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Posted by sonny 04/18/2009 @ 00:14

Tags : phoenix, cities and towns, arizona, states, us

News headlines
Balsillie fires back at league over Coyotes - The Associated Press
HAMILTON, Ontario (AP) — Canadian billionaire Jim Balsillie says there is an inescapable fact concerning the Phoenix Coyotes: They are bankrupt, no matter who owns or controls them. The NHL filed motions in an Arizona bankruptcy court Wednesday....
Jury rules against pilot union at US Airways - USA Today
The trial over whether the new union fairly represented the former America West pilots began April 28 in Phoenix and included testimony from US Airways Capt. Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger, the pilot who safely landed his disabled US Airways jet in the...
Nancy Pelosi heads to Phoenix for Emerge Arizona fundraiser -
US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, D-California, will be in Phoenix Friday to headline a fundraiser for Emerge Arizona, a group that promotes Democratic women candidates. Emerge trains women running for legislative posts and other elected offices in...
Phoenix gas cheaper by 17 cents -
Phoenix has the cheapest gasoline prices among large metropolitan areas — with a 17-cent gap, according to AAA. Gas prices average a $1.97 per gallon in the Phoenix area. That is the cheapest among the 13 most populous metros in the US Houston is next...
NRA expects 60000 at Phoenix convention -
by Bob McClay/KTAR (May 14th, 2009 @ 7:39am) Thousands of gun aficionados are expected to gather at the Phoenix Convention Center this weekend for the 138th annual meeting of the National Rifle Association. Exhibitors have set up some 450 displays of...
5/14: Wild and Scenic Environmental Film Festival in Phoenix - Arizona Republic
Pre-party from 5-6:30 pm; films from 7-10 pm Where: Pre-party at McCormick and Schmick's Restaurant, 2575 E. Camelback Road, Phoenix. Film festival at AMC Esplanade 14, 2725 E. Camelback Road, Phoenix. Admission: $10, $5 for students in advance....
Mounted shooters find home in north Phoenix - AZ
The Arizona Game and Fish Department, which had no money, had space available at the Ben Avery Shooting Facility in north Phoenix. Out of their alliance came the world's first public mounted-shooting arena. The facility, located at Carefree and Black...
Rapper DMX released from Phoenix jail - Victoria Advocate
PHOENIX (AP) — Rapper DMX has been released from a Phoenix jail after serving a 90-day sentence for felony convictions. The rap artist, whose real name is Earl Simmons, left a Maricopa County jail Thursday shortly after 4 am on a $10000 bond....
Flavors of Phoenix - Arizona Republic
It's not a dream; it's Flavors of Phoenix, the creation of Valley chef Christopher Gross that benefits the American Liver Foundation. The cocktail-attire event is in its 18th year, and this year features 30 of the Valley's top chefs....
Phoenix hosts border security conference - United Press International
PHOENIX, May 13 (UPI) -- A public exhibit on US border security featuring high-tech surveillance equipment is expected to draw hundreds to downtown Phoenix, officials said. The exhibit was to be staged Wednesday and Thursday as part of a national law...

Phoenix metropolitan area

Map of the Phoenix Metropolitan AreaValley of the Sun

The Phoenix metropolitan area, also ocassionally known as the Valley of the Sun, is a metropolitan area that includes the city of Phoenix, much of the rest of Maricopa County, a large section of Pinal County, and small parts of southern Yavapai County. The Phoenix Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the US Census Bureau, includes all of Maricopa and Pinal counties.

The population of the Phoenix metropolitan area increased by 45.3% from 1990 through 2000, compared to the average United States rate of 15%, helping to make Arizona the second fastest growing state in the nation in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada). The 2000 Census reported the population of the metro area to be 3,251,876. As of July 1, 2008 the MSA is estimated to be at 4,281,899 USMA, making it the 12th largest metro area in the United States, just behind Detroit-Warren-Livonia, MI and ahead of San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA. Metro Phoenix grew by 1.03 million people, or 31.7% from April 2000 to July 2008.

What follows is a list of places in the general vicinity of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. All of them are part of the actual Metropolitan Area according to at least one definition in use, but many of them are debatable. The Census Bureau defines a metropolitan area as the core city plus its county and any nearby counties that are economically dependent on the core city. However, Arizona has relatively large counties. For this reason, much of the land that is officially part of the Metropolitan Statistical Area is rural or uninhabited. The Census Bureau's most conservative definition of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area is the Phoenix--Mesa, AZ Urban Area, and is far smaller than the Metropolitan Statistical Area. Places that fall completely or partially within the boundaries of the Phoenix--Mesa, AZ UA are in bold below.

The Phoenix Metropolitan Area is served by several controlled-access freeways, including Interstate 10, Interstate 17, US 60, SR 51, Loop 101, SR 143, and Loop 202.

Many new freeways are planned to be built by 2025, either through upgrades of existing roads such as SR 74, SR 85, and Loop 303; or through the construction of new freeways where no road existed before such as SR 801, SR 802, and the South Mountain Freeway portion of Loop 202.

In the Valley, many of the arterial roads have the same name across city and town borders. However, a common source of confusion is the fact that many roads may have either different names or numbering systems in different cities or areas.

For example, one east-west arterial is known as Glendale Avenue west of SR 51, but as Lincoln Drive to the east of the freeway.

In terms of numbering systems, some roads that continue through multiple cities will switch numbering conventions several times. A drive eastward along Broadway Road, for example, will pass through Goodyear, Avondale, Phoenix, Tempe, Mesa, and Apache Junction, each with their own reference point for address numbering. Though the street does not curve, the direction changes from west to east in each city and back again when moving from one city to the next, causing considerable overlap in numbers.

Other instances of confusion come from the same physical road changing names abruptly, as is the case for Scottsdale Road becoming Rural Road in the city of Tempe. Some other roads are known to change names abruptly within city limits.

Bell Road is known as Frank Lloyd Wright Boulevard in Scottsdale, and this is a frequent source of confusion as there is actually a Bell Road in Scottsdale as well, located nearby, but which does not go through to the Bell Road of Phoenix.

A light rail system (dubbed the "METRO Light Rail") runs more than 20 miles from suburban Mesa, through Tempe and into Phoenix, traveling through the downtown area, offering access to Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport and linking two of the four metro area campuses of Arizona State University. The light rail began public operation on December 27, 2008, and it is projected to initially accommodate 26,000 boardings a day, or more than 8 million boardings in its first year.

Expansions to the METRO system are currently in the early planning stages.

In 2005, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport was the 14th busiest passenger facility in the world and the 8th busiest in the United States, with more than 41 million passengers using the facility. With three terminal buildings encompassing 120 gates, more than 20 airlines offer daily non-stop flights to destinations throughout the world.

The Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport started commercial passenger flights in 2004. The airport currently provides service to over 10 destinations.

There are several municipal and regional airports in the metropolitan area, however none of them are currently used by commercial airlines for passenger flights.

This has been a source of major confusion for some newcomers, who might end up, for example, at 91st Avenue and Thunderbird Road, when in fact they intended to go to 91st Street and Thunderbird Road, between 30 minutes and an hour away from one another depending on traffic.

One beneficial quality of this arrangement for unfamiliar travelers is that the major north-south arterial roads are rarely similarly named; the "avenue" arterials in the West Valley are all odd-numbered and the "street" arterials in the East Valley are even-numbered, with the exception of 7th Ave. & 7th St., both being major roadways running parallel one mile apart.

Since some streets are shared between several cities, the different numbering systems have sometimes caused confusion, including occasional mishaps with emergency services. For example, "620 E. Southern Avenue" is the address of multiple locations in different parts of the metro area: one between Central Avenue and 7th Street in Phoenix, one between Mill and Rural Roads in Tempe, one in Mesa between Mesa Drive and Stapley Drive, and one in Apache Junction between Idaho Road and Tomahawk Road.

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Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport

Destinations with nonstop service from Phoenix

Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX, FAA LID: PHX) is located in the city of Phoenix and is the largest and busiest airport in the state of Arizona.

Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport is a joint civil-military public airport located three miles (5 km) east of the central business district of Phoenix, a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States. It is Arizona's main international airport and one of the largest aviation facilities in the American Southwest. Currently, Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport is the ninth busiest airport in the United States in terms of traffic.

Sky Harbor has been operating under its current name since prior to 1935, when it was purchased by the city of Phoenix. In the 1950s it was serviced by four airline companies. Today, the airport is the primary hub for Tempe-based US Airways, the third largest hub for Great Lakes Airlines and is also the third-largest departure point for Southwest Airlines, the airport's second largest operator. Since beginning service in 1982, Southwest has grown to capture more than 34 percent of the market share. Since 1990, Southwest traffic from PHX has increased more than 352 percent. US Airways and Southwest Airlines currently share Sky Harbor's Terminal 4, which handles about 75 percent of the traffic through the airport.

British Airways provides the airport's only service outside of North America to London-Heathrow, while US Airways and Hawaiian Airlines offer non-stop service outside the continental U.S. to Hawaii.

Federal Aviation Administration records show the airport had 20,315,544 commercial passenger boardings (enplanements) in calendar year 2005 and 20,591,906 enplanements in 2006.

In 2006, the airport served 41,439,819 passengers, making it the eighth busiest in the United States, and eighteenth busiest airport in the world, in terms of passengers. City of Phoenix officials have estimated that Sky Harbor also served 42 million passengers in 2007, and that they anticipate serving 50 million passengers by 2015. On a daily basis the airport handles 1,486 aircraft that arrive and depart, along with 108,887 passengers daily. Sky Harbor has grown so rapidly that Phoenix is in the process of utilizing Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport in Mesa as a secondary airport.

Because of Phoenix's consistent wind patterns, Sky Harbor is one of the largest airports in the world with all runways running parallel.

Sky Harbor's private airplane area also serves as one of eight service centers for the Medevac airline Air Evac.

In March, 2009, the airport was host to a Qatar Airways Airbus A340 jet as well as to a Qatar Amiri Flight Boeing 747 .

Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport provides 121 aircraft gates throughout three Terminals (2, 3, 4). Terminal 1, the original terminal from 1952, was torn down in 1990. The airport administration states that the designation Terminal 1 has been "retired", and that it did not wish to renumber the other terminals since passengers were already familiar with the numbers in place.

For complete information on flights to and from Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, please see the airport's Flights and Information Page.

Free wireless Internet access is available in all terminals.

The new Air Traffic Control tower at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport began operations at midnight on January 14, 2007, and is currently the world's fifth tallest control tower after Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Munich and Atlanta, at 326 feet (99 m). The new tower stands just east of the Terminal 3 parking garage. The tower also houses the new Phoenix TRACON.

Terminal 2 opened in 1962. The only club is the Red Carpet Club, operated by United Airlines. The terminal was designed by Fred Weaver, FAIA, Dick Drover, AIA of the Phoenix architectural firm, Weaver & Drover, along with their senior staff member, Herman Jacobi. This terminal included a mural by French-American artist Paul Coze.

In November 2006, a Military and Veterans Hospitality Room was opened on the mezzanine level of Terminal 2. The Hospitality Room is sponsored by the Phoenix Military and Veterans Commission.

Terminal 3 opened in 1979, and had one club, the Crown Room Club, operated by Delta Air Lines. Designed by the Phoenix architectural firm, Drover, Welsh, and Lindlan . The Crown Room Club in Phoenix permanently closed on April 30, 2008, due to cost cutting moves at Delta Air Lines.

Terminal 4, opened in 1990, is named after former Arizona Senator and 1964 Presidential candidate Barry M. Goldwater. There are three US Airways Clubs in Terminal 4: at gates A7, A19 and B5. British Airways also operates an Executive Club Lounge between gates B21 and B23. The terminal was originally built with four concourses: N2 and N3 on the north side and S3 and S4 on the south side. In 1994, the N4 International Concourse was opened, adding 10 new gates and a sterile walkway connecting it to the S4 concourse. In 1997, construction began on the 14-gate N1 concourse, for America West Airlines. It was completed in June 1998 at a cost of $50 million, completing the expansion of the north side of the terminal. On the south side of the terminal, construction began in 2002 on the eight-gate S2 concourse for Southwest Airlines. This project was completed in 2004 and features a different architectural design from the other six concourses. As of 2008, the S1 project is still in the preliminary phases of design. The project calls for an eight-gate facility comprising of a 38,500 sq ft (3,580 m2) passenger level and 32,000 sq ft (3,000 m2) apron. A later phase of this project may include a 47,000 sq ft (4,400 m2) basement. Additionally, a walkway connecting to the N1 concourse will be built. The city of Phoenix has not yet indicated who will occupy the new concourse.

As of 2008, Phoenix was in the process of negotiating a deal with Emirates Airlines that could possibly bring service from Phoenix to Dubai by 2009 or 2010.. Lufthansa has stated reopening its route to Phoenix is on the agenda. The city is also in discussions with the airline about reopening the route.

As of January 2009, Valley Metro routes 13, 15 and 40 serve the airport. The METRO Light Rail has a stop at the nearby Washington at 44th Street station, and free shuttle service connect the station with the Airport terminals themselves. In the future, the Sky Harbor Airport Automated People Mover will take over this function.

On 23 February 2007, Sky Harbor became the first airport to operationally use backscatter X-ray technologies for screening passengers. This technology allows screeners to tell if passengers are carrying hidden weapons, explosives or drugs by allowing them to see through passengers' clothing. For this reason, these devices, which are available both as freestanding equipment and mobile 'cameras' have been dubbed 'naked machines' by some civil rights advocates concerned that the devices essentially show screeners nude images of passengers and have been deployed without making passengers aware of this infringement on their privacy.

PHX is also home to Phoenix Air National Guard Base and the 161st Air Refueling Wing (161 ARW), an Air Mobility Command (AMC)-gained unit of the Arizona Air National Guard flying the KC-135R Stratotanker.

Sky Harbor has not had any major accidents occur at or near the airport. On August 16, 1987, Northwest Airlines Flight 255, which was flying from Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport to John Wayne Airport in Santa Ana, California, with an intermediate stop at Sky Harbor, crashed on takeoff in Detroit, killing all of the passengers − including a large number of Phoenix-area residents – except for a young girl.

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Phoenix (spacecraft)

Phoenix landing.jpg

Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program. The Phoenix lander descended on Mars on May 25, 2008. Mission scientists used instruments aboard the lander to search for environments suitable for microbial life on Mars, and to research the history of water there.

The multi-agency program was headed by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, under the direction of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The program was a partnership of universities in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, MacDonald Dettwiler & Associates (MDA) and other aerospace companies. It was the first mission in NASA history led by a public university. The mission also underscored the value of university-led management. This was the first such NASA mission to Mars and it was led by the University of Arizona, a public university, and run directly from the University's campus in Tucson, with project management at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., and project development at Lockheed Martin in Denver, Colorado. The operational funding for the mission extended through November 10, 2008.

Phoenix is NASA's sixth successful landing out of seven attempts and is the most recent spacecraft to land successfully on Mars (as of March, 2009) as well as the first successful landing in a Martian polar region. The lander completed its mission in August 2008, and made a last brief communication with Earth on November 2 as available solar power dropped with the Martian winter. The mission was declared concluded on November 10, 2008, after engineers were unable to re-contact the craft.

The 2003–2004 observations of methane gas on Mars were made remotely by three teams working with separate data. If the methane is truly present in the atmosphere of Mars, then something must be producing it on the planet now, because the gas is broken down by radiation on Mars within 300 years, therefore the importance to search for biological potential or habitability of the Martian arctic's soils. Methane could also be the product of a geochemical process or the result of volcanic or hydrothermal activity. Other future missions may enable us to discover whether life does indeed exist on Mars today.

While the proposal for Phoenix was being written, the Mars Odyssey Orbiter used its gamma ray spectrometer and found the distinctive signature of hydrogen on some areas of the Martian surface. The only plausible source of hydrogen on Mars would be water in the form of ice, frozen below the surface. The mission was funded on the expectation that Phoenix would find water ice on the arctic plains of Mars. In August 2003 NASA selected the University of Arizona "Phoenix" mission for launch in 2007. It was hoped this would be the first in a new line of smaller, low-cost, Scout missions in the agency's exploration of Mars program. The selection was the result of an intense two-year competition with proposals from other institutions. The $325 million NASA award is more than six times larger than any other single research grant in University of Arizona history.

Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, as Principal Investigator, along with 24 Co-Investigators, were selected to lead the mission. The mission was named after the Phoenix, a mythological bird that is repeatedly reborn from its own ashes. The Phoenix spacecraft contains several previously built components. The lander used for the 2007–08 mission is the modified Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander (canceled in 2000), along with several of the instruments from both that and the previous unsuccessful Mars Polar Lander mission. Lockheed Martin, which built the lander, had kept the nearly complete lander in an environmentally controlled clean room from 2001 until the mission was funded by the NASA Scout Program.

Phoenix was a partnership of universities, NASA centers, and the aerospace industry. The science instruments and operations were a University of Arizona responsibility. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, managed the project and provided mission design and control. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, Colorado, built and tested the spacecraft. The Canadian Space Agency provided a meteorological station, including an innovative Laser-based atmospheric sensor. The co-investigator institutions included Malin Space Science Systems (California), Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (Germany), NASA Ames Research Center (California), NASA Johnson Space Center (Texas), MDA (Canada),Optech Incorporated (Canada), SETI Institute, Texas A&M University, Tufts University, University of Colorado, University of Copenhagen (Denmark), University of Michigan, University of Neuchâtel (Switzerland), University of Texas at Dallas, University of Washington, Washington University in St. Louis, and York University (Canada). Scientists from Imperial College London and Bristol University have provided hardware for the mission and were part of the team operating the microscope station.

On June 2, 2005, following a critical review of the project's planning progress and preliminary design, NASA approved the mission to proceed as planned. The purpose of the review was to confirm NASA's confidence in the mission.

Lander systems include a RAD6000 based computer system for commanding the spacecraft and handling data. Other parts of the lander are an electrical system containing solar arrays and batteries, a guidance system to land the spacecraft, eight 1.0 lbf (4.4 N) and 5.0 lbf (22 N) monopropellant hydrazine engines built by Aerojet-Redmond Operations for the cruise phase, twelve 68.0 lbf (302 N) Aerojet monopropellant hydrazine thrusters to land the Phoenix, mechanical and structural elements, and a heater system to ensure the spacecraft does not get too cold.

Phoenix was launched on 4 August 2007, at 5:26:34 a.m. EDT (09:26:34 UTC) on a Delta 7925 launch vehicle from Pad 17-A of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The launch was nominal with no significant anomalies. The Phoenix lander was placed on a trajectory of such precision that its first trajectory course correction burn, performed on August 10, 2007 at 7:30 a.m. EDT (11:30 UTC), was only 18 m/s. The launch took place during a launch window extending from August 3, 2007 to August 24, 2007. Due to the small launch window the rescheduled launch of the Dawn mission (originally planned for July 7) had to stand down and was launched after Phoenix in September. The Delta 7925 was chosen due to its successful launch history, which includes launches of the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rovers in 2003 and Mars Pathfinder in 1996.

A noctilucent cloud was created by the exhaust gas from the Delta II 7925 rocket used to launch Phoenix. The colors in the cloud formed from the prism-like effect of the ice particles present in the exhaust trail.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory made adjustments to the orbits of three satellites around Mars to be in the right place on May 25, 2008 to observe Phoenix as it entered the atmosphere and then landed on the surface. This information helps designers to improve future landers. The projected landing area was an ellipse 100 km by 20 km covering terrain which has been informally named "Green Valley" and contains the largest concentration of water ice outside of the poles.

Phoenix entered the Martian atmosphere at nearly 21,000 km (13,000 miles) per hour, and within 7 minutes had decreased its speed to 8 kilometres per hour (5.0 mph) before touching down on the surface. Confirmation of atmospheric entry was received at 4:46 p.m. PDT (23:46 UTC). Radio signals received at 4:53:44 p.m. PDT confirmed that Phoenix had survived its difficult descent and landed 15 minutes earlier, thus completing a 680 million km (422 million miles) flight from Earth.

For unknown reasons, the parachute was deployed about 7 seconds later than expected, leading to a landing position some 25–28 km long (east), near the edge of the predicted 99% landing ellipse. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera photographed Phoenix suspended from its parachute during its descent through the Martian atmosphere. This marks the first time ever one spacecraft has photographed another in the act of landing on a planet (the Moon not being a planet, but a satellite). The same camera also imaged Phoenix on the surface with enough resolution to distinguish the lander and its two solar cell arrays. Ground controllers used Doppler tracking data from Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to determine the lander's precise location as 68.218830°N 234.250778°E. The landing site is here on the Google Mars web-based map and here on the NASA World Wind planetary viewer (free installation required; "MOLA Color (ASU)" is the Google image).

Phoenix landed in the Green Valley of Vastitas Borealis on May 25, 2008, in the late Martian northern hemisphere spring (Ls = 76.73), where the Sun shone on its solar panels the whole Martian day. By the Martian northern Summer solstice (June 25, 2008), the Sun appeared at its maximum elevation of 47.0 degrees. Phoenix experienced its first sunset at the start of September 2008.

The landing was made on a flat surface, with the lander reporting only 0.3 degrees of tilt. Just before landing, the craft used its thrusters to orient its solar panels along an east-west axis to maximize power generation. The lander waited 15 minutes before opening its solar panels, to allow dust to settle. The first images from the lander became available around 7:00 p.m. PDT (2008-05-26 02:00 UTC). The images show a surface strewn with pebbles and incised with small troughs into polygons about 5 m across and 10 cm high, with the expected absence of large rocks and hills.

Like the 1970s era Viking spacecraft, Phoenix used rocket motors for its final descent. Experiments conducted by Nilton Renno, mission co-investigator from the University of Michigan, and his students have investigated how much surface dust would be kicked up on landing. Researchers at Tufts University, led by co-investigator Sam Kounaves, conducted additional in-depth experiments to identify the extent of the ammonia contamination from the hydrazine propellant and its possible effects on the chemistry experiments. In 2007, a report to the American Astronomical Society by Washington State University professor Dirk Schulze-Makuch, suggested that Mars might harbor peroxide-based life forms which the Viking landers failed to detect because of the unexpected chemistry. The hypothesis was proposed long after any modifications to Phoenix could be made. One of the Phoenix mission investigators, NASA astrobiologist Chris McKay, stated that the report "piqued his interest" and that ways to test the hypothesis with Phoenix's instruments would be sought.

The robotic arm's first movement was delayed by one day when, on May 27, 2008, commands from Earth were not relayed to the Phoenix lander on Mars. The commands went to NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter as planned, but the orbiter's Electra UHF radio system for relaying commands to Phoenix temporarily shut off. Without new commands, the lander instead carried out a set of activity commands sent May 26 as a backup. On May 27 the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter relayed images and other information from those activities back to Earth.

The robotic arm was a critical part of the Phoenix Mars mission. On May 28, scientists leading the mission, sent commands to unstow its robotic arm and take more images of its landing site. The images revealed that the spacecraft landed where it had access to digging down a polygon across the trough and digging into its the center.

Comparison between polygons photographed by Phoenix on Mars...

On June 19, 2008, NASA announced that dice-sized clumps of bright material in the "Dodo-Goldilocks" trench dug by the robotic arm had vaporized over the course of four days, strongly implying that they were composed of water ice which sublimated following exposure. While dry ice also sublimates, under the conditions present it would do so at a rate much faster than observed.

On July 31, 2008, NASA announced that Phoenix confirmed the presence of water ice on Mars, as predicted on 2002 by the Mars Odyssey orbiter. During the initial heating cycle of a new sample, TEGA's mass spectrometer detected water vapor when the sample temperature reached 0 °C. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars with its present low atmospheric pressure, except at the lowest elevations for short periods.

With Phoenix in good working order, NASA announced operational funding through September 30, 2008. The science team labored to determine whether the water ice ever thaws enough to be available for life processes and if carbon-containing chemicals and other raw materials for life are present.

Additionally during 2008 and early 2009 a debate emerged within NASA over the presence of 'blobs' which appeared on photos of the vehicle's landing struts, which have been variously described as being either water droplets or 'clumps of frost'. Due to the lack of consensus within the Phoenix science project, the issue had not been raised in any NASA news conferences.

One scientist's view poised that the lander's thrusters splashed a pocket of brine from just below the Martian surface onto the landing strut during the vehicle's landing. The salts would then have absorbed water vapor from the air, which would have explained how they appeared to grow in size during the first 44 Martian days before slowly evaporating as Mar's temperature dropped.

The first two trenches dug by Phoenix in Martian soil. The trench on the right, informally called "Baby Bear", is the source of the first samples delivered to TEGA and the optical microscope for analysis.

Dice-sized clumps of bright material in the enlarged "Dodo-Goldilocks" trench vanished over the course of four days, implying that they were composed of ice which sublimated following exposure.

Color versions of the photos showing ice sublimation, with the lower left corner of the trench enlarged in the insets in the upper right of the images.

On June 24, 2008, NASA's scientists launched a major series of tests. The robotic arm scooped up more soil and delivered it to 3 different on-board analyzers: an oven that baked it and tested the emitted gases, a microscopic imager, and a wet chemistry lab. The lander's Robotic Arm scoop was positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab delivery funnel on Sol 29 (the 29th Martian day after landing, i.e. June 24, 2008). The soil was transferred to the instrument on Sol 30 (June 25, 2008), and Phoenix performed the first wet chemistry tests. On Sol 31 (June 26, 2008) Phoenix returned the wet chemistry test results with information on the salts in the soil, and its acidity. The wet chemistry lab was part of the suite of tools called the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA).

Preliminary wet chemistry lab results showed the surface soil is moderately alkaline, between pH 8 and 9. Magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride ions were found; the overall level of salinity is modest. Chloride levels were low, and thus the bulk of the anions present were not initially identified. The pH and salinity level were viewed as benign from the standpoint of biology. TEGA analysis of its first soil sample indicated the presence of bound water and CO2 that were released during the final (highest-temperature, 1,000°C) heating cycle.

On August 1, 2008, Aviation Week reported that "The White House has been alerted by NASA about plans to make an announcement soon on major new Phoenix lander discoveries concerning the "potential for life" on Mars, scientists tell Aviation Week & Space Technology." This led to a subdued media speculation on whether some evidence of past or present life had been discovered. To quell the speculation, NASA released preliminary and unconfirmed findings which suggest that Mars soil contains perchlorate and thus may not be as earth-like and life-friendly as thought earlier.

Phoenix footpad image, taken over 15 minutes after landing to ensure any dust stirred up had settled.

One of the first surface images from Phoenix.

View underneath lander towards south foot pad, showing patchy exposures of a bright surface, possibly ice.

On October 28, 2008, the spacecraft went into safe mode due to power constraints based on the insufficient amount of sunlight reaching the lander at this time of year. The plan to shut down the four heaters that keep the equipment warm was accelerated. Upon bringing the spacecraft back from safe mode, commands were sent to turn off two of the heaters rather than only one as was originally planned for the first step. The heaters involved provide heat to the robotic arm, TEGA instrument and a pyrotechnic unit on the lander that has been unused since landing, so these three instruments were also shut down.

The Lander was designed to last 90 days, and had been running on bonus time since the successful end of its primary mission in August 2008. On November 10, Phoenix Mission Control reported the loss of contact with the Phoenix lander (the last signal was received on November 2). Immediately prior, Phoenix sent its final message: "Triumph" in binary. The demise of the craft occurred three weeks earlier than expected, as a result of a dust storm that reduced power generation even further.

While the spacecraft's work has ended, the analysis of data from the instruments is in its earliest stages.

The spacecraft's computer has a safe mode that, theoretically, will attempt to reestablish communications when/if the lander can recharge its batteries next spring. However, its landing location is in an area that is usually part of the north polar ice cap during the Martian winter, meaning the spacecraft will likely be encased in dry ice. It is considered unlikely that the spacecraft will survive this condition.

Phoenix carries improved versions of University of Arizona panoramic cameras and volatiles-analysis instrument from the ill-fated Mars Polar Lander, as well as experiments that had been built for the canceled Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, including a JPL trench-digging robot arm, a set of wet chemistry laboratories, and optical and atomic force microscopes. The science payload also includes a descent imager and a suite of meteorological instruments.

The Robotic Arm (RA) is designed to extend 2.35 m from its base on the lander, and has the ability to dig down to 0.5 m below the surface. It took samples of dirt and ice that were be analyzed by other instruments on the lander. The arm was designed and built for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by Alliance Spacesystems, LLC (a subsidiary of MacDonald Dettwiler & Associates (MDA)) in Pasadena, California. Commands were sent for the arm to be deployed on May 28, 2008, beginning with the pushing aside of a protective covering intended to serve as a redundant precaution against potential contamination of Martian subsoil by Earthly life-forms. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) attached to the Robotic Arm just above the scoop was able to take full-color pictures of the area, as well as verify the samples that the scoop returned, and examined the grains of the area where the Robotic Arm had just dug. The camera was made by the University of Arizona and Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.

The Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) was the primary camera on the spacecraft. It is a stereo camera that is described as "a higher resolution upgrade of the imager used for Mars Pathfinder and the Mars Polar Lander". It took several stereo images of the Martian Arctic, and also used the Sun as a reference, to measure the atmospheric distortion of the Martian atmosphere due to dust, air and other features. The camera was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research.

The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) is a combination of a high-temperature furnace with a mass spectrometer. It was used to bake samples of Martian dust and determine its content. It has eight ovens, each about the size of a large ball-point pen, which were able to analyze one sample each, for a total of eight separate samples. Team members measured how much water vapor and carbon dioxide gas were given off, how much water ice the samples contained, and what minerals are present that may have formed during a wetter, warmer past climate. The instrument also measurred organic volatiles, such as methane, down to 10 ppb. TEGA was built by the University of Arizona and University of Texas at Dallas.

On May 29, 2008, electrical tests indicated an intermittent short circuit in TEGA. Specifically, the glitch is in one of the two filaments responsible for ionizing volatiles. NASA worked around the problem by configuring the backup filament as the primary and vice-versa.

On June 11 the first of the eight ovens was filled with the a soil sample after several tries to get the soil sample through the screen of TEGA. On June 17, it was announced that no water was found in this sample; however, since it had been exposed to the atmosphere for several days prior to entering the oven, any initial water ice it might have contained could have been lost via sublimation.

The Mars Descent Imager ("MARDI") was intended to take pictures of the landing site during the last three minutes of descent. As originally planned, it would have begun taking pictures after the aeroshell departed, about 8 km above the Martian soil.

Before launch, testing of the assembled spacecraft uncovered a potential data corruption problem with an interface card that was designed to route MARDI image data as well as data from various other parts of the spacecraft. The potential problem could occur if the interface card were to receive a MARDI picture during a critical phase of the spacecraft's final descent, at which point data from the spacecraft's Inertial Measurement Unit could have been lost; this data was critical to controlling the descent and landing. This was judged to be an unacceptable risk, and it was decided to not use MARDI during the mission. As the flaw was discovered too late for repairs, the camera remained installed on Phoenix but it was not used to take pictures, nor was its built-in microphone used.

MARDI images had been intended to help pinpoint exactly where the lander has landed, and possibly help find potential science targets. It was also to be used to learn if the area where the lander lands is typical of the surrounding terrain. MARDI was built by Malin Space Science Systems, and it is the lightest and most efficient camera ever to land on Mars. It would have used only 3 watts of power during the imaging process, less than most other space cameras. It had originally been designed and built to perform the same function on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander mission; after that mission was canceled, MARDI spent several years in storage until it was deployed on the Phoenix lander.

The Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) is an instrument package originally designed for the canceled Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander mission. It consists of a wet chemistry lab (WCL), optical and atomic force microscope, and a thermal and electrical conductivity probe. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory built MECA. A Swiss consortium led by the University of Neuchatel contributed the atomic force microscope.

Using MECA, researchers examined soil particles as small as 16 μm across; additionally, they attempted to determine the chemical composition of water soluble ions in the soil. They also measured electrical and thermal conductivity of soil particles using a probe on the robotic arm scoop.

This instrument presents 6 of 69 sample holders to an opening in the MECA instrument to which the robotic arm delivers the samples and then brings the samples to the optical microscope and the atomic force microscope.

The optical microscope, designed by the University of Arizona, is capable of making images of the Martian regolith with a resolution of 256 pixels/mm or 16 micrometers/pixel. The field of view of the microscope is a 2x2 mm sample holder to which the robotic arm delivers the sample. The sample is illuminated either by 9 red, green and blue LEDs or by 3 LEDs emitting ultraviolet light. The electronics for the readout of the CCD chip are shared with the robotic arm camera which has an identical CCD chip.

The atomic force microscope has access to a small area of the sample delivered to the optical microscope. The instrument scans over the sample with one of 8 silicon crystal tips and measures the repulsion of the tip from the sample. The maximum resolution is 0.1 micrometres. It was designed by the University of Neuchatel.

The wet chemistry lab (WCL) sensor assembly and leaching solution were designed and built by Thermo Fisher Scientific, formerly Orion Research, Inc., in Beverly, Massachusetts. The WCL actuator assembly was designed and built by Starsys Research in Boulder, Colorado. Tufts University developed the reagent pellets that are part of the WCL experiments. Imperial College London provided the microscope sample substrates.

The robotic arm scooped up some soil, put it in one of four wet chemistry lab cells, where water was added, and while stirring, an array of electrochemical sensors measured a dozen dissolved ions such as sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulfate that have leached out from the soil into the water. This provided information on the biological compatibility of the soil, both for possible indigenous microbes and for possible future Earth visitors.

Every wet chemistry cell has 26 chemical sensors and a temperature sensor. The polymer Ion Selective Electrodes were able to determine the concentration of ions by measuring the change of electric potential within the sensor, which is separated from the wet chemistry cell by an ion selective membrane. The two gas sensing electrodes for oxygen and carbon dioxide work on the same principle and are separated from the wet chemistry cell by a gas permeable membrane. A gold micro-electrode array is used for the Cyclic voltammetry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Cyclovoltammetry is a method to study ions by applying a waveform of varying potential and measuring the current-voltage curve. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry first deposits the metals onto the gold electrode with an applied potential. After the potential is reversed, the current is measured while the metals are stripped off the electrode.

The first measurement indicated that the surface layer contains water soluble salts and has a pH between 8 and 9. Additional tests on soil composition revealed the presence of perchlorates, strong oxidants.

Three of the four probes have tiny heating elements and temperature sensors inside them. One probe uses internal heating elements to send out a pulse of heat, recording the time the pulse is sent and monitoring the rate at which the heat is dissipated away from the probe. Adjacent needles sense when the heat pulse arrives. The speed that the heat travels away from the probe as well as the speed that it travels between probes allows scientists to measure thermal conductivity specific heat (the ability of the regolith to conduct heat relative to its ability to store heat) and thermal diffusivity (the speed at which a thermal disturbance is propagated in the soil).

The probes also measured the dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity, which can be used to calculate moisture and salinity of the regolith. Needles 1 and 2 work in conjunction to measure salts in the regolith, heat the soil to measure thermal properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity) of the regolith, and measure soil temperature. Needles 3 and 4 measure liquid water in the regolith. Needle 4 is a reference thermometer for needles 1 and 2. Port 5 measures relative humidity.

The Meteorological Station (MET) recorded the daily weather of Mars during the course of the Phoenix mission. It is equipped with a wind indicator and pressure and temperature sensors. The MET also contains a LIDAR (light detection and ranging) device for sampling the number of dust particles in the air. It was designed in Canada and supported by the Canadian Space Agency. A team headed by York University oversaw the science operations of the station. The York University team includes contributions from the University of Alberta, University of Aarhus (Denmark), Dalhousie University, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Optech, and the Geological Survey of Canada. Canadarm maker MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates (MDA) of Richmond, B.C. built the MET.

The surface wind velocity, pressure and temperatures were also monitored over the mission (from the tell-tale, pressure and temperature sensors) and show the evolution of the atmosphere with time. To measure dust and ice contribution to the atmosphere, a LIDAR was employed. The LIDAR collected information about the time-dependent structure of the planetary boundary layer by investigating the vertical distribution of dust, ice, fog and clouds in the local atmosphere.

There are three temperature sensors (thermocouples) on a 1 m vertical mast (shown at left in its stowed position) at heights of approximately 250, 500 and 1000 mm above the lander deck. The sensors were referenced to a measurement of absolute temperature at the base of the mast. A pressure sensor built by Finnish Meteorological Institute is located in the Payload Electronics Box, which sits on the surface of the deck, and houses the acquisition electronics for the MET payload. The Pressure and Temperature sensors commenced operations on Sol 0 (May 26, 2008) and operate continuously, sampling once every 2 seconds.

The Telltale is a joint Canadian/Danish instrument (right) which provides a course estimate of wind speed and direction. The speed is based on the amount of deflection from vertical that is observed, while the wind direction is provided by which way this deflection occurs. A mirror, located under the telltale, and a calibration "cross," above (as observed through the mirror) are employed to increase the accuracy of the measurement. Either the SSI or RAC cameras could make this measurement, though the former was typically used. Periodic observations both day and night aid in understanding the diurnal variability of wind at the Phoenix landing site.

The vertical pointing LIDAR detects multiple types of backscattering (for example Rayleigh scattering and Mie Scattering), with the delay between laser pulse generation and the return of light scattered by atmospheric particles determining the altitude at which scattering occurs. Additional information was obtained from backscattered light at different wavelengths (colors), and the Phoenix system transmitted both 532 nm and 1064 nm. Such wavelength dependence may make it possible to discriminate between ice and dust, and serve as an indicator of the effective particle size.

The Phoenix LIDAR laser is a passive Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with the dual wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm. It operates at 100 Hz with a pulse width of 10 ns. The scattered light is received by two detectors that operate (green and IR) and the green signal is collected in both analog and photon counting modes.

The LIDAR was operated for the first time at noon on Sol 3 (May 29, 2008), recording the first surface extraterrestrial atmospheric profile. This first profile indicated well mixed dust in the first few kilometers of the atmosphere of Mars, where the planetary boundary layer was observed by a marked decrease in scattering signal. The contour plot (right) shows the amount of dust as a function of time and altitude, with warmer colors (red-orange) indicating more dust, and cooler colors (blues-green), indicating less dust. There is also an instrumentation effect of the laser warming up, causing the appearance of dust increasing with time. A Layer at 3.5 km can be observed in the plot, which could be extra dust, or less likely given the time of sol this was acquired, a low altitude ice cloud.

The image on the left shows the Lidar laser operating on the surface of Mars, as observed by the SSI looking straight up, the laser is the vertical "line". Overhead dust can be seen both moving in the background, as well as passing through the laser beam in the form of bright sparkles. The fact that the beam appears to terminate is the result of the extremely small angle at which the SSI is observing the laser. Click to see full size (1285 kilobytes download).

Attached to the deck of the lander (next to the US flag) is the "Phoenix DVD", compiled by the Planetary Society. The disc contains Visions of Mars, a multimedia collection of literature and art about the Red Planet. Works include the text of H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds (and the radio broadcast by Orson Welles), Percival Lowell's Mars as the Abode of Life with a map of his proposed canals, Ray Bradbury's The Martian Chronicles, and Kim Stanley Robinson's Green Mars. There are also messages directly addressed to future Martian visitors or settlers from, among others, Carl Sagan and Arthur C. Clarke. In 2006, The Planetary Society collected a quarter million names submitted through the Internet and placed them on the disc, which claims, on the front, to be "the first library on Mars." This Phoenix DVD is similar to the Voyager Golden Record that was sent on the Voyager 1 & 2 missions.

The Phoenix DVD is made of a special silica glass designed to withstand the Martian environment, lasting for hundreds (if not thousands) of years on the surface while it awaits discoverers.

Image taken with the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) of the Phoenix lander's body and shovel part of the robotic arm, with the "Messages from Earth" DVD-ROM, US flag, and solar panels visible.

The spacecraft on Launch Pad 17-A at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station awaiting the fairing installation.

The first half of the fairing is moved into place around the craft for installation. The grey sphere is the PAM-D solid rocket that gave Phoenix the final velocity for the Martian cruise.

Phoenix's Solar Panel and Robotic Arm.

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Phoenix Coyotes

Phoenix Coyotes

The Phoenix Coyotes are a professional ice hockey team based in Glendale, Arizona, just outside of Phoenix. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). They play their home games at Arena.

The Coyotes were founded in 1972 as the Winnipeg Jets of the World Hockey Association (WHA), joining the NHL in 1979 and moving to Phoenix in 1996. Their home ice was at the US Airways Center (then known as America West Arena) for seven years until 2003, when Arena opened.

The team began play as the Winnipeg Jets, one of the founding franchises in the World Hockey Association (WHA). The Jets were the most successful team in the short-lived WHA, winning the Avco World Trophy, the league's championship trophy, three times and making the finals five out of the WHA's seven seasons. It then became one of the four teams admitted to the NHL when the rival leagues merged in 1979.

However, the club was never able to translate that success into the NHL after the merger. As part of the terms under which the former WHA teams joined the NHL, the established NHL teams were allowed to reclaim most of the players that jumped to the upstart league. The Jets lost most of their best players in the ensuing reclamation draft. As a result, they finished last in the NHL during their first two seasons, including a nine-win season in 1980–81 that is still the worst in franchise history. They recovered fairly quickly, however, making the playoffs 11 times in the next 15 seasons. However, they only won two playoff series largely due to being in the same division as the powerful Edmonton Oilers and Calgary Flames. Because of the way the playoffs were structured for much of their Winnipeg run, they were all but assured of having to defeat either the Oilers or the Flames (or both) to reach the Conference Finals. In 1984–85, for instance, they finished with the fifth-best record in the league, only to be bounced by the Oilers in the division finals.

Another key addition to the squad was veteran forward Mike Gartner, who had come over from the Toronto Maple Leafs. Despite his experience and scoring his 700th career goal on December 15, 1997, Gartner battled injuries as 1997 became 1998, and the Coyotes did not renew his contract. He retired at the end of the season.

After arriving in Phoenix, the team posted six consecutive .500 or better seasons, making the playoffs in every year but one. They were tremendously popular, in part because of the large number of Northern transplants in the Phoenix area.

However, the Coyotes' home during their first eight years in Phoenix, America West Arena, was completely inadequate for hockey. Although considered a state-of-the-the-art arena when it was built for the Phoenix Suns basketball team, the floor was just barely large enough to fit a hockey rink. The building was hastily re-engineered to accomodate the 200 foot rink, and the configuration left a portion of one end of the upper deck hanging over the boards and ice obscuring almost a third of the rink and one goal from several sections. As a result, listed capacity had to be cut down to just over 16,000 — the second-smallest in the league at the time — after the first season.

Burke bought out Gluckstern in 1998, but was unable to attract more investors to alleviate the team's financial woes (see below). Finally, in 2001, Burke sold the team to Phoenix-area developer Steve Ellman, with Wayne Gretzky as a part-owner and head of hockey operations. Ellman has since sold controlling interest to trucking company executive Jerry Moyes, who is also a part-owner of the Arizona Diamondbacks.

To this day, however, the Coyotes have never made it out of the first round of the playoffs. The franchise has not won a playoff series since 1987, when it was still in Winnipeg. The closest that they came to advancing past the first round was during the 1999 playoffs, when they lost a heartbreaking Game 7 to the St. Louis Blues. In 2002, the Coyotes posted 95 points, one point behind their best total as an NHL team, but made a rather meek first-round exit from the playoffs, being eliminated in five games by the San Jose Sharks.

From then until the 2007–08 season, the Coyotes were barely competitive and managed to break the 80–point barrier only once during that time. Attendance levels dropped considerably, worrying many league executives. In addition, an unfavorable lease with the city of Phoenix (owner of America West Arena) had the team bleeding red ink; the Coyotes have never really recovered from the resulting financial problems.

In 2003, the team opened Glendale Arena (now known as Arena), and moved there in 2003. Ellman had committed to building the new arena after numerous proposals to improve the hockey sight lines in America West Arena came to nothing. Simultaneously, the team changed its logo and uniforms, moving from the previous multi-colored kit to a more streamlined look.

On August 6, 2005, Brett Hull, son of former Jet Bobby Hull, was signed and assigned the elder Hull's retired # 9. Two days later, Gretzky named himself head coach, replacing Rick Bowness, despite the fact that he had never coached at any level of hockey. The Coyotes Ring of Honor was unveiled on October 8, inducting Gretzky and Bobby Hull. One week later, Brett Hull announced his retirement. On January 21, 2006, Jets great Thomas Steen was the third inductee to the Ring of Honor. On April 13, Steve Ellman announced an agreement for Jerry Moyes to assume majority ownership control of the Coyotes, Glendale Arena and the National Lacrosse League's Arizona Sting.

Also in the 2005–06 season, the Coyotes were planning to host the NHL All-Star Game, which was canceled because of the 2006 Winter Olympics.

On April 11, 2007, CEO Jeff Shumway announced that general manager Michael Barnett (Gretzky's agent for over 20 years), senior executive vice president of hockey operations Cliff Fletcher, and San Antonio Rampage's general manager and Coyotes' assistant general manager Laurence Gilman "have been relieved of their duties." The Coyotes finished the 2006–2007 season 31–46–5, its worst record since relocating to Phoenix.

On May 29, 2007, Jeff Shumway announced that Don Maloney had agreed to a multi-year contract to become General Manager of the Coyotes. As per club policy, terms of the contract were not disclosed. However, as has been the case with all general managers since 2001, Maloney serves in an advisory role to Gretzky.

The 2007–08 season was something of a resurgence for the Phoenix Coyotes. After their disastrous 2006–07 campaign, the Coyotes looked to rebuild the team by relying on their drafted talent such as Peter Mueller and Martin Hanzal to make the team successful as opposed to using free agency. The Coyotes also acquired Radim Vrbata from the Chicago Blackhawks for Kevyn Adams in an effort to provide the team with more offense. The team signed both Alex Auld and David Aebischer to compete for the starting goaltender position with Mikael Tellqvist acting as the backup goaltender. Neither Auld or Aebischer were able to hold on to the starting position, leaving the Coyotes to turn to the waiver wire for assistance. On November 17, 2007, the Coyotes were able to claim Ilya Bryzgalov off waivers from the Anaheim Ducks. Bryzgalov responded by not only starting in goal the day he was acquired, but posing a shutout in his Coyotes debut against the Los Angeles Kings. Bryzgalov was soon given a 3–year contract extension because of his high level of play. Despite predictions of another disastrous season, the Coyotes played competitive hockey for most of the season. However, they finished eight points short of the last playoff spot, with 83 points.

On December 23, the Toronto Globe and Mail reported that the Phoenix Coyotes team is receiving financial assistance from the league in the form of advances on league revenues. The Coyotes have pledged all of their assets to New York company SOF Investments LP to cover an estimated debt of $80 million. The team has lost an estimated $200 million since 2001 and may lose $30 million this season. One of the team's owners, Jerry Moyes' principal source of revenue, Swift Transportation is also in financial difficulty. ESPN reported that the league has become involved with the operations of the Coyotes and their revenues. The NHL apparently wants to work with the city of Glendale which owns the arena and receives revenues from the team. ESPN also reported that Moyes wants to sell his share of the team and that Hollywood producer Jerry Bruckheimer is a possible interested purchaser.

The Coyotes updated their jerseys for the 2007–08 season, along with all NHL teams, as part of the switchover to Rbk Edge jerseys. The changes made were adding an NHL crest just below the neck opening, removing the stripes that were previously just above the lower hem, and moving the "PHX" patch from the right to the left shoulder. The white jersey also gained red shoulder coloring and laces at the collar.

The Coyotes also added a third jersey for the 2008-2009 season. It is primarily black and features a new alternate coyote logo with the "PHX" patch on the left shoulder.

Howler is the coyote-suited mascot of the Phoenix Coyotes. He was introduced on October 15, 2005. Howler has his own website dedicated to his Kids Club - .

Records as of April 8, 2007.

Updated April 13, 2009.

Note: This list does not include captains from the Winnipeg Jets (NHL & WHA).

The Coyotes continue to honor the retired numbers of the Winnipeg Jets franchise, and are the only relocated WHA team to do so; the banners for Hull and Steen at Arena are in the Jets' blue, white and red. Furthermore, Hawerchuk played for the Jets well before the move to Arizona.

Note: This list does not include selections of the Winnipeg Jets.

These are the top-ten point-scorers in franchise (Winnipeg & Phoenix) history. Figures are updated after each completed NHL regular season.

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Source : Wikipedia