, while the Japanese used their best first-line troops at the outset of the campaign. The Japanese 14th Army also concentrated its forces in the first month of the campaign, enabling it to swiftly overrun most of Luzon.

The Japanese high command, believing this had won the campaign, made a strategic decision to advance by a month their timetable of operations in Borneo and Indonesia, withdrawing their best division and the bulk of their airpower in early January 1942. This, coupled with the decision of the defenders to withdraw into a defensive holding position in the Bataan Peninsula, enabled the Americans and Filipinos to successfully hold out for four more months.

The Japanese planned to occupy the Philippines as part of their plan for a "Greater East Asia War" in which their Southern Expeditionary Army Group seized sources of raw materials in Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies while the Combined Fleet neutralized the United States Pacific Fleet.

The Southern Expeditionary Army was created on November 6, 1934, commanded by Gen. Count Hisaichi Terauchi, who had previously been Minister of War. It was ordered to prepare for war in the event that negotiations with the United States did not succeed in peacefully meeting Japanese objectives. Under Terauchi's command were four corps-equivalent armies, comprising ten divisions and three combined arms brigades, including the 14th Army. Operations against the Philippines and Malaya were to be conducted simultaneously when Imperial General Headquarters ordered.

Terauchi assigned the Philippines invasion to the 14th Army, under command of Lt. Gen. Masaharu Homma. Air support of ground operations would be provided by the 5th Air Group, under Lt. Gen. Hideyoshi Obata, which was transferred to Formosa from Manchuria. The amphibious invasion would be conducted by the Philippines Force under Vice Admiral Ibo Takahashi, using the Imperial Japanese Navy Third Fleet, supported by the land-based aircraft of 11th Air Fleet of Vice Admiral Nishizo Tsukahara.

The 14th Army had two first-line infantry divisions, the 16th and 48th, to invade and conquer Luzon, and the 65th Brigade as a garrison force. The Formosa-based 48th Division, although without combat experience, was considered one the Japanese Army's best units, was specially trained in amphibious operations, and was given the assignment of the main landing in Lingayen Gulf. The 16th Division, assigned to land at Lamon Bay, was picked as one of the best divisions still available in Japan itself and staged from the Ryukyus and Palau. The 14th Army also had the 4th and 7th Tank Regiments, five field artillery battalions, five anti-aircraft artillery battalions, four antitank companies, and a mortar battalion. An unusually strong group of combat engineer and bridging units was included in the 14th Army's support forces.

For the invasion, the Third Fleet was augmented by two destroyer squadrons and a cruiser division of the Second Fleet, and the aircraft carrier Ryujo from the 1st Air Fleet. The Philippines Force consisted of an aircraft carrier, five heavy cruisers, five light cruisers, 29 destroyers, three seaplane tenders, 17 minecraft, and four torpedo boats.

Combined army and navy air strength to support the landings was 604 aircraft. The 11th Air Fleet consisted of the 21st and 23rd Air Flotillas, a combined strength of 146 bombers, 123 fighters, 24 seaplanes, and 15 reconnaissance planes. The Ryujo provided an additional 16 fighters and 18 torpedo planes, and the surface ships had 68 seaplanes for search and observation, totalling 412 naval aircraft. The army's 5th Air Group consisted of two fighter regiments, two light bomber regiments, and a heavy bomber regiment, totalling 192 aircraft: 81 bombers, 72 fighters, and 39 observation planes.

From mid-1941, following increased tension between Japan and several other powers, including the United States, Britain and the Netherlands, many countries in South East Asia and the Pacific began to prepare for the possibility of war. By December 1941, the combined defense forces in the Philippines were organized into the US Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), which eventually included the Philippine Army's 1st Regular Division, 2nd (Constabulary) Division, and 10 mobilized reserve divisions, and the United States Army's Philippine Department. General Douglas MacArthur was recalled from retirement by the U.S. War Department and named commander of USAFFE on July 26, 1941. MacArthur had retired in 1937 after two years as Military Advisor to the Philippine Commonwealth, and accepted control of the Philippine Army, tasked by the Government of the Philippines with reforming an army made up primarily of reservists lacking equipment, training and organization.

On July 31, 1941 the Philippine Department had 22,532 troops assigned, approximately half of whom were Filipino. MacArthur recommended the reassignment of the department commander, Maj. Gen. George Grunert, in October 1941 and took command himself. The main component of the Department was the U.S. Army Philippine Division, a 10,500-man formation that consisted mostly of Philippine Scouts (PS) combat units. The Philippine Department had been reinforced between August and November 1941 by 8,500 troops of the U.S. Army Air Forces and National Guard units on the U.S. mainland, including its only armor, two battalions of M3 light tanks. These Army National Guard units where the 200th Coastal Artillery Regiment of New Mexico, and the 192nd and 194th Tank Battalions, which drew from Wisconson, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky, Minnesota, Missouri, and California . After reinforcement, the Department's strength as of 30 November 1941 was 31,095, including 11,988 Philippine Scouts.

MacArthur organized USAFFE into four tactical commands. The North Luzon Force, activated December 3, 1941 under Maj. Gen. Jonathan M. Wainwright, defended the most likely sites for amphibious attacks and the central plains of Luzon. Wainwright's forces included the PA 11th, 21st and 31st Infantry Divisions, the U.S. 26th Cavalry Regiment (a PS unit), a battalion of the 45th Infantry (PS), and the 1st Provisional Artillery Group of two batteries of 144 mm guns and one 2.95inch (75 mm) mountain gun. The Philippine 71st Infantry Division served as a reserve and could be committed only on the authority of MacArthur.

The South Luzon Force, activated December 13, 1941 under Brig. Gen. George M. Parker Jr., controlled a zone east and south of Manila. Parker had the PA 41st and 51st Infantry Divisions and the 2nd Provisional Artillery Group of two batteries of the US 86th Field Artillery Regiment (PS).

The Visayan–Mindanao Force under Brig. Gen. William F. Sharp comprised the PA 61st, 81st, and 101st Infantry Divisions, reinforced after the start of the war by the newly-inducted 73rd and 93rd Infantry Regiments. The 61st Division was located on Panay, the 81st on Cebu and Negros, and the 101st on Mindanao. In January a fourth division, the 102nd, was created on Mindanao from the field artillery regiments of the 61st and 81st Divisions acting as infantry (they had no artillery pieces), and the 103rd Infantry of the 101st Division. The 2nd Infantry of the Philippine Army's 1st Regular Division and the 2nd Battalion of the U.S. 43rd Infantry (Philippine Scouts) were also made a part of the Mindanao Force.

USAFFE's Reserve Force, under MacArthur's direct control, was composed of the Philippine Division, the 91st Division (PA), and headquarters units from the PA and Philippine Department, positioned just north of Manila. The 192nd and 194th Tank Battalions formed the separate Provisional Tank Group, also under MacArthur's direct command, at Clark Field/Fort Stotsenburg.

Four U.S. coastal artillery regiments guarded the entrance to Manila Bay, including Corregidor Island. Across a narrow 3 kilometre (2 mi) strait of water from Bataan on Corregidor was Ft. Mills, defended by batteries of the 59th and 60th Coast Artillery Regiments (the latter an anti-aircraft unit), and the 91st and 92nd Coast Artillery Regiments (Philippine Scouts) of the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays. The 59th CA acted as a supervisory unit for the batteries of all units positioned on Forts Hughes, Drum, Frank, and Wint.

The USAFFE's aviation arm was the Far East Air Force (FEAF) of the U.S. Army Air Forces, commanded by Maj. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton. Activated as the Philippine Department Air Force on September 20, 1941, it was the largest USAAF combat air organization outside the United States. Its primary combat power in December 1941 consisted of 91 serviceable P-40 Warhawk fighters and 35 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers, with further modern aircraft en route. Tactically the FEAF was part of the Reserve Force, so that it fell under MacArthur's direct command.

As of 30 November 1941 the strength of US Army Troops in the Philippines, including Philippine units, was 31,095 consisting of 2,504 officers and 28,591 enlisted (16,643 Americans and 11,957 Philippine Scouts).

MacArthur's mobilization plans called for induction of the ten reserve divisions between September 1 and December 15, 1941. The timetable was met on 1 September with the induction of one regiment per division, but slowed as a lack of facilities and equipment hampered training. The second regiments of the divisions were not called up until November 1, and the third regiments were not organized until after hostilities began. Training was also seriously inhibited by language difficulties between the American cadres and the Filipino troops, and by the differing dialects of the numerous ethnic groups comprising the army. By the outbreak of war, only two-thirds of the Army had been mobilized, but additions to the force continued with the induction of the Constabulary and a portion of the regular army, until a force of approximately 120,000 men was reached.

The most crucial equipment shortfalls were in rifles and divisional light artillery. MacArthur requested 84,500 M1 Garand rifles to replace the World War I Enfields equipping the PA, of which there were adequate numbers, but the War Department denied the request because of production difficulties. The divisions had only 20% of their artillery requirements, and while plans had been approved to significantly reduce this gap, the arrangements came too late to be implemented before war isolated the Philippines.

By contrast the Philippine Division was adequately manned, equipped, and trained. MacArthur received immediate approval to modernize it by reorganizing it as a mobile "triangular" division. Increasing the authorized size of the Philippine Scouts was not politically viable (because of resentments within the lesser-paid Philippine Army), so MacArthur's plan also provided for freeing up Philippine Scouts to round out other units. The transfer of the American 34th Infantry from the 8th Infantry Division in the United States to the Philippine Division, accompanied by two field artillery battalions to create a pair of complete regimental combat teams, was actually underway when war broke out. The deployment ended with the troops still in the United States, where they were sent to defend Hawaii instead.

The United States Asiatic Fleet and 16th Naval District, based at Manila, provided the naval defenses for the Philippines. Commanded by Admiral Thomas C. Hart, the surface combatants of the Asiatic Fleet were a heavy cruiser, one light cruiser, and 13 World War I-era destroyers. Its primary striking power was in the 23 modern submarines assigned to the Asiatic Fleet. Submarine Squadron (SUBRON) Two consisted of 12 Salmon class submarines and SUBRON Five of 11 Porpoise and Sargo class submarines. In September 1941 naval patrol forces in the Philippines were augmented by the arrival of the six PT boats of Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Three. Likewise the China Yangtze Patrol gunboats also became part of the Philippine naval defenses: USS Asheville (PG-21) {Sunk south of Java 3 March 1942}; USS Mindano (PR-8) {lost 2 May 1942}; USS Luzon (PG-47) {scuttled 6 May 1942 but salvaged by the Japanese}; USS Oahu (PR-6) {sunk 5 May 1942}; USS Quail (AM-15) {scuttled 5 May 1942}. In December 1941 Naval forces were augmented by the schooner USS Lanikai (1914).

The U.S. 4th Marine Regiment, stationed in Shanghai, China, since the late 1920s, had anticipated a withdrawal from China during the summer of 1941. As personnel were routinely transferred back to the United States or separated from the service, they were not replaced in China. Instead, the regimental commander, Col. Samuel Howard, arranged unofficially for all replacements to be placed in the 1st Special Defense Battalion, based at Cavite. When the 4th Marines arrived in the Philippines on November 30, 1941, it incorporated the Marines at Cavite and Olongapo Naval Stations into its understrength ranks. An initial plan to divide the 4th into two regiments, mixing each with a battalion of Philippine Constabulary, was discarded after Howard showed reluctance, and the 4th was stationed on Corregidor to augment the defenses there, with details detached to Bataan to protect USAFFE headquarters.

After news reached the Philippines that an attack on Pearl Harbor was in progress at around 03:00 a.m. on December 8, 1941, FEAF interceptors had already conducted an air search for incoming aircraft reported shortly after midnight, but these had been Japanese scout planes reporting weather conditions.

At 05:00 a.m. FEAF commander Gen. Brereton reported to USAFFE headquarters where he attempted to see MacArthur without success. He recommended to MacArthur's chief of staff, Brig. Gen. Richard Sutherland, that FEAF launch bombing missions against Formosa in accordance with Rainbow 5 war plan directives that Japanese territory from which an attack was likely to come be attacked. Authorization was withheld, but shortly afterward, in response to a telegram from General George C. Marshall instructing MacArthur to implement Rainbow 5, Brereton was ordered to have a strike in readiness for later approval.

Through a series of disputed discussions and decisions, authorization for the first raid was not approved until 11:00 a.m. local time for an attack just before sunset, with a followup raid at dawn the next day. In the meantime Japanese plans to bomb FEAF's main bases was delayed by fog at its Formosa bases, so that only a small scale mission attacked targets in the northern tip of Luzon. At 08:00 a.m. Brereton received a telephone call from General Henry H. Arnold warning him not to allow his aircraft to be attacked while still on the ground. FEAF launched fighter patrols and all of its bombers on Luzon between 08:00 and 09:00 a.m. as a precautionary move. However several confusing and false reports of air attacks culminated in an all-clear being announced at 11:00, at which time the bombers were ordered to land and prepare for the afternoon raid on Formosa. The squadron of defending P-40 fighters patrolling the area also landed at Clark Field to refuel.

At 11:20 a.m., the radar post at Iba Field detected the incoming raid while it was still 130 miles out. It alerted FEAF headquarters and the command post at Clark Field, a warning which apparently reached only the pursuit group commander, with no further action taken to safeguard the air forces.

When the Japanese pilots of the 11th Air Fleet attacked Clark Field at 12:30 p.m., they caught two squadrons of B-17s dispersed on the ground and its squadron of P-40 interceptors just preparing to taxi. The first wave of twenty-seven Japanese twin-engine bombers achieved complete tactical surprise, striking the P-40s as they taxied. A second bomber attack was supported by Zero fighters strafing the field that destroyed 12 of the 17 American heavy bombers present and seriously damaged three others. Only three P-40s managed to take off. A simultaneous attack on the auxiliary field at Iba to the northwest was also successful: all but two of the 3rd Pursuit Squadron's P-40s, short on fuel, were destroyed in combat or from lack of gasoline when the attack caught them in their landing pattern. The Far East Air Force lost fully half its planes in the first attack, and was all but destroyed over the next few days.

No formal investigation took place regarding this failure as occurred in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor. After the war Brereton and Sutherland in effect blamed each other for FEAF being surprised on the ground, and MacArthur released a statement claiming that he had no knowledge of any recommendation to attack Formosa with B-17s.

The 14th Army began its invasion with a landing on Batan Island (not to be confused with Bataan Peninsula), 120 miles (190 km) off the north coast of Luzon, on December 8, 1941, by selected naval infantry units. Landings on Camiguin Island and at Vigan, Aparri, and Gonzaga in northern Luzon followed two days later.

Two B-17s attacked the Japanese ships offloading at Gonzaga. Other B-17s with fighter escort attacked the landings at Vigan. In this last coordinated action of the Far East Air Force, U.S. planes damaged two Japanese transports, the cruiser Naka, and the destroyer Murasame, and sank one minesweeper.

Early on the morning of December 12, the Japanese landed 2,500 men of the 16th Division at Legazpi on southern Luzon, 150 miles (240 km) from the nearest American and Philippine forces. The attack on Mindanao followed on December 19 using elements of the 16th Army temporarily attached to the invasion force to permit the 14th Army to use all its troops on Luzon.

Meanwhile, Admiral Thomas C. Hart withdrew most of his U.S. Asiatic Fleet from Philippine waters following Japanese air strikes that inflicted heavy damage on U.S. naval facilities at Cavite on December 8. Only submarines were left to contest Japanese naval superiority, and the commanders of these, conditioned by pre-war doctrine that held the fleet submarine to be a scouting vessel more vulnerable to air and anti-submarine attack than it actually was, proved unequal to the task.

The main attack began early on the morning of December 22 as 43,110 men of the 48th Division and one regiment of the 16th Division, supported by artillery and approximately 90 tanks, landed at three points along the east coast of Lingayen Gulf. A few B-17s flying from Australia attacked the invasion fleet, and U.S. submarines harassed it from the adjacent waters, but with little effect.

General Wainwright's poorly trained and equipped 11th and 71st Divisions (PA) could neither repel the landings nor pin the enemy on the beaches. The remaining Japanese units of the divisions landed farther south along the gulf. The 26th Cavalry (PS), advancing to meet them, put up a strong fight at Rosario but, after taking heavy casualties and with no hope of sufficient reinforcements, was forced to withdraw. By nightfall, December 23, the Japanese had moved ten miles (16 km) into the interior of the island.

The next day 7,000 men of the 16th Division hit the beaches at three locations along the shore of Lamon Bay in southern Luzon where they found General Parker's forces dispersed, and without artillery protecting the eastern coast, unable to offer serious resistance. They immediately consolidated their positions and began the drive north toward Manila where they would link up with the forces advancing south toward the capital for the final victory.

The U.S. Philippine Division moved into the field in reaction to reports of airborne drops near Clark Field, and when this proved false, were deployed to cover the withdrawal of troops into Bataan and to resist Japanese advances in the Subic Bay area.

On December 24, MacArthur invoked the pre-war war plan WPO-3 (War Plan Orange 3), which called for use of five delaying positions in Central Luzon while forces withdrew into Bataan. He relieved Gen. Parker of his command of South Luzon Force and had him begin preparing defensive positions on Bataan, using units as they arrived; both the military headquarters and the Philippines government were moved there. Nine days of feverish movement of supplies into Bataan, primarily by barge from Manila, began in an attempt to feed an anticipated force of 43,000 troops for 6 months. (Ultimately 80,000 troops and 26,000 refugees flooded Bataan.) Nevertheless substantial forces remained in other areas for several months.

Units of both defense forces were maneuvered to hold open the escape routes into Bataan, in particular San Fernando, the steel bridges at Calumpit over the deep Pampanga River at the north end of Manila Bay, and Plaridel north of Manila. The South Luzon Force, despite its inexperience and equivocating orders to withdraw and hold, successfully executed "leapfrogging" retrograde techniques and crossed the bridges by January 1. Japanese air commanders rejected appeals by the 48th Division to bomb the bridges to trap the retreating forces, which were subsequently demolished by Philippine Scout engineers on January 1.

The Japanese realized the full extent of MacArthur's plan on December 30 and ordered the 48th Division to press forward and seal off Bataan. In a series of actions between January 2 and January 4, the 11th and 21st Divisions of the Philippine Army, the 26th Cavalry (PS) and the American M3 Stuart tanks of the Provisional Tank Group held open the road from San Fernando to Dinalupihan at the neck of the peninsula for the retreating forces of the South Luzon Force, then made good their own escape. Despite 50% losses in the 194th Tank Battalion during the retreat, the Stuarts and a supporting battery of 75mm SPM halftracks repeatedly stopped Japanese thrusts and were the final units to enter Bataan.

On December 30, the American 31st Infantry moved to the vicinity of Zigzag Pass to cover the flanks of troops withdrawing from central and southern Luzon, while other units of the Philippine Division organized positions at Bataan. The 31st Infantry then moved to a defensive position on the west side of the Olongapo-Manila road, near Layac Junction — at the neck of Bataan Peninsula — on January 5, 1942. The junction was given up on January 6, but the withdrawal to Bataan was successful.

From January 7 to January 14, 1942, the Japanese concentrated on reconnaissance and preparations for an attack on the Main Battle Line from Abucay to Mount Natib to Mauban. At the same time, in a critical mistake, they also conducted the relief of the 48th Division, responsible for much of the success of Japanese operations, by the much less-capable 65th Brigade, intended as a garrison force. The Japanese 5th Air group was withdrawn from operations on January 5 in preparation for movement with the 48th Division to the Netherlands East Indies. U.S. and Filipino forces repelled night attacks near Abucay, and elements of the U.S. Philippine Division counterattacked on January 16. This failed, and the division withdrew to the Reserve Battle Line from Casa Pilar to Bagac in the center of the peninsula on January 26.

The 14th Army renewed its attacks on January 23 with an attempted amphibious landing behind the lines by a battalion of the 16th Division, then with general attacks beginning January 27 along the battle line. The amphibious landing was disrupted by a PT boat and contained by ad hoc units of U.S. Army Air Corps troops, naval personnel, and Philippine Constabulary. Landings to reinforce the surviving pocket on January 26 and February 2 were also trapped and eventually annihilated on February 13 by the Philippine Scouts.

A penetration in the I Corps line was stopped and broken up into several pockets. General Homma on February 8 ordered the suspension of offensive operations in order to reorganize his forces. This could not be carried out immediately, because the 16th Division remained engaged trying to extricate a pocketed battalion of its 20th Infantry. With further losses, the remnants of the battalion, 378 officers and men, were extricated on February 15. On February 22 the 14th Army line withdrew a few miles to the north and USAFFE forces re-occupied the abandoned positions. The result of the "Battle of the Points" and "Battle of the Pockets" was total destruction of all three battalions of the Japanese 20th Infantry and a clear USAFFE victory.

For several weeks the Japanese, deterred by heavy losses and reduced to a single brigade, conducted siege operations while awaiting refitting and reinforcement. Both armies engaged in patrols and limited local attacks. Because of the worsening Allied position in the Asia-Pacific region, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to re-locate from Corregidor to Australia, as Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific Area. (MacArthur's famous speech regarding the Philippines, in which he said "I came out of Bataan and I shall return" was made at Terowie, South Australia on March 20.) Wainwright officially assumed control of what was now termed United States Forces in the Philippines (USFIP) on March 23. During this period elements of the U.S. Philippine Division were shifted to assist in the defense of other sectors.

Beginning March 28, a new wave of Japanese air and artillery attacks hit Allied forces who were severely weakened by malnutrition, sickness and prolonged fighting. On April 3, the Japanese began to break through along Mount Samat, estimating that the offensive would require a month to end the campaign. The U.S. Philippine Division, no longer operating as a coordinated unit and exhausted by five days of nearly continuous combat, was unable to counterattack effectively against heavy Japanese assaults. On April 8, the U.S. 57th Infantry Regiment (PS) and the 31st Division PA were overrun near the Alangan River. The U.S. 45th Infantry Regiment (PS), under orders to reach Mariveles and evacuate to Corregidor, finally surrendered on April 10, 1942. Only 300 men of the U.S. 31st Infantry successfully reached Corregidor.

Corregidor was a U.S. Army Coast Artillery position defending the entrance to Manila Bay. It was armed by both older seacoast disappearing gun batteries of the 59th and 91st Coast Artillery Regiments (the latter was a Philippine Scouts unit), and an anti-aircraft unit, the 60th CA. The latter was posted on the higher elevations of Corregidor and was able to respond successfully to the Japanese air attacks downing many fighters and bombers. The older stationary batteries with fixed mortars, and immense cannons, for defense from attack by sea, were easily put out of commission by the Japanese bombers. The American soldiers and Filipino Scouts defended the small fortress until they had little left to wage a defense.

Early in 1942 the Japanese air command had to install oxygen in its bombers to fly higher than the range of the Corregidor anti-aircraft batteries, and after that time, heavier bombardment began.

In December 1941, the Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon, General MacArthur, other high ranking military naval and diplomatic members and families escaped the bombardment of Manila and were housed in Corregidor's Malinta Tunnel. Prior to their arrival Malinta's laterals had served as high command headquarters, hospital and storage of food and arms. In March 1942, several U.S. Navy submarines arrived on the north side of Corregidor. The Navy brought in mail, orders, and weaponry. They took away with them the highly placed American and Filipino government officers, gold and silver and other important records. Those who were unable to escape by submarine were eventually military POWs of Japan or placed in civilian concentration camps in Manila and other locations.

Corregidor was defended by 11,000 personnel, comprising the units mentioned above that were stationed on Corregidor, the U.S. 4th Marine Regiment, and U.S. Navy personnel deployed as infantry. Some were able to get to Corregidor from the Bataan Peninsula when the Japanese overwhelmed the units there. The Japanese began their final assault on Corregidor with an artillery barrage on May 1. On the night of May 5-May 6, two battalions of the Japanese 61st Infantry Regiment landed at the northeast end of the island. Despite strong resistance, the Japanese established a beachhead that was soon reinforced by tanks and artillery. The defenders were quickly pushed back toward the stronghold of Malinta Hill.

Late on May 6, Wainwright asked Homma for terms of surrender. Homma insisted that surrender include all Allied forces in the Philippines. Believing that the lives of all those on Corregidor would be endangered, Wainwright accepted. On May 8, he sent a message to Sharp, ordering him to surrender the Visayan-Mindanao Force. Sharp complied, but many individuals carried on the fight as guerrillas.

The defeat was the beginning of three and a half years of harsh treatment for the Allied survivors, including atrocities like the Bataan Death March and the misery of Japanese prison camps, and the "Hell Ships" on which American and Allied men were sent to Japan to be used as labor in mines and factories. Thousands were crowded into the holds of Japanese ships, without water, food, or sufficient ventilation. The Japanese did not mark "POW" on the decks of these vessels, and some were attacked by American aircraft and sunk. Example on 7 September 1944 the Shinyo Maru was sunk by USS Paddle with the loss of 668 POWS and 82 POWS survived.

The Allied and the Philippine Commonwealth forces began the campaign to recapture the Philippines in 1944, with landings on the island of Leyte.

Filipino-American resistance against the Japanese in the prepared defensive positions of Bataan and Corregidor lasted only 3 months, even though they outnumbered the invading forces. The defenders of Bataan and Corregidor gave the United States time to rescue Douglas MacArthur out of Corregidor via a PT Boat and into Australia. The valor of the Filipino and American soldiers is celebrated yearly on April 9 in the Philippines, Valor Day or Araw ng Kagitingan.

In December 1941 Naval forces were augmented by the schooner USS Lanikai (1914).

4th USMC Casualties were 315 killed/15 MIA/357 WIA in the Philippine Campaign. 239 Officers/men died in enemy hands.

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Source : Wikipedia