Reggae

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Posted by bender 04/11/2009 @ 17:10

Tags : reggae, artists, music, entertainment

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Homegrown Truckee Tribe provides the 'reggae thing' - Tahoe Daily Tribune
We used to travel and do fiddle contests so we've been around a bunch of different genres of music which we incorporate into the reggae thing.” The “reggae thing” is the dub style of Truckee Tribe, which on Friday makes its second South Shore...
Free reggae concert set for Sunday - Canada.com
Canadian reggae star Fredlocks Asher will play a free concert at the Rally for Peace, Justice and Equality on Sunday. The rally takes place at the Diana Krall Plaza at 1:30 pm following the Empire Days parade. Asher impressed a packed Port Theatre...
It's time to chill: Peace, love and Reggae Fest at Trempealeau Hotel - Winona Daily News
Perhaps that's why the Trempealeau Hotel's annual Reggae Fest has become the perfect way to kick off the outdoor concert season. This year, Saturday's lineup includes Uprising, Natty Nation and headliners The Ark. “For some reason, the music mellows...
Reggae on the River tickets on sale now - Redwood Times
On Saturday, July 18, the Mateel Community Center invites all to the 25th annual Reggae on the River. Presented as a full day showcase of the best in reggae and world music, the shores of the Eel River at Benbow Lake State Recreation Area will come...
Reggae's Fyah Mama, Queen Ifrica breaks new ground with her trail ... - South Florida Caribbean News
She also tells a poignant tale of child molestation on “Daddy” (produced by Kemar McGregor) which has already received worldwide recognition and reached the top of reggae charts, even though certain sectors within Jamaican society attempted to get the...
National Anthem recorded with reggae touch - Jamaica Gleaner
Jamaica Big Band leader, trumpeter Sonny Bradshaw's arrangement of the Jamaican National Anthem (which goes into a reggae beat on the line "justice, truth be ours forever", the horns carrying the melody instead of a lead vocalist) was recorded by a...
HIP-HOP/REGGAE SHOWDOWN - TropicalFete.com
MIAMI, FLORIDA May 2009 - It's proven that hip-hop originated from rap, which was spawned from dub, which is the stepchild of reggae, whose current offspring is dancehall. It's also a fact that no other music event in North America showcases reggae and...
Rock Picks: Doves, Ceci Bastida, Carina Round, New York Dolls - LA Weekly
By LA Weekly Music Critics Despite looking like they're about to shake you down behind a 7-Eleven, LA's hard-touring Aggrolites are in fact acolytes of the good-vibes, offbeat-obsessed reggae/rocksteady of 1960s Jamaica (indeed, they formed in 2002 as...
The following articles were printed from New Times [newtimesslo ... - New Times SLO
Reggae legends The Meditations will be joined by local reggae heroes The Shival Experience on Friday, May 15 (all-ages, 7:30 pm; $10 presale or $12 at the door). The Meditations—Ansel Cridland, Danny Clarke, and Winston Watson—recorded their first hit...
The Independent Weekly Line on Durango and Beyond - Durango Telegraph
Carvers hosts “Feed the Roots,” a reggae-themed fund-raiser to support the children of Uganda, from 7-11 pm Friday on their patio. A Dub Rock Band and DJ I-Gene will perform. The event has a suggested $5 donation and proceeds from crafts and Lightner...

Reggae

Toots Hibbert, lead singer of the Maytals.

Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s.

While sometimes used in a broader sense to refer to most types of Jamaican music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style that originated following on the development of ska and rocksteady. Reggae is based on a rhythmic style characterized by accents on the off-beat, known as the skank. Reggae is normally slower than ska, which usually has accents on the first and third beat in each bar.

Reggae song lyrics deal with many subjects, including religion, love, sexuality, peace, relationships, poverty, injustice and other social and political issues.

The 1967 edition of the Dictionary of Jamaican English lists reggae as "a recently estab. sp. for rege", as in rege-rege, a word that can mean either "rags, ragged clothing" or "a quarrel, a row".

We didn't like the name rock steady, so I tried a different version of "Fat Man". It changed the beat again, it used the organ to creep. Bunny Lee, the producer, liked that. He created the sound with the organ and the rhythm guitar. It sounded like ‘reggae, reggae' and that name just took off. Bunny Lee started using the world and soon all the musicians were saying ‘reggae, reggae, reggae.

There's a word we used to use in Jamaica called 'streggae'. If a girl is walking and the guys look at her and say 'Man, she's streggae' it means she don't dress well, she look raggedy. The girls would say that about the men too. This one morning me and my two friends were playing and I said, 'OK man, let's do the reggay.' It was just something that came out of my mouth. So we just start singing 'Do the reggay, do the reggay' and created a beat. People tell me later that we had given the sound it's name. Before that people had called it blue-beat and all kind of other things. Now it's in the Guinness World of Records.

Although strongly influenced by traditional African and Caribbean music, as well as by American rhythm and blues, reggae owes its direct origins to the progressive development of ska and rocksteady in 1960s Jamaica.

Ska music first arose in the studios of Jamaica over the years 1959 and 1961, itself a development of the earlier mento genre. Ska is characterized by a walking bass line, accentuated guitar or piano rhythms on the offbeat, and sometimes jazz-like horn riffs. Aside from its massive popularity amidst the Jamaican rude boy fashion, it had gained a large following among mods in Britain by 1964. According to Barrow, rude boys began deliberately playing their ska records at half speed, preferring to dance slower as part of their tough image.

By the mid-1960s, many musicians had begun playing the tempo of ska slower, while emphasizing the walking bass and offbeats. The slower sound was named rocksteady, after a single by Alton Ellis. This phase of Jamaican music lasted only until 1968, when musicians began to slow the tempo of the music again, and added yet more effects. This led to the creation of reggae.

The shift from rocksteady to reggae was illustrated by the organ shuffle pioneered by Bunny Lee, and featured in the transitional singles "Say What You're Saying" (1967) by Clancy Eccles, and "People Funny Boy" (1968) by Lee "Scratch" Perry. The Pioneers' 1967 track "Long Shot Bus' Me Bet" has been identified as the earliest recorded example of the new rhythm sound that became known as reggae. Early 1968 was when the first genuine reggae records came into being: "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall and "No More Heartaches" by The Beltones. American artist Johnny Nash's 1968 hit "Hold Me Tight" has been credited with first putting reggae in the American listener charts.. Reggae was starting to surface in rock music; an example of a rock song featuring reggae rhythm is 1968's "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da." by The Beatles.

The Wailers, a band that was started by Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer in 1963, are generally agreed to be the most easily recognised group worldwide that made the transition through all three stages — from ska hits like "Simmer Down", through slower rocksteady, to reggae.

Jamaican producers were influential in the development of ska into rocksteady and reggae in the 1960s. An early producer was Chris Blackwell, who founded Island Records in Jamaica in 1960, then relocated to England in 1962, where he continued to promote Jamaican music. He formed a partnership with Trojan Records, founded by Lee Gopthal in 1968. Trojan released recordings by reggae artists in the UK until 1974, when Saga bought the label.

Another well-known producer of Jamaican music is Vincent Chin, who received his first taste of the music business maintaining jukeboxes at bars. This led him to start selling old records from jukeboxes he repaired, that would otherwise be discarded for new ones. In 1958, the success of Chin's jukebox record venture led him to open a retail store in downtown Kingston. In 1969, Chin and his wife Pat opened a studio called Randy's Studio 17, where Bob Marley & The Wailers recorded their album Catch A Fire, and Peter Tosh recorded his first two solo albums Legalize It and Equal Rights. Around the corner from the studio was a small street that was affectionately dubbed Idler's Rest, where reggae artists hung out and producers picked up musicians and sngers for recording. Chin's eldest son Clive Chin earned his status as a producer. In 1971 or 1972, he launched the dub label Impact Records, and with Augustus Pablo, produced and recorded at Studio 17 the first ever dub album, Java.

The 1972 film The Harder They Come, starring Jimmy Cliff, generated considerable interest and popularity for reggae in the United States, and Eric Clapton's 1974 cover of the Bob Marley song "I Shot the Sheriff" helped bring reggae into the mainstream. By the mid 1970s, reggae was getting radio play in the UK on John Peel's radio show, and Peel continued to play reggae on his show throughout his career. What is called the "Golden Age of Reggae" corresponds roughly to the heyday of roots reggae. In the second half of the 1970s, the UK punk rock scene was starting to form, and some punk DJs played reggae songs during their sets. Some punk bands incorporated reggae influences into their music. At the same time, reggae began to enjoy a revival in the UK that continued into the 1980s. The Grammy Awards introduced the Best Reggae Album category in 1985.

Reggae is either played in 4/4 time or swing time, because the symmetrical rhythmic pattern does not lend itself to other time signatures such as 3/4 time. Harmonically, the music is often very simple, and sometimes a whole song will have no more than one or two chords. These simple repetitive chord structures add to reggae's sometimes hypnotic effects.

A standard drum kit with is generally used in reggae, but the snare drum is often tuned very high to give it a timbale-type sound. Some reggae drummers use an additional timbale or high-tuned snare to get this sound. Cross-stick technique on the snare drum is commonly used, and tom-tom drums are often incorporated into the drumbeat itself.

Reggae drumbeats fall into three main categories: One drop, Rockers and Steppers. With the One drop, the emphasis is entirely on the third beat of the bar (usually on the snare, or as a rim shot combined with bass drum). Beat one is completely empty, which is unusual in popular music. There is some controversy about whether reggae should be counted so that this beat falls on three, or whether it should be counted half as fast, so it falls on two and four. Leroy "Horsemouth" Wallace calls the beat the "two-four combination". Many credit Carlton Barrett of The Wailers as the creator of this style, although it may actually have been invented by Winston Grennan. Hugh Malcolm and Joe Isaacs were also active Kingston studio drummers at the time. An example played by Barrett can be heard in the Bob Marley and the Wailers song "One Drop". Barrett often used an unusual triplet cross-rhythm on the hi-hat, which can be heard on many recordings by Bob Marley and the Wailers, such as "Running Away" on the Kaya album.

In Steppers, the bass drum plays four solid beats to the bar, giving the beat an insistent drive. An example is "Exodus" by Bob Marley and the Wailers. Another common name for the Steppers beat is the "four on the floor." Burning Spear's 1975 song "Red, Gold, and Green" (with Leroy Wallace on drums) is one of the earliest examples. The Steppers beat was adopted (at a much higher tempo) by some 2 Tone ska revival bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s.

An unusual characteristic of reggae drumming is that the drum fills often do not end with a climactic cymbal. A wide range of other percussion instrumentation is used in reggae. Bongos are often used to play free, improvised patterns, with heavy use of African-style cross-rhythms. Cowbells, claves and shakers tend to have more defined roles and a set pattern.

The bass guitar often plays a very dominant role in reggae, and the drum and bass is often called the riddim (rhythm). Several reggae singers have released different songs recorded over the same riddim. The central role of the bass can be particularly heard in dub music — which gives an even bigger role to the drum and bass line, reducing the vocals and other instruments to peripheral roles. The bass sound in reggae is thick and heavy, and equalized so the upper frequencies are removed and the lower frequencies emphasized. The bass line is often a simple two-bar riff that is centred around its thickest and heaviest note.

The rhythm guitar in reggae usually plays the chords on beats two and four, a musical figure known as skank or the 'bang'. It has a very dampened, short and scratchy chop sound, almost like a percussion instrument. Sometimes a double chop is used when the guitar still plays the off beats, but also plays the following 8th beats on the up-stroke. An example is the intro to "Stir It Up" by The Wailers.

From the late 1960s through to the early 1980s, a piano was generally used in reggae to double the rhythm guitar's skank, playing the chords in a staccato style to add body, and playing occasional extra beats, runs and riffs. The piano part was widely taken over by synthesizers during the 1980s, although synthesizers have been used in a peripheral role since the 1970s to play incidental melodies and countermelodies. Larger bands may include either an additional keyboardist, to cover or replace horn and melody lines, or the main keyboardist filling these roles on two or more keyboards.

The reggae-organ shuffle is unique to reggae. Typically, a Hammond organ-style sound is used to play chords with a choppy feel. This is known as the bubble. There are specific drawbar settings used on a Hammond console to get the correct sound. This may be the most difficult reggae keyboard rhythm. The 8th beats are played with a space-left-right-left-space-left-right-left pattern.

Horn sections are frequently used in reggae, often playing introductions and counter-melodies. Instruments included in a typical reggae horn section include saxophone, trumpet or trombone. In more recent times, real horns are sometimes replaced in reggae by synthesizers or recorded samples. The horn section is often arranged around the first horn, playing a simple melody or counter melody. The first horn is usually accompanied by the second horn playing the same melodic phrase in unision, one octave higher. The third horn usually plays the melody an octave and a fifth higher than the first horn. The horns are generally played fairly softly, usually resulting in a soothing sound. However, sometimes punchier, louder phrases are played for a more up-tempo and aggressive sound.

The vocals in reggae are less of a defining characteristic of the genre than the instrumentation and rhythm. Almost any song can be performed in a reggae style. Vocal harmony parts are often used, either throughout the melody (as with bands such as the Mighty Diamonds), or as a counterpoint to the main vocal line (as with the backing group I-Threes). The British reggae band Steel Pulse used particularly complex backing vocals. An unusual aspect of reggae singing is that many singers use tremolo (volume oscillation) rather than vibrato (pitch oscillation). The toasting vocal style is unique to reggae, originating when DJs improvised along to dub tracks, and it is generally considered to be a precursor to rap. It differs from rap mainly in that it is generally melodic, while rap is generally more a spoken form without melodic content.

Reggae is noted for its tradition of social criticism, although many reggae songs discuss lighter, more personal subjects, such as love, sex and socializing. Many early reggae bands also covered Motown or Atlantic soul and funk numbers. Some reggae lyrics attempt to raise the political consciousness of the audience, such as by criticizing materialism, or by informing the listener about controversial subjects such as Apartheid. Many reggae songs promote the use of cannabis (also known as herb or ganja), considered a sacrament in the Rastafari movement. There are many artists who utilize religious themes in their music — whether it be discussing a religious topic, or simply giving praise to the Rastafari God Jah. Other common socio-political topics in reggae songs include black nationalism, anti-racism, anti-colonialism, anti-capitalism, criticism of political systems and "Babylon", and promotion of caring for needs of the younger generation.

Some dancehall or ragga artists have been criticised for homophobia, sometimes including threats of violence. Buju Banton's song "Boom Bye-Bye" states that gays "haffi dead" ("have to die"). Other dance hall artists who have been accused of homophobia include Elephant Man ("When you hear a lesbian getting raped / It's not our fault ... Two women in bed / That's two Sodomites who should be dead."), Bounty Killer (who in a song urges listeners to burn "Mister Fagoty") and Beenie Man.

The controversy surrounding anti-gay lyrics led to the cancellation of UK tours by Beenie Man and Sizzla. After lobbying from the Stop Murder Music coalition, the dance hall music industry agreed in 2005 to stop releasing songs that promote hatred and violence against gay people. In June 2007, Beenie Man, Sizzla and Capleton signed up to the Reggae Compassionate Act — in a deal brokered with top dance hall promoters and Stop Murder Music activists — renouncing homophobia, and agreeing to "not make statements or perform songs that incite hatred or violence against anyone from any community". Five artists targeted by the anti-homophobia campaign did not sign up to the act, including Elephant Man, TOK, Bounty Killa, Vybz Kartel and Buju Banton.

Reggae includes several subgenres, such as roots reggae, dub, lovers rock, and dancehall.

Roots reggae is a spiritual type of music whose lyrics are predominantly in praise of Jah (God). Recurrent lyrical themes include poverty and resistance to government oppression. Many of Bob Marley's and Peter Tosh's songs can be called roots reggae. The creative pinnacle of roots reggae was in the late 1970s.

Dub is a genre of reggae that was pioneered in the early days by studio producers Lee 'Scratch' Perry and King Tubby. It involves extensive remixing of recorded material, and particular emphasis is placed on the drum and bass line. The techniques used resulted in an even more visceral feel described by King Tubby as sounding "jus’ like a volcano in yuh head." Augustus Pablo and Mikey Dread were two of the early notable proponents of this music style, which continues today.

The rockers style was created in the mid-1970s by Sly & Robbie. Rockers is described as a flowing, mechanical, and aggressive style of playing reggae. One article calls the rockers era the "Golden Age of Reggae".

The lovers rock subgenre originated in South London in the mid-1970s. The lyrics are usually about love. It is similar to rhythm and blues.

Toasting is a style of chanting or talking over the record that was first used by 1960s Jamaican deejays. This style greatly influenced Jamaican DJ Kool Herc, who used the style in New York City in the late 1970s to pioneer the hip hop and rap genres. Mixing techniques employed in dub music have also influenced hip hop.

The dancehall genre was developed around 1980. The style is characterized by a deejay singing and rapping or toasting over raw and fast rhythms. Ragga (also known as raggamuffin), is a subgenre of dancehall where the instrumentation primarily consists of electronic music and sampling.

In February 2009, Dancehall with explicit lyrics was banned from the airwaves in Jamaica.

Reggaeton is a form of dance music that first became popular with Latino youths in the early 1990s. It blends reggae and dancehall with Latin American genres such as cumbia (a backbeat type of latin music, originated in Colombia), bomba and plena, as well as hip hop.

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Japanese reggae

Japanese reggae is reggae music originating from Japan. The first reggae band to perform in Japan was The Pioneers who toured in 1975. However it was not until 1979, when Jamaican singer Bob Marley visited Japan on holiday that reggae would gain momentum in Japan. Marley wanted to attend a concert by the Flower Travellin Band and when looking for information, he met famed Japanese percussionist "Pecker" who informed him that the group had already disbanded. The two became good friends, and Pecker suggested to Marley a collaboration between acclaimed Japanese and Jamaican artists. This suggestion resulted in the albums Pecker Power, and Instant Rasta being recorded in Jamaica at "Channel One" and "Tuff Gong Studio" in 1980. The albums featured Japanese artists Minako Yoshida (吉田美奈子 ?), Ryuuichi Sakamoto (坂本龍一 ?), Naoya Matsuoka (松岡直也 ?), Shigeharu Mukai (向井滋春 ?), and Akira Sakata (坂田明 ?), alongside Jamaican artists Augustus Pablo, Sly & Robbie, The Wailers, Rico Rodriguez, Carlton Barrett and Marcia Griffiths. These two albums influenced both Japanese and Jamaican artists, and are regarded as spreading reggae to Japan.

One of the first reggae artists from Japan was Mute Beat, whose recordings made Japan internationally renowned for dub, and influenced many artists such as Dry & Heavy, Fishmans, UA, and Pushim. Another pioneering artist was Nahki. He was scouted by Sugar Minott and began performing in Jamaica, and later formed Japans first reggae festival "Japansplash" in 1985. The esteemed band Jagatara (じゃがたら ?) combined punk rock, jazz, and funk with reggae and influenced hybrid artists such as Ego-Wrappin'. The dancehall style was brought to Japan by Rankin' Taxi in the mid 80's, and rock group The Roosters incorporated ska into some of their songs which influenced artists such as the Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra, and Kemuri.

Musical relations between Jamaican and Japanese artists continues to remain strong, and while Japanese reggae is distinctly different from Jamaican, there are some singers such as Makoto Karukaya (カルカヤマコト ?) who perform with a Jamaican style.

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Reggae en Español

Reggae en Español is also known as Spanish Reggae and Spanish Dancehall. Reggae en Español is a sub-genre of Reggae. Spanish reggae/dancehall does not have any specific characteristics, rather it is the recording of Reggae and Dancehall in the Spanish language and by artists of Latin American origin. Spanish reggae has its origins in the mid 1970's in Panama.

When Reggae began to travel worldwide during the 1970's. It was first embraced in the Spanish speaking world by a large group of Jamaican descent Panamanians. These artists followed closely the trends in Reggae. Many began to develop a spiritual bond with Kingston, which was considered the mecca of Reggae.

Panamanians like El General and Nando Boom began taking dancehall songs and beats and singing over them with Spanish lyrics. They also sped up riddims, and added Hispanic and Latino elements to them. This movement of Reggae in Panama, which was extremely popular, was called "Reggaeespanol", "Reggae en Espanol", or La plena. It should be noted that Spanish dancehall sounds similar to English-language dancehall, the exception is that it is in the Spanish language. Artists such as Nando Boom, El General, Chico Man, and many more pioneered it in the early 1980s in Colon, Panama.

This movement of Reggae in Panama was extremely popular. The music continued to grow throughout the 1980s, with many stars developing in Panama. El General has been widely regarded as the "Padre Del Reggae en Español" or "Father of Spanish Reggae" due to his unique sound with Latino rhythms. He also garnered many awards. In the 1990s, El General continued to make hits earning many awards, and was revered throughout Latin America, receiving many Latin music awards. El General stepped down in 2004 from the music industry, and since then has been working to help underprivileged Panamanian children.

Reggae en Español is the direct predecessor of Reggaeton. However the paternal relationship between the two genres has been the cause of some confusion amongst many music listeners. The most notable difference between Spanish reggae/dancehall and Reggaeton is the fact that Reggaeton is a percussion based musical genre. Reggaeton's main musical engine is based on a percussion/drum pattern known as "Dembow". Reggae en Español on the other hand comes to resemble Jamaican Reggae and Dancehall in most aspects in which has long abandoned the use of "Dembow" (Poco man jam Riddim), and adopts the usage of fresh and newly imported or newly created jamaican-inspired Riddims.

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Source : Wikipedia