Pylon

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Posted by bender 04/20/2009 @ 22:07

Tags : pylon, rock and pop, artists, music, entertainment

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Worried families make views clear on pylon project - Tyrone Today
Not enough people are aware that this is a “super-strength” pylon – 400kv is significantly more powerful than the standard 275 kV lines in existence. It is evident that the communities of Armagh and Tyrone do not want this extra-strong powerline to be...
Thousands hit by power cuts after freak lightning strike - Aberdeen Evening Express
By Sally Hind CAUSE: A freak bolt of lighting hit an electricity pylon, cutting power to parts of Aberdeen, Ellon and Peterhead. THOUSANDS of people in Aberdeen, Ellon, and Peterhead were left without power after a bolt of lightning struck an...
Replacement for Paseo bridge is taking shape - Kansas City Star
The pylon is climbing out of the river at roughly 20 feet a month and should be done by March. When it's finished, the 326-foot diamond-shaped structure will support the roughly 100000 vehicles that cross the river every day on Interstates 29/35....
Vote determines IR bridge aesthetics - Delmarva Now
In a recent public meeting, DelDOT representatives invited the public to vote on the color of the bridge supports, the design of the pylon tops and lighting features for the new structure. After the votes were tallied, it was determined the color of...
Anti-pylon group may appeal - Stuff.co.nz
By JENNY KEOWN - The Independent Anti-pylons lobby group New Era Energy is not one to give up without a fight. It's considering appealing against the High Court rejection of its application for judicial review of the Electricity Commission's approval...
Hallowed ground for US war heroes - San Jose Mercury News
After proceeding up the wooded hillside to the memorial pylon towering over the rows of pristine white grave markers, we got off the bus and explored the grounds. Some in our group walked quietly around the reflecting pools and marble maps indicating...
Harvesting the Wind - Metropolis Magazine
The passing turbines and pylons augur a new way to harness renewable energy in a country that relies almost entirely on nuclear power. “When we're riding on the train, we al-ways see pylons, and some turbines too,” Nicola Delon says....
Demining Power Line Costs A Million Dollar - Bernama
Besides finding corpses of people and animals, the assessment also found situations where there were about 200 land mines planted around a single pylon. The mechanical mine clearance, which started on 28 March, has already cleared about 1549 square...
Mozambique to demine power lines from South Africa - Africasia
"We're looking at there still being about 20000 mines left on the pylon line," said HALO Trust official Helen Gray. The high-tension lines, which deliver South African electricity to Mozambique's capital Maputo, are supported by 200 pylons along an...
Anti-pylon group not giving up - Newstalk ZB
New Era Energy is made up of landowners affected by the Electricity Commission's decision to build a line of pylons between Whakamaru in Waikato to Pakuranga in Manukau. The High Court has turned down the group's request for a judicial review of the...

Pylon (band)

Pylon performing at AthFest 2005 in Athens, Georgia, USA, June 24, 2005.

Pylon is a rock band from Athens, Georgia, USA. Their most important work was done between 1979 and 1983. They were highly influential among New Wave bands. They are also considered one of the seminal groups of the Athens music scene where their influence has been pervasive. The band R.E.M. is an especially notable example of a group influenced by Pylon, and covered the song "Crazy" as the b-side of their single, "Driver 8." Their music includes punk rock elements, but might also be counted as dance music.

All four members of Pylon were art students at the University of Georgia in Athens. Guitarist Randall Bewley and bass guitarist Michael Lachowski began playing music and attempting to form a band in 1978. They practiced in a studio in downtown Athens which Lachowski rented from Curtis Crowe, upstairs from the current location of the Grill on College Avenus. The room was lit by a single 40-watt light bulb, so the band referred to it as the "40 Watt Club." Crowe soon joined the band as a drummer. On February 14, 1979 the three held auditions for a singer. Vanessa Briscoe (now Vanessa Briscoe Hay) was chosen.

Pylon played their first live show at a party on March 9, 1979. Members of The B-52's attended Pylon's third show. Fred Schneider and Kate Pierson of the B-52's were particularly supportive and helped promote Pylon's music in New York City. Soon Pylon opened for Gang of Four in New York. Pylon's debut single, "Cool," appeared on DB Records in early 1980, and received many positive critical reviews. From 1980 to 1983 Pylon toured parts of the U.S., Canada, and the UK, playing with groups including the B-52's, Gang of Four, Mission of Burma, Love Tractor, R.E.M., the Talking Heads, and U2. Pylon was the opening act for the first part of U2's first U.S. tour. Crazy/M-Train charted at #61 for Club play singles in 1982 according to Billboard Magazine entry in All Music Guide. At that time the members of Pylon were beginning to feel that playing together was becoming less fun and more like a business. They decided to break up the band in 1983.

With some help from the members of R.E.M., Pylon's reputation as one of the great underground bands of the new wave era was solidified in 1987. When Rolling Stone named R.E.M. "America's Best Band" in November 1987, R.E.M. drummer Bill Berry said, "We're not the best rock 'n' roll band in America." Pylon, he said, was the best.

With the encouragement of R.E.M. and others, Pylon reunited in 1989 to open for the final leg of R.E.M.'s "Green" tour. They recorded another LP in 1990, played several more shows including the South by Southwest Festival in 1990 and 1991, and finally broke up again in 1991. Pylon came out of retirement again in 2004, and played their first set in more than a decade in August 2004 at the then fledgling Little King's Shuffle Club. Pylon also played a New Years Eve show that year at the "40 Watt Club", and headlined the first night the Athens music festival, AthFest, in June 2005. In 2006, they recorded a so far, untelevised segment for "Pancake Mountain". On April 4, 2007, they performed an impromptu show at Little King's to announce the reissue of "Gyrate" on DFA Records which is called "Gyrate Plus" and which was released on October 16, 2007. They performed several key shows in 2008 including the Part Time Punks Festival in LA, a show taped for Georgia Public Radio in Athens, GA and at the Revolve Film Festival in Winston-Salem, NC with Mitch Easter. DFA Records plan to reissue "Chomp" in 2009.

On February 25, 2009 guitarist Randall Bewley died after suffering a heart attack while driving his van.

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Anchor pylon

A termination tower, which will be soon demolished near Stuttgart

Anchor pylons or strainer pylons utilize horizontal insulators and occur at the endpoints of conductors. Such endpoints are necessary when interfacing with other modes of power transmission (see image) and, due to the inflexibility of the conductors, when significantly altering the direction of the pylon chain. Anchor pylons are also employed at branch points as branch pylons and must occur at a maximum interval of 5 km, due to technical limitations on conductor length. Conductors are connected at such pylons by a short conductor cable "strained" between both ends. They often require anchor cables to compensate for the asymmetric attachment of the conductors. Therefore, anchor pylons tend to be more stably built than a support pylon and are often used, particularly in older construction, when the power line must cross a large gap, such as a railway line, river, or valley.

A special kind of an anchor pylon is a termination pylon. It is used for the transition of an overhead powerline to an underground cable. A termination pylon, at which the powerline runs further as well as overhead line and as underground cable is a branch pylon for a cable branch. For voltages below 30 kV also pylon transformers are used.

Transposition pylons are anchor or tension or terminal pylons at which the conductors are "transposed" so that they exchange sides of the pylon.

Anchor pylons may also have a circuit breaker attached to their crossbeam. These so called switch pylons are operated from the ground by the use of long sticks. The attachment of circuit breakers to pylons is only practical when voltages are less than 50 kV.

In some rare cases pylons are used, at which some conductors are mounted on anchor pylon insulators, others on carrying pylon insulators.

It is uncommon that in a powerline there are sequences of two or more strainer pylons as strainers require the double number of insulators and it is more economic to install longer wire sections as this reduces installation work. One find such sequences sometimes at powerlines crossing valleys, where often on both ends of the valley the pylons are powerlines or where the powerline runs a path with curves. The longest sequence of strainer pylons on a powerline may be on the powerline for traction current with runs through Fulda, Germany past the railway line. It has a sequence of 30 strainer pylons.

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Three-level pylon

Pylon carrying three 380 kV circuits

A three-level pylon is a pylon designed to arrange conductor cables on three crossbars in three levels. For two three-phase circuits (6 conductor cables), it is usual to use fir tree pylons and barrel pylons. Three-level pylons are taller than other pylon types, but require only a small right-of-way. They are very popular in a number of countries such as Belgium, China, and Hong Kong. However, due to their taller height, these pylons are not usually used near airports and other locations where height is an issue. Some dual-circuit power lines may switch to a two-level pylon instead or split up into two shorter, delta pylon single-circuit lines.

A barrel pylon is a common type of three-level pylon. It arranges two three-phase circuits in three levels, at which the lowest cross beam possesses a smaller span than the middle crossbar and thus a larger span than the highest crossbar. As a rule the highest and the lowest cross beam have the same span at ton masts.

In the United States, the three-level pylon is common for voltages like 115 kV and 230 kV which venture into cities with small, narrow rights of way. However, the 500 kV wire, which usually runs in rural or suburban regions, usually uses single-circuit delta-pylons instead of the three-level pylon. This is probably because there is no need to build a taller, three-level pylon dual-circuit line when there is enough space for two single-circuit lines. As a result, 500 kV dual-circuit lines are rare in the United States, with only a few instances of line in California, like Path 15 and Path 66. Bonneville Power Administration is the only utility in the United States with several barrel pylon dual-circuit 500 kV wires, located in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana.

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Wood pylon

A cedar wood Pylon

A wood pylon is an electricity pylon made of wood. For support pylons a straight trunk impregnated with tar is usually used, which carries one or more cross beams with the conductor cables on the top. For anchor pylons constructions looking like a V or an A are used, because these can stand higher forces.

Because of the limited height of available trees the maximum height of wood pylons is limited (approx. 30 metres). In Germany wood pylons are used as a rule only for lines with voltages up to approximately 30 kV, while in the U.S. wood pylons are used for lines with voltages up to 345 kV.

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Electricity pylon

HVDC Distance Pylon near the terminus of the Nelson River Bipole adjacent to Dorsey Converter Station near Rosser, Manitoba — August 2005

An electricity pylon or transmission tower (also known as Ironmen in Australia and hydro tower in Canada) is a tall, usually steel lattice structure used to support overhead electricity conductors for electric power transmission.

Three-phase electric power systems are used for high and extra-high voltage AC transmission lines (50 kV and above). The towers must be designed to carry three (or multiples of three) conductors. The towers are usually steel lattices or trusses (wooden structures are used in Germany and Scandinavia in some cases) and the insulators are either glass or porcelain discs or composite Insulators using Silicone Rubber or EPDM rubber material assembled in strings or long rod whose length is dependent on the line voltage and environmental conditions. One or two earth conductors (or "ground conductors") for lightning protection are often mounted at the top of each tower.

In some countries, towers for high and extra-high voltage are usually designed to carry two or more electric circuits. For double circuit lines in Germany, the "Danube" towers or more rarely, the "fir tree" towers, are usually used. If a line is constructed using towers designed to carry several circuits, it is not necessary to install all the circuits at the time of construction.

Some high voltage circuits are often erected on the same tower as 110 kV lines. Paralleling circuits of 380 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV-lines on the same towers is common. Sometimes, especially with 110 kV circuits, a parallel circuit carries traction lines for railway electrification.

High voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines are either monopolar or bipolar systems. With bipolar systems a conductor arrangement with one conductor on each side of the tower is used. For single-pole HVDC transmission with ground return, towers with only one conductor can be used. In many cases, however, the towers are designed for later conversion to a two-pole system. In these cases, conductors are installed on both sides of the tower for mechanical reasons. Until the second pole is needed, it is either grounded, or joined in parallel with the pole in use. In the latter case the line from the converter station to the earthing (grounding) electrode is built as underground cable.

Towers used for single phase AC railway traction lines are similar in construction to those towers used for 110 kV-three phase lines. Steel tube or concrete poles are also often used for these lines. However, railway traction current systems are two-pole AC systems, so traction lines are designed for two conductors (or multiples of two, usually four, eight, or twelve). As a rule, the towers of railway traction lines carry two electric circuits, so they have four conductors. These are usually arranged on one level, whereby each circuit occupies one half of the crossarm. For four traction circuits the arrangement of the conductors is in two-levels and for six electric circuits the arrangement of the conductors is in three levels.

With limited space conditions, it is possible to arrange the conductors of one traction circuit in two levels. Running a traction power line parallel to a high voltage transmission line for three-phase AC on a separate crossarm of the same tower is possible. If traction lines are led parallel to 380 kV-lines, the insulation must be designed for 220 kV, because in the event of a fault, dangerous overvoltages to the three-phase alternating current line can occur. Traction lines are usually equipped with one earth conductor. In Austria, on some traction circuits, two earth conductors are used.

Lattice towers can be assembled horizontally on the ground and erected by push-pull cable, but this method is rarely used because of the large assembly area needed. Lattice towers are more usually erected using a crane or using gin pole method or using derrick or in very inaccessible areas, a helicopter.

There are tower testing stations for testing the mechanical properties of towers.

Besides the obligatory high voltage warning sign, electricity towers also frequently possess a sign or circuit identification plate, with the names of the line (either the terminal points of the line or the internal designation of the EVU) and the tower number. This makes it easier identifying the location of a fault to the power company that owns the tower.

In some countries, lattice steel towers have to be equipped with a barbed wire barrier approximately 3 metres above ground in order to deter unauthorized climbing. Such barriers can often be found on towers close to roads or other areas with easy public access, even where there is not a legal requirement.

Antennas for low power FM radio, television, and mobile phone services are sometimes erected on pylons, especially on the steel masts carrying high voltage cables.

To build branches, quite impressive constructions must occasionally be used. This also applies occasionally to twisting masts that divert three-level conductor cables.

Sometimes (in particular on steel framework pylons for the highest voltage levels) transmitting plants are installed. Usually these installations are for mobile phone services or the operating radio of the power supply firm, but occasionally also for other radio services, like directional radio. Thus transmitting antennas for low-power FM radio and television transmitters were already installed on pylons. On the carrying pylon of the Elbe Crossing 1 there is a radar facility belonging to the Hamburg water and navigation office.

For crossing broad valleys, a large distance between the conductor cables must be maintained to avoid short-circuits caused by conductor cables colliding during storms. Sometimes a separate pylon is used for each conductor. For crossing wide rivers and straits with flat coastlines very high pylons must be built, because a large height clearance is needed for navigation. Such masts must be equipped with flight safety lamps.

Two well-known wide river crossings are the Elbe Crossing 1 and Elbe Crossing 2. The latter has the highest overhead line masts in Europe, at 227 meters tall. The overhead line crossing pylons in the Spanish bay of Cádiz have a particularly interesting construction. They consist of 158-meter-high carrying pylons with one cross beam atop a frustum framework construction. The longest overhead line spans are the crossing of the Norwegian Sognefjord (4,597 meters between two masts) and the Ameralik span in Greenland (5,376 meters.) In Germany the overhead line of the EnBW AG crossing of the Eyachtal has the longest span in the country at 1,444 meters.

In order to drop overhead lines into steep, deep valleys, inclined pylons are occasionally used. An example of this type of pylon is located at the Hoover dam in the USA. In Switzerland a NOK pylon inclined around 20 degrees to the vertical is located near Sargans. Highly sloping masts are used on two 380 kV pylons in Switzerland, the top 32 meters of one of them being bent by 18 degrees to the vertical.

Power station chimneys are sometimes equipped with crossbars for fixing conductors of the outgoing lines. Because of possible problems with corrosion by the flue gases, such constructions are very rare.

Pylons and the cables that they support are generally regarded to be unattractive. An alternative to pylons is underground cables. This is a more expensive solution than cables that are supported by pylons but has aesthetic advantages. There are schemes in various countries to improve the appearance of the environment by removing the pylons and undergrounding the cables. Laying underground cables can be very expensive, for example in rocky terrain. However, a disadvantage of underground cables is that they have poor heat-dissipation qualities, contrary to cables suspended on towers, which are cooled by the air. The additional capacitance of the ground also results in less efficient power transmission. Perhaps one of the largest disadvantages of cables is that they are far more vulnerable to careless/inadvertent damage by third parties, often in the course of construction work.

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Source : Wikipedia