Rio de Janeiro

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Posted by bender 03/01/2009 @ 21:37

Tags : rio de janeiro, brazil, south america, americas, world

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Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic bid

Rio de Janeiro is motivated to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics in anticipation of the benefits the games can yield for Brazil as well as the legacy Rio de Janeiro can provide for the Olympic and Paralympic movements.

Rio de Janeiro is submiting a bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The Committee shortlisted four of the seven applicant cities—Chicago (United States), Madrid (Spain), Tokyo (Japan), and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); over Baku (Azerbaijan), Doha (Qatar), and Prague (Czech Republic)—in June 4, 2008 during an announcement in Athens, Greece. This is followed by a lengthy and intensive bidding process which will finish with the election of the 2016 Games host city at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2, 2009.

Rio de Janeiro was chosen over São Paulo by the Brazilian Olympic Committee (BOC) as the national postulant city for the XXXI Olympiad in September 1, 2006, starting a process of ten years until the Olympics. This is the first time that the city has proceeded to the Candidature phase, after four failed attempts in 1936, 1940, 2004 and 2012. Rio would become the first Brazilian and South American city to host the games. Brazil will host the 2014 World Cup, could make the fourth double hosting in history; after Mexico in 1968 and 1970, Germany in 1972 and 1974, and the United States in 1994 and 1996.

Rio de Janeiro is planning to perform all the competitions inside the city, bringing dynamics to the games and facilitating the athlete's interaction. Supported by its geography features, the city will provide one of the best stages for the delegations. There will be seven competition clusters in four Olympic zones—Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro, and Maracanã— where football matches will be held in the cities of Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador and São Paulo. The proposed dates range from August 5 to August 21 for the Olympic Games, and September 7 (Independence Day of Brazil) to September 18 for the Paralympic Games.

Rio de Janeiro's bidding process began in July 28, 2006, when the Executive Council of the Brazilian Olympic Committee (BOC) met to consider the possibility of nomination of a Brazilian city to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. This meeting was motivated by the fact that several cities in the world are already mobilizing, very early, around the election, with some already announced its postulation. In September 1, 2006, the BOC's Annual Assembly decided unanimously that the city of Rio de Janeiro would be the Brazilian Postulant City to the application of the 2016 Summer Olympics, defeating its traditional rival, São Paulo. The Assembly felt that Rio de Janeiro was the only city in Brazil and Latin America which will have Olympic-level facilities ready for the postulation, based on achievement of the XV Pan American Games. Another positive aspect was the fact that the Rio de Janeiro can take place, within the city, all the competitions of Olympic sports. The Brazilian government immediately expressed its support for the candidacy of Rio de Janeiro to the 2016 Olympic Games. The BOC's President, Carlos Arthur Nuzman, and then mayor of Rio de Janeiro, César Maia, approved the choice by acclamation, by the BOC's Assembly, making Rio de Janeiro the Brazilian Postulant City to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) launched the bid process for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in May 16, 2007. All then 203 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) have been invited to submit the name of a city within their jurisdiction as an Applicant to host the Games in nine years' time. NOCs had until September 13, 2007, to notify the IOC that a city within their jurisdiction was interested in applying. In September 14, 2007, the IOC announced that Baku, Chicago, Doha, Madrid, Prague, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, have been put forward by their respective NOCs to apply to host the Summer Olympics and Paralympics in 2016. In October 18, 2007, the Rio de Janeiro attended the 2016 Applicant Cities' Seminar in Lausanne, Switzerland. The seven Applicant Cities have returned their Application Files to the IOC in January 14, 2008, which contain their responses to the IOC's 2016 Candidature Acceptance Procedure and Questionnaire. The Application File, which marks the first phase in the procedure, should, through the responses to the 25 questions asked and guarantees requested, provide the IOC with an overview of each Applicant City's project. The responses would be studied by an IOC-appointed Working Group and by the IOC Executive Board, the latter meeting to decide which cities would be accepted as Candidate Cities.

Following a detailed study of the submitted Applicant Files, the IOC announced in June 4, 2008, that Chicago, Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro, and Madrid have made it on to the shortlist of cities bidding to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. The selection was made by the IOC's Executive Board in Athens, Greece. The decision was based on a technical analysis of the Applicant Cities' applications submitted earlier 2008. The analysis and subsequent report was made by a Working Group of Olympic Games experts who assessed each Applicant City's potential for staging successful Summer Olympics and Paralympics in 2016. The technical assessment was based in a variety of areas such as venues, transport, accommodation and security. Between August 5 and August 26, 2008, the Organising Committees from the four Candidate Cities participated in the Olympic Games Observer Program during the 2008 Summer Olympics held in Beijing, China. In February 12, 2009, the IOC annouced that it has received the Candidature Files of the four Candidate Cities bidding to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. All delivered their files before the deadline of midnight February 12. In February 19, 2009, the Candidature File was delivered to the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) in Bonn, Germany. The Rio de Janeiro 2016 Candidate File is 2.50 m (8 ft 2 in) in height, and 700 kilograms (1,500 lb) in weight with three volumes containing 568 pages of detailed answers to 300 technical questions divided into 17 themes.

The IOC announced in September 18, 2008, the composition of the Evaluation Commission which will visit the four Candidate Cities bidding to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. The commission, composed of representatives from the Olympic Movement and advisors, will be headed by Nawal El Moutawakel, who chaired the Evaluation Commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bid process. The Commission will analyse the candidature files of the four bidding cities, and in addition, make on-site inspections in Rio de Janeiro from April 29 to May 2, 2009, before then issuing a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members one month before they elect the host city on October 2, 2009, in Copenhagen, Denmark. The Host City election takes place in a country which does not have a Candidate City for the Games in question. Copenhagen was chosen over Athens, Busan, Cairo, Riga, Singapore and Taipei, in February 8, 2006, by the 118th IOC Session held in Turin, Italy to stage the 13th Olympic Congress, together with the meetings of the Executive Board and the 121st IOC Session. The IOC Executive Board then draws up the Candidate Cities to be submitted for a vote by the IOC Session to elect the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics host city. The procedure leading to the election of the host city for the Olympic and Paralympic Games is governed by the Olympic Charter.

Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (ROCOG) concept is based on four clear principles—technical excellence, expierence of a lifetime, transformation and supporting the Olympic and Paralympic Movements. The Rio Olympics will be a powerfull catalyst for progress in sport and society for individuals and communities within Brazil and throughtout the world. According to the ROCOG, Rio de Janeiro will inspire a new audience through youth outreach programs engaging the 65 million young people in Brazil and 180 million in South America. The Rio Olympics will embed the Games in society through programs for job generation, education, community outreach, volunteerism, training and up-skilling initiatives. According to the ROCOG, them city will bring a unique spirit of celebration to the Olympic Movement. Leveraging its cultural diversity and richness, Rio de Janeiro will build a city-wide entertainment program celebrating the Games against the backdrop of the physical beauty of the city. ROCOG will work with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) to build support for the Olympic and Paralympic brands. As a key regional influencer, Brazil will promote the Olympic values across South America and activate the brands in this region as never before.

The visual indent of the candidature of Rio de Janeiro consists in a logo and a slogan. The logo designed by Ana Soter was selected by a jury from among four finalists, and unveiled in December 17, 2007, during the Brazilian Olympic Awards, held at the Municipal Theater of Rio de Janeiro. The Sugarloaf Mountain was chosen as a symbol, a stunning mountain on the seashore, representing the natural richness of Rio de Janeiro. According to the ROCOG, the design as a whole conveys a heart shape, representing Brazilians' passion and enthusiasm for sports. Through its mirroring effect, the symbol also forms a stylized clover. In January 1, 2009, the ROCOG launched the Rio de Janeiro's Olympic slogan "Live your passion" during the New Year's Eve. According to the ROCOG, the campaign reflects the Brazilian people's way of getting passionately involved in whatever they do. The slogan was projected onto a Rio de Janeiro 2016-themed big wheel immediately after the ten-second countdown to the beginning of 2009. The Rio de Janeiro 2016 big wheel was constructed at the Copacabana beach by the ROCOG to promote the candidature of Rio de Janeiro. It is 36 m (118 ft 1 in) high, weighs 80 tonnes (180,000 lb) and has 24 gondolas with a capacity for 144 people. Approximately two million people attended the official launch of Rio de Janeiro's bid slogan.

Rio de Janeiro obtained a wealth of expierence and expertise through the conduct of some of the world's major sporting, business and cultural events. On the sporting front, these events have included World Cups and World Championships in many Olympic sports and Regional Championships of the highest order. From July 13 to July 29, 2007, the city successfully staged the largest ever Pan American Games (with more than 5,650 athletes competing in 34 sports) and the accompanying Parapan American Games (with more than 1,150 athletes competing in 10 sports). During the Opening Ceremony, the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge, says hosting the Pan American Games will leave a lasting legacy for Rio de Janeiro and that the city is a strong candidate to host future Olympic Games. Rio de Janeiro hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup and will host the 2014 FIFA World Cup two years before the Olympic Games providing Rio de Janeiro with a number of benefits, including upgrades to security, telecommunications, and tourism infrastructure. The final match will be held at Maracanã Stadium as well as being the base for International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) Headquarters and the hosting the main international media center. The 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup will be held and used as a test event for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

Rio de Janeiro submitted bids for the 1936, 1940, 2004 and 2012 Summer Olympics, but failed to qualify for the short-list in the four times. Rio de Janeiro tried again to submmit a bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, and for the first time, advanced to the second phase. In March 14, 2008, the IOC's 2016 Working Group released its evaluation report. Through analysis of the Applicant Files, the IOC gave a weighted-average score to each city—Tokyo scored 8.3, Madrid 8.1, Chicago 7.0, Doha 6.9, Rio de Janeiro 6.4, Prague 5.3, and Baku 4.3—based on the scores obtained in each of the questionnaire's eleven themes: political and social support, general infrastructure, sports venues, Olympic Village, environment, accommodation, transport, security, past experience, finance, and legacy. The IOC's decision to select Rio de Janeiro over Doha, generated criticism. The Doha Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (DOCOG) accused the IOC of "closing the door on the Arab world" and of make a political decision rather than technical grounds. Doha outperformed Rio de Janeiro in the majority of the categories assessed by the IOC. According to the IOC, Doha's desire to stage the Games in October rather than the traditional mid-summer time frame because of high temperatures was the reason the city was rejected.

Rio de Janeiro is considered Brazil's Olympic sports hub. Supported by its geography features and complemented by world-class architecture, Rio de Janeiro will provide one of the best stages for the athletes of the world. With a unique Master Plan that features every venue located in the city, the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (ROCOG) proposes a cost efficient concept in four zones—Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro, and Maracanã—that promotes economic, environmental and social sustainability. The plan benefits from the substantial use of existing venues and requires the construction of a small number of new permanent venues. The sport and venues plan has been developed based on seven fundamental principles—Prioritizing the expierence of athletes as the primary driver for all Games planning and delivery, showcasing the city and maximizing the Games' broadcast appeal through the strategic location of sports and venues, a high level of clustering to concentrate the expierence and operational transport efficiencies within each zone, maximizing use of existing venues with only 26% of venues to be built, ensuring strong legacies for all Olympic and Paralympic sports and for community and youth recreation, aligning the venue Master Plan with a broader agenda of urban transformation across the city, and optimizing the social impact of sport on the city and its people.

The proposed competition schedule has been prepared in close consultation with the International Federations (IFs) At the same time, it also meets the needs of the media and spectators through the best possible spread of Olympic medals across the entire program, with two peaks at the weekends to coincide with prime time for spectators and television viewers. In designing the schedule, the ROCOG has adhered to the general principles of past Olympic Games schedules as well as considering local conditions. This will ensure maximum impact for the audience, both in the venues and broadcast, and will enable maximum efficiency in the use of existing and temporary venues. The period proposed by the ROCOG to stage the Olympics is from Friday, August 5, to Sunday, August 21, 2016. It is proposed the Paralympics commence seventeen days after the Closing Ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics with the 2016 Summer Paralympics Opening Ceremony on Wednesday, September 7 and the Games being conducted through to Sunday, September 18, 2016. According to the ROCOG, this period is harmonious with the international sports calendar, providing alignment with the schedules of athletes, and members of the media including broadcasters. The dates fall within the timeframe specified by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

Rio de Janeiro is located in a coastal mountain system of great contrasts, with steep mountains and rocky outcrops rising abruptly over extensive plains. Due to its geographical location, Rio de Janeiro does not expierence earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons. Athletes will enjoy good climatic conditions in Rio de Janeiro, a city whose meteorological characteristics are strongly influenced by the landscape and ocean. The mild southern hemisphere winter climate provides optimal environment for athlete performance. Pleasantly warm days, cool nights and the absence of heavy rainfall combine to produce a favorable atmosphere for spectators to watch the competition. During the proposed dates for the Olympics, Rio de Janeiro have an average midday temperature of 24.2 °C (75.6 °F), with a minimum and maximum temperature range from 18.9 °C (66.0 °F) to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) and humidity levels of 66.4%. The ten-year average rainfall during this two-week period is only 4.6mm, with some light precipitation experienced over five days. Wind conditions are ideal for Sailing, Rowing and Canoe-Kayak, which will be held in venues regularly and sucessfully used for international competitions and signed off by their respective IFs with respect to wind conditions. Storms or major weather disruptions are uncommon within this timeframe.

Rio de Janeiro will build the 2016 Summer Paralympics on the expierence in hosting the Parapan American Games in 2007, described by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and the Brazilian Paralympic Committee (BPC) as the best ever edition of the competition. The Summer Paralympics will provide an opportunity to promote the benefits of inclusion and generate a powerfull physical legacy through the creation of extended accessbility infrastructure, including at visitor attractions, iconic sites and events. The partnership between the IPC and the ROCOG will further stimulate development of the Paralympic Movement in Brazil, throughout South America and beyond. Competition venues for the 2016 Summer Paralympics have been selected in alignment with the Master Plan, its legacy strategy and on the basis of meeting Games technical requirements. The athlete expierence is the other primary criterion, with world-class venues close to the Paralympic Village. A third principle is that the Paralympic sports will be held in the same venues as their Olympic equivalent. The competition schedule has been designed in accordance with previous Paralympic Games and with the requirements of each sport and the IPC. With medals awarded over the eleven days of competition, the needs of athletes, media and spectators are all meet.

Rio de Janeiro had required to provide covenants and guarantees showing support from the appropriate levels of government for their respective bids and their governments' commitment to respect the Olympic Charter. The capacity of these governments to fulfil their covenant and guarantees was also considered. In addition, the ROCOG had required to provide information regarding the intended involvement of government and non-government agencies in the bid committee during the candidature phase. Rio de Janeiro's 2016 candidature is presented jointly by the Brazilian Olympic Committee (BOC), and the three relevant levels of government in Brazil—Federal, State and Municipal. The ROCOG is under the leadership of an Honorary Council and an Executive Board. The Honorary Council comprise the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Governor of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the Mayor of the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, and the two IOC members of Brazil, Carlos Arthur Nuzman and João Havelange. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Sérgio Cabral Filho and Eduardo Paes have signed the guarantees and convenants required by the IOC, as well as some additional undertakings. The Executive Board is chaired by Carlos Arthur Nuzman, President General of the ROGOC and the BOC, and Carlos Roberto Osório, Secretary General of the ROCOG and the BOC.

The Government of Brazil and all major political parties have endorsed and pledged complete support for Rio de Janeiro's candidature and the ultimate conduct of the Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Brazil. The members of the Honorary Council of the ROCOG have led their respective governments to provide fully integrated and mutually supportive undertakings in relation to the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. This integrated government solution will respect that the ROCOG, in partnership with the IOC and the IPC, will establish Games requirements and lead Games delivery to meet client requirements. Under the patronage of the ROCOG, a Government Coordination Committee is convened to support the detailed work across all levels of government and ROCOG generally. The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, has formed a Federal government Inter-Ministerial Committee whose Secretariat and Coordination is provided under the patronage of the Minister of Sport, Orlando Silva. The Ministry of External Relations and the Ministry of Labor and Employment guaranteed the entry, exit and working arrangements for Games personnel. The Federal government has guaranteed that all accredited persons in possession of a valid passport and an Olympic or Paralympic Indentity and Accreditation Card in lieu of a visa will be able to enter Brazil.

Rio de Janeiro had asked to identify the laws or other means in place in Brazil to combat doping in sport, and whether the relevant authorities in the country had in compliance with the World Anti-Doping Code. The government of Rio de Janeiro will be required to ratify and adopt the UNESCO International Convention against doping in sport prior to the election of the 2016 Summer Olympics host city. According to the ROCOG, there are no legal obstacles to the organization of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Brazil. The existing legal framework is conducive to the sucesfull staging of the Games, and will be amended or modified as necessary to accommodate any Games-specific requirements. The three levels of government are united in their commitment to respect the provisions of the Olympic Charter and the Host City Contract, and will enact the Olympic Acts. These Acts—Olympic Development Authority (ODA), Olympic Traffic and Transport Division (OTTD) and Olympic Sustainability Division (OSD)—will be progressively amended to ensure all ongoing obligations and responsibilities are captured as detailed planning results in the identification of additional legislative requirements. The ROCOG will be the legal entity responsible for planning and staging the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.

Rio de Janeiro had required to present its intention to provide government funding, together with private sector commercial revenues, and if would provide the financial support required to organise the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. The ROCOG budget would be financed from the public and private sectors. The three levels of government have guaranteed the provision of a range of services and support to the bid at no cost including security, medical services, customs, transport, immigration, and other governmental services and support, in accordance with their jurisdictional responsibilities. Rio de Janeiro have developed a powerfull financial model that will benefit from the already approved funding of 250 billion dollars from the Program for Growth Accelaration (PAC). Revenue generation activities include sponsorship sales, the ticketing program, licensing and merchandising. These revenues will be supplemented by any IOC secured commercial and broadcast contribution. In terms of expenditures, Government-related services will be provided to the ROCOG free of charge. The three levels of government have undertaken to adopt the necessary legal measures to deliver the most beneficial tax arrangements for the Games, using a combination of exemptions, concessions and zero ratings as appropriate.

Rio de Janeiro is formulating non-ROCOG and ROCOG budgets in accordance with IOC guidelines for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. All capital expenditure on infrastructure by the government or the private sector, and all associated costs, are reflected in the non-ROCOG budget. These include already committed and ongoing ivestments of 3.9 billion dollars on projects such as airport and subway expansions and construction of the metropolitan road arc. The ROCOG budget does not assume any capital contributions to the construction of permanent or legacy venues, other than for Games overlay, including the construction of temporary venues. The balance of ROCOG expenditures will be funded by the public sector, involving a combination of Federal, State and Municipal commitments. The ROCOG budget and operating expenses is projected at 2.81 billion dollars, with its Olympic-related budget, including capital investments in transportation, sports venues and incremental costs being 11.6 billion dollars. The budgets for the Applicant and Candidature phases of Rio de Janeiro is projected at 42 million dollars, of which 7 million relates to the Applicant phase and the remaining 35 million to the Candidature Phase. The President of Brazil submitted guarantees to cover any potential shortfall in the ROCOG budget, supported by the governments of the State and the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro.

The ROCOG marketing program will be driven by a value creation and fair value strategy underpinned by an intensive and collaborative approach to building marketing partnerships. Rio de Janeiro will deliver a single marketing program to enhance the value of the Olympic and Paralympic brands and safe guard and protect the exclusivity of sponsors in the martketplace. The ROCOG is committed to the full implementation of the Joint Marketing Program Agreement (JMPA), and to adopt any other measures deemed by the IOC and the IPC to enhance the longer term development of the Olympic and Paralympic marketing, working with the international committees to engage and grow the Olympic and Paralympic brand and to establish a new level of integration across all marketing activities, covering media, sports and other platforms. Working with the full support of the Federal, State and Municipal governments, the BOC and the BPC, and their member federations, innovative opportunites and solutions have been devised across the entire marketing program. The ROCOG guarantees unconditional participation in every of the IOC international sponsorship and licensing programs. Payments related to television rights or marketing rights are subject to taxation. The payment of royalties by the ROCOG to the IOC will be exempt from withholding taxes and service importation taxes.

The Olympic Games, are the largest sports event in the world and the most complex in terms of infrastructure, logistics and operations, involving approximately 300 individual competitions, four to eight million spectators, over 30 competition venues and numerous training venues. In addition, there are between 150,000 and 200,000 accredited persons, including the forcework, travelling to and from competition and non-competition venues. With regard to transport, there is an additional traffic flow of between 1.5 million and 2.0 million journeys per day. A high capacity road and public transport system is required for the city to be able to cope with the specific demands of the Olympic Games, as traffic loads and public transport needs place additional pressure on everyday metropolitan demands. This assessment takes into account transport infrastructure and the city's airports, as well as the International Broadcast Centre (IBC) and Main Press Centre (MPC). The considerable time and investment required to develop major infrastructure, as well as their integration into a city's long term development plans, have also been considered. The assessment takes into consideration the location (planned or existing) of the IBC and MPC in relation to transport, media accomodation, the Olympic Village and competition venues; post-Games use and legacy; feasibility; and financing plans.

The topographical situation of Rio de Janeiro is a major challenge for transport systems. To overcome these challenges, Rio's concept is based on four zones with fairly strong transport systems. To better link three of the four zones, Rio proposes the construction of 100 km of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridors. The fourth link, Copacabana-Dowtown-Maracanã-Deodoro, would be served by improved metro and suburban rail. Based on proven Brazilian transport innovation and developments, the proposed extensive BRT system would provide an efficient answer to Olympic Games transport requirements. However, the provision of an adequate number of high capacity buses would have to be guaranteed. With ever-increasing air traffic, the existing Antonio Carlos Jobim International Airport serving Rio de Janeiro would currently not be able to cope with the additional traffic engendered by the Olympic Games. However, proposed improvements to runways and passenger terminals will improve capacity. Existing and proposed transport links with the city of Rio de Janeiro were considered to be inadequate and in need of improvement. The location of the IBC/MPC is considered to be good and overall the proposals meet with the standards required. Transport routes to some venues may prove problematic. Out of a total transport investment of 2.6 billion dollar, budgeted for general transport developments.

Rio de Janeiro's 2016 candidature is committed to delivering world-class Games infrastructure and has developed an integrated transport strategy, thoroughly analyzed, fully endorsed and guaranteed by all three levels of government. Funding for all works is guaranteed with a significant appropriation by the Federal government under its Plan for Growth Acceleration (PAC). The city is served by the Antonio Carlos Jobim International Airport and the Santos Dumont Domestic Airport. A series of projects have already been planned by the Federal government, as part of the PAC, to increase the airport's capacity from the current 15 million passengers per year to 25 million. Taking into account the impressive growth of the Brazilian economy, the transport infrastructure plan serves the expected demand growth, integrates with Rio's urban planning initiatives, adheres to the unique terrain of the city and respects the environment. All planned investments are feasible, will be completed at least one year before the Games, enjoy the commitment of all levels of government, including guaranteed funding, and result in an integrated mass transit solution that forms the new core of Rio de Janeiro's infrastructure. Carefully designed parking areas at venues and other critical Games-related locations will accommodate the needs of the spectators. A comprehensive network of Olympic Lanes will facilitate inter-zone as well as intra-zone journeys and travel to other major destinations such as airports and hotels.

The accommodation assessment is based on Olympic Games requirements contained in the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Technical Manual on Accommodation which was provided to Rio de Janeiro. The benchmark for the Olympic Summer Games is 40,000 rooms predominantly in 3-5 stars hotels or other types of accommodations of an equivalent level. In evaluating the accommodation criterion, two sub-criteria and weightings are taken into account: number of rooms and accomodation concept. For hotel rooms and media villages or other types of accommodation which do not exist today but would be required to host the 2016 Summer Olympics, a feasibility factor was introduced representing the Working Group's belief that plans would be fully implemented. The remaining rooms, including all lower categories of hotel rooms, are expected to cover the needs of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (ROCOG) and spectators. The accomodation concept took into consideration the type of rooms (hotels, villages, cruise ships, etc.), the number of rooms within a radius of 10 km of the Games centre, the accommodation concept of operations and the 3-5 star average convention rates provided by Rio de Janeiro. The city had graded as follows: the IOC's benchmark was measured against the number of existing and planned rooms multiplied by a feasibility factor for planned accommodation, if the number of qualified rooms is 40,000, the city's grade is 6.

Taking into consideration existing and planned hotel rooms, there is a shortage in the number 3, 4 and 5 star rooms. To overcome this shortage, Rio de Janeiro proposes to use cruise ships and condominium apartments. Media would be accommodated in a combination of media villages and hotels. Rio de Janeiro's accommodation point of reference is the Olympic Park located in the Barra zone, home of the International Broadcast Centre (IBC), Main Press Centre (MPC) and many competition venues, and in close proximity to the Olympic Village and Media Villages. Collectively, the two Media Villages of 3 or 4 star hotel equivalent, would provide 9,196 mostly individual rooms that would be converted into residential housing post-Games. The use of cruise ships, which generally causes logistic and cost issues, would have to be addressed. The hotel evaluations are based on criteria established in the rating matrix provided by the Federal Ministry of Tourism as documented in its guarantee letter. Barra is the proposed location of the IOC and IPC Hotels, offering a beachfront experience blended with a suitable work environment. The Copacabana zone has a broad range of established hotels and apartments—an ideal base for those constituents wishing to be near competition venues in this zone or the beaches and entertainment districts of Copacabana, Ipanema and Leblon. Utilization of the existing network of seasonal rental apartments, underpinned by a centralized management plan.

Rio de Janeiro's accommodation concept is a client-focused customized solution involving a flexible combination of room locations and types. Existing accommodation stocks will be supplemented with new construction only where the legacy benefits are significant and warranted. The total secured inventory exceeds 48,000 and is supplemented by accommodation initiatives catering to groups outside the International Olympic Committee (IOC) requirements, including athlete families, additional workforce and international and domestic visitors. More than 13,000 rooms in Rio de Janeiro and the cities hosting football (Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador and São Paulo) in a wide range of hotels, ranging from super deluxe to basic. Of the four villages the centerpiece is the Barra Media Village providing superior three star accommodation for 18,000 guests, primarily media, less than ten minutes walking distance from the IBC/MPC facility and the venues for 14 sports. Accommodation will be provided in 8,500 cabins on six modern cruise ships, berthed in the historic and regenerated Port in the city's downtown. Some 17,000 rooms in apart-hotels, operated by four major managing agencies, have been secured in the Copacabana and Barra zones. Current hotel capacity for two to five star hotels in Rio de Janeiro is approximately 20,000 rooms. Accommodation for the 14,000-plus security personnel to be drawn from other regions will be provided in military and police barracks and social housing developments to be constructed in the Maracanã and Barra zones.

The transport infrastructure includes only those elements which relate directly to the Olympic Games constituent, spectator and workforce transport. Excluded are major elements of transport infrastructure not directly related to Games but relevant in absorbing base loads and providing Games contingency. The major mass transport corridors connecting the four Olympic zones (Barra, Copacabana, Maracanã and Deodoro) are the Northen, Southern and Western corridors. The Northern corridor connects the majority of Rio's population in the north of the city to the Deodoro and Maracanã zones through existing high capacity rail and metro systems, with further connections to the Copacabana zone. These existing systems will be connected to Barra via a new high capacity Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system and traffic lanes (the T5 corridor) to service anticipated spectator demand. The Southern corridor connects the Barra and Copacabana zones and will be serviced by BRT (Barra-Lagoa BRT). An upgrade and expansion of this corridor is planned, including an additional two lanes. The corridor will also integrate with the metro system that services the city. The Western corridor linking the Deodoro and Barra zones will be achieved through development of a segregated BRT and motorway corridor (Line C). Within Barra, bus transport on the spine road and connecting roads will be enhanced by major transport interchanges at the Olympic Park and Alvorada, connecting the BRT systems and local services in the Barra region.

With the Pan American Games, old sporting installations were renovated and several new venues were built, all of them meeting the international requirements to host competitions of Olympic level. The Pan American Village, capacity up to 8,000 residents, would be used as an Olympic Village, should Rio de Janeiro win the right to host the Games.

Following the model developed to host the Pan-American Games, the Olympic competitions could be carried through in a ray of 25 km, spread for four polar regions in the city. The regions are: Copacabana beach, Deodoro on the city’s north side, the modern Barra da Tijuca beach district, and the Maracana stadium complex. Beach Volleyball, for example will be held on iconic Copacabana beach.

Rio plans to use 19 existing venues, including many that will be in place for the 2014 World Cup. Seven more venues will be built as well as four temporary venues. The government is looking to fund a new Olympic Park in suburban Barra de Tijuca where several Pan Am venues were located. Joao Havelange stadium would be enlarged and would be used to stage the athletic events. Jacarepagua racetrack, once used for Formula One, will be demolished to make way for an Olympic park.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro ("River of January", pronounced in Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English), is the second largest city of Brazil and South America, behind São Paulo, and the third largest metropolitan area in South America, behind São Paulo and Buenos Aires. It is the state capital of Rio de Janeiro. The city was the capital of Brazil for nearly two centuries, from 1763 to 1822 during the Portuguese colonial era (1822 - 1960) and as an independent nation. It is also the former capital of the Portuguese Empire (1808 - 1821). Commonly known as just Rio, the city is also nicknamed A Cidade Maravilhosa, or "The Marvelous City".

Rio de Janeiro is famous for its natural settings, its Carnival celebrations, samba and other music, and hotel-lined tourist beaches, such as Copacabana and Ipanema. Some of the most famous landmarks in addition to the beaches include the giant statue of Jesus, known as Christ the Redeemer ('Cristo Redentor') atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World; Sugarloaf mountain (Pão de Açúcar) with its cable car; the Sambódromo, a giant permanent parade stand used during Carnival and Maracanã stadium, one of the world's largest football stadiums.

The city also boasts the largest and second largest urban forests in the world: Floresta da Tijuca, or "Tijuca Forest". and (almost connected to the first) the forest in Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, or White Stone State Park. Galeão - Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport connects Rio de Janeiro with many Brazilian cities and also operates several international flights.

Despite its charm and beauty, Rio is reputed to be one of the most violent cities in the world and motivated movies such as Bus 174, City of God and Elite Squad portraying severe social issues. Much of the violent crime is concentrated in the favelas or shantytowns but it also spills into middle- and upper-income neighborhoods. In Rio, unlike other major cities, many of the slums are directly adjacent to some of the wealthiest areas of the city.

Rio de Janeiro is located at 22 degrees, 54 minutes south latitude, 43 degrees 14 minutes west longitude. The population of the City of Rio de Janeiro is about 6,136,652, occupying an area of 1,182.3 square kilometres (456.5 sq mi).

The population of the greater metropolitan area is estimated at 11-13.5 million. It was Brazil's capital until 1960, when Brasília took its place. Residents of the city are known as Cariocas. The official song of Rio is "Cidade Maravilhosa" (translated as "Marvelous City").

Rio has a tropical climate. The temperature occasionally reaches over 40°C (104°F) in inland areas of the city, and extreme maximum temperatures above 30°C (86°F) can happen every month. In the main tourist areas (south side, where the beaches are located), the temperature is moderated by the cool sea-breezes from the ocean.

The average annual minimum temperature is 20°C (68°F), the average annual maximum temperature is 26°C (79°F) and the average annual temperature is 23°C (73.5°F). The average yearly precipitation is 1,086 mm. The minimum temperature recorded was 4.8°C (40°F) in July 1928, but temperatures below 10°C (50°F) are rare in most of city today, the absolute maximum reached 43.2°C (110°F) in January 1984.

Guanabara Bay was reached by a Portuguese expedition under Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci, that included Portuguese explorer Gaspar de Lemos, on January 1, 1502; hence Rio de Janeiro, "January River." There is a legend that the mariners named the place thus because they thought the mouth of the bay was actually the mouth of a river, but no experienced sailor would make that mistake. At the time, river was the general word for any large body of water.

On March 1, 1565 the city is founded. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. After 1720, when the Portuguese found gold and diamonds in the neighboring captaincy of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro became a much more useful port for exporting wealth than Salvador, Bahia, which is much farther to the north. In 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved to Rio. The city remained primarily a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro. The kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, which, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes.

When Prince Pedro I proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822, he decided to keep Rio de Janeiro as the capital of his new empire. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic.

Until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighborhood now known as the historic Downtown business district (see below), on the mouth of Guanabara Bay. The city's center of gravity began to shift south and west to the so-called Zona Sul (South Zone) in the early part of the 20th century, when the first tunnel was built under the mountains located between Botafogo and the neighborhood now known as Copacabana. That beach's natural beauty, combined with the fame of the Copacabana Palace Hotel, the luxury hotel of the Americas in the 1930s, helped Rio to gain the reputation it still holds today as a beach party town (though, this reputation has been somewhat tarnished in recent years by favela violence resulting from the narcotics trade). Plans for moving the nation's capital city to the territorial centre had been occasionally discussed, and when Juscelino Kubitschek was elected president in 1955, it was partially on the strength of promises to build a new capital. Though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960. On April 21 that year the capital of Brazil was officially moved from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.

Between 1960 and 1975 Rio was a capital city under the name State of Guanabara (after the bay it borders). However, for administrative and political reasons, a presidential decree known as "The Fusion" removed the city's federative status and merged it with the state of Rio de Janeiro in 1975. Even today, some Cariocas advocate the return of municipal autonomy.

The city is commonly divided into the historic downtown (Centro); the tourist-friendly South Zone (Zona Sul), with its world-famous beaches; the residential North Zone (Zona Norte); and the West Zone (Zona Oeste), with the newer Barra da Tijuca district.

Centro (Downtown in American English or CBD in other English use) is the historic centre of the city, as well as its financial centre. Sites of interest include the Paço Imperial, built during colonial times to serve as a residence for the Portuguese governors of Brazil; many historic churches, such as the Candelária Church, the colonial Cathedral and the modern-style Rio de Janeiro Cathedral. Around the Cinelândia square there are several landmarks of the Belle Époque of Rio, such as the Municipal Theatre and the National Library building. Among its several museums, the Museu Nacional de Belas Artes (National Museum of Fine Arts) and the Museu Histórico Nacional (National Historical Museum) are the most important. Other important historical attractions in central Rio include its Passeio Público, an 18th-century public garden, as well as the imposing arches of the Arcos da Lapa, a Roman-style aqueduct built around 1750. A bondinho (tram) leaves from a city center station, crosses the aqueduct (converted to a tram viaduct in 1896) and rambles through the hilly streets of the Santa Teresa neighbourhood nearby.

Downtown remains the heart of the city's business community. Some of the largest companies in Brazil have their head offices here, including Petrobras and Vale (formerly Companhia Vale do Rio Doce), the two largest Brazilian corporations.

The South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (in Portuguese: "Zona Sul") is composed of several districts, amongst which are São Conrado, Leblon, Ipanema, Arpoador, Copacabana and Leme, which compose Rio's famous Atlantic beach coastline. Other districts in the South Zone are Glória, Flamengo, Botafogo and Urca, which border Guanabara Bay and Santa Teresa, Cosme Velho, Laranjeiras, Humaitá, Lagoa, Jardim Botânico and Gávea. It is the richest region of the city and the most famous overseas.

The neighbourhood of Copacabana beach hosts one of the world's most spectacular New Year's Eve parties ("Reveillon"), as more than two million revelers crowd onto the sands to watch the fireworks display. As of 2001, the fireworks have been launched from boats, to improve the safety of the event. To the north of Leme, and at the entrance to Guanabara Bay, is the district of Urca and the Sugarloaf Mountain ('Pão de Açúcar'), whose name describes the famous mountain rising out of the sea. The summit can be reached via a two-stage cable car trip from Praia Vermelha, with the intermediate stop on Morro da Urca. It offers views second only to Corcovado mountain.

One of the highest hills in the city is the 842 metres (2,762 ft) high Pedra da Gávea (Crow's nest Rock) near the botanical gardens. On the top of its summit is a huge rock formation (some, such as Erich von Däniken in his 1973 book, "In Search of Ancient Gods", claim it to be a sculpture) resembling a sphinx-like, bearded head that is visible for many kilometers around.

Hang gliding is a popular activity on the nearby Pedra Bonita (Beautiful Rock). After a short flight, gliders land on the Praia do Pepino (Cucumber Beach) in São Conrado. Since 1961, the Tijuca National Park (Parque Nacional da Tijuca), the largest city-surrounded urban forest and the second largest urban forest in the world, has been a National Park. The largest urban forest in the world is the Floresta da Pedra Branca (White Rock Forest), which is also located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The Catholic University of Rio (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro or PUC-Rio) is located at the edge of the forest, in the Gávea district. The 1984 film Blame it on Rio was filmed nearby, with the rental house used by the story's characters sitting at the edge of the forest on a mountain overlooking the famous beaches.

The North Zone of Rio (in Portuguese: "Zona Norte") is home to the Maracanã stadium, once the world's highest capacity football (soccer) venue, able to hold nearly 199,000 people, as it did the World Cup final of 1950. In modern times its capacity has been reduced to conform with modern safety regulations and the stadium has introduced seating for all fans. Currently undergoing renovation, it has now the capacity for 95,000 fans; it will eventually hold around 120,000 people. Maracanã was site for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and football competition of the 2007 Pan-American Games.

Besides the Maracanã, the North Zone of Rio also holds other tourist and historical attractions, such as 'Manguinhos', the home of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, a centenarian biomedical research institution with a main building fashioned like a Moorish palace, and the beautiful Quinta da Boa Vista, the park where the historical old Imperial Palace is located. Nowadays, the palace hosts the National Museum, specializing in Natural History, Archaeology and Ethnology.

The International Airport of Rio de Janeiro (Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport, named after the famous Brazilian musician Antônio Carlos Jobim), the main campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro at the Fundão Island, and the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in Maracanã, are also located in the Northern part of Rio.

This region is also home to most of the Samba Schools of Rio de Janeiro such as Mangueira, Salgueiro, Império Serrano, Unidos da Tijuca, among others. Some of the main neighbourhoods of Rio's North Zone are Tijuca, which shares the Tijuca Rainforest with the South Zone; Grajaú, Vila Isabel, Méier, São Cristovão Madureira and Penha among others.

The West Zone (in portuguese: "Zona Oeste") is the region furthest from the centre of Rio de Janeiro. It includes Barra da Tijuca, Jacarepaguá, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Vargem Grande, Vargem Pequena, Realengo, Padre Miguel, Bangu, Campo Grande, Jardim Sulacap, Paciência and Santa Cruz. Neighbouring districts within the West Zone reveal stark differences between social classes. The area has industrial zones, but some agricultural areas still remain in its wide area.

Westwards from the older zones is Barra da Tijuca, a flat expanse of formerly undeveloped coastal land, which is currently experiencing a wave of new construction. It remains an area of accelerated growth, attracting some of the richer sectors of the population as well as luxury companies. High rise flats and sprawling shopping centres give the area a far more American feel than the crowded city centre. The urban planning of the area, made in the late 1960s, resembles that of United States suburbs, though mixing zones of single-family houses with residential skyscrapers. The beaches of Barra da Tijuca are also popular with the city's residents. Barra da Tijuca is the home of Pan-American Village for the 2007 Pan American Games.

Beyond the neighbourhoods of Barra da Tijuca and Jacarepaguá, another district that has exhibited economic growth is Campo Grande. Some sports competitions in the Pan American Games of 2007 were held in the Miécimo da Silva Sports Centre, nicknamed the 'Algodão' (Cotton) Gymnasium, and others in the Ítalo del Cima Stadium, in Campo Grande.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 11,835,000 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. The population density was 4.781 inh./km². The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following percentage: 6,319,890 White people (53.4%), 3,964,725 Pardo (Brown) people (33.5%), 1,491,210 Black people (12.6%) and 59,175 Asian or Amerindian people (0.5%).

Different ethnic groups contributed to the formation of the population of Rio de Janeiro. Before European colonization, there were at least seven different indigenous peoples speaking 20 languages in the region. A part of them joined the Portuguese and the other the French. Those who joined the French were then exterminated by the Portuguese, while the other part was assimilated.

Rio de Janeiro is home to the largest Portuguese population outside of Lisbon in Portugal. The Portuguese community (the oldest in the city) has left a remarkable legacy to Rio de Janeiro since the 16th century. After independence, Rio de Janeiro remained a gateway for thousands of Portuguese immigrants, mainly in the first decades of the 20th century. They were mainly poor peasants who, later, found prosperity in Rio as small traders. Besides the influence on ethnicity, the Portuguese left their architecture and also the accent of the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro, which sounds more Portuguese than the accents of other Brazilians.

The black community, whose ancestors were brought as slaves, had a great impact in the composition of Rio's population. Today, nearly half of its population is Black or part-Black. Most of the slaves in Rio came from Angola or Mozambique. Rio's carnival, with its samba, is probably the most remarkable influence from the black community.

As a result of the diversity of immigrants who came to Brazil between the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries, one may find in Rio de Janeiro many Jews, Arabs of Lebanese and Syrian origin, Italians, Spaniards, Germans and people from different parts of Brazil.

Source: Planet Barsa Ltda.

Source: IBGE 2000.

Rio de Janeiro became an attractive place for companies to locate when it was the capital of Brazil, as important sectors of society and of the government were present in the city. The city was chosen as headquarters for state-owned companies such as Petrobras, Eletrobrás, Caixa Econômica Federal and Vale do Rio Doce (which was privatized in the 1990s). After the transfer of the capital to Brasília, in 1960, it kept attracting more companies, especially after the discovery of oil in the Campos Basin, which produces most of the total oil production of Brazil. This made many oil and gas companies to be based in Rio de Janeiro, such as the Brazilian branches of Shell, EBX and Esso. The headquarters of BNDES, an important state institution, is also in Rio de Janeiro. The city is also the headquarters of large telecom companies, such as Intelig, Oi and Embratel. Big multi-national companies such as Coca-Cola, IBM and El Paso also have offices in the city.

Rio ranks second nationally in industrial production and is a major financial and service center. The city's industries produce processed foods, chemicals, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, metal products, ships, textiles, clothing, and furniture. The service sector dominates the economy, however, and includes banking and the second most active stock market in Brazil, the Bolsa da Valores do Brasil. Tourism and entertainment are other key aspects of the city's economic life and the city is the nation's top tourist attraction for both Brazilians and foreigners.

Major Brazilian entertainment organizations are based in Rio de Janeiro like TV Globo (Globosat, Globo News, SportTv, Telecine, Tv Brazil), NET, Sky and WayBrazil and also some of Brazil's major newspapers: Jornal do Brasil, O Globo, O Dia, and Business Rio.

Major international pharmacuetical companies have their Brazilian headquarters in Rio such us Merck, Roche, Arrow, Darrow, Baxter, Mayne, and Mappel. The GDP for the city was R$ 118,979,752,000 (2005).

The per capita income for the city was R$ 19,524 (2005).

The official song of Rio de Janeiro is "Cidade Maravilhosa", which means "marvelous city". The song is considered the "civic anthem" of Rio, and is always the favourite song during Rio's Carnival in February. Rio de Janeiro is a very important place when studying the urban music of Brazil. They are responsible for the creation of Funk Carioca, which means funk from Rio de Janeiro. This music became a representation of the current problems residents faced in Rio. It became the largest movement in the city because it gave an outlet to many young people to voice their feelings and make money at the same time.

Although no longer the capital city of Brazil, Rio has always been the symbol of Brazil's nationality and diverse social structure. While Samba is the national unifying agent, as Brazilian national politics developed in Rio, other forms of music were implemented into the national Culture of Brazil. Brazil's return to democracy in 1985 after over 20 years of military authoritarian rule, and the subsequent end of rampant censorship, allowed for a new freedom of expression which promoted creativity and experimentation in expressive culture. This new expressive ability facilitated to access to better economic conditions and relative economic stability. This economic stability allowed for the consumption of imported goods such as hip hop. Commercial and cultural imports from Europe and North America have often influenced Brazil's own cultural output. For example, the hip hop that has stemmed from New York is localized into various forms of musical production such as Funk Carioca and Brazilian hip hop. Thus, Rio has been the most important site as the melting pot of talented composers and performers of all different musical backgrounds. Democratic renewal also allowed for the recognition and acceptance of this diversification of Brazilian culture.

In some cases, Funk Carioca is also connected to gang territorial dominance in Rio's slums. The gangs fund dance parties, known as bailes, to recruit new members, update each other on local news, and engage in selling drugs. Rio de Janeiro, representing one of the largest urban areas in Brazil, is populated with a medley of ethnic types and identities. This diversity allows for it to be the major site for the country's music industry to thrive. Many active scholars in the study of pop culture, such as Livio Sansone, Samuel Araújo, and Martha Ulhoa and internationally renown recording artists such as Rick Devin are located in the heart of this city, proving it to be an imperative place for any aspiring pop culture artist to be.

More recently, Rio has been an important center for the revival of traditional Samba music, especially around Lapa, an old bohemian neighborhood. This has come closely associated with a revival in Choro music, a traditional form which is mainly instrumental. This revival caters mostly to college students and college educated people and has spun a new generation of mainstream musicians as well as generating renewed interest in a previously marginalized old generation of composers.

In 1840, the first Carnaval was celebrated with a masked ball. As years passed, adorned floats and costumed revelers became a tradition amongst the celebrants. Carnaval is known as a historic root of Brazilian music.

Apart from Carnaval, New Year is also a major event in Rio. It's celebrated with concerts and firework displays all around Rio, the largest one being in Copacabana beach. People wear white clothes, and some of them make offerings to Iemanjá, a deity in many of the Afro-Brazilian religions (e.g. Candomble, Umbanda, Macumba).

There are several significant museums in Rio as well. Among them are the Quinta da Boa Vista (which includes the National Museum of Brazil), the Native Art Museum (primitives, with the largest collection of native paintings in the world), and the Indian Museum.

Rio has an extensive nightlife scene. Clubs like Baronneti, Nuth, and Catwalk are some of the country's best known and frequented by celebrities such as Ronaldo, Calvin Klein, Mick Jagger, and Naomi Campbell.

The City of Rio de Janeiro has five airports.

Rio de Janeiro have other airports in other cities of state.

In Rio de Janeiro, buses are the main means of mass transportation. There are nearly 440 municipal bus lines serving over four million passengers each day, in addition to intercity lines. Although cheap and frequent, Rio's transportation policy has been moving towards trains and subway in order to reduce traffic jams and increase capacity. Driving in Rio de Janeiro, as in most large cities of Brazil, might not be the best choice due to the large car fleet. The city is served by a number of expressways though traffic jams are very common.

Rio de Janeiro has two subway lines (Metro Rio) with 42 kilometres (26 mi) and 32 stations plus several commuter rail lines. Future plans include building a third subway line to Niterói and São Gonçalo, including an underwater tunnel beneath Guanabara Bay to supplement the ferry service currently there.

In Brazil, most interstate transportation is done by road. A large terminal for long-distance buses is in the Santo Cristo neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro. There are also two port facilities for cargo and passenger ships (Rio de Janeiro and Sepetiba port). From São Paulo: take the BR 116 (Presidente Dutra Federal Highway) or the BR-101 (Rio-Santos Federal Highway). From Belo Horizonte: BR 040. From Salvador: BR-101 or BR-324/BR-116/BR-393/BR-040.

The Port of Rio de Janeiro is visited by cruise boats, which travel along the Brazilian coast. The ports of Rio de Janeiro and Angra dos Reis are, respectively, the third and fourth in Brazil, as measured by volume of cargo. Sepetiba is used mostly to export minerals from Minas Gerais. Niterói has less cargo movimentation, but a high traffic of ships going for maintenance by the naval industry of the city.

Notable sports events in Rio include the MotoGP Brazilian Grand Prix and the world beach volleyball finals. Jacarepaguá was the place of Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix into 1978–1990 and the Champ Car event into 1996–1999. WCT/WQS Surfing championships were contested on the beaches from 1985–2001. As part of its preparations to host the 2007 Pan American Games, Rio built a new stadium, Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, to hold 45,000 people. It was named after Brazilian ex-FIFA president João Havelange. The stadium is owned by the City of Rio de Janeiro, but it is rented to Botafogo de Futebol e Regatas for 20 years. Rio de Janeiro has also a multi-purpose arena, the HSBC Arena.

Rio de Janeiro was an applicant city for the 2012 Summer Olympics but failed to make the shortlist of official candidate cities. Rio also previously bid for the 2004 Summer Olympics, but also failed to make the shortlist. On September 2006, it was announced that Rio would bid for 2016 Summer Olympics. In June 2008, the International Olympic Committee announced that Rio would be among its shortlist of four candidate cities for the 2016 Summer Games, along with Chicago, Madrid, and Tokyo, thus marking the first time Rio was selected to proceed to the final stage of the bidding process. The IOC is set to conduct inspections around early 2009, with the election of the host city during the 121st Session of the IOC in Copenhagen in October 2009. In July 2007, Rio successfully organized and hosted the XV Pan American Games.

Sports are very popular pastime in Rio de Janeiro. The most popular one is futebol (soccer). Rio de Janeiro is home to five traditional Brazilian soccer clubs: América Football Club, Botafogo, Fluminense, Vasco da Gama and Flamengo, which according to a national survey and to FIFA numbers, is the team with the largest number of supporters in the world. The Brazilian dance/sport/martial art capoeira is very popular. Other popular sports are beach football, beach volleyball, beach american football, surfing, kitesurfing, hang gliding, motor racing, jiu-jitsu, recreational sailing, and competitive rowing. Another sport that is highly popular in beaches of Rio is called "frescobol" (IPA: , matkot), a type of beach tennis. Rio de Janeiro is also paradise for rock climbers, with hundreds of routes all over the town, ranging from easy boulders to highly technical big wall climbs, all inside the city. The most famous, Rio's granite mountain, the Sugar Loaf (Pão de Açúcar), is an example, with routes from the easy 3rd grade (American 5.4, French 3) to the extremely difficult 9th grade (5.13/8b), up to 280 metres.

Hang gliding in Rio de Janeiro started in mid-1970s and quickly proved to be perfectly suited for this town, because of its geography: steep mountains encounter the Atlantic Ocean, which provide excellent take-off locations and great landing zones on the beach.

Fishing is a very popular activity in Brazil. No license is required for fishing in Brazil. A fast-growing beach American football league is based in Rio, the Carioca Bowl. On 30 October 2007, Brazil was chosen as the official host of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Rio de Janeiro is one of 18 candidates to host games there although the final it is most likely to be held at Maracanã Team Black House is located in Rio de Janeiro. Current members are UFC standouts Anderson Silva, Antonio Rodrigo Nogueira, and Lyoto Machida. Former UFC star Vitor Belfort is also a member.

There are enormous disparities between rich and poor in Rio de Janeiro. Although the city clearly ranks among the world's major metropolises, a large proportion of the city's 6.1 million inhabitants live in poverty. The poorest of the areas are the slums and shanty towns known as favelas; often crowded onto the hillsides, where sturdy buildings are difficult to build, accidents from heavy rainfall are frequent, and access to the sanitation and electricity can be inconsistent. A unique aspect of Rio's favelas is their close proximity to the city's wealthiest districts. Upper-class neighbourhoods such as Ipanema and Lagoa and others, like Jardim Botânico, Joá e Gávea are squeezed in between the beach and the hills, the latter of which are covered with poor neighbourhoods. Bad public education, a poor health system combined with the saturation of the penitentiary system contribute to the overall poverty of the favelas. But the North Side, the poorest area of Rio that tourists rarely see, gathers the vast majority of Rio's impoverished masses. This social contrast creates a clash between rich and poor.

The human development of Rio varies greatly by locality, reflecting the city's spatial segregation and vast socioeconomic inequalities. There are neighborhoods that had very high human development indexes in 2000 (equal to or greater than the indexes of some Scandinavian countries), but also those in the lower range (in line with, for example, North Africa).

Rio has high crime rates, especially homicide, in poor areas dominated by drug lords, primarily in the North Zone. As of 2007, the homicide rate of the greater metropolitan area stood at nearly 30 victims per week, with the majority of victims falling to mugging, stray bullets or narcoterrorism. In 2006, 2,273 people were murdered in the city giving it a murder rate of 37.7 cases for every 100,000 people. According to federal government research, the city itself ranks 206th in the list of the 5,565 most violent cities in Brazil and first in total number of firearm-related deaths. Between 1978 and 2000, 49,900 people were killed in Rio. The Urban Warfare involves drug-traffic battle with police fighting against outlaws, or even corrupt policemen on their side.

Rio de Janeiro's low paid and ill-equipped police are violent as well, it has been said. In 2007, the police allegedly killed 1,330 people in the state, an increase of 25 percent over 2006 when 1,063 people were killed, in 2003 that number plateaued at 1,195. In comparison the American police killed only 347 people in whole of the United States during 2006. The average Rio policeman earns only R$874 a month or R$10,488 (around US$6,000) a year.

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Rio de Janeiro (state)

Location of State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil

Rio de Janeiro (pron. IPA:  ) is one of the 26 states of Brazil.

It is located in the Brazilian geopolitical region of the Southeast (assigned by IBGE) and its boundaries, all of them with other Brazilian states in the Southeast region (Rio de Janeiro is the only state in the Southeast to share borders exclusively with other states in the same macroregion), are with Minas Gerais (N and NW), Espírito Santo (NE) and São Paulo (SW), and plus its shore line, in the Atlantic Ocean, to its East and South.

Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km² and its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, which was the capital of the Portuguese colony as of 1763 (the first capital being Salvador da Bahia), capital of the United Kingdom of Brazil, Portugal and Algarves as of 1806 and the capital of independent Brazil from 1822 to 1960.

The state's most populous cities are Rio de Janeiro, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Duque de Caxias, São Gonçalo, São João de Meriti, Campos dos Goytacazes, Petrópolis and Volta Redonda.

Its principal rivers are the Guandu River, the Piraí, the Paraíba do Sul, the Macaé and the Muriaé. Its climate is considered to be tropical.

Rio de Janeiro is made up of two distinct morphological areas: a plain, known as baixada, and a plateau, which are disposed in parallel fashion from the shoreline inland (towards Minas Gerais).

In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the Beta star in the Southern Cross (β = Mimosa).

The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome, and its topography comprises both mountains and plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara, Sepetiba, and Ilha Grande.

There are prominent slopes near the ocean, featuring also diverse environments, such as restinga vegetation, bays, lagoons and tropical forests.

Rio de Janeiro is the smallest state in the Southeast macroregion and one of the smallest in Brazil. It has, however, the third longest coastline in the country (second only to Bahia's and Maranhão's), extending 635 kilometers.

Rio de Janeiro was originated from parts of the captainships of de Tomé and São Vicente. Between 1555 and 1567, the territory was busy with the Frenchmen, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. Aiming at to prevent the occupation of the Frenchmen, in March 1565, the city of Rio de Janeiro was established by Estácio de Sá.

In the 17th century, cattle and sugar cane stimulated the city's progress which was definitively assured when the port started to export the extracted gold of Minas Gerais in 18 century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the headquarters of the Colonial Brazil and the capital of the colony. With the change of the royal family for Brazil, in 1808, the region very was benefited with urban reforms to shelter the Portuguese. Inside of the promoted changes they are distinguished: the transference of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Imprensa Régia, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro. In following years had also appeared the Jardim Botânico, Academia Real Militar.

Thus, a process of cultural introduction, influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but also by the presence of European artists who had been hired to register the society and Brazilian nature. In this same time, was born the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios (The Royal School of Sciences, Arts, and Works).

In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into neutral city, remaining as capital of the country, while the captainships passed to being provinces, with its headquarters in Niterói, a neighbor city. In 1889, the city was changed into capital of the Republic, the neutral city in federal district and the province in State. With the change of the capital for Brasilia, in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became the State of Guanabara.

In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital. The symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeiro. It should be noted that European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502 under this name.

According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 15,772,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 352.58 inhabitants per square kilometre (913.2 /sq mi).

Urbanization: 96.9% (2004); Population growth: 1.3% (1991-2000); Houses: 4,944,333 (2005).

Source: PNAD.

The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census resulted in the following numbers: 8,595,740 White people (54.5%), 5,110,128 Pardo (Brown) people (32.4%), 1,987,272 Black people (12.6%), 63,088 Asian or Amerindian people (0.4%).

People of Portuguese ancestry predominate in most of the state. Other European ethnic groups, such as Swiss and Germans settled mostly in the mountainous areas (Nova Friburgo, Petrópolis, etc) and in the capital. Italians and Spaniards are also present in the capital as well as in the surrounding cities.

People of African descent are numerous mostly in the capital city. Those of mixed-race ancestry (mulattoes) are the majority of the population in some towns.

The industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 51.6%, followed by the service sector at 47.8%. Agriculture represents 0.6% of GDP (2004). Rio de Janeiro (state) exports: petroleum 44.8%, fuel 17.5%, siderurgy 13%, chemicals 3.6%, not ferrous metals 2.8%, vehicles 2.1% (2002).

Participation in the Brazilian economy: 12.6% (2004).

Vehicles: 3.915.724 (jan./2006); Mobile phones: 10 million (2006); Telephones: 5.3 million (2006). Cities: 92 (2006). Area: The state of Rio de Janeiro is more than double the size of: El Salvador, Slovenia, Chechnya, Hawaii (USA). It is slightly larger than: Denmark, Netherlands, Switzerland. The state is slightly smaller than: Estonia, Dominican Republic, Slovakia.

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

It is the great explosion of joy in Rio. A party uniting emotions, creativity, plasticity, colours, sounds and much fantasy. It is the greatest popular party in the world. A unique record of the rich cultural melting pot typical of Brazil.

In Rio de Janeiro, New Year’s Eve celebration involves the whole city population. Local inhabitants and visitors join to celebrate taken by the same euphoria: to be in Rio. The party, one of the most famous in the world, is held on the famous beach of Copacabana, gathering thousands of people to enjoy musical performances and fireworks – increasingly exuberant year after year. One tradition is to give gifts to Yemanja, like flowers and even blancmange.

Since August 2004, with the transfer of many flights from Santos-Dumont Airport, Rio de Janeiro International Airport has returned to being the main doorway to Brazil. According to data from the official Brazilian travel bureau, Embratur, nearly 40% of foreign tourists who visit Brazil choose Rio as their gateway, meaning Galeão Airport. Besides linking Rio to the rest of Brazil with domestic flights, Galeão has connections to more than 18 countries. It can handle up to 15 million users a year in two passenger terminals. Located only 20 kilometers from downtown Rio, the international airport is served by several quick access routes, such as the Linha Vermelha and Linha Amarela freeways and Avenida Brasil, thus conveniently serving residents of the city’s southern, northern and western zones. There are special shuttle buses linking Galeão to Santos-Dumont, and bus and taxi service to the rest of the city. The airport complex also has Brazil’s longest runway at 4.240 meters, and one of South America’s largest and best equipped cargo logistics terminals.

BR-101, BR-116, BR-040, BR-354, BR-356, BR-393, BR-465, BR-493, BR-495.

More notable sports events in Rio include the MotoGP Brazilian Grand Prix and the World Beach volleyball finals. Jacarepaguá was the place of Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix into 1978-1990 and the Champ Car event into 1996-1999. WCT/WQS Surf championships were contested on the beaches from 1985-2001. The city has built a new stadium near the Maracanã, to hold 45,000 people. It was named after Brazilian ex-FIFA president João Havelange. Sports are a very popular pastime in Rio de Janeiro. The most popular is futebol (soccer). Rio de Janeiro is home to four traditional Brazilian football clubs:Botafogo, Flamengo, Fluminense and Vasco.

Rio de Janeiro is one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, for which Brazil is the only South American bidder.

In the foreground of the state flag, an eagle, symbol of Brazil's royal family, appears. In the background, the rock formation Dedo de Deus ("The Finger of God"), which is visible from the city of Rio de Janeiro in a clear day. The outer part of the coat of arms represents the state's agricultural richness, sugarcane (left) and coffee (right).

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro

The Archdiocese of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro (Archidiocesis Sancti Sebastiani Fluminis Ianuarii) in Brazil was established as a territorial prelature on July 19, 1575. It was elevated to the status of a diocese on November 16, 1676. It was later elevated to a metropolitan see on April 27, 1892. On May 6, 2003, the territorial abbey of Nossa Senhora do Monserrate do Rio de Janeiro was suppressed and added to the archdiocese. The current Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro is Eusébio Cardinal Scheid since 2001. Eugênio Cardinal de Araújo Sales holds the position of Archbishop Emeritus.

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Source : Wikipedia