Rehabilitation

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Posted by sonny 03/05/2009 @ 02:07

Tags : rehabilitation, health

News headlines
Rehabilitation for Tigers' Jeremy Bonderman will begin with start ... - MLive.com
by Steve Kornacki Bonderman, who has been on the disabled list while a nerve in his shoulder continues healing from surgery last June, begins his rehabilitation assignment Saturday night for the Detroit Tigers. He will pitch for the West Michigan...
Hafner ready for rehabilitation - Akron Beacon Journal
By Sheldon Ocker CLEVELAND: Travis Hafner will test his right shoulder on a rehabilitation assignment at Triple-A Columbus starting Friday. Hafner has been on the disabled list since April 29 because of soreness in the shoulder that was surgically...
Walking Often And Far Reduces Risks In Heart Patients - Science Daily (press release)
ScienceDaily (May 11, 2009) — An exercise program that burns a lot of calories reduced cardiac risk factors better than standard cardiac rehabilitation in overweight coronary patients, researchers report in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart...
Drug Treatment and Alcohol Rehabilitation Programs Provided - TransWorldNews (press release)
Drug treatment and alcohol rehabilitation facilities are often the first step in an addict's road to recovery. To ensure this road to recovery is successful an addict must treat more than just substance abuse but the underlying causes that have led to...
Hill International Receives Contract to Manage $160 Million ... - Trading Markets (press release)
The project involves water infrastructure rehabilitation within five cities located in Olt County: Slatina, Scornicesti, Draganesti Olt, Piatra Olt and Potcoava. It is one of seven works contracts in the county for the rehabilitation and extension of...
Long-term care and rehabilitation center in Allegan will unveil ... - Michigan Business Review - MLive.com
The long-term care and rehabilitation center will unveil its new name, logo and facility by dunking a three-foot-round cookie into a 60-gallon glass of milk. "The ACMCC staff felt that the cookie dunking more appropriately reflects the facility's new...
Northern Dutchess Hospital's Rehabilitation Unit maintains top ten ... - Mid-Hudson News
RHINEBECK - Northern Dutchess Hospital Monday announced that for the third year in a row, the Paul Rosenthal Rehabilitation Center ranked in the top ten percent nationally for inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRF) measured in the database of...
Liberia: EC Outlines Contribution - AllAfrica.com
He named those priority areas as major roads rehabilitation, health and budget. Speaking in Monrovia recently during a program marking the celebration of Europe Day, the Mr. Piette said the EC will make a contribution of 60 million Euro to the Liberia...
City seeks federal funds to continue fixing homes - Casa Grande Valley Newspapers
The staff report accompanying the request said that if received, the money would be combined with other federal Housing and Urban Development and US Department of Agriculture funds for a total of about $1.5 million in housing rehabilitation assistance....
Sherlock Smith & Adams wins $8M VA contract - Bizjournals.com
The architectural firm said it will design two cottages and a rehabilitation facility for the VA Medical Center there, said a news release. Each cottage will be 10000 square feet, designed like a private home and accommodate up to 10 veterans....

Psychiatric rehabilitation

The Board of Directors of the United States Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association USPRA approved and adopted the following standard definition of psychiatric rehabilitation: Psychiatric rehabilitation promotes recovery, full community integration and improved quality of life for persons who have been diagnosed with any mental health condition that seriously impairs their ability to lead meaningful lives. Psychiatric rehabilitation services are collaborative, person directed and individualized. These services are an essential element of the health care and human services spectrum, and should be evidence-based. They focus on helping individuals develop skills and access resources needed to increase their capacity to be successful and satisfied in the living, working, learning, and social environments of their choice.

From the 1960s and 1970s, the process of deinstitutionalization meant that many more individuals with mental health problems were able to live in their communities rather than being confined to mental institutions. Medication and psychotherapy were the two major treatment approaches, with little attention given to supporting and facilitating daily functioning and social interaction. Therapeutic interventions often had little impact on daily living, socialization and work opportunities. There were often barriers to social inclusion in the form of stigma and prejudice. Psychiatric rehabilitation work emerged with the aim of helping the community integration and independence of individuals with mental health problems. Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Psychosocial Rehabilitation became used interchangeably, as terms for the same practice These approaches may merge with or conflict with approaches based in the Consumer/Survivor Movement. Although current literature in the United States uses the names psychosocial rehabilitation and psychiatric rehabilitation interchangeably, around 2005 the professional organization IAPSRS (International Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services) changed its name to USPRA (United States Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association) and the trend is toward the title of Psychiatric Rehabilitation.

The concept of psychiatric rehabilitation is associated with social psychiatry and is not based on a medical model of disability and the concept of mental illness. However, it can also incorporate elements of a social model of disability. A sometimes similar but sometimes alternative approach employs the concept of psychosocial recovery rather than rehabilitation, and is less centred around professional services.

Problems experienced by people with psychiatric disabilities are thought to include difficulties understanding or dealing with interpersonal situations (e.g., misinterpreting social cues, not knowing how to respond), prejudice or bullying from others because they may seem different, problems coping with stress (including daily hassles such as travel or shopping), difficulty concentrating and finding energy and motivation.

Psychiatric rehabilitation services may include: supported accommodation, supported employment or education, social firms, assertive community (or outreach) teams assisting with social service agencies, medication management, housing, employment, family issues, coping skills and activities of daily living and socialising.

Psychosocial Rehabilitation (PsR) can be described as consisting of eight main areas of work: Psychiatric (symptom management); Social (relationships, family, boundaries, communications & community integration); Vocational and or Educational (coping skills, motivation); Basic Living Skills (hygiene, meals, safety, planning, chores); Financial (budgets); Community and or Legal (resources); Health and or Medical (maintain consistency of care); and Housing (safe environments).

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Rehabilitation counseling

Rehabilitation Counseling is focused on helping people who have disabilities achieve their personal, career, and independent living goals through a counseling process. Rehabilitation Counselors can be found in private practice, in rehabilitation facilities, universities, schools, government agencies, insurance companies and other organizations where people are being treated for congenital or acquired disabilities with the goal of going to or returning to work.

Initially, rehabilitation professionals were recruited from a variety of human service disciplines, including public health nursing, social work, and school counseling. Although educational programs began to appear in the 1940s, it was not until the availability of federal funding for rehabilitation counseling programs in 1954 that the profession began to grow and establish its own identity.

Historically, rehabilitation counselors primarily served working-age adults with disabilities. Today, the need for rehabilitation counseling services extends to persons of all age groups who have disabilities. Rehabilitation counselors also may provide general and specialized counseling to people with disabilities in public human service programs and private practice settings.

Education & Training In order to be certified, Rehab Counselors must obtain a Masters Degree. The Council on Rehabilitation Education accredits qualifying institutions.

Certification The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification (CRCC) grants certification to counselors who meet educational requirements and have passed an examination indicating that they possess the competency and skill to become a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor, (CRC in the United States; CCRC in Canada). Counselors are required to be certified or be eligible to sit for the certification examination. People accepting employment in the federal/state Vocational Rehabilitation programs do so with the agreement they will meet these qualifications by a specified date in order to maintain employment.

In the United States, many rehabilitation counselors work in a variety of arenas. The predominant placement of rehabilitation counselors are state rehabilitation programs as Vocational Counselors, social service agencies as Clinicians, and at the collegiate level as Disability Counselors/Specialists.

State Rehabilitation Programs: The predominant need for rehabilitation counselors is within federal/state funded vocational rehabilitation programs. The Veteran's Administration has its own vocational rehabilitation program. Federal/State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs are funded and regulated by Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA), a division of the U.S Department of Education. Although policies vary from state to state, rehabilitation counselors who work in the federal/state systems typically must hold a masters degree in rehabilitation counseling, special education or a related field. Counselors in the federal/state Vocational Rehabilitation programs are required to be certified or be eligible to sit for the certification examination. People accepting employment in the federal/state Vocational Rehabilitation programs do so with the agreement they will meet these qualifications by a specified date in order to maintain employment.

College Disability Counselors/Specialists: By law all community colleges, colleges and universities are required to make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. To satisfy this requirement most collegial settings have a Disability Resources Center, a Special Needs Coordinator or a similar office. Staff are responsible for coordinating services that may include but are not limited to: Advocacy/liaison, Computer access, Counseling (academic, personal, vocational), Equipment loan, Information/referral services, In-service awareness programs, Notetakers, On campus orientation and mobility training for visually impaired students, Priority registration assistance, Readers, Scribes, Shuttle (on-campus), Sign language interpreters, Test proctoring/testing Accommodations, and Tutors.

Some adaptive technological accommodations may include but are not limited to: Adaptive computer technology (including voice activated and speech output), Assistive listening devices, Films/videotapes about disabilities, Kurzweil personal reader, Large print software,Print enlargers (CCTV), Raised-line drawing kit, Tactile map of campus, Talking calculators, Tape recorders/APH Talking Book Machine, TDD for hearing impaired, Wheelchair, Wheelchair access maps.

Students who have documentation proving their disability status and the staff are trained to access or have knowledge of the necessary services according the students' unique need. As the college level is different from the primary school system, the same services that a student may have received within a special education program in high school may not be required at the collegiate level. A wide variety of students with disabilities can be served, some examples are individuals with: learning disabilities, sensorial disabilities (hearing loss, vision loss, etc.), physical disabilities (cerebral palsy, etc.) and psychological disabilities.

As of 2006 there were 141,000 working in the field. Jobs for rehabilitation counselors are expected to grow by 23 percent, which is much faster than the average for all occupations.

There are several professional organizations Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors and other rehabilitation professionals belong to, including National Rehabilitation Association (NRA), National Rehabilitation Counseling Association, American Rehabilitation Counseling Association and American Rehabilitation Action Network.

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Rehabilitation robotics

The virtual environment and haptic device for assessing arm movement abilities.

Robot-aided neurorehabilitation is a sensory-motor rehabilitation technique based on the use of robots and mechatronic devices . Aim is to aid and augment the traditional therapy intended for patients with motor disabilities to improve motor performance, shorten the rehabilitation time, and provide objective parameters for patient evaluation . Measurements of forces and positions acquired during the tasks allow quantitative assessment of neuro-motor state of the patients and their progress.

European project Gentle/s showed that subjects were motivated to exercise for longer periods of time when using an augmented virtual reality system composed of haptic and visual reality systems . With tasks implemented in virtual environments new quality is added if the tasks motivate and draws in the patient.

Motor recovery is a dynamic process that usually starts with a total incapacity to move the affected limb followed by development of some imprecise movements. After some time these movements become more precise but sometimes stiffness and involuntary activity hamper the return to functionality. Current therapeutic interventions for patients with severe brain injury such as stroke are based on neurofacilitatory techniques, muscle tonus controlling therapies, progressive strengthening, biofeedback or electrical stimulation . Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of different training therapies for arm paresis in stroke patients and that task-oriented therapies are important to improve the function of the affected arm . There is evidence that machine delivered therapies can be effective in progressing the treatment . Robotic devices are capable of reaction times far in advance of any human, which opens up the breadth of possible treatments, where robotic device responds to forces generated by the patient. For people with upper limb paralysis it is possible to consider therapies where intelligent assistance from a robot is able to provide varying degrees of compensatory movements for the affected limb. Evidence indicates that where patient is motivated and premeditates his movement, the recovery is more effective and intelligent machines allow a broad scope to investigate these conditions. Furthermore sensing that already exists within the robot can be used to provide a wealth of information about the underlying pathology. While many of the necessary technologies are in place to produce robot based rehabilitation devices with the right characteristics for rehabilitation, there is a major need to integrate from the point of view of motor training. Within traditional therapy there is considerable controversy surrounding the most appropriate method of therapy and there are still insufficient data to identify clearly the benefits of these different approaches.

Various robotic devices have been constructed that enable investigation of the above mentioned rehabilitation strategies. MIT Manus robot was upgraded with wrist functionality to allow training of complex movements , GENTLE/S robot system based on HapticMaster device (Moog FCS Inc.) was upgraded with device for training of reaching and grasping , ARMin robot was developed that allows training of complex activities of daily living (ADLs) . In a number of critical reviews it has been found that it is highly important to start intensive rehabilitation in stroke patients as early as possible . It was also found that the therapeutic outcome with respect to neuromuscular function as well as a successful transition to daily live improves with increasing intensity of upper and lower limb training . Further systematic reviews of Kwakkel et al. also showed that longer training (”augmented exercise therapy”) has a favorable effect on activities of daily living, walking, and dexterity in stroke patients. Although, there is strong evidence that early and intensive exercise therapy enhances functional recovery in stroke and other neurological diseases, current rehabilitation treatment programmes are often shorter and less intensive than required for gaining an optimal therapeutic outcome. One reason for this deficit may be a lack of motivation and attention, which has been stated to be often the cause for the failure of conventional therapy. A therapy should be enjoyable, challenging and motivating. The role of motivation is known to be important in the success of neurorehabilitation . However, a better understanding is still needed as to how entertainment, motivation and engagement can influence the intensity of the training and the therapeutic outcome. Computerized technology has the capability to create an exercise environment where the intensity of practice and positive feedback can be consistently and systematically manipulated to create the most appropriate motor learning approach. Adding virtual reality (VR) capabilities to robotic training yields a more appealing exercise environment, when realistic scenarios with challenging tasks are offered to the patients. VR can engage and reward the patient, thus increasing the motivation. Adjusting the level of difficulty to the individual patient’s capabilities within a VR task is of crucial importance for cognitive and motor remediation. Motor improvement during movement exercise is commonly achieved by applying tasks of increasing difficulty in combination with physical and/or verbal guidance of the patient’s movements or actions. Thus, integrating the means to modulate the level of difficulty within a VR task is of utmost importance. The possibility to change the VR setting relatively easily, to grade task difficulty and to adapt it to the individual patient capabilities, are important advantages of VR, as these features are essential for cognitive and motor remediation. There are not many studies that investigated the effect of VR on the therapeutic outcome in comparison to conventional training. Although there are an increasing number of VR applications in motor rehabilitation, there are no studies that report the effects of different cues and VR scenarios on the feeling of presence and motivation of the patient. In this paper a rehabilitation system is proposed that is based on the development of the GENTLE/S project. A robotic device for rehabilitation of upper extremities, HEnRiE, was built based on the hypothesis that initial training of proximal arm segments hinders later rehabilitation of the distal ones. Therefore, the system enables simultaneous distal and proximal movement training. The rehabilitation is enhanced with a virtual environment that introduces a virtual physiotherapist to stimulate and guide the patient through the rehabilitation process .

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Source : Wikipedia